DEVELOPING E-LEARNING FOR KAZAKH NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

AIGUL IMADILDAYEVA










UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGY MALAYSIA
i

DEVELOPING E-LEARNING
FOR KAZAKH NATIONAL UNIVERSITY





AIGUL ZHAIDARBEK KIZI IMADILDAYEVA





A project report submitted in partial fulfilment of the
requirements for the award of the degree of
Master of Science (Information Technology- Management)





Faculty of Computer Science and Information Systems
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia





APRIL 2010

iii










Specially dedicated to my beloved family.
Thank you very much for your love and unconditional support.























iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS





Alhamdulillah to Almighty ALLAH for giving me his blessing, the courage
and strength to the completion of this final project report.

A big thank to my supervisor, dr. Roliana bt. Ibrahim, for her continuing
guidance, advise, and encouragement in my way to prepare this project. Her patience
and tolerance towards me helped to finish this project and I would like to express my
appreciation to her.

I am very grateful for my examiners PM Wardah Zainal Abidin and dr. Ab
Razak Che Hussin for their ongoing expert advice, corrections, and suggestions. A
huge vat of thanks to all lectures in the department of Information Systems, FSKSM
UTM for their support, all of you have a true gift for teaching.

So much love and thanks to my father Zhaidarbek Imadildayev, mother
Kumisjan Toletayeva, and siblings, Nazgul and Aray, for their belief, continuing
understanding, and sacrifice in support of my writing. My heartfelt thanks go to
Nurgissa Umatay for provided assistance and support at various occasions.

Finally, appreciation to all my friends and classmates for their kindness and
support, may Allah bless all of you.





v

ABSTRACT





Many universities in the world are implementing technology enhanced
learning in order to improve education and help students to develop learning.
Nowadays technology enhanced learning offers universities with all context of
education and universities are trying to apply it. One such case is the Kazakh
National University that is subject of this project. Kazakh National University as of
the largest public university in Kazakhstan is meeting challenges to introduce
technology enhanced learning. The university’s current system is not reliable; also it
is outdated in terms of its structure; and need to be replaced with e-learning system.
Octagonal theoretical model for e-learning has been used in order to lead this project.
This model’s eight factors are grouped into three major domains: educational,
technological and organizational. This model used as a guideline to observe the study
by using a questionnaire and mail interviews as data collection techniques. This data
collection was necessary as none of the interviewed individuals had experience with
any e-learning systems. The analysis of the data shows positive attitude among the
students and teachers for implementing an e-learning system. This proposed system
is based on Moodle software and it is believed to be a full scale e-learning system
that offers courses for students in Kazakh National University. Through user
requirements, the project comes up with a reliable e-learning system that will help
the KazNU’s administration manage courses and monitor students’ progress. Hence
therefore the collaboration between students and staff would be improved with
developed e-learning system.




vi

ABSTRAK





ICT bukan lagi sesuatu yang baru di universiti malah kebanyakan universiti
yang ada di dunia ini telah mengimplementasikan teknologi berasakan pembelajaran
bagi tujuan menambahbaikkan sistem pendididkan dan secara tidak langsung
membantu pelajar dalam pembelajaran. Pada masa kini, teknlogi berasakan
pembelajaran ini menawarkan kepada universiti bukan sahaja focus dapa satu
konteks tetapi ianya meliputi semua aspek pendidikan di universiti untuk di
implemenatsikan. Universiti National Kazakh merupakan salah satu universiti yang
menjadi kajian kes dalam projek ini. Sebagai universiti awam yang terbesar di
Kazakhstan, universiti ini menyahut cabaran untuk memperkenalkan dan
mengaplikasikan teknologi berasakan pembelajaran ini. Sistem yang wujud di
universiti ini pada masa sekarang adalah tidak konsistent.Selain itu, Dari segi
struktur sistem,universiti ini masih menggunakan struktur atau rekabentuk yang lama
dan perlu untuk digantikan dengan sistem e-learning. Model teori oktagon untuk
pembelajaran elektronik (E-Learning) telah digunakan dalam projek ini. Lapan
faktor-faktor model ini telah dibahagikan kepada tiga domain utama; pendidikan,
teknologi dan organisasi. Model ini telah digunakan sebagai satu garis panduan
untuk kajian dengan menggunakan soal selidik dan temubual mel sebagai teknik-
teknik pengumpulan data. Pengumpulan data adalah perlu kerana tiada individu-
individu yang ditemubual mempunyai pengalaman dengan system E-Learning.
Analisis data menunjukkan sikap positif di kalangan pelajar-pelajar dan guru-duru
dalam melaksanakan system E-Learning. Sistem yang dicadangkan ini berasaskan
perisian Moodle dan dipercayai dapat dijadikan sistem E-Learning berskala penuh
yang dapat menawarkan kursus-kursus untuk pelajar-pelajar di Kazakh National
University. Melalui keperluan pengguna, projek ini dipercayai dapatmembantu
pentadbiran menguruskan kursus-kursus dan mengawal kemajuan pelajar-pelajar.
Oleh itu, kerjasama di antara pelajar-pelajar dan kakitangan dapat dipertingkatkan
dengan terbangunnya sistem E-Learning ini.







vii






TABLE OF CONTENTS





CHAPTER TITLE PAGE

DECLARATION ii
DEDICA TION iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv
ABSTRACT v
ABSTRAK vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS vii
LIST OF TABLES xii
LIST OF FIGURES xiv
LIST OF ABBREVIATION xvi
LIST OF APPENDICES xvii

1 PROJECT OVERVIEW 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Background of problem 2
1.3 Statement of the problem 3
1.4 Project objective 4
1.5 Scope 5
1.6 Importance of project 5
1.7 Chapter summary 6

2 LITRETURE REVIEW 7
2.1 Introduction 7


viii
2.2 Overview of e-learning 10
2.2.1 E-learning history 11
2.2.2 Definition of e-learning 16
2.2.3 E-learning vs. traditional education 17
2.2.4 Benefits of e-learning 20
2.3 Overview of Kazakh National University 22
2.3.1 General information about Kazakhstan 22
2.3.2 Background of Kazakh National University 23
2.3.3 Organization analysis 23
2.3.3.1 Vision of KazNU 26
2.3.3.2 Mission of KazNU 27
2.3.3.3 Strategic functions and objectives of KazNU 27
2.3.4 Organization chart 29
2.4 Development of e-learning 30
2.4.1 Critical Success Factors 30
2.4.2 E-learning models 32
2.4.3 E-learning platforms 37
2.5 Best practices 41
2.5.1 E-learning benchmarking 42
2.5.1.1 The introduction of e-learning at UTM
(Malaysia)
43
2.5.1.2 The introduction of blackboard at Stanford
University (USA)
44
2.5.1.3 System’s features 45
2.6 Discussion of literature review 48
2.6.1 Proposed e-learning model 48
2.6.2 Adopting e-learning 54
2.7 Chapter summary 55

3 METHODOLOGY 56
3.1 Introduction 56
3.2 Project Methodology 57
3.2.1 Initial Planning phase 61


ix
3.2.2 System Analysis 61
3.2.2.1 Literature Review 62
3.2.2.2 Study the current system 62
3.2.2.3 Gathering Requirements for the Proposed
Project
63
3.2.3 System Design 63
3.2.4 System Development 64
3.2.5 System Implementation 64
3.3 System Development Methodology 65
3.3.1 Object Oriented Approach 65
3.3.2 UML Notation 66
3.3.3 The Unified Process 67
3.3.4 Justification of selected Methodology 68
3.4 System Requirement Analysis 69
3.5 Project Schedule 70
3.6 Chapter Summary 71

4 ANALYSIS AND DESIGN 72
4.1 Introduction 72
4.2 Existing IS/IT systems 73
4.2.1 System architecture 73
4.2.2 System features 74
4.3 Problem statement in the organizational context 76
4.4 Current system analysis 76
4.5 System As Is 78
4.5.1 Current system observation 79
4.5.1.1 Entering students’ attendance grade into
system
81
4.5.1.2 Students assessments 83
4.5.2 As-Is Process and Data Model 86
4.6 Adopting octagonal theoretical model 87
4.7 Finding from questionnaire 89
4.7.1 Questionnaire 91


x
4.7.1.1 Educational domain 91
4.7.1.2 Technological domain 92
4.7.2 Mail interview 93
4.7.2.1 Educational domain 94
4.7.2.2 Technological domain 95
4.7.2.3 Organizational domain 95
4.8 User requirements 97
4.8.1 Functional requirements 98
4.8.2 Non functional requirements 99
4.9 System improvements 100
4.10 To-Be Process and Data Model 100
4.10.1 System architecture 103
4.11 Chapter summary 105

5 IMPLEMENTION AND TESTING 106
5.1 Introduction 106
5.2 System implementation 107
5.2.1 Performance and coding approach 107
5.2.2 Database design 111
5.3 System testing 113
5.3.1 Unit testing 113
5.3.2 Integration test 117
5.3.2.1 User-interface test 118
5.3.3 User acceptance test 121
5.4 Chapter summary 123

6 ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY 124
6.1 Introduction 124
6.2 Migration plan 125
6.2.1 Conversion 125
6.2.2 Change management 129
6.3 Data migration 132
6.4 Post-implementation activities 133


xi
6.5 Organization Benefits 133
6.6 Chapter summary 134

7 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 135
7.1 Discussions 135
7.2 Achievements 136
7.3 Constraints and challenges 138
7.4 Aspirations 139
7.5 Conclusion 139

LIST OF REFERENCES 140
APENDICES A-H 144-238
























xii





LIST OF TABLES





TABLE NO. TITLE PAGE

2.0 E-learning history 12
2.1 Comparing traditional learning with e-learning 18
2.2 Courses offered by KazNU 26
2.3 CSF for e-learning 30
2.4 E-learning system requirements by Adina Uta 37
2.5 Evaluation Results of E-Learning Platforms for each
Subcategory
40
2.6 Best e-learning’s practices in the organizations 41
2.7 System features in UTM and Stanford University 45
2.8 Critical analysis of e-learning models for KazNU 49
3.0 Detail every phase in Project Methodology Framework 59
3.1 Unified Process’s two-dimensional systems 67
3.2 Software and hardware requirements for developing the
system
69
4.0 KazNU’s “intranet” system’s features 74
4.1 Current system’s problem causes 77
4.2 Detail every phase of adopting Octagonal theoretical model
for e-learning framework
88
4.3 Detailed view of data gathering techniques 90
4.4 Mail interview with teachers on “Educational domain” 94
4.5 Mail interview with teachers on “Technological domain” 95
4.6 Mail interview with teachers on “Organizational domain” 96


xiii
4.7 System user roles 102
5.0 Moodle’s tools for education 108
5.1 Moodle database tables 111
5.2 List of Black box testing 114
5.3 Test report of screen layout 120
5.4 Test report of report layout 120
5.5 Test report of from layout 121
6.0 Conversion location 126
6.1 Characteristics of conversional strategies 128
6.2 Conversional strategies for the proposed system 128
6.3 Selecting a teaching method 132
6.4 System impact 134
























xiv





LIST OF FIGURES





FIGURE NO. TITLE PAGE

2.0 Literature Review Framework 8
2.1 E-learning SWOT analysis 19
2.2 Benefits of e-learning 21
2.3 Quantity of students in KazNU 24
2.4 Teachers staff in KazNU 24
2.5 Programs in KazNU 25
2.6 Kazakh National University’s organizational chart 29
2.7 Framework for e-leaning 32
2.8 Salmon five-stage model for e-learning 34
2.9 ADDIE model 35
2.10 Do it yourself” e-learning model 36
2.11 UTM’s E-learning portal Source:
http://elearning.utm.my/
44
2.12 Stanford University’s blackboard portal Source:
http://blackboard.stanford.edu/
45
2.13 Student page at UTM’s e-learning 47
2.14 Student page at Stanford University’s blackboard 47
2.15 E-learning factors 52
2.16 Educational domain 52
2.17 Technological domain 53
2.18 Organizational domain 53
3.0 Project Management Framework 58


xv

4.0 Intranet – Architecture and organization 74
4.1 Root Cause Analysis by Ishikawa tool 77
4.2 “Intranet” system login page (source:
http://univer.kaznu.kz/)
79
4.3 First page after login into system “Intranet” 80
4.4 Students activity page 80
4.5 Entering students attendance into the system 82
4.6 Attendance journals 82
4.7 Students’ attendances – teachers’ page 83
4.8 Student’s grade evaluation 84
4.9 Disciplines list 84
4.10 Students’ group 85
4.11 Electronic attestation journal 85
4.12 Students’ attendances and grades – student’s page 86
4.13 Adopting Octagonal theoretical model for e-learning 87
4.14 Students answers for questions relating to educational
domain
92
4.15 Students answers for questions relating to
technological domain
92
4.16 System improvements 100
4.17 The 5 phases of development e-learning processes 101
4.18 System users 101
4.19 To-Be System architecture for students 104
4.20 System Architecture 105
5.0 Front page interface 118
5.1 Adding new user 119
5.2 Adding new course 119
5.3 Sending email to user 119
5.4 Students overall response to the questionnaire 122
5.5 Close ended questions (Students’ response in
percentage)
122
5.6 Students’ response to the each question 123
6.0 Implementing change 125


xvi





LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS





ALT Advanced learning technology
CBT Computer-based training
CMS Course Managemnet System
CRC Class-Responsibility-Collaboration
DB database
EIS Enterprise Information System
ICT Information and Communication Technology
IS/IT Information System/ Information Technology
LCMS Learning Content Management System
LSM Learning Management System
Moodle Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment
KazNU Kazakh National University
OO Object Oriented language
OSS Subject matter expert
SDLC System Development Life Cycle
SME Subject Matter Expert
QA Quality Assurance
RCA Root Cause Analysis
UML Unified Modeling Language
UTM Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
VLE Virtual Learning Environment
WebCT Web course tools
WBS Work Breakdown Structure



xvii





LIST OF APPENDICES





APPENDICES NO. TITLE PAGE

A Project Schedule (Gantt Chart) 144
B Functional and structural modeling for the current
system
147
C Functional and structural modeling for the proposed
system
170
D Database structure 205
E Current system questionnaire 212
F System acceptance questionnaire 216
G User manual 220
H Technical documentation 232










CHAPTER 1





PROJECT OVERVIEW





1.1 Introduction


Nowadays, using e-learning system in education is becoming, without doubt,
more and more important learning method. E-learning system is being used in
universities and in higher education, and also in organizations that look for accurate
and continuous formation of their employees. One simple activity of this type of
learning is the process of learning evaluation; it means to value the earned
knowledge by the students.


The evaluation is the movement for the student to verify the reached
knowledge in the learning process. In a summary, the evaluation process allows the
student to compare the acquired knowledge with the expected one in the formative
action and thus to determine if the objectives have been achieved correctly.


2
The advent of e-learning is mainly due to the widespread use of ICT in
education. Today, e-learning has its own standards that are developed by
Instructional Management System (IMS). E-learning has a Learning Management
System (LMS), which consists of the tools for the creation, storage, use, educational
content delivery and management in the multiplayer mode. The main thing that
makes e-Learning unique is an opportunity of repeatedly usage of once created
multimedia educational content, including online access in the real time. User not
only observes the creative process of content creation, but also can participate in
establishing learning process. E-learning creates educational content around the
social networks, forums, and chat rooms.


E-learning allows to convert the content of education, improve mobility and
creative curricula and programs; it provides the possibility of designing and
constructing a variety of tools for building professional competence. More and more
universities world over are deploying e-learning system for the sake of improving
learning process efficiency and student’s knowledge quality.





