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Prof. J. Arrillaga, DSc, FlEE M. Villablanca, BE

Indexing terms: Energy Conversion, DC ripple reinjection

Abstract: A technique known as D C ripple reinjection, which has already been shown capable of operating a six-pulse rectifier effectively as a twelve-pulse convertor, is extended in the paper to convert the standard twelve-pulse HVDC convertor group into a 24-pulse configuration. Theoretical and experimental results are provided to demonstrate that the modified convertor configuration eliminates the 12-pulse related harmonics on both sides of the convertor.

1

Introduction

Waveform distortion is normally expressed in terms of Fourier components or harmonics. However the quasisquare phase currents produced by HVDC convertors are not particularly suited to conventional filtering arrangements based on tuned passive components. More appropriate shaping of the current waveform can be achieved by phase-shifting the convertor transformer's connections. For practical reasons however, phase-shifting in HVDC convertors is restricted to the 'natural' 30" shift provided by the star and delta connections. An alternative pulse-doubling technique for the Graetz bridge has already been described [l], based on the principle of DC ripple reinjection. However, there is little incentive to use such a technique to go from six to 12pulse operation because the power rating of most HVDC schemes requires two or more transformers, which permit the use of phase-shifting to derive 12-pulse operation without the need for further components. An attempt has also been made [2] to achieve 24pulse convertor operation using, as a basis, the six-pulse bridge configuration by developing a pulse-quadrupling technique. However such a transformation required the use of forced commutated switching devices. In an attempt to derive 24-pulse operation without the need for forced commutation, the investigation described in this paper extends the principle of D C ripple reinjection to the two-bridge series-connected convertor group, which has become the building block of modern HVDC schemes.

2

Modified H V D C convertor group

permit ripple reinjection. The reinjection circuit includes two capacitors C needed to block the D C component of voltages u1 and u 2 , two transformers TA(operating at the ripple frequency which is six times the fundamental frequency) and a single phase convertor bridge. The commutating voltage of the ripple reinjection bridge is the common-mode ripple frequency voltage of the 12-pulse convertor group. The output of this (single-phase) bridge is itself a 12pulse voltage waveform. Its level is adjusted by the transformer turns ratio (NJN,,) and its phase is shifted by firing angle control to double the number of pulses of the combined (output) voltage waveform. Similarly the ripple reinjection bridge injects a squarewave current (six times the fundamental frequency) on the primary side of the transformers TA,which modifies all the original current waveforms. It was shown in an earlier paper [lJ that twoquadrant thyristor control of the D C ripple reinjection bridge permits extending the pulse doubling technique from rectification to inversion. Moreover, the power conversion efficiency increases, as the rectified harmonic power is fed back to the DC system (when the main bridge is rectifying) or to the AC system (when inverting). Finally, the reinjected D C voltage and AC current waveforms are locked to the AC system voltage and D C current, respectively, and are thus unaffected by frequency and D C current variations. The above concepts will become clearer in the following Sections, where it will be shown that when u y is added to the conventional output voltage u x , the number of pulses of the modified output uz is doubled. Similarly, a corresponding increase of current steps modifies the AC current on the AC system side of the convertor transformers and eliminates the conventional 12-pulse related characteristic harmonic currents.

3

Derivation of the D C voltage waveforms

As a first approximation, let us assume that the blocking capacitors in Fig. 1 are large enough to present a short circuit to the AC components of u1 and u2 (UlAc and u2!?). The voltage derived on the secondary side of the reinjection transformers can then be expressed as

**The circuit diagram of Fig. 1 shows a conventional HVDC convertor group with additional components to
**

Paper 7691C (P9), first received 27th February and in revised form 20th July 1990 The authors are with the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand

I E E PROCEEDINGS-C, Vol. 138, No. 1, J A N U A R Y 1991

and Fig. 2 explains the derivation of u r , uT and U; when either T or T conduct. The waveforms associated with the pulse-doubling process are shown in Fig. 3 for any pulse number p of the main convertors. Clearly an appropriate selection of firing delay for the reinjection bridge valves T , T' and a suitable turns ratio of the feedback transformer TA produce a voltage waveform u r , which added to ox pro57

1 NI. J A N U A R Y 1991 . = (-)Au = ( . NO. NO u. 138. =0 58 I E E PROCEEDINGS-C. 2 U Voltages derived in the feedback circuit N Thyristor T conducting 0 N = A v = L u No =(-)AV = (-) 2 U. NO UT = 0 N uT - Av=A N No u.1 ) A u. Vol.I r \ - '"lDC "'r 1 t R S primary T Fig. I . = N z 2 DC ripple reinjection technique for 24-pulse configuration 1 i --i +i" "-J3" a b b Thyristor T ' conducting uy Fig.

