Soils of India

Booklet No. 396 Soil Science: SSS - 29
Contents Preface I. Introduction II. Geographical Situation Ill. Climate IV. Physiography V. Vegetation VI. Major Soil Groups in India 1. Black soils . !ed soils ". #aterites $ lateritic soils %. &llu'ial soils (. )esert soils *. +arai soils ,. Bro-n hill soils .. Su/0montane soils 1. Maintain meado- soils 12. Peaty and marshy soils 11. Saline and sodic soils VII. Soils in &gro03cological !egions VIII. )istri/ution of Soils in India. Preface 4ational progress is dependent upon the rapid de'elopment of agriculture. &gricultural production is mainly dependent upon the maintenance and impro'ement of soil producti'ity. So farmers should /e educated to use lands according to their capa/ilities and to adopt proper soil conser'ation measures. In 'ie- of this5 it is 'ery essential to impart kno-ledge a/out different soils that are e6isting in their o-n country. Dr. K. T. Chand ! "#ric$lt$ral % &n'iron(ental &d$cation I. Introd$ction Soil is a 'ital natural resource. +he soil and land form a precious finite heritage that -e must use judiciously according to their potential to meet the demands of e'er gro-ing population. People are dependent on soils and con'ersely5 good soils are dependent on people and the use they make of the land. Soils are natural /odies in -hich plants gro- and they pro'ide the starting point for successful agriculture. +o ensure optimum agricultural production first it is imperati'e to kno- the /asic facts a/out our soil and then its management -ith judicious use of fertili7er to achie'e high producti'ity. 8e kno- that ma6imum population in India is depend on agriculture and is the /ase of agriculture. 4ature of soil differs from area to area and so different types of soils that are seathered throughout the country need a detailed description. II. )eo#ra*hical Sit$ation

III.. Northern (o$ntains +hey co'er the -estern :imalayas >Dashmir5 :imachal Pradesh and Bttar Pradesh regions@5 3astern :imalayas and &ssam0Burma ranges. +he remaining south5 east and -est /orders are surrounded /y Indian . +he south0-est monsoon -ind enters India5 /oth from the &ra/ian sea and the Bay of Bengal.. +he area /et-een latitudes 2o north and 2o south has /een considered tropical. +he mean annual temperature in the Indo0Gangetic plains is around % degree centigrade. +he climate thus 'aries from e6treme aridity to high humidity and from scanty to torrential rainfall. Bsually the temperature rises continually during the summer months >March to =une@.cean5 Bay of Bengal< and &ra/ian sea respecti'ely. &s the south0-est monsoon is deflected to-ards upper India /y the :imalayas5 the Gangetic plains and Punja/ and :aryana recei'e good rainfall. +hey occur /et-een the northem mountains and the peninsula. +he air temperature rises to a/out %(CC in the north and north0-estern plains.o north latitude and *1o0 1"o east longitude. I+. The Penins$la .India has a geographical area of " . The #reat *lains +hey consists of the Indus plains >!ajasthan and Punja/ plains@5 Ganga plains and the Brahmaputra Valley. +he temperature is eAually 'aria/le like rainfall. +he south0-est monsoon is follo-ed /y the north0east monsoon to-ards the end of Septem/er. +herefore5 the -estern ghats and the &ssam ranges recei'e high rainfall of a/out more than 22 mm per annum. . 2. +he northern /oundary of the country has a chain of :imalayas e6tending all along the northern side5 /ordering Pakistan on the -est and Burma on the east. +here are t-o distinct periods of rainfall in a year5 'i7. 3. +he moisture /earing -inds from &ra/ian sea pass uno/structed o'er !ajasthan as the &ra'allies lie along their -ay. +he seas produce a hot monsoonic type of tropical climate. +he :imalayas o/struct the path of entry of cold -inds from the north5 gi'ing a continental type of climate. Cli(ate +he climate of India is of monsoon type. +he rainfall is controlled /y topography as the high mountains lying across the path of the monsoon -inds helps to precipitate their moisture as rain on the -ind-ard side. the south0-est monsoon during the months of =une0Septem/er and the northeast monsoon during the -inter months. +his is the cause of scanty rainfall in !ajasthan >around ( mm?annum@. +hey stretch out in a series of parallel or occassional con'ergent chains5 separated /y 'alleys or e6tensi'e platforms. +he climate is influenced /y the :imalayan mountains as -ell as the Indian ocean5 the &ra/ian sea and Bay of Bengal. +he su/0continent lies /et-een .% million hectares. +hey e6tend all along the northern /oundary of the country. +he high altitudes in the :imalayas and in the 4ilgiris ha'e lotemperature. +he &ra/ian sea /ranch is more important for South India. Ph sio#ra*h +he major physiographic di'isions of our country are descri/ed here. +he Bay of Bengal /ranch /enefits the east coast and the northern oceans.o 9 ".