1.2 Background of problem


Al-Farabi Kazakh National University (KazNU) is the biggest educational
and scientific center in Kazakhstan. The university is the national leader of the
innovative development of higher professional education, and postgraduate education
and science. It is the largest center of scientific and pedagogical personnel’s learning
in the field of natural and humanitarian sciences in Kazakhstan.


Currently, the university's activity is directed to reach goals of its further
integration of the Al-Farabi Kazakh National University into the World Education
3
and Scientific Society as well as strengthening of international identity of the
University. This activity is realizing in frame of cooperation programs with leading
Universities of the World, joint scientific-research efforts, organization of scientific-
practical workshops and conferences, exchange of faculty members and development
of students' mobility.


To reach these goals KazNU has to use up to date technologies and education
techniques. At the current time there is no e-learning system in KazNU that could
bring many features for developing education processes in the modern way. The
relevance and prevalence of e-learning is very high in Kazakhstan. Students
absolutely not satisfied with the teaching of chalk and a classical school board, they
want to use their computer skills and knowledge of Internet technologies to achieve
more features from the learning process.


The Universities of developed countries have always been leaders in e-
learning and their main aim is to develop and test the latest techniques and
technologies that is not surprising as the task is to teach. That is why KazNU has to
place a high strategic importance on the growth in the provision of highly interactive
online environments and to realize this aim is investing intensively in both staff and
learning technologies.





1.3 Statement of the problem


This project made an effort to find the answer for the main question: “How to
develop e-learning for Kazakh National University? ”This project also made attempt
to find answers for some problems, relating to:

4
i. What is the current situation with learning process in Kazakh National
University?
ii. Which e-learning model is suitable for KazNU?
iii. How e-learning can benefit learners, practitioners and educational
institutions within KazNU?


This project attempts to provide answers for these questions. In this research
it is intended to use a relevant research methodology to analyze the data that will be
gathered and arrive with the suggestions for the improvement that can benefit the
university, which would enhance learning process.





1.4 Project objectives


The general purpose of this project is defined in the project objectives below:

• Investigate the role of e-learning system in education process;
• Determine the current situation of learning process in Kazakh National
University to determine and analyze suitable e-learning model for this university;
• Identify the factors and architecture in designing e-learning system
environment for successful adopting in KazNU;
• Develop a prototype of an e-learning system for KazNU.






5
1.5 Scope


The study will concentrate on the Kazakh National University. In this project
e-learning system for KazNU will be developed. The project scope includes:

• Use moodle as Learning Management System (LMS)to create effective
online learning web site for KazNU;
• Customize moodle features for e-learning system at KazNU
• Include features:
1. Accommodated multiple learning styles;
2. Create variety types of students’ knowledge testing options;
3. Create Flexible Course Management for course coordinators;
4. Provide online help and tutorials for system users;
5. Provide different Learning Tools for teachers and students.





1.6 Importance of project


The project will significantly define the following e-learning benefits for
KazNU:

i. Convenience and portability (reading, uploading, downloading materials at
any time);
ii. Flexibility (use most suitable tools for learning style)
• Eliminate geographical barriers to open up broader education options;
• 24/7 accessibility makes scheduling easy and allows a greater number of
people to attend classes.
6
iii. Higher retention (because of the variety of delivery methods used to reach
different types of learners retention is much better than in traditional classrooms);
iv. Greater collaboration (technology tools make collaboration among
students more easier);
v. Global opportunities (used technologies and tools can provide education
process with opportunities that are not accessible in a traditional classrooms).





1.7 Chapter summary


Chapter 1 describes a general outline of the project by giving a brief
introduction and problem of the project. There were identified the statement of the
objectives and aims of the project. The scope and importance of this project have
also been pointed out. The project will be successfully achieved by successful
developing these objectives and aims of the project.















7





CHAPTER 2





LITERATURE REVIEW





2.1 Introduction


The main purpose of writing a literature review is to help to researcher to get
deep knowledge and understanding of research. This chapter will illustrate the
literature that relevant to the problem area. Thereby, the literature is expected to be
the fundamental on building the methodology, conducting the project, and
formulating the solution. Figure 2.0 shows the literature review framework of the
project.








8

9

Figure 2.0: Literature Review Framework

10
2.2 Overview of e-learning


It goes without saying that education is the best investment and a route to
better life. New internet technologies made for the development of methods for
delivery in education. E-learning was successfully implemented into the curriculum
of many schools and colleges and as the result demonstrated how effective ICT use
can be in supporting learning and teaching across a wide range of subject areas. If we
look through the term “e-learning” in Wikipedia it turns out that it belongs to
European programs in the field of education and promotes the penetration of ICT in
all learning systems and environments.


E-learning is becoming leading in all fields of education and learning policy.
It can be freely said that it has a great potential to change teaching and learning
drastically. Notably, by developing capital infrastructure and providing quality
interactive content ICT can transform institutions’ delivery services. It can also be
used in improving supporting teacher teaching and assessment. E-learning includes
the fields of online learning, web-based training and technology-delivered instruction
as well. It is a virtual world that stimulates students to take part in the educational
process as they are involved in the activity of exploring and playing with the lessons
material, communicating and cooperating with other students and teachers in
performing several tasks such as description of electronic commerce issues that is the
most attractive topic in the new information society.


Usually traditional classes and seminars are focused on group learning whilst
e-learning enables students self-paced and individual learning at home. These home-
based learning courses help students to arrange their time the way they want and take
additional courses to learn or improve their skills if they find this necessary. E-
learning differs from traditional courses as it provides wide range of exercises,
animation, sound and testing that helps to keep student’s attention and interact in the
teaching process effectively.

11
Benefits of e-learning to students, faculty and stuff cannot be overestimated.
Access to learning materials at any time helps the student to refresh his memory and
will never lose the course syllabuses. E-learning also enables trainee to fulfill
requirements for a degree as it is an ideal tool for certification and his results and
progress can be tracked. Lectures can use e-learning materials as lecture notes or
presentations, syllabus, tutorial, assignments, quizzes, tests or exercises to support
presentations with ancillary tools. E-learning increases education productivity and
profitability, more over according to Charles Clarke’s paper “Foreword to Towards a
Unified e-Learning Strategy” (July 2003) “E-learning has the potential to
revolutionize the way we teach and how we learn. A great deal of progress has been
made so far, but there is much more to do. E-learning can take us a further step
forward. This is about embedding and exploiting technologies in everything we do,
and getting ICT embedded across the curriculum for all subjects and in all
pedagogues.”





2.2.1 E-learning history


Before becoming e-learning this term was called as “internet-based training”
and then “web-based training”. Nowadays these terms are still in use along with
variations of e-learning.


History of e-learning started with its basis and focusing on educational and
technological principles (please refer to table 2.0).The development of the E-learning
revolution arose from a number of other ‘educational revolutions’. Four such
revolutions cited by Billings and Moursund (1988) are: 1)the invention of reading &
writing; 2) the emergence of the profession of teacher/scholar; 3) the development of
moveable type (print technology); 4) the development of electronic technology.

12
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16
2.2.2 Definition of e-learning


What is e-learning? E-learning involves the use of a computer or electronic
device (e.g. a mobile phone) in some way to provide learning, educational or
learning material (Derek Stockley 2003). We can define e-learning as 'the use of
technologies in learning opportunities'. This is a very broad definition but has been
used in the context of the HEFCE e-Learning Strategy: ”The Government e-learning
strategy defines e-learning as any learning that uses ICT. In embedding this strategy
we want to ensure that there is confident use of the full range of pedagogic
opportunities provided by ICT. For HE this will encompass flexible learning as well
as distance learning, and the use of ICT as a communications and delivery tool
between individuals and groups, to support students and improve the management of
learning”. (HEFCE e-learning Strategy March 2005 p.5.).


What is e-learning term? Although electronic learning or shortly e-learning
is the term used to indicate any electronically assisted instructions it is mostly
associated with instruction offered via computer or internet. But in many ways it is
associated with ALT(advanced learning technology) that deals with both
methodologies and technologies in learning by using networked and multimedia
technologies.


What is e-learning system? Originally developed by WebCT and now
known as the Blackboard Learning System Vista Enterprise License, the e-learning
system is a course management system: a collection of online tools to support
teaching and learning. Below presented some categories of e-learning:

-On-Demand e-learning: 'jukeboxes' of content available when required;
-Live On-Line e-learning: multiple learners in multiple sites simultaneously;
-Learning Objects: granular 'chunks' of learning material;
-On-Line Coaching: access to subject matter expertise;
17
-Knowledge Bases: database access to learning content in a searchable
environment;
-Learning Architectures: structures for developing and delivering E-Learning;
-Simulation Based Learning: learning via simulated experience;
-Blended Learning: combining face-to-face classes with technology delivered
content.





2.2.3 E-learning vs. traditional education


“ Once we free ourselves from the mental limits of viewing this technology as
a weak sister to face-to-face synchronous education, the potentials to revolutionize
education and learning become readily apparent” (Turrof, 1995). Although there is
no finding to support an opinion that the best learning is traditional and the other
models are inferior or less efficient such argument exists, but research shows that e-
learning is at least as good as traditional education. E-learning doesn’t mean
replacement of lectures or tutors it just enhances the learning process. To suit
differing educational needs and aspirations of students universities must provide
quality and flexibility. But it is clear that implication of increased workload requires
proactive and effective management. Alongside this, transition to e-learning will
inevitably lead to fundamental changes in the structure of traditional learning. And
the problems associated with the change must be fully understood and taken into
account before the transition-taking place.


It is found that e-learning has positive effects not only on the student’s
commitment to the learning process but on the creations a greater commitment on the
students’ part to learning. According to David Rashty (2001) the following table
summarizes several opinions regarding the comparison between traditional learning
and eLearning:
18
Table 2.1: Comparing traditional learning with e-learning (David Rashty,
2001)

Traditional Learning eLearning

Classroom
Discussions
The teacher usually talks
more than the student

The student talks at least as
much as or more than the
teacher
Learning Process The learning is conducted
with the whole class
participating; there is
almost
no group or individual
study
Most of the learning process
takes place in groups or by
the individual student.
Subject Matter

The teacher conducts the
lesson according to the
study
program and the existing
curriculum

The student participates in
determining the subject
matter; the studying is based
on various sources of
information, including web
data banks and net-experts
located by the student.
Emphases in the
Learning
Process


The students learn “what”
and not “how”; the
students
and the teachers are busy
completing the required
subject matter quota; the
students are not involved
in
inquiry-based education
and
in solving problems, but
rather in tasks set by the
The students learn “how”
and less “what”; the learning
includes research study
which combines searching
for and collecting
information from web data
banks and authorities on the
communications network; the
learning is better connected
to the real world, the subject
matter is richer and includes
material in different formats.
19
teacher.

Motivation The students’ motivation is
low, and the subject matter
is
“distant” from them.

The students’ motivation is
high due to the involvement
in matters that are closer to
them and to the use of
technology.
Teacher’s Role The teacher is the authority The teacher directs the
student to the information.
Location of
Learning

The learning takes place
within the classroom and
the
school
The learning takes place with
no fixed location
Lesson Structure The teacher dictates the
structure of the lesson and
the division of time
The structure of the lesson is
affected by the group
dynamics.


From the table below I have made an analysis fore-learning by using SWOT
tool, please refer to figure 2.1.


Strength
• Flexibility
• Mobility
• Autonomy and independence
• Interaction and interactivity
• Scope
• Effectiveness
Opportunities
• Economics and speed
• Updating of new technologies and
content
• Sharing experiences
• Instructs both a large number of
subjects geographically dispersed
• Openness to new generations
• Overcrowding technology
Weakness
• Insulation
Threats
• Internet is not accessible
20
• Resistance to change
• Motivation
• Not for some groups
• Learn to use ICT
• Internet connection
• Discredit
• Evaluation System unreliable
• Prejudices this type of education
• Lack of personal contact
• High initial investment for the
implementation of the system to
Business Training

Figure 2.1: E-learning SWOT analysis





2.2.4 Benefits of e-learning


“Good teaching is good teaching, no matter how it's done.” The old adage
still rings true, and e-Learning brings with it new dimensions in education. E-
learning believes to be highly beneficial as promotes new entrants into the higher
education market. E-learning solves many problems of traditional approach. The
benefits of e-learning are stated in several e-leaning web sites
(http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/about/administrative/is/services/elearning.php,
http://elifescience.in/E-Learningbenifit.php, http://www.pit-
magnus.com/pitmagnus/e-learning/index.asp) have been categorized into the benefits
for staff, students, and organization. These summary of benefits illustrated in figure
2.2:
21


Figure 2.2: Summary of benefits of e-learning
(http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/about/administrative/is/services/elearning.php,
http://elifescience.in/E-Learningbenifit.php,
http://www.pit-magnus.com/pitmagnus/e-learning/index.asp)
22
2.3 Overview of Kazakh National University


2.3.1 General information about Kazakhstan


Kazakhstan is a country that is situated in Eurasia covering 2,727,300 km²
(greater than Western Europe) and is bounded by Russia in the north, China in the
east, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan in the south, and the Caspian Sea and part of
Turkmenistan in the west. The population is 16,402,861 people. Kazakhstan has got
its independent in December 16, 1991.


According to Kazakhstan news bulletin (2007) Kazakhs represent 67% of the
population and ethnic Russians 21%, with a rich array of other groups represented,
including Tatars, Ukrainians, Uzbeks, Belarusians, Azerbaijanis, and Poles.


According to http://kazakhstaneducation.info/web site Kazakhstan is the
largest economy in Central Asia, its GDP grew by 10.6% in 2006. Kazakhstan has
huge fossil fuel reserves; minerals and metals are also found in abundance.


Kazakhstan has made a good progress in Reform of education, learning and
human resource development areas. Many young people in Kazakhstan consider
education as an opportunity for a better future.








23
2.3.2 Background of Kazakh National University


The Kazakh National University established on 15 January 1934 as the S.M.
Kirov State University, after the name of revolutionary Sergey Kirov. In 1991 the
name was changed to KazNU named after Al-Farabi. In 2001, University classified
as "national" university by the government of the Republic of Kazakhstan.


According to KazNU’s official web site http://www.kaznu.kz/en/165/“Al-
Farabi Kazakh National University (KazNU) prepares specialists according to a
program of vocational, undergraduate and postgraduate education, including the
Master's and PhD degrees, MBA programs. The university uses a credit-based
system of education, the basic goal of which is to develop capabilities for
independent organization and learning amongst its students. Students are allowed to
select their own educational trajectories within the framework of the university's
academic regulations while taking into account the number of credits they earn.
KazNU operates an Intranet that provides information about the entire academic
process, from matriculation to graduation. Under the direction of advisers and the
office of the registrar, students may make their choices on-line”.





2.3.3 Organization analysis


The quantity of students:
24


Figure 2.3: Quantity of students in KazNU (December, 2008)


Number of employees over 4000 staff. There are 800 administrative
management staff members, 2000 teachers (refer to Figure 4.1) and others.




Figure 2.4: Teachers staff in KazNU (December, 2008)


Instruction is offered in KazNU:


25


Figure 2.5: Programs in KazNU (December, 2008)


The university has 14 faculties, 98 departments, and 50 divisions. Faculties:

• Mechanical Mathematical Faculty
• Physics Faculty
• Biology Faculty
• Chemistry Faculty
• Geography Faculty
• Philology Faculty
• Faculty of Journalism
• Faculty of International Relations
• Eastern Studies Faculty
• Political Science and Philosophy Faculty
• Economics Faculty
• Law Faculty
• Preparatory Faculty for Foreign Citizens
• Eastern Faculty - Faculty of Oriental Studies





26
Table 2.2: Courses for students offered by KazNU

Course level Degree Duration

U
n
d
e
r
g
r
a
d
u
a
t
e

Certificates/ diplomas of state
sample
2 – 3.5 years
Bachelor degrees 4 years

P
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s
t
g
r
a
d
u
a
t
e

Master degrees 1,5 years
MBA 1 year
Doctorate degrees 3 years


The Department of Academic Affairs develops KazNU’s academic policies.
According to KazNU’s official web site this department sets procedures for the
organization of instruction at the university, which is based on the credit system, for
the university's undergraduate and graduate programs. The department also
establishes procedures for enrolling in classes, examinations, signing-up for
internships, student evaluations, transferring, reenrollment, student dismissals,
graduation, etc.