uM lags ux by n/2 radians and point X defines the location. sin (n/4p) cos a uy = U . 3 takes place under natural commutation. 2b. window U From the phasor diagram. . for the waveforms contained in the 'window' of Fig. -4~ V. the following relationships can be written for uy and U . window Fig. . (V. . 4. = 2 5 COS (8/2) tan (8/4) V. with a delay of n/2p.duces an exact duplication of the pulses of the output voltage U . ux and uz . the turns ratio can be expressed as where p is the pulse number per convertor. Therefore the process illustrated in Fig. 4 0 = "P Phasor diagram of the window in Fig. 3 Voltage waveforms on the DC side ofmodijed convertor group Regarding the firing instants of valves T and T . Every new circuit condition created by a change of conducting state in one of the main convertors must be followed by a corresponding turn-on of a pair of valves in the feedback convertor (i. Vol. being maximum values): V.1 Mean rectified voltage Let us consider the evaluation of the mean rectified voltage for the conventional ( VXK) and the proposed configuration ( VzDc). pairs T for convertor 1 and T' for convertor 2).. J A N U A R Y 1991 . sponds to the case of a = OO).e. Fig. Fig. the following general rule can be stated with reference to Fig. 2 and replacing 8 by n/p. with more details of waveforms u M . To derive the appropriate turns ratio of the feedback transformers TA.u2 n (4) 59 I E E PROCEEDINGS-C. 5 shows one of the windows from Fig. As shown in Fig. Similarly the transfer from T to T' will take place by natural communication if uM is negative. 3 . NO. 138. and U . ox and uz waveforms Fig. Considering that waveform ux is at a maximum when X = 0 (which correit is concluded that X = a. VI and V. is positive. . I . 3. 5 vM. 3 with voltage u1 used as a reference. 3. a process achieved by natural commutation if at that moment U . U . with reference to Fig. along the respective sinusoids. a phasor diagram has been drawn in Fig. the transfer of conducting state from T' to T is achieved by turning on T . and =2 5 sin (8/2) 2V1 cos (8/2) tan (8/4) Vy _ - V. 3. of U . for any value of the main convertor firing angle a. 2 5 sin (8/2) Thus.

4 Vz _ Vx 1 cos (44P) Therefore A VDc(%) = = tan2 (n/4p) .IT2-TjlT. 1.V.The increase of mean rectified voltage (AV'. 7 shows the AC current waveforms associated with the circuit of Fig. currents ijl and i j 2 modify the waveform of the current in all the windings. 6 Currentflows in thefeedhack circuit a Feedback configuration b Equivalent circuit c Associated current waveforms The voltages across the capacitors illustrated in Fig. and as a result the distortion of the AC input current waveform reduces. Vol. will increase and distort the voltage across the feedback transformers. IT1-T. J A N U A R Y 1991 60 . have a rectangular shape with a frequency p times the fundamental.jT1-T.) is Equalising ampere-turns Nli* = Noijl = N0ij2 A VDc(YO) = VZDC - VXDC VXDC xloo= [. is perfectly smooth. ignored in the preceding analysis. For comparison. 8. ".i (in the absence of the feedback circuit) is also shown. 3 and 4 . which will in turn cause some distortion in the commutation voltage of the feedback bridge valves and on IEE PROCEEDINGS-C.I T3-TyIT3-T. sin VZDC . 1 and 6. 1. Fig. Thus. Currents i j l and i j .]Tl Tg-T&-T( -Til convertor 1 convertor 2 100 (5) T6-T5]T4-T$-T6]Ts-T61TfTi] which for p yields =6 (the three-phase bridge configuration) AVDc(%) = 1.- 4P (7-44~) cos a - vXDC - 2P Vx sin (n/2p) cos a 7l V Z Vx cos ( 4 4 P ) Also from Fig.-I h 4 I n'ln n n n n r un ununun u uuuuuu h * 5 Fig. 7 Current waveforms on the AC side 5 Effect of the blocking capacitors on the circuit behaviour C Fig.-T. including the primary. flows in anticlockwise and i j .E -- l]X loo and and considering eqns. the 12-pulse related primary current . NO. Current i j . in the clockwise direction. The circulating path is through the main convertor valves and transformer phase windings. respectively. 138. let us discuss the behaviour of the two equal currents ijl and ij2 under the assumption that I .7332 4 Derivation of the current waveforms I t 'Z N With reference to Figs.