m. Te(*erate forests Moist temperate forests are present in the central and -estern :imalayas > ..ha@. -. m. m. Tro*ical forests Bnder tropical forests5 dry deciduous forests occupy more area almost along the entire Indian peninsula > 1. Inner range of :imalayas are occupied /y dry temperate forests >2. /a0or Soil )ro$*s in India Volcker >1. 8estern side of -estern Ghats5 upper &ssam and &ndamans are occupied /y e'er0green and semi0e'ergreen forests >*.1.% m.-al*ine forests +hey occupy an area of 1." m. m. +he major forest products are -ood5 fi/re5 /am/oos5 essential oils5 oil seeds5 tans and dyes5 gums and resins5 drugs5 spices5 insecticides5 edi/le products5 lac5 fodder etc. m.* m.ha@ and along the coast5 littoral and s-amp forests are present. !ajasthan and adjoining areas ha'e thorny tropical forests >(. 3.ha@. S$. +e#etation +he natural 'egetation of India has /een classified into fi'e major groups5 'i7 tropical forests5 temperate forests5 su/0tropical forests and su/ alpine forests. -.ha@ follo-ed /y moist deciduous forests5 > .ha@ are in the lo-er :imalayas. #ater in 11%2s5 Indian &gricultural !esearch Institute had set0up a soil0sur'ey committee -hich identified major soil groups in our country that are sho-n in figure 4o. m..1 m. .ha@.+his physiographic 7one consists of the central uplands5 )eccan plateau >Satpura range@5 Maharashtra plateau5 Darnataka plateau5 +elangana plateau@5 eastern plateau >Bhagelkhand plateau5 Chhotanagpur plateau5 Garhjat hills5 Mahanadi /asin5 )andakaranya upland@5 -estern hills >4orth south and central Sahyadri and 4ilgiris@5 eastern hills >3astern ghats5 +amilnadu upland@ and coastal plains >-est and east coastal plains@. +I..ha@ -here as eastern :imalayas ha'e -et temperate forests >1.1. ha@ -hile Darnatic coast ha'e dry e'er0green forests >2..1"@ and !eathee >1.@5 classified the Indian soils into Indo0gangetic allu'ium5 /lack cotton5 red and laterite soils. Eorests occupy a/out 2 percent of the total geographical area of the country.ha and are present in the :imalayas a/o'e "222 mts ele'ation. S$. The islands +he islands are small in land area5 consist of &ra/ian sea islands and Bay of Bengal islands. ha@5 -hich are present in the foot hills of :imalayas5 east side of 8estern Ghats5 Chhotanagpur and Dhasi hills. +. .ha in central and -estern :imalayas5 and /road0 lea'ed hill forests >2.% m..-tro*ical forests +hese forests are mostly pine forests occupying an area of ". 2. &n innumera/le num/er of species are present in these forests from -hich multipurpose products are produced.

o to ... Black soils +he principal region of /lack soils is the )eccan plateau and its periphery e6tending from . +hey are formed from )eccan /asalt trap rocks and occur in areas under the monsoon climate5 mostly of semi0arid and su/0humid types. Semi0arid to su/0humid5 .C%(<to *o north latitude and *. +he o'erall climate of /lack soil region may /e descri/ed as hot and dry summer5 %20122 cm rainfall per annum5 mild to moderate -inters and annual temperature ranges from %0"2 o centigrade5 mean ma6imum temperature during &pril0May ranges from "*F% CC arid mean minimum temperature during -inter ranges from 1(0 %C centigrade."o%(< east longitude.