2.3.3.1 Vision of KazNU


The University Vision. As a result of realization of the tasks of the strategic
planning of the University will became the higher modern educational of institution
of the world-level, being of leader and methodic centre of the development of
Kazakhstan higher education system, possessing of efficient system of corporative
management of directions of activity, skillfully using and importing of the most
leading methods and technologies, teaching of capable competition of specialists of
27
the world-level with global higher educations, development of scientific studies and
development of standards of the world, effectively realizing of results of economy
and society (Development strategy of KazNU).





2.3.3.2 Mission of KazNU


The University Mission - a shaping of competition of specialists with modern
prestigious higher educations, that orients decisions of problems of the intensive
development of the most important directions of economy, sciences and public life of
the state (Development strategy of KazNU).





2.3.3.3 Strategic functions and objectives of KazNU


“Our common agenda must begin with education. First and foremost, we
must transform our population, which is already educated and motivated, into a labor
force for the future: 21st Century training for the 21st Century jobs. The battle for the
future will be determined not by armies but by education, not by tanks but by
technology, not by cannons but by computers. It is vital that we ensure that Central
Asia is on the right side of history in all respects politically, economically and
technologically” - President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Nursiltan Nazarbayev.
Nowadays, Kazakhstan’s universities aims are to bring right content coupled with
learning methodologies and tools to enhance both teaching and learning experience
to the field of education by developing of new materials and the enhancement of
existing teaching curriculum using new learning techniques, e-learning solutions and
28
simulations technologies. Recognizing the strategic importance of education as
emphasized by president Nursultan A Nazarbayev of the Republic of Kazakhstan
KazNU’s main strategic base vectors are:

• The top-management of the University modernization in accordance with
modern international requirements introducing of development bases of corporative
methods management;
• Development and system improvement of education process;
• Modernization of science and innovation management of system.


Strategic aims of KazNU:

• Development of KazNU as an international center of education in the
Central Asia region with a decent positioning in the global educational space;
• Provide good quality of educational services, including distance learning,
electronic and communication equipment and technology education for citizens of
Kazakhstan and foreign countries;
• Consolidate the leadership positions in the University's Higher Education
sectors;
• Create the favorable conditions for the conducting and implementing the
innovations.


Objectives of KazNU:

• Implement new innovation model of the university, that combines the best
international experience with national capacity of higher education and science;
• Develop modern educational technologies by importing and adapting
foreign learning technologies to enhance the status of KazNU named after Al-Farabi
as a leading educational-methodical and scientific center of higher education in the
country;
29
• Provide competitiveness and demand for graduates; ensure international
recognition of diplomas; raise the economic and social status of the teaching staff;
• Procure fundamental and applied research with an access to the global and
national scientific level;
• Develop educational, research and innovation infrastructure;
• Develop international cooperation in higher education post-graduate
learning, exchange of experience and academic composition, skills, research and
innovation.





2.3.4 Organization chart of Kazakh National University


Kazakh National University named after Al-Farabi (KazNU) has a
hierarchical structure, which is consists of Rector, Academic Council, Vice-
chancellors, Head of departments, and Faculties. For more details refer to Figure 2.6.




Figure 2.6: Kazakh National University’s organizational chart
30
2.4 Development of e-learning


The purpose of this section is to identify Critical Success Factors for
implementation of e-learning system, illustrate existing e-learning models, describe
e-learning software requirements and existing platforms for e-learning system.





2.4.1 Critical Success Factors


Volery and Lord (Critical success factors in online education. 2000) found
out three main critical success factors in e-learning. They are: 1) instructor
(interaction in classroom, attitudes towards students, technical competence) 2)
technology (ease of access and navigation, design, level of interaction) and student’s
experience in using technology. According to Soong et al. (2001) human factor in
reference to the instructors (motivational skills, time and effort consuming) is the
main CSFs of e-learning.


Table 2.3: CSF for e-learning (Kayte O’Neill, Gurmak Singh, and John
O’Donoghue)

Critical Success Factors E-learning
Success criteria Potential benefit Approach
Availability of technical
assistant or help desk
User satisfaction in finding answers in
their requests

Properly trained staff Staff members will not only
understand the content area, but also
will be highly trained in the use of the
computer and Internet

31
Face-to-face session
familiarizing students with
the courseware
Overcoming the issue of prior
experience

Functionality of the
technological infrastructure
should be ensured before
the course is implemented
During the work there are won’t
appear any technician errors
Should be backed up by
technical support from
either the lecturer or a
course facilitator
Good online resources Students satisfaction Accessibility (fast to
download, easy to read,
easy to navigate), use of
appropriate online
features
Development of good
documentation
Teachers and learners will know how
to install, access, use and adapt the
resources developed

The lecturer or a course
facilitator should be trained
as a ‘trouble shooter’ at a
basic level, and be able to
resolve elementary
hardware and software
issues.
Using an e-learning system will not be
stopped because of worthless errors,
that are able to be corrected by
lecturers
Train staff
Laboratories should be
fundamentally
investigative, encouraging
active learning by actually
doing.









32
2.4.2 E-learning models


There are varieties of e-learning technologies available in the market and it is
a big challenge for the developer to choose most suitable model for the developing
project. It is compulsory for developers to be aware of the differences between
models and the several design possibilities of these models.


E-learning models are presented the way available to all e-learning
practitioners in an online community of practice as they are short and clear
summaries of good practice and research. The models that will be described below
are Octagonal theoretical model for e-learning, Salmon’s five stage model, e-learning
design model, and “do-it-yourself” e-learning implementation model.


1. Framework for e-learning developed by Badrul H. Khan (a world-
renowned speaker, author, educator and consultant in the field of e-learning and
educational technology). According to Badrul H. Khan book “Web-based training”
e-learning framework is discussed as a next:




Figure 2.7: Framework for e-learning (Badrul H. Khan, 2004)

33
• The pedagogical dimension of e-learning framework refers to teaching and
learning. This dimension addresses issues concerning content analysis, audience
analysis, goal analysis, media analysis, design approach, organization and methods
and strategies of e-learning environments.
• The technological dimension of the E-Learning Framework examines
issues of technology infrastructure in e-learning environments. This includes
infrastructure planning, hardware and software.
• The interface design refers to the overall look and feel of e-learning
programs. Interface design dimension encompasses page and site design, content
design, navigation, and usability testing.
• The evaluation for e-learning includes both assessment of learners and
evaluation of the instruction and learning environment.
• The management of e-learning refers to the maintenance of learning
environment and distribution of information.
• The resource support dimension of the E-Learning Framework examines
the online support and resources required to foster meaningful learning
environments.
• The ethical considerations of e-learning relate to social and political
influence, cultural diversity, bias, geographical diversity, learner diversity,
information accessibility, etiquette, and the legal issues.
• The institutional dimension is concerned with issues of administrative
affairs, academic affairs and student services related to e-learning.


2. Salmon’s five-stage model for e-learning.


34


Figure 2.8: Salmon five-stage model for e-learning (G. Salmon, 2000)


According to Salmon, G. (2000) this model describes the next stages: “Stage
1 involves essential prerequisite individual access and the induction of participants
into online learning. Stage 2 involves individuals establishing their online identities,
and locating others with whom to interact. At stage 3 participants exchange
information and start to support other participants’ goals. Course-related discussions
develop at stage 4 and the interactions become more collaborative. Finally, real
reflection and personal development will occur in the achievement of goals at stage
5”.


3. E-learning design model. This ADDIE Model of Instructional Design
provides suggestions, feedback, and design guidelines for development of e-learning
module.







35







Figure 2.9: ADDIE model (Grafinger, Deborah J. 1988)


• Analysis phase defines user requirements, learners’ needs, and
understanding the teaching objectives.
• On the next design phase the learning objective is formalized. Based on
that learning objective developer creates an instructional model. The instructional
model consists of video/media content, animation and interactive content for the e-
learning module.
• In the development phase developer interacts with content writer and
feedback is provided from the interface designer.
• As soon as developing will be done, instructional designer approves the
content.
• Evaluation of feedback for criticality.


4. “Do it yourself” e-learning implementation model - gives opportunity to
teachers to utilize e-learning in their teaching practice, by themselves. According to
Lin Thompson and Reece Lamshed this model is described below:


36


Figure 2.10: “Do it yourself” e-learning model” (Lin Thompson, Reece
Lamshed, 2006)


• FIND OUT: Identify new e-learning tools.
• CHOOSE: Select the tools to suit university’s purpose and student needs.
• LEARN: Having a person who can mentor and work with teachers, who
can actually sit down and talk ‘tradie talk’, and be sympathetic to their needs,
significantly improves the e-learning implementation.
• EXPERIMENT: Experiment with the tools and test them.
• CONVERT: Using pre-existing resource materials, and convert them into
a form that fits the e-learning tool.
• SHARE: Share resources and knowledge with other teachers who are
discovering the e-learning pathway.
• REUSE: Find resource that's suitable, store and archive it, so that it can be
reused at any stage in the future if relevant.
• REVIEW: It is part of quality management, but it is also an essential part
of learning, modifying, and perfecting what we do.






37
2.4.3 E-learning platforms


Below defined some common features that can be found on most platforms:

• Annotating: Using drawing tools on whiteboards.
• Archiving: Recording and storing the session for playback anytime.
• Polls: Gathering real-time input from participants.
• Screen sharing: Allow participants to view applications on your
desktop.
• Whiteboards: An electronic version of a dry-erase board.


According to Senior Lecturer PhD. Adina Uta (Economic Informatics
Department, Academy of Economics Studies, Bucharest, Romania) in her paper
”Developing e-learning system” listed THE REQUIREMENTS OF AN E-
LEARNING SOFTWARE PRODUCT. The requirements for e-learning system
presented in the table below:


Table 2.4: E-learning system requirements (Adina Uta, 2006)

Requirements Explanation
Learning Community
Participation
• Every course and class includes real time chat room and
structured offline forums, providing interactive learning
through shared ideas and discussions.
• Administrator can also create public and learning
community related discussion forums.
Record Tracking • Records course learning time for learners including total
learning time, single course learning time, single course
chapter learning time and testing time.
• Records learning progress for learners including learning
summary for all courses and learning progress for a single
38
course.
• Learner can inspect own learning record and test results
while managers and instructors can also query a learner’s
learning records and results.
Course Creation • Intuitive creation process allows the content designer to
easily create course materials through a web interface by
following system instructions.
• Support multiple file formats like MS Office, HTML,
Images, Adobe PDF, Video and Audio, and Macromedia
Flash.
• Course contents can be published anytime for learners to
view, or hidden for future usage. Such contents may also be
shared with other instructional designers.
Course Management • Instructor can create and manage online courses, or provide
support in the management of classroom courses, set class
times, eligible learner lists and maximum enrollment
numbers for a course.
• Class management mechanism allows for creation of
multiple classes within a course and management of learners
belonging to different classes.
• Intelligent approval system that will automatically check
learner id’s and complete enrollments when learners enroll
in a course. Relevant managers will be automatically notified
if manager approval is required.
• Provide a waitlist function. When the maximum enrollment
number of a course has been reached, the system can place
learners who wish to enroll in the course on a waitlist. If any
of the enrolled learners withdraw from the course, the learner
on the waitlist will automatically be enrolled in the course.
• Classroom course management functions include leave
application, attendance management, results management
and external learning management to assist enterprises in
integrating classroom and online learning systems.
39
• Classroom courses can be integrated with online testing
mechanisms to create a blended learning structure.
Curriculum
Management
• Instructor can create curriculum online which may include
any number of courses, can set eligible learner list and
maximum enrollment numbers for a curriculum.
• Intelligent approval system that automatically checks
learner ids and completes the enrollment when learners
enroll in a course. Relevant managers will be automatically
notified if manager approval is required for enrollment in
such curriculum.
Results Evaluation • An instructor may design tests or surveys according to
requirements.
• Provides a question bank function. Instructors may create
any number of question banks, which can then include
questions of different difficulty levels. Tests can be created
based on settings such as the question difficulty level.
• Includes comprehensive testing functions. An instructor
may add multiple tests to a course.
• Question bank can be repeatedly utilized by different
courses and shared between instructors.
Reports • Generates reports according to learning record or result
evaluation.
• Users may customize unique learning analysis reports by
extracting data from the database.
• A user can design reports according to unique requirements
to provide better visual analysis of learning results.
Email Notification System can automatically send email notifications to users
when course publication, course expiration, course approval,
test results and other events occur.


Sabine Graf and Beate List from Women’s Postgraduate College of Internet
Technologies Vienna University of Technology in their paper “An Evaluation of
Open Source E-Learning Platforms Stressing Adaptation Issues” have made
40
comparison table between existed open sources for e-learning. Below this table has
been attached (Legend: * - very good; # - good; + - moderate; | - poor; 0 – very
poor):


Table 2.5: Evaluation Results of E-Learning Platforms for each Subcategory
(Sabine Graf and Beate , 2005)




Research shows that Moodle is the best platform concerning adaption issues.
In addition, Moodle’s extensibilities are supported with very well documented API,
detailed guidelines, and programming templates. Also Moodle include all
requirements listed in table 2.5.






41
2.5 Best practices


No matter what kind of e-learning you have chosen it is very essential to keep
industry best practices to evade the common traps associated with eLearning
development.


Table 2.6: Best e-learning’s practices in the organizations

Organization User’s
number
Market Description Extra additions
Università
deglistudi
Milano
Bicocca
(University of
Milan)
27 000 University System with integrated
all LMS functions.
Data base size 2 Gb,
user simultaneous
access around 100
persons/second
e-portfolio,
integration with
LDAP, possibility of
joining 2 LMS data
bases
AON Risk
Management
5 000 Insurance E-learning system
combines financial and
procedural learning
objects for AON
clients and internal
personnel. Each
administrator is able to
see his teams’ statistic
and monitor the
learning process
(subscription of
course). Also can print
achievement
certificates.
Analysis tools for
controlling teachings
(send required
notices to students
through e-mail)
Leroy Merlin 1 500 Market Train staff about User is able to create
42
(Auchan
group)
products and
technologies. All retail
outlets (more than 30,
in Italy more than 1500
active employees) are
studying and taking
tests through the
multimedia courses.
reports about topics,
analysis of reports,
see the percentage of
correct answers, print
in formats excel and
csv.





2.5.1 E-learning benchmarking


Towards a Unified E-Learning Strategy, July 2003 “Good management of e-
learning will optimize investment and procurement. In the well-managed e-learning
organization managers will need to take a strategic approach right across systems,
networks, equipment, e-learning materials and support services, and staff
development. The twin aims are to support staff in their teaching innovations, and to
reduce bureaucracy. Some educational institutions have already made significant
progress towards embedding e-learning. We can learn from these examples by
analyzing what works in the funding and management frameworks at local, regional,
and national levels. Transition requires short-term investment, to release staff time
for teaching and innovation, and to pilot new ways of working. Such investment
must result in clear improvement and value for learners.” This chapter describes:

• Comparison of the Moodle Learning Management
• System of UTM with the Stanford University’s current Blackboard
system;
• Recommends, on the basis of that evaluation, that the Kazakh National
University adopt Moodle as its Learning Management System.
43
This project is committed to providing a learning environment for Kazakh
National University that promotes intellectual and personal growth for students and
faculty. Since learning management systems (LMS) has a key role in the educational
enterprise, the choice of an LMS appropriate to the University’s mission is very
important. LMSs are constantly developing as other electronic technologies. This
development is always demand for continuous evaluation, thought of alternatives,
and assessment of the resources and opportunities. To meet University’s instructional
mission, on-line education will play a very important role. It is demands a learning
management system that is simple to use, quick to learn, trusted, and able to
accommodate institution’s evolving needs.