f = 2. when added to o x . in Fig.9 mV.4 kHz h Modified valve group (i) V = 101.4 kHz (iii) V = 37. 10 Harmonic spectra ofthe waveforms ofFig. but 61 IEE PROCEEDINGS-C.the ripple voltage reinjected into the DC output (Av and vr .2 kHz (iii) V = 38. The magnetising current of the feedback transformers and the maximum voltage across the feedback bridge valves are also affected by the voltage across the blocking capacitors. respectively. The results proved conclusively the general applicability of the reinjection technique for 24pulse operation and verified all the theoretical predictions discussed in earlier sections of the paper. kHz Fig. Fig. 1 m V .2 kHz (ii) V = 48. Comprehensive tests were carried out for various loading conditions and firing angles under rectification and inversion. 1. f = 2. must produce a duplication of the pulse on the DC output. clearly illustrate the 24-pulse behaviour in spite of the imperfections of the physical scaled down model.6 kHz Similarly. It has been shown that under symmetrical system conditions the proposed circuit eliminates completely the 12pulse related harmonics on both sides of the convertor similarly to the transformer phase-shifting technique. shown in Figs.ms Fig. 9 Experimental DC voltage waveforms n Conventional valve group h Modified valve group A novel convertor group has been described. The peak voltage across the capacitor shown in Fig. log frequency. Therefore the capacitor value must be chosen to control the distortion level. based on the principle of DC ripple reinjection. 11 displays the phase current waveform on the AC side of the convertor for the conventional (a) and modified (b) configurations for a = 15". J A N U A R Y 1991 . 1_ ! L I Z Voltage and current wavejorms of blocking capacitors To verify the theoretical waveforms described in previous Sections. 7 Conclusions b 0 20 time. 8 is 5006 > E n CI log frequency kHz A detailed analysis of the effect of the blocking capacitors on the DC output voltage and the reinjection-bridge commutations is given in Appendices. f = 6 0 0 H z (ii) V = 107.39 mV. 6 Experimental verification 112 v C Fig. The corresponding frequency spectra of the D C voltage waveform taken from a harmonic analyser are shown in Fig. By way of example. 138. 9 shows the DC voltage waveforms of the conventional and modified configurations for a case of a = 15". No. Y n Conventional valve group 0 a 0 time. Their respective frequency spectra. I . 8 b % .ms 20 (i) V = 2 3 5 . Fig. f = 1. f = 1. 2).8 mV. to permit HVDC transmission on 24-pulse operation by natural commutation. f = 3. Voltage AV must permit a transfer of conducting state between T and T' by natural commutation and ur . 10. Vol. 12a and b.22 mV.45 mV. a physical model was constructed for the circuit of Fig.

It is clear that the voltage across the capacitors helps the transfer of conducting state between T and T' and this applies for any value of the angle N.f = 50 Hz (ii) V = 2.P.2 DC output voltage The rectification process performed by T and T'. 1980. V. I .B. can be applied separately to the two waveforms of Fig.84 m V . log frequency.without the need for extra convertors and transformers of large rating. I1 1 BAIRD. only AC voltage will appear on the primary side of the feedback transformers.c. 3 and 13. part of the harmonic reduction must be sacrificed for a reasonable rating of the capacitors. J..c. 296303 a Conventional valve group (i) V = 26.c. ARRILLAGA. J. these can be expressed as O. illustrated in Fig. pp. 1983. convertors by current reinjection techniques'.F. and ARRILLAGA. 127. 13 as they both use natural commutation for any value of the angle N. . I E E E Trans. 12 Harmonic spectra of the waveforms of Fig.ms 0 a 0 A A A . and BAIRD.-d. > E c 8 0 > a. 1 and 7 A graphical illustration of this effect is shown in Fig. 14 clearly shows that on the D C side. were not taken into consideration in 1EE PROCEEDINGS-C. J.. 2.1 Commutating voltage of the reinjection bridge Owing to the blocking capacitors.f = 550 Hz h Modified valve group (i) V = 27. C . 8 log frequency.3 Minimum load current Although the two magnetising currents i.'C = v2AC > >E 8 0 m *=II a 20 time. f = I150 Hz 2 JOOSTEN. >> E I I 1 (11) -801 a 0 20 time.ripple reinjection'. From Fig. Let us now consider the effect of the capacitor voltage u y c on the D C output waveform U.: 'Harmonic reduction in d.. f = 50 Hz (ii) V = 868. 13.. 1EE Proc. shown in Fig. N O .131 m V ... Although the modified AC side current waveform is unaffected by the blocking capacitors.pp.5 p V . kHz 25 - > E a- - 0 > -801 b 0 Y References Appendices = ' l A C . (5). Fig. J A N U A R Y 1991 = . @). Vol. 14 with reference to Figs.F. = Vy + Vyc (9) + 'C (7) Therefore the commutation voltage is given by and from eqns. 15.67 V . The theoretical predictions have been verified by rigorous experimental tests in a specially designed lowpower convertor. Thus the capacitors choice can be purely decided by the acceptability of the D C output waveform. PAS-102.. J. 'Or The components of the commutating voltage are shown in Fig.(vy . kHz 25 Fig.ms b Modified valve group I z Fig. 138.AC &AC 9. 9. 2649-2655 9 9. and i.2vc) NI NO 62 .: 'Increasing the pulse number of a. 11 Experimental AC current waveforms a Conventional valve group 0 0 b I Further work needs to be carried out to assess the reliability and dynamic response of the scheme to AC and DC system disturbances before attempting realistic economic comparisons with present systems. A. 1.