+hese soils are formed under -ell drained condition. +he soils are higher te6tured5 fria/le structure and contains lo. . are di'ided into shallo./lack soil of a depth of "20(2 cms5 medium /lack soils of (201 2 cm and deep /lack soils of more than 1 2 centimeters. +he lateritic soils are enriched -ith o6ides of iron and aluminium5 under the conditions of high rainfall -ith alternate dry and -et periods. Cotton5 sugarcane5 groundnut5 millets5 mai7e5 pulses5 safflo-er are the common crops gro-n on these soils. Because of their inherent drainage pro/lem5 they are prone to salinity and sodicity under irrigated conditions unless proper drainage is ensured.n the lo-er plains and 'alleys5 they are dark5 coloured fertile loams5 irrigated crops like mai7e5 -heat5 pulses5 potatoes5 fruits5 millets etc can /e gro-n.n uplands5 they are gra'elly sandy or stony and porous and light coloured on -hich food crops like /ajra can /e gro-n. In this soil5 lime concretions and free car/onates are a/sent. 2aterites and lateritic soils #aterite is a geological term and means literally a rock. +he red colour is due to the higher degree of hydration of the ferico6ide in the soils.(0122 cm.solu/le salts. 36cessi'e gra'elliness5 surface crust formation and suscepti/ility to erosion due to high slopes are some of the pro/lems in these soils -hich can /e o'ercome /y adopting suita/le measures. &ll lateritic soils are poor in calcium5 magnesium5 nitrogen5 phosphorus and potash. .tropical to su/0tropical monsoon type climate -ith alternate dry and -et periods and calcification >formation of calcium car/onate@ are fa'oura/le to the formation of /lack soils. +hey are generally poor in nitrogen5 phosphorus5 lime5 humus etc. Impeded drainage and lo. 2.soils@. #aterites are usually shallo. :igher landy soils are poor in nutrient status -here as lo-er le'el soils are dark and richer in nutrients and organic matter. +he soils are characterised /y dark grey to /lack colour -ith "(0*2G clay5 neutral to slightly alkaline reaction5 high s-elling and shrinkage5 plasticity5 deep cracks during summer and poor status of organic matter5 nitrogen and phosphorus. 3. Morphologically the red soils can /e di'ided into red loams -hich ha'e a cloddy structure and argillaceous soil and red earths -ith loose fria/le top soil rich in sesAuio6ide type of minerals. Because of its high -ater retaining capacity5 rainfed crops like minor millets5 pulses like horse gram are 'egeta/les of different types and citrus fruits can also /e gro-n. .and gra'elly at higher lands5 /ut are 'ery deep loam to clay soils in the 'alleys -here good paddy crops are produced. +hey are generally -ell drained and porous. +he laterites and lateritic soils ha'e /een loosely used in the same sense.soils >red and yello. +he natural 'egetation comprises dry deciduous species5 'i7 palas >Butes frondoss@5 sisam >)al/ergia sisu@5 neem >&7adirachta indica@ and teak >+ectona grandis@. )uring rainfall silica is leached do-n-ards and iron and aluminium o6ides remains in the top layers. Black soils. +hese soils ha'e also /een found under forest 'egetation. +he soil reaction is more on the acidic side. Sometimes they found along -ith /lack soils >side /y side@ and also yello. +hey are slightly acidic to slightly alkaline5 -ell drained -ith moderate permea/ility. +hese soils are also kno-n as regurs5 nullah regadi >a telugu -ord meaning /lack clay@ and /lack cotton soils as cotton -as the major crop gro-n in these soils.permea/ility are the major pro/lems. 1ed soils +hese soils are deri'ed from granite5 gneiss and other metamorphic rocks. +he climate is semi0arid tropical -ith mean annual temperature of (CC and mean annual rainfall from .