All of these considerations require of making a good chose of alternative
LMS. As detailed below, this chapter has attempted to supply sufficient facts
relative to the strengths and weaknesses of Stanford University’s Blackboard and
UTM’s Moodle. The project recommends in favor of use Moodle for creating e-
learning in the Kazakh National University.


The most important and attractive feature of Moodle is its open source
architecture, which promises flexibility and adaptability to Kazakh National
University’s faculties and students’ needs. Moodle is able to provide better
functionality and best choice for meeting education challenges.





2.5.1.1 The introduction of e-learning at UTM (Malaysia)


E-learning in UTM is generally defined as “the application of ICT to advance
the effectiveness of the teaching and learning process” (UTM, 2005). This system
44
consist of course content, lecture notes, communication tools, quizzes, tests and
assignments and can be accessed through the network (refer to Figure 2.11).




Figure 2.11: UTM’s E-learning portal Source: http://elearning.utm.my/





2.5.1.2 The introduction of blackboard at Stanford University (USA)


Stanford University is using blackboard system for effectiveness of the
teaching and learning process. University used Blackboard e-Education platform
enable educational innovations everywhere by connecting people and technology.
Below illustrated blackboard welcome page:


45


Figure 2.12: Stanford University’s blackboard portal Source:
http://blackboard.stanford.edu/





2.5.1.3 System’s features


Both systems have very attractive and effective features for electronic
learning. This section illustrates various features of electronic learning systems that
may find useful for learning. The resources from both web sites are well organized,
reliable and easy to use.


Table 2.7: System features in UTM and Stanford University

System features e-learning @
UTM
Blackboard @
Stanford
University
46
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47


2.13: Student page at UTM’s e-learning



2.14: Student page at Stanford University’s blackboard






48
2.6 Discussion of literature review


This sub-topic summarizes analysis on e-learning module obtained from
literature review.





2.6.1 Proposed e-learning model


It is very important to take into account both student’s and educator’s
motivation for learning in a computer-communications framework while planning
and conducting the model. Table below shows critical analysis of existing models for
implementing e-learning in KazNU.














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51
Regarding to the study area and based on the literature review, one of the
most complete and suitable theoretical model that somehow fulfill the systemic
perspective and university’s mission and vision is the e-learning model proposed by
Khan (2005). This octagonal theoretical model for e-learning offers comprehensive
view on the relevant factors in the e-learning system that can be used as measuring
variables for e-learning effects and implementation.


This e-Learning Framework is based on a service-oriented factoring of a set
of distributed core services required to support e-Learning applications, portals and
other user agents. The ultimate aim of the Framework is, for each identified service,
to be able to reference one or more open specifications or standards that can be used
in the implementation the service. The E-Learning framework has the potential to
provide guidance in

• Planning and designing e-learning materials;
• Organizing resources for e-learning environment;
• Designing distributed learning systems, corporate universities, virtual
universities and cyber schools;
• Designing LMS, LCMS and comprehensive authoring systems;
• Evaluating e-learning courses, and programs;
• Evaluating e-learning authoring tools/systems, LMS and LCMS;
• Designing and evaluating blended learning environments.


This model illustrates 8 factors that should be measured during the e-learning
system design. These 8 factors cover all the aspects of the e-learning system and this
is very suitable model for the subject of this project. Since KazNU currently doesn’t
have e-learning system, it is important to identify all the factors that would determine
the successfulness of e-learning. These factors are grouped in three major domains:
educational, technological, and managerial (Refer to figure 2.15).
52


Figure 2.15: E-learning factors


1. Educational domain – illustrated in figure 2.16. The purpose of this domain
is to identify the educational benefit of the e-learning system.




Figure 2.16: Educational domain


Pedagogical factors. E-learning offers possibilities for using digital content.
Variance of digital contents also offers new possibilities for changing teacher’s
teaching strategies.


Ethical factors. During the system development life cycle it is very important
to identify ethical issues such as equal opportunity, cultural and national diversity.


Evaluation factors. This factor addresses learning quality and evaluation of
each learner performances.

53
2. Technological domain – its issues directly affect the overall benefits of the
e-learning systems (Figure 2.17).




Figure 2.17: Technological domain


Technological factor covers all technical requirements, such as server that
supports e-learning system, access to the system, bandwidth, and security. This
dimension defines which LMS will be suitable for creating e-learning system and
what kind of learning environment and tools will be used for the learning program.


Interface design factor according to Khan (2005) addresses next issues: page
and site design, navigation, accessibility and usability. These issues affect the benefit
of the e-learning system.


3. Organizational domain – is very important for successful implementation
of the e-learning.



Figure 2.18: Organizational domain
54
Institutional factor addresses issues relating to organizational, administrative,
academic interaction and student services. In this dimension main purpose is to
identify user needs.


Resource support factor’s purpose is to making online and offline support
resources for e-learning system user. For example, resources could be available via
e-mail, FAQ, chats, or through the phone calls.


The managerial dimension deals with issues concerning to human resource
and team management. This factor addresses issues related to course registration and
notification, scheduling and creating the courses.





2.6.2 Adopting e-learning


E-learning is a big challenge for educational organizations. Because of the
technologies that involved for developing e-learning can be complicated to manage
and use them. It is required hard work and practice to get proficient in e-Learning
solutions. For traditional universities it is required to change their education
structure to move towards the virtual learning.


Teachers are playing an important role in adapting e-learning system. That is
why teachers must be well trained with using the technical tools and should be
competence to make experimentations with them for proficiently delivering variety
of class activities.


55
The universities should provide courses that are personalized to suit students’
educational needs, and should provide courses with mix of face-to-face and virtual
interactions. If university won’t deal with this case students will shop elsewhere. It is
necessary to implement powerful services to assist faculty, staff, and students and
enhance learning for successful adapting of e-learning into education process.





2.7 Chapter summary


This chapter discussed e-learning, its history, definition, and benefits. There
was illustrated Kazakh National University’s organizational structure, its mission and
vision. Chapter shows comparing table of traditional learning with e-learning. In
more detail describes e-learning’s CSFs, different models and chosen model for the
implementing e-learning for KazNU, platforms, the best practices in e-learning
systems, and compared e-learning systems in different universities. This literature
review is expected to be the element on doing the next phases of the study.














56





CHAPTER 3





METHODOLOGY





3.1 Introduction


System development methodologies describe techniques, tools, roles,
deliverables, standards and an activity for the development of software and it
supports an integrated set of principles, procedures, practices, and technical
standards. It is very important to use most suitable methodology, models and
techniques to improve the quality of developing software.


The challenge in selecting and following methodology is to provide sufficient
process to deliver the quality required for the software, while avoiding steps will
bring to wasting of time, dissipation productivity, demoralize developers, and create
useless administration.


This chapter discusses methodology of the developing project. The main
purpose of the project is to analyze current situation in the Kazakh National
57
University and to determine its learning processes. Data for the research is collected
through questionnaires and observation.


This chapter illustrates the proposed methodology framework that targeted to
reach the project success. The project framework is shown in Figure 3.1 and it is
proposed to guide all stages from phase1 to 5. Also this chapter presents operational
framework, which describe the activities that targeted to meet during this research.





3.2 Project Methodology


A project methodology is a guideline to know what is compulsory to do in the
project and how to manage the project from start to finish. This chapter describes
every step in the project life cycle, it shows which exactly task need to complete,
when and how. This chapter describes project methodology, which is a way of
steering the project in the right direction and keeping the project on track. The
methodology for developed project begins from planning and defining the current
learning systems, and the study about best practices in e-learning, following with
designing the system structure and developing prototype for the system.


Project development methodology framework is illustrated in the figure 3.0
below:


58


Figure 3.0: Project Management Framework
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60
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61
3.2.1 Initial Planning phase


The Project Planning Phase is often the most challenging phase, because it
requires to make an educated guess of the resources and equipments that needed to
complete the project. Project’s planning phase has been described in chapter 1.
Chapter 1 included a set of plans that illustrate guideline through the execution and
closure phases of the project. Planning phase consist of project objectives, scope,
methodology, and schedule. Project objectives are desired outcome of the project and
they have been aligned with the business needs of the organization. Project scope
identified additions and changes resulting from detailed project planning. In this
chapter methodology will describe how to measure the performance goal and it is
compulsory to present the methods that involved into project. Some examples of
methodologies that have been used during the project development are - testing,
surveys, and system measurements. Chapter 3 will illustrate project schedule that
displays a logical sequence of tasks for delivering the project. Also it defines how
often progress toward achieving the goal will be measured by the methodology.





3.2.2 System Analysis


The main objectives of system analysis is to identify the customer's needs,
evaluate system concept for feasibility, perform economic and technical analysis, and
create system definition that forms the foundation for all subsequent engineering
works. System analysis will be divided into to parts. Part one will be discussed in
chapter 2 and part two will be discussed in chapter 4. Part one will make attempt to
illustrate all the information about e-learning and will suggest the most suitable e-
learning features for the given organization. Part two will closely relate to
operations’ research, it is also will be referred as the decision maker, and
identification of a better course of action. System analysis will explore user
62
requirements and design robust, in order to select right software architecture. System
analysis will provide answers for questions like: who are the users of the system,
what system will do, where and when it will be used.





3.2.2.1 Literature Review


The literature review is an essential stage in conducting a research project.
According to Naoum (1998), it can be both descriptive and analytical. It is
descriptive because it describes the works of previous writers and it is analytical
because it critically analyzes the contribution of others with the view of identifying
similarities and contradictions made by previous writers.


In literature review, described e-learning system’s features, and identified
definition and types of e-learning systems. There’re illustrated developing stages and
mentioned best practices in this area. In chapter two by analyzing the data there has
been identified the most suitable framework, model, and platform for the KazNU.





3.2.2.2 Study the current system


This activity will help to learn how to study the concerned current system in
the given organization. It focuses on the systems analysis phase. In addition, the
current learning system of KazNU has been illustrated with Unified Modeling
63
Language (UML) diagrams. In Chapter 4 have been determined current system’s
minuses and its weaknesses in order to not repeat them in the new system.





3.2.2.3 Gathering Requirements for the Proposed Project


A requirement gathering is an essential part of software development. It’s
difficult to build a solution for the project if the requirements are indeterminate. The
requirements will be clearly stated in chapter 4. Requirements will address system
To-Be needs. Also they would identify system interoperability issues and will
develop requirements for the new system. To gain a complete picture from the
research the data has been gathered through use cases, online questionnaires, and
mail interviews.





3.2.3 System Design


According to Chris Johnson “Systems design is the process or art of defining
the architecture, components, modules, interfaces, and data for a system to satisfy
specified requirements”. This activity is illustrated in chapter 4, and it is justifying
how project will meet the identified requirements and will design the prototype of the
system.




64
3.2.4 System Development


Systems development is the process of defining and testing a new system
application and it will be discussed in project 2. It will include the internal
development of customized systems, the acquisition of open source software. In this
stage will be described standards and procedures that will guide all information
systems processing functions. There will be defined and implemented standards of an
appropriate system development life cycle methodology, which is governing the
process of developing, acquiring, and maintaining computerized information systems
and related technology.





3.2.5 System Implementation


The purpose of System Implementation Phase can be summarized as follows:
making the new system available to users (the deployment), and providing support
and maintenance of the system. Chapter 5 will illustrate system implementation
phase processes, such as:

1. Prepare for System Implementation – this step will deploy the application
and prepare product environment.
2. System testing – the testing plan that developed in Implementation stage
will be executed and validated in Chapter 5.





65
3.3 System Development Methodology


A methodology is a formalized approach to implementing the SDLC (it is a
list of steps and deliverables). There are many different system development
methodologies, and each one is unique based on the order and focus it places on each
SDLC phase (A.Dennis, 2005).


There are many ways to categorize the methodologies. As the development
methodology for this project has been chosen object–oriented methodology, it
attempts to balance the focus between process and data by joining both of them into
one model. For more details please refer to chapter 4.





3.3.1 Object Oriented Approach


Object-oriented systems focus on capturing the structure and behavior of
information systems in little modules that encompass both data and process. These
little modules are known as objects.


The idea of object-oriented (OO) language is object decomposition, breaking
down the complex software system into its different objects, joining the data and
function that operate on the data into the object.


During the development the process passes from writing a new code to
assembling existing objects in innovative ways to solve a problem. In addition,
object-oriented analysis and design methodology gives opportunity to cut down
66
development time and costs, leads to significant competitive advantage, and enable
producing more flexible and easily maintainable object-oriented systems. In chapter
4 will be proposed current system and future system’s functions and features through
the object oriented models.





3.3.2 UML Notation


Selected modeling language for this project is Unified Modeling Language
(UML). UML is a graphical language with sets of diagramming techniques for
modeling system.


During the system development phase, diagrams evolve to include details that
ultimately lead to code generation and development. Diagrams encompass
everything, from documenting the requirements to proposing the design. UML is a
powerful and flexible language for developers. The OMG specification states:"The
Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a graphical language for visualizing,
specifying, constructing, and documenting the artifacts of a software-intensive
system. The UML offers a standard way to write a system's blueprints, including
conceptual things such as business processes and system functions as well as
concrete things such as programming language statements, database schemas, and
reusable software components."


In chapter 4 in order to illustrate users’ responsibilities and roles there will be
used Use Case Diagrams, its descriptions, Sequence Diagrams, and Class Diagrams.



67
3.3.3 The Unified Process


The Unified Process is a specific methodology that maps out when and how
to use the various UML techniques for object–oriented analysis and design
(A.Dennis, 2005).There are two-dimensional systems development processes that
describe Unified Process: phases and workflows. The phases describe how
information system evolves through time and the workflows describe the tasks or
activities that evolved to information system.


Table 3.1: Unified Process’s two-dimensional systems

Systems Objectives Description Deliverables

P
h
a
s
e
s

1 Inception In this phase feasibility
analysis is provided and
business cases are
proposed
1 A vision document (identified:
scope, requirements, constraints,
feasibility and risks – chapter 1)
2 The adoption of the necessary
environment to develop the
system.
2 Elaboration This phase continues with
developing the vision
document, following by
finalizing the business
cases and completing the
project plan
1 UML structure and behavior
diagrams (Appendixes B and C)
2 An executable of a baseline
version of the evolving
information system
3 Construction This phase is focused on
programming, defining
requirements, analysis,
and designing workflows
Implementation of beta version of
the system and testing acceptance
4 Transition This phase is focused on
testing and deploying the
1 Executable information
2 User manual, user support plan,
68
workflow. and the plan for upgrading the
system

W
o
r
k
f
l
o
w
s

1 Engineering
workflows
This stage includes
business modeling,
requirements, analysis,
design, implementation,
test, and deployment of
workflows.

2 Supporting
workflow
This stage includes
project management,
configuration, change
management, and the
environment of
workflows.






3.3.4 Justification of selected Methodology


The object-oriented methodology is selected because of the reasons that
explained below:

1. OO applications are easier to maintain, they provide more reusable
components, and they are more scalable, to name a few.
2. Object-oriented technology is based on a few simple concepts; by
combining them we can produce significant improvements in software construction.
3. Object-oriented analysis gives opportunity to take advantage of the
contemporary programming languages, operating systems and associated tools.



69
3.4 System Requirement Analysis


System Requirements can be expressed a programming or mathematical
model, it is addressing for the Application Development Team and QA and Testing
Team. In chapter four will be illustrated Functional and Non-Functional
specifications of the system. This chapter three is provides software and hardware
requirements. Table 3.3 suggests recommended system requirements for optimal
performance of software and hardware.


