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Chemical Bonding Part-7

1. Formation of boron trifluoride (BF3). Boron (5B) atom has ground state configuration as 1s2 2s2, 2p1. But in the excited state its configuration is 1 s2, 2s1, 2px1, 2py1. One 2s-orbital of boron intermixes with two 2p-orbitals of excited boron atom to form three sp2 hybrid orbitals as shown in figure below.

he sp2 hybrid orbitals of boron are directed towards the corners of e!uilateral triangle and lie in a "lane. #ach of the sp2 hybrid orbitals of boron o$erla"s axially with half-filled orbital of fluorine atom to form three B-% sigma bonds as shown in figure below.

Becasue of sp2 hybridisation of boron, BF3 molecule has triangular planar shape.

2. Formation of ethylene (C2H4). Both the carbon atoms in ethylene assume sp2 hybrid state. &n ac!uiring sp2 hybrid state, one 2s-orbital and two 2p-orbitals of excited carbon atom get hybridised to form three sp2 hybridised orbitals. 'owe$er, one orbital of 2p-sub-shell of the excited carbon atom does not ta(e "art in hybridisation. he "romotion of electron and

hybridisation in carbon atom is shown in figure below.

)s already indicated, the three sp2 hybrid orbitals lie in one "lane and are oriented by s"ace at an angle of 12*+ to one another. he unhybridised 2 p-orbital is "er"endicular to the "lane of sp2 hybrid orbitals as shown in figure below.

&n the formation of ethylene, one of the sp2 hybrid orbital of carbon atom o$erla"s axially with similar orbital of the other carbon atom to form ,-, sigma bond. he other two sp2 hybrid orbitals of each carbon atom are utilised for forming sp2-s sigma bond with two hydrogen atoms.

he unhybridised p-orbitals of the two carbon atoms o$erla" sidewise each other to form two " clouds distributed abo$e and below the "lane of carbon and hydrogen atoms figure below.

hus, in ethylene, the six atoms (bonded by sigma bonds) lie in one "lane while the " bond is "ro.ected "er"endicular to the "lane of six atoms (two , atoms and four ' atoms). &n ethylene molecule, the C / C bond consists of one sp2-sp2 sigma bond and one " bond. Its bond length is 134 pm. C-H bond is sp2-s sigma bond with bond length 1 ! pm. The H-C-H angle is 11".#$ while H-C-C angle is 121$.

(iii) sp%hybridisation. his ty"e of hybridisation in$ol$es the mixing of one orbital of s-suble$el and one orbital of p-sub-le$el of the $alence shell of the atom to form two sp-hybridised orbitals of e!ui$alent sha"es and energies. hese sp-hybridised orbitals are oriented in s"ace at an angle of 10*+ figure below. his hybridisation is also called diagonal hybridisation. #ach sp hybrid orbital has e!ual s and p character, i.e., 5*1 s-character and 5*1 p-character. he molecules in which the central atom is sp-hybridised and is lin(ed to two other atoms directly ha$e linear sha"e.

2et us study some exam"les of molecules in$ol$ing sp hybridisation.

1. Formation of beryllium fluoride (BeF2). Beryllium (3Be) atom has a ground state configuration as 1s2, 2s2. &n the excited state one of the 2s-electron is "romoted to 2p-orbitals. One 2s-orbital and one 2p-orbitals of excited beryllium atom undergo hybridisation to form two sp-hybridised orbitals as described in figure below.

he two sp hybrid orbitals are linear and oriented in o""osite directions at an angle of 10*+. #ach of the sp-hybridised orbital o$erla"s axially with half-filled orbital of fluorine atom to from two Be-% sigma bonds figure below.

4ue to the sp-hybridised state of beryllium, BeF2 molecule has linear shape.

2. Formation of acetylene (CH CH). Both the carbon atoms in acetylene assume sp-hybrid state. &n ac!uiring sp-hybrid state, one 2s orbital and one 2p-orbital of excited carbon atom (1s2 2s1 2px1 2py15 2pz1) get hybridised to form two sp-hybridised orbitals figure below.

he two sp-hybrid orbitals of carbon atom are linear and are directed at an angle of 10*+ whereas the unhybridised p-orbitals are "er"endicular to sp-hybrid orbitals and also "er"endicular to each other as shown in figure below. &n the formation of acetylene, carbon atom uses its one of the sp-hybrid orbital for o$erla""ing with similar orbital of the other carbon to form ,-, sigma bond. he other sp-hybrid orbital of each , atom o$erla"s axially with 1s-orbital of ' atom to form ,-' sigma bond. #ach of the two unhybridised orbitals of both the carbon atoms o$erla" sidewise to form two bonds. he electron clouds of one bond lie abo$e and below the internuclear axis whereas those of the other bond lie in front and bac( of the inter-nuclear axis. he o$erla""ing of orbitals has been shown in figure below.

he four clouds so formed further merge into one another to form a single cylindrical electron cloud around the internuclear axis re"resenting ,-, sigma bond. &t has been shown in figure below. 6igure. Orbital diagram of Be%2.

hus, in acetylene molecule, C C bond consists of one sp-sp s bond alongwith two " bonds. The C C bond length is 12* pm. C-H bond is sp-s sigma bond. The H-C-C angle is 10*+, i.e., the molecule is linear.