-. "ll$'ial soils +he allu'ial soils occuring in the Indo0Gangetic plains and the Brahmaputra 'alley co'er a large area.. +he soils ha'e a -ide range in soil characteristics 'i7.a -ide 'ariety of crops suited to climatic conditions. +he ne-er allu'ium is sandy and light coloured -hereas older allu'ium is more clayey5 dark coloured and contains lime concretions. lakh km @ and these are the most important soils from agricultural point of 'ie-. Some soils are saline due to the inundation of sea -ater. Geologically5 the allu'ium is di'ided into recent allu'ium -hich is kno-n as Dhadar and old allu'ium5 as /hangar. a. +hey are distri/uted mainly in the northern5 north0-estern and north0eastern parts of our country. d. Based on the climate lateritic soils are grouped into high rainfall areas -ith strongly and -eakly e6pressed dry season and humid 7ones -ith pronounced dry $ -et periods. +he Cau'ery delta soils are significantly clayey and Ganga delta soils sho. +he main features of allu'ial soils ha'e /een deri'ed as silt deposition laid do-n /y the Indian ri'er systems like the Indus5 the Ganges5 the Brahmaputra and the ri'ers like 4armada5 +aptiH Mahanadi5 Goda'ari5 Drishna and Cau'ery. In Gujarat5 the deltaic allu'ial soils -hich are sandy loam to clay loam are locally called Goradu soils.n laterites5 as already mentioned5 rice is gro-n at lo-er ele'ations and at higher ele'ations5 tea5 coffee5 cinchona5 ru//er and cashe-nut can /e gro-n under good soil management conditions.high accumulation of organic matter5 as in the Sunder/ans of 8est Bengal5 due to s-ampy 'egetation. Soils are dark coloured5 coarse te6tured and poor in fertility. "ll$'ial soils &llu'ial soils5 co'er the largest area in India >appro6imately . Such soils in the Donkan coast of Maharashtra are called Dhar 'ery deep. +hese soils are fertile amongst all the soils of India. Coastal sands . +he Goda'ari and Drishna ri'ers pass through /asaltic region ha'ing /lack soils and these soils are dark and fine te6tured.n the -hole5 laterites are poor in fertility and readily respond to manuring and good culti'ation. +hese soils are fertile and gro. Deltaic all$'ial soils +hey are formed from sediments carried /y ri'ers and deposited in the mouths of ri'ers joining the sea. +he climate ranges from arid to humid su/0tropical. +he soils are transported and deposited /y the ri'ers from the parent material. Coastal all$'i$( Soils de'eloped on coastal allu'ium are found along5 the sea coasts. . +hese ri'ers carry the products of -eathering of rocks constituting the mountains and deposit them along their path as they flo. +he ri'ers are the Ganga5 =amuna5 Brahmaputra and their tri/utaries. c. acid to alkaline sandy to clay5 normal to saline5 sodic and calcareous5 shallo. +hese are deficient in nitrogen5 phosphorous and humus5 /ut not in potash and lime. +he soils are deep and hard pans in the su/soil are calcareous >made of calcium car/onate@ and acidic. +he follo-ing groupings of allu'ial soils may /e recognisedH allu'ial soils >Dhadar5 /hangar and highly calcareous@5 deltaic allu'ium5 coastal allu'ium5 coastal sands5 calcareous sierocomic and grey0/ro-n soils. . +he deltas of the Ganga5 Brahmaputra5 Mahanadi5 Goda'ari5 Drishna and Cau'ery are the most important the plain land to-ards the sea. +hey produce a -ide 'ariety of crops like rice5 -heat5 sugarcane5 jute and potato.

-(o$ntain soils . S$. +hey are allu'ial origin.and casuarina can /e taken up for culti'ation. +he soils are formed from the materials that are -ashed do-n /y the erosion of mountains. Tarai soils +he -ord ItaraiI is a hindi -ord5 -hich means moist. +he nitrate nitrogen and phosphorus makes the desert soils fertile and producti'e under proper moisture supply. Bro5n hill soils +hese soils are formed under forests mainly in :imalayas and occur on the hills. +arai soils are foot hii soils and e6tend in strips of 'arying -idths at the foot of :imalayas in =ammu and Dashmir5 Bttar0Pradesh5 Bihar and 8est0Bengal. :igh soil moisture content all through the year results in lu6uriant 'egetation dominated /y tall grasses. 6. 3. +hey are dark /ro-n5 loam to silty clay in te6ture and acidic to neutral in reaction5 6. +he region consists of sand dunes and undulating sandy plains. If sandy soils are not saline5 plantation crops like coconut5 cashe. Generally5 these soils are fertile and /y pro'iding proper drainage5 the producti'ity can /e increased.rissa. !ainfall ranges from less than 12 cms to (2 cms5 mostly contri/uted during monsoon season. +he te6ture 'aries from sandy loam to silty loam. +hus5 iJ is a -et regime ha'ing high -ater ta/le. Grey0 /ro-n soils as the name itself indicates its nature5 can /e found in5 desert soils of !ajasthan. +he clay contents loand presence of alkaline earth car/onates is an important feature. +he -ord <siero7emI denotes a group of soils ha'ing a /ro-nish0grey surface hori7on -ith a su/0layer of car/onates -hich is de'eloped under mi6ed shru/ 'egetation in a0temperate to cool5 arid climate.Sandy soils occur prominently in the coastal area of +anja'ur district of +amil 4adu5 along the Derala coast5 Bapatla in Guntur distrjct of &ndhra Pradesh and Puri district in . Se'eral types of grasses and trees from the nati'e 'egetation on remo'al of -hich the soils /ecome highly producti'e. Soils under the natural conditions are thickly 'egetated and s-ampy. By increasing the -ater holding capacity5 the producti'ity of the soils can /e increased -hich in'ol'es addition of organic matter and clay. +he temperature regime is 'ery high throughout the year and a ma6imum of (20*2CC is recorded during summer. Calcareous siero7omes can /e seen in the desertic region of :aryana and Punja/. . +he soils in the plains are mostly deri'ed from allu'ium and are pale /ro-n to /ro-n to yello. +hey are neutral to slightly alkaline -ith significant amounts of organic matter./ro-n and fine sandy to loamy fine sand and are structureless. Desert soils In the north0-estern part of India5 desert soils occur o'er an area of 2. )ue to high temperature organic0matter /uilt up is 'ery lo-. 1 million hecta5res5 -hich includes a major part of !ajasthan5 south of :aryana and Punja/ and northern part of Gujarat. 4.ther soils under allu'ium are calcareous siero7omes and grey /ro-n soils.