Table 3.2: Software and hardware requirements for developing the system

System
requirements
Sub-section Requirements Purpose

H
a
r
d
w
a
r
e

Architecture Operating systems –
Windows or Mac

Memory > 1 Gb DDR2
Storage > 40 Gb Mb
Display
adapter
Internal VGA or
dedicated

Peripherals Mouse, keyboard,
USB pen drive,
microphone, web
camera


S
o
f
t
w
a
r
e

Rational Rose
2002
Enterprise
edition or
StarUML 5.0
These applications are used in order
to create Use case diagrams,
Activity Diagrams, Sequence
Diagrams, and Collaboration
Diagrams
Microsoft
Word 2007
For word processing
Microsoft
Office Visio
Is used for drawing diagrams and
charts
70
2003
Microsoft
Project 2007
Is used to generate Gantt and Pert
charts for scheduling the
Project development days.
Web browser For retrieving, presenting, and
traversing information resources on
the World Wide Web.
XAMPP Contains of Apache distribution
with MySQL, PHP and Perl. It is a
development tool, to allow website
designers and programmers to
develop and test created software
Moodle The tool for creating online
dynamic web sites for students or
trainers





3.5 Project Schedule


According Kathy Schwalbe’s book “Information technology project
management” the schedule development uses the result of all the preceding project
time management processes to determine the start and end dates of the project. The
ultimate goal of schedule development is to create a realistic project schedule that
provides a basis for monitoring project progress for the time dimension of the
project. There are several tools and techniques assist in the schedule development
process. I have used a Gantt chart for displaying project schedule information
(Appendix A). The Microsoft Office Project 2007 has been used to assist Gantt chart
in schedule development.



71
3.6 Chapter Summary


In this chapter has discussed the various aspects of the study related to the
project development life cycle: planning, design, implementing. This chapter also
describes the methodology appropriate to the system development.


Software and hardware requirements have been briefly explained to clarify
the system requirements. Furthermore, the project schedule has been developed to
achieve the schedule by accelerating some efforts and modifying approaches to meet
required deadlines.






















72





CHAPTER 4





ANALYSIS AND DESIGN





4.1 Introduction


This chapter presents the current system at Kazakh National University
named after Al-Farabi and its opportunities and challenges in terms of introducing e-
learning system.


In this chapter has been developed framework that guides steps for adopting
suggested e-learning model for implementing e-learning system for Kazakh National
University.


By providing questionnaire and mail interviews identified system To-Be ’s
features and its requirements. This chapter illustrates To-Be system’s improvements
and system architecture.

73
4.2 Existing IS/IT systems


At the current time University provides for full time students and staff
http://univer.kaznu.kz/ web site, called “intranet”. Intranet - is an internal corporate
system based on Internet technologies. From a technical point view “intranet” is
internal corporate portal that solves staff’s problems, like organizing, storing and
processing the internal information. User may access to the portal via any web
browsers.





4.2.1 System architecture


Originally intranet system started 5 years ago. According to the KazNU’s
official web site (http://www.kaznu.kz/en/529/) “System has proved itself as the
convenient resource covering a complete cycle of the students' learning from its
arrival to its release. The given system works with the central database SQL Server
2000”. To develop this system programmers used new technologies, such as
ASP.NET, VB.NET, Visual Basic 5, WinDev, SQL Server 7, MS Access, Visual C ,
Windows API, CGI, ISAPI, ActiveX, Internet Information Server, VB script, NT
Server, JavaScript, Active Server Pages.




74


Figure 4.0: Intranet – Architecture and organization





4.2.2 System features


Intranet system of KazNU Al-Farabi is a web-based system for the next
categories of users: administration, teacher, student and staff of KazNU. For each
category of user intranet system opens up a personal portal with personalized access
to relevant functions of the learning management credit system technology.


Table 4.0: KazNU’s “intranet” system’s features

Office of the Registrar
(staff)
Teacher Student
Registration of all
learning courses and staff
list
View Academic Calendar (List of
exam dates, project presentation
dates, etc.)
Register subjects
Calculation of the
academic rankings
Upload discipline’s content
(curriculum, which includes a

75
description of all subjects, goals
and objectives of discipline, themes
and duration of each lesson,
exercises for independent work
time, credit hours, teacher
requirements, evaluation criteria,
schedule of delivery of works and
bibliography.)
The organization access
to the PPS system
intranet
View schedule View personal data,
grade (marks) of
previous disciplines
Maintain a database of
PPS in the faculties
Marking, grading students’
knowledge, exams and tests they
took
Download
discipline’s content
(curriculum, which
includes a description
of all subjects, goals
and objectives of
discipline, themes
and duration of each
lesson, exercises for
independent work
time, evaluation
criteria, schedule of
delivery of works)
Attestation (evaluate students over
all marks during the semester)
View university’s
events
View list of faculty advisors
View university’s events
Add students or staff’s contacts




76
4.3 Problem statement in the organizational context


Current system in KazNU is always developing. To reach strategy’s goals
that KazNU created for education process one very important thing is missing, and it
is e-learning. As John Chambers declared “E-learning is the next killer application”
(2000-2001). E-Learning provides the flexibility for students to learn where and
when they choose. It offers features to motivate students and provides an evaluation
of their performance. Most importantly, it provides a quick, inexpensive, and fun
method for students to study, understand, and remember the lessons for future
implementation.


Current system gives opportunity only to register subjects, view schedule and
marks, and download subject’s syllabuses. This is not really sufficed in terms of
customers’ satisfaction. Also the current system misses many educational outputs,
such as online courses, online assignments, discussions, forums, and lectures, which
may help to get affluent learning process.





4.4 Current system analysis


The Root Cause Analysis (RCA) has been used to brainstorm the reasons for
why the problems are occurring in the current university’s IS/IT system. RCA helps
to consider and find all causes and the root causes of a problem, also it helps to focus
on the causes of the issue without irrelevant discussion. The possible effects and
causes to the current system are shown below:
77


Figure 4.1: Root Cause Analysis by Ishikawa tool


Table 4.1: Current system’s problem causes

Category Definition of the software Root
Cause Category
Problem causes
People Causes driven by the people involved
in creating, managing, deploying, or
maintenance of systems.
People skills;
Domain skills;
Poor practice;
Problem solving skills
Materials Causes driven by the system
administration
No written guideline;
Hard to use materials;
Method Causes driven by the interrelationships
between information, process, and/or
functionality supported by the software
or embedded within it.
No procedures for creating
learning materials, such as
questions, tests, quizzes, that
helps to assemble student’s
knowledge;
No procedures for uploading /
downloading assignments.
78
Design
problem
Causes driven by the system
developers.
Poor design;
No data management (users can
not change any data without
asking system administrator to do
it for them);
No password assistance (if user
forgot his/her password or wants
to reset it he/she has to go directly
to system administrator)
Software
problem
Causes driven by the capabilities of the
software systems used to create,
manage, deploy, and maintain the
software.
Based on a single user (no
discussions, forums, etc.)





4.5 System As Is


The purpose of this project is to investigate challenges and possibilities for
implementing e-learning system in KazNU. For these reasons there were conducted
two ways of research: questionnaire for analyzing the current system and interview
for identifying user requirements. For accomplishing this project, KazNU’s
“intranet” system will be used in order to implement a survey with students and
teachers. Using online questionnaire and mail interviews with teachers and students
will collect additional data. In order to achieve this, the following questions should
be answered:

1. What are the experiences of students and teachers of using “intranet”
system in KazNU?
2. What is the opinion of teachers and students for applying e-learning system
in the KazNU?

79
To clarify System As-Is first of all there are have to be identified key-
functional areas by existing system. Second, start with the primary area and detect
functions of this area, by creating UML Use Cases, functional descriptions. Third,
check with stakeholders that required system’s functional and non-functional
requirements have been covered before getting into depth too much in any single
area.





4.5.1 Current system observation


KazNU’s “intranet” system displayed survey displayed below:




Figure 4.2: “Intranet” system login page (source: http://univer.kaznu.kz/)


Figure 4.3 shows that students or teachers are able to see universities’ last
news:


80


Figure 4.3: First page after login into system “Intranet”




Figure 4.4: Students activity page


Figure 4.4 shows student’s activities. Students able to:

• Register subjects;
81
• View personal data;
• Visit electronic library;
• View disciplines for the current semester;
• View/download current discipline’s syllabuses;
• View class attendance and grades.


System gives opportunity for teachers to:

• View academic calendar;
• Upload discipline syllabuses;
• Grade and mark students progress and attendance;
• Create address book.





4.5.1.1 Entering students’ attendance grade into system


There are few steps for entering student’s attendance into the system:

1. Teacher login into system, chooses date, discipline, and students’ group for
entering attendance into the system:
82

Figure 4.5: Entering students attendance into the system


2. Teacher enters grades for attendance:




Figure 4.6: Attendance journals


83
3. Teachers page for viewing student attendance:




Figure 4.7: Students’ attendances – teachers’ page





4.5.1.2 Students assessments


KazNU uses semester systems; there are two semesters per year. Each
semester student should submit assignments and pass 2 attestations. To calculate
students overall grade please refer to Figure 4.8.
84


Figure 4.8: Student’s grade evaluation


To evaluate student progress teacher after login into system, has to make
several steps:


1. Choose discipline




Figure 4.9: Disciplines list


85
2. Choose students’ group




Figure 4.10: Students’ group


3. Enter grades




Figure 4.11: Electronic attestation journal


Students’ page of their attendance and grades:

86


Figure 4.12: Students’ attendances and grades – student’s page





4.5.2 As-Is Process and Data Model


All the functions and processes that are involved in the current system have
been modeled by using UML modeling language. For more details (Functional and
Structural modeling) please refer to Appendix B.








87
4.6 Adopting octagonal theoretical model


This section provides a framework and its explanation of using Octagonal
theoretical model for e-learning for customizing e-learning system for Kazakh
National University. From the discussion of literature review Octagonal theoretical
model for e-learning have been grouped into 3 domains. The next step is to illustrate
how this octagonal theoretical model will be adopted for development of e-learning
system at Kazakh National University.




Figure 4.13: Adopting Octagonal theoretical model for e-learning



88
Table 4.2: Detail every phase of adopting Octagonal theoretical model for e-
learning framework

Phase Task Deliverables
Phase 1:
Octagonal theoretical
model for e-learning
1 Describe the model.
2 Customize this model
for e-learning system at
Kazakh National
University.
1 Discuss chosen model
features and benefits;
2 Determine the 3 domains of
the model: educational domain,
technological domain, and
organizational domain;
3 Understand each factor of the
domain and describe how it is
relates to the e-learning system
features;
4 Incorporate all necessary
explanations for developing e-
learning system;
5. Clear picture of he
proposed model and its
features
6. Determined e-learning
features
7. Identified learning
objectives that nail down
what the learners are
supposed to know and be
able to do, once they have
attended to the course
Phase 2:
Technological domain
1 LMS
2 Questionnaire and mail
interview.

1 Identify LMS for the
proposed e-learning system at
KazNU:
• Identify system
requirements: hardware and
software requirements;
2 Study the current system:
• Identify the problems and
weaknesses of the current
system;
• Identify the user’s
requirements;
• Identify To-Be system’s
features.
1. Chose Moodle learning
management system for e-
learning system at KazNU
2. Identified technical
issues, considerations,
constraints and possibilities

Phase 3:
Educational domain
1 Define current system
learning contents
1 Conceptual learning
content infrastructure and
89
1 Questionnaire and mail
interview.
2 Identify system To-Be
learning content and strategy
3Determine learning tools
strategy.

Phase 4:
Organizational domain
1 Mail interview
1Determine requirements:
• Identify support resources;
• Define system support;
2 Identify improvements.
3 Illustrate organizational
requirements
1 Organizational support.
2 Organizational strategy
Phase 5:
Identify system
requirements and
system improvements
1Requirements gathering
2 System improvements

1 Propose system requirements
and its features
2 Illustrate system
improvements
1 System analysis report.
Phase 6:
System implementation
and testing
1System platform and
database design
2 System testing

1 Identify system platform and
its features
2 Design system data base
3 Provide system testing: unit
testing, system interface
testing, and user acceptance
testing
1 Implementation report.
2 System testing report.





4.7 Finding from questionnaire


This section focuses on two data gathering techniques: online questionnaire
and mail interviews. Both techniques are provided as guidance for measuring the
90
issues. The questionnaire was taken for data collection from the learners. Mail
interviews are used for gathering data from teachers. Questions address issues
educational, technological and organizational domains. 30 students do the
questionnaire and 2 teachers do mail interview.


In table 4.2 is shown a detailed plan regarding areas. Furthermore it shows
the issues and the data gathering techniques.


Table 4.3: Detailed view of data gathering techniques

Areas Factors Issues to be addressed Respondents Data gathering
techniques
E
d
u
c
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

d
o
m
a
i
n

Pedagogical Content provided Students,
Teachers
Questionnaire and
mail interview Learning strategy
Ethical Geographical diversity Students,
Teachers
Questionnaire and
mail interview Etiquette
Legal issues
Evaluation Quality of the learning
content
Students,
Teachers
Questionnaire
Student performance
T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

d
o
m
a
i
n

Technology Hardware Students,
Teachers
Questionnaire and
mail interview Software
Infrastructure
Interface
design
Web site design Students Questionnaire
Navigation
Accessibility
Usability
O
r
g
a
n
i
z
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

d
o
m
a
i
n

Institution Needs of assessments Teachers Mail interview
Organizational change
Resource Support provided Teachers Mail interview
91
support Online/Offline support
Management Human resource Teachers Mail interview
Management team





4.7.1 Questionnaire


The questionnaire has been conducted with students attending an
“Information system” course. These students are in their 2nd year of studies in the
faculty of Mechanical Mathematics in the Kazakh National University. The
questionnaire included 19 questions and has been conducted using web based
system. 17 questions had predefined answers. In total 30 students answered the
questionnaire questions. The questions illustrated at Appendix E and the complete
answers are displayed in percentage in the sections below.





4.7.1.1 Educational domain


The first domain addressed in the questionnaire is – educational domain
(issues regarding pedagogical, ethical, and evaluation). The purpose of these
questions is identifying aspects of students’ performance and learning strategies.


92


Figure 4.14: Students answers for questions relating to educational domain





4.7.1.2 Technological domain


This section covered questions related to hardware, software, and interface
design. Interface design includes page and site interface, navigation, accessibility,
and usability.




Figure 4.15: Students answers for questions relating to technological domain
93
As long as “Intranet” system doesn’t have any internal messages, online
chats, forums for question #16 “How do you communicate with the teacher?”
students answered 5% by email and 95% by direct communication. Students skipped
question #19, because “intranet” doesn’t provide any search engines.


There were two more open questions related to technological domain. For the
question “What kind of technological devises could be included in “Intranet”
system” two students suggest “videoconferencing lectures should be included”, three
students suggested “audio conferencing lectures”, ten students suggested “forums,
chats, discussion rooms”, 5 students suggested “teachers may put e-documents that
related to the lectures”. About students’ suggestions on what would they change in
the current design of “Intranet” interface there were only three answers that they
wish it to be more attractive and colorful.





4.7.2 Mail interview


This section includes interviews with two teachers. Because of geographical
distance this interview was impossible to be done in person. That is why interview
has been done via e-mail. The teachers are from two different group age: young and
old generation. The first teacher is 32 years old from the faculty of mechanical
mathematics in the Kazakh National University since 2003. The second teacher is 63
years senior teacher from the same faculty since 1980. This selection was made
because of affects their attitudes towards technological solution to improve learning
process.