uc(e .(O) ?. i. 63 = UIAC(4 - = UlAC(@ . 16 Current waveforms on the DC side oJthe convertor i. is given by Fig.4 Magnetising current calculation Let us assume that the capacitors are large enough to neglect the effect of uc and that I . i. current . 138. IEE PROCEEDINGS-C. 12 4 Fig. V. = 0). and from Fig. and i.. Vol.(e) = I..i cannot circulate freely. 14 Efect of blocking capacitors on the output waveform In Fig. I . minimum load I. remains constant With reference to Fig.. moreover let us assume that full symmetry exists. Eqns.ij. the circuit reverts to a more complex intermittent conduction and in the limit (I.. = I. + i. they play an important part in the design of the transformers T A . i. i. include the output current I . 13 Composition ofAv . + i.e. and the superimposed AC currents ijl and ij. it is therefore sufficient to consider one of them.. 7 and Fig.Ac(e) (10) Then iM1must satisfy the following relationship: L . must be sufficiently positive to compensate for the negative peak of i. 15 Diagram showing the magnetising currents 1u N I In the upper loop. 8 u.the previous current analysis.e t SN Fig.n/p < wt < a + n/p. 16. .i and viAc become zero. . 15.. 10 and 1 1 show that the upper and lower loops are electrically the same. is sufficient to enable the magnetising current iM1 to circulate freely..4 P ) (1 1) where a . . 9. -d = i .n/p) Also considering eqn. so that transformer TAis not saturated and its inductance L. Below a certain . although displaced by an angle n/p.. the primary no longer continues providing the voltage u i A C . respectively. 6 i. + jjl Fig. NO.(e) = I. = I.Ac(e) u.U 1 dt 1°C = VI cos wt - v..X/P) .. because of the unidirectional behaviour of te convertors. J A N U A R Y 1991 .(O .

0. 0. 16. Considering condition (a): Vl sin . - blocking capacitors VD. P 1 ' sin (n/p) considering eqns..7V. = n/p (14) Condition (b)can be verified considering that the value of . feedback thyristors IMAX IMEAN IRMS ~ - - ~ 0.-sin a WL. 138.. w L.. I E E P R O C E E D I N G S .49131. 8 d8 . - 0 11..918541.49131. 0. I. J A N U A R Y 1991 . = -sin ut .13 I.42 ~ 0.5 Relationship between lz.. o! - 1. OLB Two conditions are applicable (a) The mean value of ./dt and then ulAC to be finite.943V1 cos 0.41gMAX/CfC)21 I .. i... N O . 12 and I . 16 the limiting condition for the load current is I. 2 and 15: = -a . 'IDC a 01.i 13 is I.a) sin (n/p)cos n a - n/p < wt < a 1 + a where F(p) = cos2 (n/4p) and the L.=1 ' Therefore 1 FO) (16) Of [sin wt - P sin . I . Vl DC i. 0. output IRMS VMAX IRMS - 0.4913 I. .909731. is given by (17) 2V1 sin aMAX = iMl(a + ~IZMIN FWCHI 9.e. VMAX 0. = I.i must be continuous for di. 0. 0.643281... 49.73 11.-wt + K . 10-2J[8S5V: 0..4X fC 1. 0.910681.51.525221. Vol. 1- ( Then Considering eqns..C ..8 1651.wLB s"nipO a-nip 9.42 0. iMl(a - L . 0. I.3331. cos a 1. 1.i must be zero (b).91 V. = WLB 2V1 sin a ~ P .70711. the negative peak of ....(wt ..42 11.Therefore With reference to Fig.i at the start of one cycle must be equal to its value at the end of that cycle.i is Vl . From Fig. ( n / p ) sin a .577351.(NEG) K.25V1 + o.3331. and L.. feedback transformers (Drimarv side) 64 + 52.47 141.IzMAX/ (fc)+ 1..021ZM.863 star secondary delta secondary delta primary VRM. I. ZWL. .6 Comparison of components ratings no rejection reinjection A(%) main thyristors IMAX IZ 1. 0. +[ 1 + tan' (n/4p)] and the final expression for .. L.

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