>Eor more details refer /ooklet 4o. In Derala5 these peaty soils are rich in solu/le salts -hich are kno-n as Dari soils. million are salt affected distri/uted in different states. Soil groups in these regions are descri/ed here. /o$ntain (eado5 soils +hese soils occur at higher ele'ations in the :imalayas a/o'e the 7ones of tree gro-th. 36cess salts can /e remo'ed /y leaching5 Sodic soils ha'e high amounts of sodium and a/out " million hectares are affected /y this sodicity. Soon after the monsoon5 the -ater recedes and rice culti'ation is taken up. +he climate is hot5 humid and monsoon type -ith an annual rainfall of 20%22 cms.7.. +his high rainfall is responsi/le for the accumulation of organic matter5 a/sence of free lime and acidity of the soils. +he climate 'aries from hot su/0humid tropical temperate cold alpine and cold arid conditions. Predominant soils are allu'ial5 red5 /ro-n hill and coastal. +he soils are /lack clayey and highly acidic >due to sulphuric acid@. +hey contain 120%2 percent organic matter. 8$(id 5estern 8i(ala an re#ion +his region consists of =ammu and Dashmir5 :imachal Pradesh and the hill di'isions of Dumaon and Garh-al of Bttar<pra5desh. )uring the monsoon season5 the soils get su/merged in -ater. Saline and sodic soils +he soils are salt affected and unless and until reclamation measures are taken up5 the soils cannot /ecome producti'e.&colo#ical 1e#ions Based on climate5 'egetation and crops5 India has /een di'ided into eight agro0 ecological regions. .rissa5 in the Sunder/ans of 8est Bengal and south0east coast of +amilnadu. Major soil groups are mountain meado-s >sandy loam and neutral to alkaline@5 su/0 montane meado-s >acidic and sandy 12 am@ and /ro-n hill soils >loam to silty loam in te6ture@. Peat and (arsh soils Peaty soils are formed due to the accumulation of organic matter in humid regions. 3. Soils in "#ro. +he soils are shallo. +hese soils can /e reclaimed /y adding ameadments like gypsum. .+he soils are formed in the su/0:imalayan region under coniferous forests5 &n annual rainfall of 1 20 ( cm is recorded in this region. 8$(id eastern 8i(ala an re#ion and Ba islands .-ith mostly grass 'egetation. Patches of salt affected soils can /e seen in the deltaic tracts. 9. )uring rainy season5 floods are common. . Marshy soils occur on the coastal tracts of .. 8$(id Ben#al-"ssa( .."1 on Saline and &lkali Soils@ +ll. 2. In India5 around .asin +his region represents the Ganga0Brahmaputra allu'ial plain of allu'ium and deltaic deposits. Saline soils are formed due to accumulation of solu/le salts -hich consists of chlorides and sulphates of calcium and magnesium.