94
4.7.2.1 Educational domain


This section included pedagogical and ethical issues.


Table 4.4: Mail interview with teachers on “Educational domain”

№ Question Answers
Junior teacher Senior teacher
1 Can you list
pedagogical
challenges in e-
learning systems?
It is requires good
knowledge in IT.
In Kazakhstan presented
the idea of the teacher
standing in front of the
students, students talking
notes, etc. E-learning
would change this by
adopting the new
pedagogical approaches.
2 What will you use to
change your current
style of teaching?
I will use any
techniques and methods
are needed.

For me it will be difficult
to change my teaching
style that I have used for
many years. Actually the
style of teaching has
already changed with the
university adopting
“intranet” process, but the
traditional teaching method
is mainly presents.
3 Do you think is there
any benefits from
implementing e-
learning in KazNU?

There are many benefits
from e-learning to staff
and students. Students
will be able to do more
work at their own, and
Of course there are
benefits from e-learning. I
think that it will encourage
a deeper knowledge from
the subject; it can help to
95
teachers will have more
tools for checking
students progress by
using tests, quizzes and
etc.
build specific skills.





4.7.2.2 Technological domain


Table 4.5: Mail interview with teachers on “Technological domain”

№ Question Answers
Junior teacher Senior teacher
4
What kind of
technologies do you use
in your teaching?
I use my PC for making
reports and most likely I
will use it for creating
assignments and tests
questions related to the
course.
I use my PC for
making reports






4.7.2.3 Organizational domain


Organizational domain presents issues like needs of assessments,
organizational change and management.

96
Table 4.6: Mail interview with teachers on “Organizational domain”

№ Question Answers
Junior teacher Senior teacher
5 What would be your
requirements for the
e-learning?

Training on IT field and
user manual in order to
get familiar with e –
learning system.
I will need a very well
documented user manual,
and course learning on
using IS/IT.
6 Implementation of E-
learning will bring
organization changes.
Are you ready for
them?
Answer is YES if only e-
learning system is
understandable. I will try
my best to adopt it into
my courses.
E-learning definitively will
bring organizational
change. The introduction
of technology will change
the way of teaching and
collaborating with
students.
7

Do you think staff and
students need to
attend for evaluation
of their readiness for
e-learning?
Of course. And before
taking the survey it will
be great if institution
provides briefing about
the e-learning system and
its features.
Absolutely Yes. It will
show the reliable result of
users’ readiness and then
university should provide
explanation about e-
learning, because most of
the teachers are not
familiar with it.
8 If you will use e-
learning system for
your courses what
kind of support will
you require?
I would need a support
from IT personnel.
University must provide
adequate human resources
to support the e-learning
initiative, because it is
definitely necessary.
9 In your opinion who
should manage the
course content at the
e-learning system?
Undoubtedly it should
managed by the teacher,
however IT personnel
should always be
available.
I think that there should be
some staff available for
helping teachers to create
the course contents at the
e-learning system.
97





4.8 User requirements


The user requirements for the system To-Be had been identified from the
questionnaire and mail interview. Requirements are the simple statements that define
what system must do or what kind of characteristics it must have.


Gathering user requirements gives assumption that defines the expectations of
the system in terms of mission objectives, environment, constraints, and measures of
effectiveness and suitability.


10 Are there any other
issues for
implementing e-
Learning in the
Kazakh National
University?
Implementing the e-
learning in the Kazakh
National University will
need depth analyses
within the Project
Management framework.
This framework should
consist next issues:
1 Identify teachers’ skills
capabilities for using e-
learning system
2 Define students’
readiness for using e-
learning system
3 Provide system support
for its users
In my opinion during the
implementation of an e-
learning system in Kazakh
National University it
would be required to keep
in mind that more that 60%
of university’s staff are
over 50 years, that is why
they should be provided
with a good training and
support from the
administration.
98
4.8.1 Functional requirements


Functional requirements relate to the specific functions, tasks or behaviors
that system supports.


1 Student must be able to:
• Enroll to the courses
• View enrolled courses
• Upload/download assignments, tests, quizzes, lecture’s materials
• View personal progress
• Take a part in the interactive discussions;


2 Teacher must be able to:

• Create content for the discipline
• Utilize discipline’s content
• Update and collaborate discipline’s content
• Upload/download reading materials, assignments
• Create tests, quizzes, discussion forums
• Grade students’ progress and attendance
• Work with address book


3 Coordinator must be able to:

• Create new courses
• Create curriculum
• Inspect leaner activities


99
4 Admin must be able to:

• Assign user privileges
• Backup database
• Allocate learning tools





4.8.2 Non functional requirements


These requirements must specify the criteria of system’s performance and
usability.

• Operational requirements
• The system will operate in Windows and Macintosh environments
• The system will be able to read and write Word documents
• The system will be able to import and export Gif, Jpeg, and BMP graphic
files
• Performance requirements
• The system must be available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week
• Security requirements
• The system must provide authentication process for all users
• The session should be expired after 10 min of idle without interacting the
system
• Cultural and political requirements
• No special cultural or political requirements anticipated




100
4.9 System improvements


By implementing e-learning system in KazNU, all the mentioned problems
and current system weaknesses will be solved and destroyed. Figure 4.13 proposes
some improvements for the current system weaknesses.



Figure 4.16: System improvements





4.10System To-Be Process and Data Model


During the development stage of e-learning system the learning processes
must be modeled in order to support the effective learner of appropriate learning
101
objectives. Each process that evolved in developing process should be analyzed in
deep details and modeled by using modeling language UML.


E-learning system processes are developed in 5 phases and all these models
related and represent the e-learning system a whole, and it is illustrated in figure
4.14. Each phase has own models with different artifacts.




Figure 4.17: The 5 phases of development e-learning processes


Elements in one model have dependencies with other models. The final
picture of all the models will be the entire system’s architecture.


To illustrate all requirements of capture phase, it is necessary to identify the
users of the system and their roles. Users illustrated in figure 4.15:




Figure 4.18: System users
102
USER ROLES. The entire system will include various privileges that allow
access to specific areas of system functionality. Types of access are grouped into
categories according to the user type. Users may play two or more roles.


Table 4.7: System user roles

User Learner Teacher Coordinator Administrator
Definition
Sets goals and
enrolls to course,
plays around with
the contents and
tools, performs
activities,
communicates
with teacher,
coordinators and
other learners,
evaluates his/her
progress and
attendance,
modifies or
cancels an
enrollment.
Creates and updates
discipline’s contents,
evaluates learner
progress,
communicates with
learners.
Suggests and
manages the
learning plan,
validate discipline
contents, tools and
activities, supervise
teachers, view
attendance and
progress rapports,
manage courses
catalogue, and
reassign teachers.
Manages
privileges to the
users, creates
learning tools,
administer the
system

User type
Learning Discipline Content
Creation
Course Management System Manager
User role
Leaner Instructional
designer, Coeditor,
Publisher
Instructor,
Coordinator,
Learning
administrator
System
administrator
User
activity
Takes part in
learning courses
Develops discipline
content, monitor
learning progress,
evaluate progress
Creates courses and
manages progress
Modifies user
privilege settings,
manages system,
creates learning
tools
Activity
functions
Enrollment, View
courses, Personal
progress and
Content creation;
Content utilization;
content updating and
Create new course,
Content category
management, Create
User privileges
management,
System settings
103
attendance,
Interactive
discussions.
collaboration; Tally
and analyze test
results; Approve
eligible course
enrollments; Create
tests, quizzes
curriculum, and
Inspect learner
activities
management,
Backup database ,
Course tools
management.


The functional modeling and structural modeling detailed for the each user
are illustrated in Appendix C.





4.10.1 System architecture


Here illustrated e-learning system’s architecture; one for student and one for
general users.
104


Figure 4.19: To-Be System architecture for students
105


Figure 4.20: System Architecture





4.11 Chapter summary


This chapter described Kazakh National University’s leaning processes and
the current IS/IT system. This chapter covers University’s current systems design, its
weaknesses and problems. By illustrating existing system, there were suggested to/be
system’s features. Also the System Architecture of the new system has been
identified. Questionnaires shows current situation in the organization and identified
necessary processes that should be overtaken during the implementation.



106





CHAPTER 5





IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTING





5.1 Introduction


By extensively discussing each module in previous chapters about project
analysis and design, now it is time to describe an implementation of the complete
system. In this chapter will be briefly discussed the Moodle program’s features and
the constraints of its performance. In addition, in this chapter will be described
system's user-friendly interface and system testing results. It assists the control of the
system implementation and displays the results visually, helps to find errors in the
system and facilitates to correct them. The database of the system created by Moodle
is then illustrated to show clear picture of the project.






107
5.2 System implementation


The main purpose of System Implementation can be summarized as follows:
establishing error free coding, creating reliable database, making the new system
available for deployment, and provide support and maintenance.


The differentiation between System Implementation and all other phases of
the system development lifecycle is that all previous activities up to this point have
been deployed in safe and protected environments. In this phase system goes life.
There will be performed all the applications, including preparation of product and
product using manual document. The main purpose of this chapter is to prepare
system implementation in order to ensure that system deployment will occur
efficiently, proficiently, and flawlessly.


This chapter covers a broad spectrum of activities of system implementation
from a coding efficiency and performing of database to the formal documentation of
user and technical manuals of the new system. In addition the system implementation
phase also requires full system testing. This chapter will cover system performance,
followed by database illustration, user and technical manual (User manual illustrated
in Appendix G, technical manual illustrated in Appendix H), and will be completed
with system testing.





5.2.1 Performance of the integrated software


This step will deploy the application and prepare product environment. In this
project it was decided to use Moodle open source course management system that
108
allows creating online dynamic learning web sites. Moodle is able to run on the
widest possible range of platforms, it is easy to install, modify, upgrade, integrate
with other systems, and enjoyable to use. Below listed the most important reasons for
choosing Moodle:

• Moodle is Open Source System, which is free to download;
• Moodle has been developed with both technology and pedagogy in mind;
• Moodle can run on almost all servers that can use PHP (Windows, Mac,
Linux);
• It is capable with MySQL, PostgreSQL and Oracle databases, and others
are also supported;
• Moodle is CMS & VLE that provides users with sharing documents,
grading assignments, discussions, forums, etc. For more details please refer to table
3.1;
• The Moodle software is very popular and used all over the world by
independent teachers, schools, universities and enterprises. The reliability of Moodle
is very high. According to moodle’s official web site http://moodle.org, there are 50
000 learning comities, over 9 million users from 200 countries, it is available in
almost 80 languages;
• Moodle provides its users with excellent documentation, and strong
support for security and administration.


Moodle has embedded educational tools, which is very helpful for
developers, they won’t waste time on creating program codes, they will spent more
time for courses’ quality and flawless activities. Table 3.1 illustrates moodle’s
embedded educational tools.


Table 5.0: Moodle’s tools for education

Tools Examples Benefit
Social Blogs – individual writing projects: reports, Efficient
109
Networking
Tools
reflections, and journals.
Wikis – collaborative writing projects:
study guides, glossary, scripts, and
collaborative presentations.
Chat Tool: peer tools, synchronous
collaborating.
Forums: questions, parent information area,
student information area, peer to peer
communication, teacher to teacher
collaboration.
Question Button.
collaboration
between users
Calendar Illustrates dates for submitting assignments,
or taking tests, or other study related events
Helps students to
not miss the
submission date of
assignments
Personal Content Illustrates users’ profile, courses they
involved, grades

Resource tools Files created in Moodle
Office / PDF
web links

Activities tools Online and offline assignments;
Individual and groups;
Graded and ungraded

Audio and video
tools
Slideshows
Video, audio files embedded
Provides
synchronous e-
learning
Quizzes Practice computer testing;
Offers practice exams;
Immediate feedback option;
Paperless testing
Many types of questions (multiple choice,
calculated, true/false, embedded answers,
matching, description, short answers, essay)
Eliminates
students
dishonesty
110
Additionally, special programming techniques are utilized to reduce the run-
time. Reliable coding style is very important in any development projects, it provides
flawlessly work of the system. This project has developed e-learning system based
on open source Moodle program. It means that all the coding already has been tested
with professionals in programming area. In addition, Moodle is open software
product that allows developers to integrate many other programs into system. In the
developed system has been used 2 kind of plug-in: 1 Mail features; 2
Videoconference; 3 Multi course grader report.


Mail. Internet mail module allows users to send and receive email between
multiple users of the system. Mail function allows users of course and user groups to
create folders of messages to organize mails and allows to attaché files to a message.
In order to add this feature developer has to install mail file into moodle/mod folder.


Videoconference. Internet conferencing created for the proposed e-learning
system. This video conferencing is provided by Dimdim web meeting module in
Moodle. Dimdim is Open Source web meeting product. With Dimdim users can
show presentation, applications and desktops to any other person over the Internet. In
this web conferencing users can chat with others in the meeting, in addition users
may use their web cameras.


Multi course grader report. This plug-in developed as a convenient way to
quickly view all students’ grade reports for all courses and their activities.







111
5.2.2 Database design


This step illustrates a database structure of the proposed system. During the
installation of moodle, it is necessary to create blank database for moodle in
localhost/xampp/phpmyadmin. Moodle will automatically create tables by using
MySQL relational database management system. For the proposed system Moodle
has created 204 tables. In this paper will be listed only the core database tables
(please refer to Appendix D).


The purpose of this stage is to determine what kind of data will be stored in
the database and define the relation between them. Information that should be stored
includes the users’ information, course descriptions, course materials, and other
learning related information.


Table 5.1: Moodle database tables

Activities Table names
Courses and their organization into
categories
Course
course_categories
course_display
course_meta
course_request
Activities and their arrangement within
courses
modules
course_allowed_modules
course_modules
course_sections
Groups and grouping groups
groups_members
groupings
112
groupings_groups
The logging system log
log_display
Blocks system block
block_instance
block_pinned
Events Event_*
Backup and restore backup_config
backup_courses
backup_files
backup_ids
backup_log
Statistics stats_daily
stats_monthly
stats_user_daily
stats_user_monthly
stats_user_weekly
stats_weekly
Tags tags_*
Gradebook grade_*
Question bank and question engine question
question_answers
question_attempts
question_categories
question_sessions
question_states
Messaging system message_*
Moodle network mnet_*
Cashing cache_*
Miscellaneous scale
scale_history
sessions2
timezone
113
5.3 System testing


Testing of proposed system is focused on an investigation that conducted to
provide information about the quality of the system, with respect to the context in
which it operates. Testing takes highest amount of time comparing with other
activities in the system development process. In this step will be executed three
types of system testing: Unit testing, Integration testing, and User acceptance testing.
The goal of this stage is to identify how well the component conforms to the
stakeholders’ requirements for the system.





5.3.1 Unit testing


According to IEEE Standard “Unit testing is the testing of individual
hardware or software units or groups of related units”. Unit testing is focuses on
structural test design. Approximately every phase of software development finds
application of black box testing. Black box testing is a design method. Black box
testing is focuses on functional requirements of the system. Black box testing is a
testing strategy, which doesn’t require knowledge of internal logic, code, or design
structure. Its purpose is to check functionality of the proposed system. This Black
box testing attempts to find errors in the programming code in the following
categories:

• Incorrect or missing functionalities;
• User-interface errors;
• Data structure errors;
• Performance errors;
• Initialization and execution errors.
114
• Black box testing illustrated below in table 5.2.