2 M5 MP5 G=5 &P5 D+5 ! 11. S$.4o 1 " % ( * . 3.1.2 +45 D!5 D+5 &P5 G=5 . 4. Distri.-h$(id S$tle0-)an#a all$'ial *lains Punja/ plains of Bttar Pradesh5 )elhi and Bihar comes under this region -ith e6tremes of climate hot summer and cold -inter. +he predominant soil groups are red5 /lack5 yello-5 red sandy5 laterite5 ri'erine allu'ial and coastal sandy allu'ials.+he states of Meghalaya5 Manipur5 +ripura5 4agaland5 &runachal Pradesh5 Mi7oram5 &ndaman and 4ico/ar islands constitute this region. +III.ha@ 1.. M5 &P5 D+5 MP5 G=5 ! 1*. 8$(id to se(i-arid 5estern #hats and Karnataka *latea$ +he region consists of Darnataka5 +amil 4adu5 Derala5 Pondicherry and #akshad-eep islands..rissa5 &ndhra Pradesh and eastern Madhya Pradesh -hich are characteri7ed /y undulating topography5 denuded hills and plateaus5 mature ri'er 'alleys constitute this region. Se(i-arid la'a *latea$ and central hi#hlands +he region consists of Maharashtra5 -estern and central Madhya Pradesh5 Goa5 )aman and )iu./lack Medium /lack )eep /lack Mi6ed red $ /lack Coastal allu'ium Coastal sands )eltaic allu'ium +a/le 1 H Soils .5 8B . Calcareous siero7omes in the south0-est5 reddish /ro-n chestnut. 1 12 11 Soil groups !ed loamy !ed sandy #aterite !ed $ yelloShallo.f India &rea )istri/ution in the states >M. )ominant soil groups are /ro-n hill5 red and yello-5 allu'ial and laterite soils. 6. +he climate is semi0arid -ith e6tremes of temperatures and 'aria/le rainfall.5 +45 &P5 P. "rid 5estern *lains Predominant soils are allu'ial5 grey0/ro-n allu'ial5 /lack5 desert5 saline and sodic co'ering :aryana5 !ajasthan5 Gujarat and Bnion territory of )odra and 4agar :a'eli characteri7ed /y allu'ial plains5 sandy plains5 sand dunes5 saline depressions -ith scanty rainfall. .2 +45 D+5 &P5 B5 8B 1"./ro-n soils." MP5 .-h$(id to h$(id eastern and so$th eastern $*lands . .5 ! "".5 B ".$tion of Soils in India )ifferent types of soils in each state are mentioned in +a/le 4o.5 M5 G5 &5 8B5 &4 %2.2 +45 &P5 . S$.% +45 D!5 D+5 &P5 M5 G5 8B5 &4 2. Sl. +he four important soil groups are /lack5 red5 lateritic and allu'ials. -. D+5 +45 M5 MP5 &P5 B (. in the su/0montane 7one5 allu'ial soils and patches of saline alkali soils are the major soil groups." &P5 +45 D+5 D!5 MP5 .1 M %". +he climate is tropical monsoonic and su/ humid to humid. +he major soil groups are allu'ial /lack and lateritic5 mi6ed red and /lack and yello.%( . 6.

1 1" 1% 1( 1* 1..* (.1 1. 1." %. &s the soil sur'ey programme in the country still in process5 regions not co'ered /y soil sur'ey are not included in the soil map. .0. ..0PondicherryK P0 Punja/K !0!ajasthanK +40 +amilnadaK BP0Bttar PradeshK 8B0 8est Bengal.thers "(. . GGGGGGGGGG( . 11 2 1 " % ( &llu'ial >!ecent $ old@ &llu'ial >Calcareous@ Calcareous siero7emic Grey /ro-n )esert +arai Bro-n hill Su/ montane Mountain meadoSaline and alkali Peaty Skeletal Glaciers $ eternal sno. &fter this progress only5 a more accurate soil map of India -ill /e a'aila/le.risFaK P. 2..1 .( 12.1 %. &ccording to these areas of distri/ution5 4ational Bureau of Soil Sur'ey and #and Bse Planning classified the soils and a soil map of India -as prepared. .. 1.1 .*..1 BP5 P5 B5 8B5 &5 :5 &P5 G=5 =D5 :!5 MP5 !5 ) BP5 B P5 :5 ! G=5 ! !5 G5 : BP5 B5 8B5 &4 BP5 S5 :P5 G=5 =D5 D!5 P5 8B BP5 =D5 :P =D BP5 :5 P5 M5 D!5 +45 G=5 ! D!5 8B MP BP5 =D 0 Sym/ols for the states0 &40&ndaman $ 4ico/ar islandsK &P 0&ndhraPradeshK &0&ssamK B0BiharK )0pelhiK G0GoaK G=0GujaratK :0:aryanaK :P0:imachal PradeshK =D0=ammu $ DashmirK D+0DarnatakaK D!0DeralaK MP0Madhy PradeshK M0MaharashtraK ..1 1.