Table 5.2: List of Black box testing

Administrator page functions testing
Modules Testing areas Expected results Result
Login 1 Type login
2 Type password
3 Click button “login”
1 If login and password match,
open admin page
2 If login fails user should try
again.
OK
Users 1 Browse list of users
2 Add new user
3 Upload user
4 Define roles
5 Assign system roles
1 System shows users
2 New user successfully added
3 User’s profile upgraded
4 User’s permissions assigned
5 User’s roles defined
OK
Course 1 Add/edit courses
2 Course default settings
3 Course request
4 Pending request
5 Backups
1 New course added/edited
successfully
2 Set course parameters
3 Setting course users’ roles
4 Approve/disapprove created
courses
5 Data stores in db
OK
Grades 1 General settings
2 Grade item setting

1 Set roles assigned for grading
2 Setting grade types, displaying
way, and grade reports.
OK
Location 1 Location setting
2 Update time zone
1 Setting location, time, IP
address lookup
2 Time zone updated
OK
Language 1 Language setting
2 Language packs
1 Set display language, default
language, visibility of language
2 Add languages into system
OK
Modules 1 Activities 1 Manage activities, OK
115
2 Blocks

assignments, chats, db, forum,
glossary, quiz, resources
2 Manage blocks, courses,
online users, global search
Security 1 Site policies
2 HTTP security
3 Notifications

1 Manage login process,
password policies
2 Manage of using cookies, open
to google, sessions
3 Set login notifications
OK
Appearance 1 Web site Themes
2 Calendar
3 HTML editor

1 Set web site themes, create
user-interface
2 Set calendar’s displaying type,
showing events
3 Set web-site fronts,
background
OK
Front page 1 Front page setting
2 Front page backup
3 Front page restore
4 Front page questions

1 Create front page, add
necessary information
2 Save data in db
3 Upload files
4 Create questions on the front
page and set their visibility
OK
Lecture page functions Testing
Modules Testing areas Expected results Result
Login Type Username
Type a Password
Click login button
If successful,
teacher page
will be displayed
2If unsuccessful, user will
have retry attempt
OK
View/edit
profile
Select view profile option

Successfully view/edit
teacher profile
OK
Course Add/Edit class activities Successfully updated class
activities
OK
Grading Select course, select Marks graded successfully OK
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activity, select students to
mark
Change
password
Select profile, change
password
Password successfully changed OK
Email Creating, reading new
emails to users
Sending, receiving emails OK
Calendar Create events, assign
activities submission dates
Calendar will illustrate course
activities dates
OK
Course creator page functions Testing
Modules Testing areas Expected results Result
Login Type Username
Type a Password
Click login button
If successful,
teacher page
will be displayed
2If unsuccessful, user will
have retry attempt
OK
Change
password
Select profile, change
password
Password successfully changed OK
View/edit
profile
Select view profile option

Successfully view/edit
teacher profile
OK
Course Adding/ editing course 1 New course created
2 Course profiles updated
3 Assign groups, teachers to the
created course
OK
Email Creating, reading new
emails to users
Sending, receiving emails OK
Grades Select course grades Course grades illustrated to the
course creator
OK
Student functions page Testing
Modules Testing areas Expected results Result
Login Type Username
Type a Password
Click login button
If successful,
teacher page
will be displayed
2If unsuccessful, user will
OK
117
have retry attempt
Change
password
Select profile, change
password
Password successfully changed OK
View/edit
profile
Select view profile option

Successfully view/edit
teacher profile
OK
Email Creating, reading new
emails to users
Sending, receiving emails OK
Course Choose interested course
and request for enrolling
to the course
1 Request accepted/not accepted
by teacher
2 If accepted enrolled to the
course
OK
Activities Take a part on
assignments, forums,
chats, and other course
activities
1 Student will get marks from
assigned activities
OK
Calendar Click on calendar 1 View all coming events
2 View assignments submission
dates
OK





5.3.2 Integration test


Integration test is testing in which software components, hardware
components, or both are combined and tested to evaluate the interaction between
them (IEEE Standard). This testing determines that applications evolved are
functioning well with each other. Integration test will focus on two types of test,
which is User Interface Testing.


118
5.3.2.1 User-interface test


User-interface Testing assessed the testing by focusing on four elements,
which are screen layout, report, form and also menu in the system.


1 Screen Layout. On interface testing for screen layout each screen layout
for consistency with the standard layout will be checked and tested. The figures
below show some of the interface layout of the proposed system.




Figure 5.0: Front page interface


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Figure 5.1: Adding new user




Figure 5.2: Adding new course




Figure 5.3: Sending email to user

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On completion of the test, the results obtained are as shown below:


Table 5.3: Test report of screen layout

Layout Standard Result
P/F
Screen The Main Page displayed within 4 seconds
The proposed system logo was shown on every page
Main menu is displayed in every page.
P
P
P


2 Report Layout. Based on interface testing for Report layout, developer
tested and checked that each report layout follows the standard as mentioned in the
previous section. As a result, developer fined out that the entire layout in this system
is following the standard as shown below:


Table 5.4: Test report of report layout

Layout Standard Result
P/F
Report At the top of the report page, a header displays the
logo of the proposed system.
The information displays in a form of table and
displays at the center of page.
P

P


3 Form Layout. Based on the interface testing for Form layout, developer
tested and checked to ensure that each form layout follows the standards as
mentioned in the previous section. The figure below shows part of the interface of
the system.


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Table 5.5: Test report of from layout

Layout Standard Result
P/F
Forms Create a form that allow user to fill form by using:
Drop down menu – allow user to select the information
from the list
Use text-field – allow user to enter the information
P

P
P





5.3.3 User acceptance test


Acceptance testing is formal testing conducted to determine whether or not a
system satisfies its acceptance criteria (the criteria the system must satisfy to be
accepted by a customer) and to enable the customer to determine whether or not to
accept the system (IEEE Standard). This test is held in order to determine that the
system will work at the customer location. This test executed by giving a
questionnaire form to users to field. The purpose of this questionnaire is to get a
feedback and remarks regarding proposed system and fixing the weaknesses. The
questionnaire consists of 37 questions. 35 questions are close ended and 2 questions
are open ended. Questionnaire has been divided into 8 groups. Questionnaire is
presented in Appendix F. The results of the questionnaire are illustrated below:


122

Figure 5.4: Students overall response to the questionnaire



Figure 5.5: Close ended questions (Students’ response in percentage)


123


Figure 5.6: Students’ response to the each question


Students’ response to the open ended questions. Most students around 85%
stated that they are satisfied with the system. Others just have ignored open-ended
questions.





5.4 Chapter summary


This chapter described the tools required to provide the implementation and
testing of the developed system. This chapter primarily dealt with the coding
approach, database design, and documentation at implementation stage. In addition
this chapter has attempted to perform system testing. There are 3 types of testing
were executed in order to verify system flawlessness.



124





CHAPTER 6





ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY





6.1 Introduction


This chapter describes system’s organizational implementation strategy. In
order to illustrate this stage developer will use Kurt Lewin’s proposed model for the
organizational change (Kurt Lewin, “Frontiers in Group Dynamics”). According to
Kurt Lewin change is a three-step process: unfreeze, move, refreeze (Figure 6.0).
Chapter 4 described As-is system and its analysis, which helped to design the new
system, this steps helped to unfreeze the current problems. Next step helps to move
new system via a migration plan. This stage will illustrate conversion and change
management plan, which helps to move as-is system into to-be system and includes
helping to users to understand the change and train them to adopt the new system,
this is discussed in section Change management of this chapter. The last step is to
refreeze new system; this stage includes new system’s support, maintenance, and
project assessment.



125

















Figure 6.0: Implementing change





6.2 Migration plan


6.2.1 Conversion


Proposed conversion style. There are two types of conversion style: direct
conversion and parallel conversion. Direct conversion is a type of technical process
where new system replaces the old system. It is the simplest and basic way. Also it is
very risky, because any problems with new system may seriously shatter the
organization. Parallel conversion is a second type of technical process where new
As-is system To-be system
Transition
Unfreeze

Analysis and
design
Move

Migration plan:
• Technical conversion
• Change management

Refreeze

Support and
maintenance
126
system is operated side by side with the current system in the organization. The
minus of this approach is the added expense of operating two systems.


Direct conversion style was chosen due to the urgent need of the system like
this. Because previously the staff wouldn’t able to collaborate with students in the
way as e-learning provides. In addition, the current system uses manual approach for
making regular reports, which have a high probability of errors.


1 Conversion Location. Conversion location refers to the organizational
parts that are converted in a point of time. There are three approaches in selecting
conversion locations: pilot conversion, phased conversion, and simultaneous
conversion.


Table 6.0: Conversion location

Conversion
location
Definitions Advantages Disadvantages
Pilot
conversion
One or more locations
or units/work groups
within a location are
selected to be
converted first as part
of a pilot test
(A.Dennis, 2005)
Has advantage of
providing an
additional level of
testing before the
system
implemented;
Any appeared
problems will affect
only the pilot
location
Requires more time;
The problem is if
organization have
different units that
are using different
versions of system, it
will be difficult for
them to exchange the
data.

Phased
conversion
The system is installed
sequentially at
different locations
Has same
advantages with
pilot conversion, in
Much slower than
pilot conversion,
because of deliberate
127
(A.Dennis, 2005) addition it requires
small number of
people for
conversion
delays between the
different sets of
installations
Simultaneous
conversion
All locations are
converted at the same
time
System is installed
and made ready at
all locations at a
present time
Requires big number
of people to install
the system;
Requires good
training of staff


In this project case pilot conversion was chosen. It means that system will be
installed on one computer due to make pilot testing. If the system passes the pilot
test, it will be installed on all computers within organization. It was also chosen,
because this approach can be used with direct conversion. However, it requires more
time.


2 Conversion Modules. This dimension of conversion is used to identify
which modules of the system should be converted in specific time. There are two
approaches of conversion modules: whole system conversion and modular
conversion. Whole system conversions, in which the entire system is installed at one
time. Modular conversion – when the modules within a system are separate and
distinct, organizations sometime choose to convert to the new system one module at
one time (A.Dennis, 2005). It was decided to choose whole system conversion in
terms of ease of use and ease of installation.


3 Selecting Conversional Strategy. Usually, conversion is technically
complicated process, which can require additional software for it. Formal test plans
are always required for data conversion efforts. That is why appropriate strategy
should be chosen in a proper way taking into account all factors that can affect it.
Three factors should be considered in selecting conversional strategy. They are: risk,
128
time and cost required. The table below illustrates the characteristics of conversional
strategies.


Table 6.1: Characteristics of conversional strategies (A.Dennis, 2005).

Risk Cost Time
Conversion
style
Direct conversion High Low Short
Parallel conversion Low High Low
Conversion
location
Pilot conversion Low Medium Medium
Phased conversion Medium Medium Long
Simultaneous conversion High High Short
Conversion
module
Whole system conversion High Medium Short
Module Conversion Medium High Long


The characteristics of appropriate conversional strategy for proposed system
are displayed in table below.


Table 6.2: Conversional strategies for the proposed system (A.Dennis, 2005).

Conversion Style Conversion
Location
Conversion Module
Characteristics Direct conversion Pilot conversion Whole system
conversion
Risk High Low High
Cost Low Medium Medium
Time Short Medium Short


In terms of the conversion style (direct conversion) chosen for this project,
there is a high risk because it is a completely new system. This means that the
129
organization depends on the new system. On the other hand the cost of
implementation of direct conversion is low and need little time to utilize this system
and the users may use system immediately after installation is complete. The direct
conversion approach is chosen due to the urgent need of such system. For conversion
location it was decided to use pilot conversion. It has low risk, because it has greater
chance to identify bugs that were not noticed in testing. In case of bugs appearing
only one user will be affected. This approach also requires less cost and time
comparing with other approaches. This project is high in risk in terms of conversion
modules and requires medium cost to implement and need a short time to install.
Whole-System conversion is used for this project, which means that the system will
be installed at once. The system is web-based and is easy to use since almost all the
users of the system are already familiar with online systems. The cost for deployment
of this system is medium in terms of implementation since installation is made at
once and in a very short time.





6.2.2 Change management


Change management is a significant process, which can deliver wide spread
of benefits by improving the system and satisfying users needs. This stage is very
important of overall installation. It includes organizational aspects that involve
learning and activities that motivate users to embrace new system.


Rosenberg’s has work where he explains how resistance to innovation can be
broken down and transformed into acceptance (Rosenberg, 2001: 179). Usually
managers and the top administrators of the organization are implementing such a
transitions into the organizational culture. Distribution of the shared vision about e-
learning to the teachers and university administrators is a responsibility of the people
that mentioned before. Managers also have to monitor the adoption of e-learning.
130
According to Rosenberg in order to approach these issues organization should
develop a systematic strategy for change.


Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) has an e-learning strategies that will
be used in this project as an example for creating e-learning implementation strategy
for Kazakh National University.


UTM has made next steps for implementing e-learning (Marlia Puteh, 2008):

1 UTM has introduced-learning to the staff and students;
2 UTM devised long-term strategic plan known as UTM’s Plan of Action for
the establishment of a World Class University (WCU) in 2001 which incorporate six
attributes towards achieving international standards by 2010;
3 UTM developed e-learning policy in enhancing the development and
application of e- learning in the university teaching and learning.


From the given steps for implementing e-learning system it is clear that in
order to successfully implement e-learning at KazNU it is required to devise strategy
plan for e-learning implementation. The main goal of the suggested strategy for
KazNU is to help people to adopt the To-Be system. In order to implement
successful change management plan three steps should be followed. They are:

• Revising management policies;
• Motivating adoption;
• Enabling people to adopt through learning.


Revising Management Policies. In order to encourage system users the
management policies have to be revised. The list of suggestions:

131
• Head of organization should create a policy of e-learning system usage.
The new policy has to be circulated to all the staff’s involved.
• The management should upgrade the Internet lines for users.
• The management should also upgrade the server separately between
application server and the web server for future potential application.
• The policy should be accompanied with a teaching plan and user manual
stating the standard operating procedures for using the new system.


Motivating Adoption. There are two main strategies in motivating adoption:
informational and political. The goal of informal strategy is to convince potential
adopters to make changes. It works when there are clear reasons for adopters to
change. In other hand, the goal of political strategy is to motivate changes using
organizational power. It may be done in forcing way. In this project informational
strategy is used. In order to motivate people to use the system next suggestions are
presented:

• Creating a sense of urgency by stating the need for the system to be in
place.
• The users of the system should be involved as much as possible in terms of
policy making/implementation for the new system.
• Publishing the usage of the system by distributing pamphlets, email or
articles.


Enabling adoption: training. The new system will change the business
processes as such, a good training is required so as to increase the effectiveness and
skills for handling the new business process (staffs performance appraisal). There are
three types of training: face-to-face training; classroom training; computer-based
training. The table below shows the factors that affect selection of training method.



132
Table 6.3: Selecting a training method (A.Dennis, 2005).

One-on-One
Training
Classroom
Training
Computer-based
Training
Cost to develop Low-Medium Medium High
Cost to deliver High Medium Low
Impact High Medium-High Low-Medium
Reach Low Medium High


For this project computer-based training method has been chosen as a method
of training, because there are a big number of users exist within the organization. As
it is seen from the table above, computer-based training has high cost of delivery,
low-medium impact on users, and high reach.





6.3 Data migration


As it was mentioned in previous chapters, at the current time Kazakh
National University doesn’t have any e-learning system. KazNU delivers system to
staff and students that can only be used in grading and surfing (upload and download
course’s syllabuses) purpose. Developed system “e-learning at KazNU” has features
to provide non traditional way of learning, where students and staff can collaborate
with each other by using relevant information technologies.


The migration of the data will be quit simple, as it doesn’t need all the data
from the current system. The data that will be migrated to the new system consist of:
student/staff profiles and course syllabuses. Actually, teachers and course creators
will insert the course materials and will create course content. New system has user-
133
friendly interface, which gives opportunity to users without programming skills
insert the data into system.





6.4 Post-implementation activities


The goal of post-implementation activities is the institutionalization of the
use of new system – that is to make it the normal, accepted, routine way of
performing the business processes. This step is refreezing the organization after the
successful transition to the new system (A.Dennis, 2005). Once the system has been
installed and performed change management activities, the system is converted to the
operation mood. The system support is needed in purpose of helping the users to use
new system. It means that developers should provide answers of user’s questions. In
this case it is necessary to provide on-demand training. System will provide online
training support and FAQ (frequently asked questions) support in order to present
sufficiently good online help.





6.5 Organization Benefits


Kazakh National University as an organization will gain benefit on using
proposed e-learning system developed for its staff and students. Below it is
illustrated the impacts for each category of e-learning system users.



134
Table 6.4: System impact

Users Impact
Administration The new system will generate the true data output to the students
New system provides a range of functionality covering student and
teacher management;
Saves Institute paper and toner costs
Saves Institute answer sheet costs
Utilizes Institute's computers and intranet
Instructor Content creation and delivery
Communication and collaboration
Comprehensive tracking and assessment tools
Access from anywhere at any time
Automated grading system
Students Gives students immediate, detailed wash back
Students are able to upload study materials
System provides students with their study progress report





6.6 Chapter summary


This chapter included organizational strategies of implementing e-learning
system at Kazakh National University. There were described migration plan of
chosen conversion styles and change management, in addition, system support
activity has been detailed. Successful implementation of proposed e-learning system
in the Kazakh National University will require a lot of training and maintenance.




135





CHAPTER 7





DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION





7.1 Discussions


As we all know to provide knowledge of a given subject is the main objective
of teaching. By understanding that knowledge through studying, the students will be
able to use that learned skills every day in their life. Retention - memorizing and
comprehending the teaching materials is a key to learning. In order to achieve
progress in effective learning the retention of material must be a goal during the
planning of efficient learning. This is e-learning philosophy. E-learning’s goal is to
provide effective teaching to users. While e-learning uses same principles of
traditional teaching, it offers more features to improve the retention of the materials.
This project overviewed e-learning system and all essential elements needed to create
effective online learning system in Kazakh National University.


In chapter 1 were defined project problem statements, project objectives,
scope, and importance. Chapter 2 illustrates literature reviews of project. There were
discussed e-learning frameworks, models, platforms, best practices, and some
136
existing online learning systems. There illustrated Kazakh National University’s
structure, mission and vision in order to chose most suitable and comprehensive
model for implementing e-learning for the university. Chapter 3 provides
methodology for e-learning development. There were illustrated project software and
hardware requirements. In this chapter was decided to use Object-oriented
methodology for determining system functions. Those functions have been described
in chapter 4. Developer made an analysis of the chosen organization’s current
learning system. Developer tried to understand the system As-Is, made an effort to
find system minuses, by finding user requirements suggested some improvements for
the new system. By using UML modeling language diagrams were illustrated
systems functions and user responsibilities for the current and new system. Chapter 5
is all about system implementation and testing, which is very important for the
successful usage of proposed system. Implementation consisted of coding approach
and database design. Testing was held in order to identify all system flows before
system goes life. Chapter 6 described organizational strategy. There were illustrated
migration plan and post-implementation activities. Migration plan consist of
conversion and change management that provides transmission of old system into the
new system. The final chapter 7 discusses achievements in the initial findings,
constraints and challenges during the project developing stage, and aspirations of the
project expectations.





7.2 Achievements


Throughout the months, developer has accumulated a wealth of materials
about the project topic. Moreover, there have been conducted different types of
techniques for gathering project requirements. The way people collect and share
knowledge, assign experiences, communicate with each other have been greatly
changed by digital technologies. Many countries have realized in order to be
successful in this digitization era; they have to gain leading position in the digital
137
world. To achieve this aims project developer considers education as an opportunity
for a better future. This is why project developer made an attempt to provide e-
learning system in Kazakhstan.


Achievements of this project:

• The result of study is to illustrate all the best practices and adopt them in the
project. In real scenario, there has been proposed e-learning framework suggested by
Khan (2005), illustrated models of e-learning for successful implementation and
open source platform for creating effective online courses.
• The study also concludes that the maximization in utilization of tools and
techniques for gathering information in project development stage is essential in
order to bring positive impact in project performance.
• By producing questionnaires and interviews collected a great amount of
data. These techniques helped to identify system user’s requirements, their
responsibilities, and roles. Moreover, by using these techniques developer find out
current system’s weaknesses and proposed some improvements for the future system.
• By analyzing online questionnaires and mail interviews it is anticipated that
the respondent could be able to be placed or suggested to choose the right learning
method in pursuing their study process.


Benefits of this project to Kazakh National University:

• A strategic positioning for the University with aims to meet future learning
requirements as well as the expected growth of fully online programs.
• Satisfying higher education experience for students, which will support the
University's capacity to attract future students.
• Good way of managing courses and students’ progresses for the
university’s staff;
• Teachers will be able to use relevant information technologies (such as
social networking tools) to collaborate with students that will lead to meet online
138
environment and ultimately improved learning outcomes. As a result it will improve
student’s retention which improves the quality of study;
• Students will have opportunity to download course materials, upload
assignments, and view grades at any time and any place with internet coverage.





7.3 Constraints and challenges


There were many challenges and constraints on the project conducting stage.
Although e-learning has been strongly recommended as the good way of learning
and teaching and there is a plenty evidence of its effectiveness in some contexts,
there exist significant questions concerning its implementation. These questions
include e-learning and logistic management, the preparation and readiness of
teachers, the mix of disciplines and flexibleness of learning. In addition, the
organizational culture also plays big role in implementing e-learning. The university
has to create good conditions (such as computerized class rooms, IT skilled teachers)
for using e-learning. Below listed a number of barriers to implementing e-learning:

• Differences in requirements, regulations and norms of education
process;
• Differences in presenting teaching style;
• Network and bandwidth speed.


Challenges for the project development stage:

• Find out organization’s institutional infrastructure;
• Use proper hardware and software with adequate internet speed;
• Verify quality of the system design and content of e-learning courses;
139
7.4 Aspirations


For future research it would be exciting to get feedback from students who
are using different e-learning systems and it would be interesting to compare that
systems. The comparison results of many e-learning systems would provide better
approaches regarding the interface design and contents’ issues. In addition, the
teachers’ research of their experience in the e-learning systems would be another
interesting portion for further study.





7.5 Conclusion


As a conclusion of the study, it’s necessary to summarize all the work that
has been done in this project. This project had an attempt to provide adequate
research of e-learning system and made an effort to identify organization structure.
By understanding project’s background problem that in KazNU at the current time
no online learning systems, developer proposed and designed new learning system
for that university. Project has been provided with clear stated requirements for
developing e-learning system. Also there are illustrated justifications of used
methods for problem investigation. The aims for the future work have been stated in
the final chapter.








140





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http://www.careermantra.com/instructional-design.php
http://www.kaznu.kz/en/165/
http://www.leerbeleving.nl/wbts/1/history_of_elearning.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PLATO_(computer_system)
http://www.innovativelearning.com/online_learning/e-learning.html)
143
http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/about/administrative/is/services/elearning.php,
http://elifescience.in/E-Learningbenifit.php,
http://www.pit-magnus.com/pitmagnus/e-learning/index.asp

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APPENDIX A

PROJECT SCHEDULE



















145



146



147













APPENDIX B

(FUNCTIONAL AND STRUCTURAL MODELING FOR THE
CURRENT SYSTEM)


















148


1 Activity Diagrams




Figure B.1 System As-Is Sequence Diagram for student

149




Figure B.2 System As-Is Sequence Diagram for teacher
150


Figure B.3 System As-Is Sequence Diagram for admin to privilege users














151


2 Use case descriptions


1. Use-case description for login into system

Use Case Name: Login ID: 1 Important Level: High
Primary Actor: Admin, Teacher, Student Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Admin, Teacher, Student: want to log into system
Brief Description: Description explains how users log into system
Trigger: Users will enter user name and password to log into the system
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Admin, Student, Teacher
Include: Take a part in a training course
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1. Users open the system.
2. Users enter user name and password.
3. System validates the user name and password and type of user.
4. System activates all other activities’ use cases.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows:
3a. System alerts error message if there is mismatch.


2. Use-case description for viewing news for teacher and student

Use Case Name: View new ID: 2 Important Level: Low
Primary Actor: Teacher, Student Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Teacher, Student: want to view university’s news.
152


Brief Description: this description explains how Teacher and Student can view
university’s news
Trigger: After logging into the system Teacher and Student can view news
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Teacher, Student
Include: View news.
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1. Teacher, Student click on the news link.
2. Teacher, Student read news
3. Teacher, Student leave the system.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows: None


3. Use-case description for registering subject for student

Use Case Name: Register Subject ID: 3 Important Level: High
Primary Actor: Student Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Student: want to register the subject
Brief Description: this description explains how Student can register subjects
Trigger: Student registers subjects.
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Student
Include: None
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1. Student clicks Register link.
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2. System outputs registration window.
3. Student chooses or enters course id.
4. Student inserts course data.
5. System checks if all required fields were filled.
6. System informs the registration was successful.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows:
5a. System alerts error messages in case some fields are empty.
5b. Student iterates step 4 until system will accept data.



4. Use-case description for viewing personal data for student

Use Case Name: View data ID: 4 Important Level: Low
Primary Actor: Student Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Student: want to view personal data
Brief Description: this description explains how Student can view personal data
Trigger: After logging into the system Student can view personal data
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Student
Include: None.
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1. Student clicks on the personal data link.
2. Student reads personal data
3. Student leaves the system.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows: None


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5. Use-case description for downloading course syllabus data for student

Use Case Name: Download syllabus ID: 5 Important Level: Medium
Primary Actor: Student Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Student: want to download course syllabus.
Brief Description: this description explains how Student can download course
syllabus
Trigger: After logging into the system Student can download course syllabus
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Student
Include: None.
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1. Student choose course.
2. Student downloads selected course syllabus
3. Student leaves the system.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows: None


6. Use-case description for viewing progress and attendance grades data for
student

Use Case Name: View grades ID: 6 Important Level: Medium
Primary Actor: Student Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Student: want to view personal progress and attendance
grades.
Brief Description: this description explains how Student can view progress and
attendance grades
Trigger: After logging into the system Student can view personal progress data
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Type: External
Relationships
Association: Student
Include: None.
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1. Student clicks on the progress and attendance report link.
2. Student views personal progress and attendance grades
3. Student leaves the system.

Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows: None


7. Use-case description for viewing registered subjects for student

Use Case Name: View registered
subjects
ID: 7 Important Level: Medium
Primary Actor: Student Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Student: want to view registered subjects
Brief Description: this description explains how Student can view registered subjects
Trigger: After logging into the system Student can view registered subjects
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Student
Include: None
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1. Student clicks on the “registered subjects” link.
2. Student views registered subjects
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3. Student leaves the system.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows: None


8. Use-case description for viewing address book for teacher

Use Case Name: View address book ID: 8 Important Level: Medium
Primary Actor: Teacher Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Teacher: want to view address book.
Brief Description: this description explains how Teacher can view address book and
edit it
Trigger: After logging into the system Teacher can view address book
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Teacher
Include: None Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1. Teacher clicks on the “Address book” link.
2. Teacher views all contacts
3. Teacher enters contact details if necessary
4. Teacher leaves the system.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows: None


9. Use-case description for viewing academic calendar for teacher

Use Case Name: View academic
calendar
ID: 9 Important Level: Medium
Primary Actor: Teacher Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
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Stakeholders and Interest: Teacher: want to view academic calendar.
Brief Description: this description explains how Teacher can view academic calendar
Trigger: After logging into the system Teacher can view academic calendar
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Teacher
Include: None
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1. Teacher clicks on the “Academic calendar” link.
2. Teacher views schedule, courses
3. Teacher leaves the system.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows: None


10. Use-case description for uploading course syllabuses for teacher

Use Case Name: Upload course syllabus ID: 10 Important Level: High
Primary Actor: Teacher Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Teacher: want to upload course syllabus.
Brief Description: this description explains how Teacher can upload course
syllabuses
Trigger: After logging into the system Teacher can upload course syllabus
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Teacher
Include: view all materials
Extend: None
Generalization: None
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Normal Flow of Events:
1. Teacher clicks on the “Upload course syllabus” link.
2. Teacher uploads course material
3. Teacher leaves the system.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows:
1a Teacher executes “View all materials” use case to see already uploaded courses
1b Teacher executes “Delete syllabus” use case to delete some materials
2a If teacher did not choose any files to upload system will give two suggestions: 1
to leave system 2 upload files again


11. Use-case description for viewing course syllabuses for teacher

Use Case Name: View materials ID: 11 Important Level: Low
Primary Actor: Teacher Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Teacher: want to view all course materials.
Brief Description: this description explains how Teacher can view already existed
course materials
Trigger: After logging into the system Teacher can view course materials
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Teacher
Include: Upload course materials
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1. Teacher clicks on the “View course materials” link.
2. Teacher views all materials
3. Teacher leaves the system.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows: None
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12. Use-case description for deleting course materials for teacher

Use Case Name: Delete materials ID: 12 Important Level: Medium
Primary Actor: Teacher Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Teacher: want to delete course materials.
Brief Description: this description explains how Teacher can delete already existed
course materials
Trigger: After logging into the system Teacher can delete course materials
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Teacher
Include: View course materials
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1. Teacher executes “View course materials” use case.
2. Teacher chooses material
3. Teacher deletes material
4. Teacher leaves the system.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows: None


13. Use-case description for evaluating student’s progress and attendance for
teacher

Use Case Name: Evaluate student
progress and attendance
ID: 13 Important Level: Medium
Primary Actor: Teacher Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Teacher: want to evaluate student progress and
attendance.
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Brief Description: this description explains how Teacher can assess student progress
and attendance to the course
Trigger: After logging into the system Teacher can evaluate student progress and
attendance
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Teacher
Include: None
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1. Teacher clicks “Assessment” link.
2. Teacher chooses course ID
3. Teacher chooses student’s group
4. Teacher assess grades for progress and attendance
5. Teacher leaves the system.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows:
4a Teacher may view students progress and attendance grades



14. Use-case description for creating course for teacher and admin

Use Case Name: Create course ID: 14 Important Level: Medium
Primary Actor: Teacher, Admin Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Teacher, Admin: want to create course
Brief Description: this description explains how Teacher, Admin can create course
Trigger: After logging into the system Teacher, Admin can create new course
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Teacher, Admin
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Include: View course, delete course
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1. Teacher, Admin clicks “Add course” link.
2. Teacher, Admin enters course data
3. Teacher leaves the system.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows:
2a If users want to see already registered courses they may execute “view course”
use case
2b If users want to delete courses the may execute “delete course” use case


15. Use-case description for viewing courses for teacher and admin

Use Case Name: View course ID: 15 Important Level: Low
Primary Actor: Teacher, admin Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Teacher, Admin: want to view all existing courses.
Brief Description: this description explains how Teacher and admin can view already
existed courses
Trigger: After logging into the system Teacher and admin can view all courses
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Teacher, Admin
Include: None
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1. Teacher, Admin click on the “View course” link.
2. Teacher, Admin views all courses
3. Teacher leaves the system.
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Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows: None


16. Use-case description for registering user for admin

Use Case Name: Register user ID: 17 Important Level: High
Primary Actor: Admin Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Admin: want to register user to the system
Brief Description: this description explains how admin can register user to the
system.
Trigger: Admin registers users to give them opportunity to enter the system.
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Admin
Include: None
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1. Admin clicks Register users link.
2. System outputs registration window.
3. Admin inserts users’ personal data.
4. System checks if all required fields were filled.
5. System informs the registration was successful.
6. Admin executes Login use case.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows:
4a. System alerts error messages in case some fields are empty.
4b. Admin iterates step 4 until system will accept data.



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17. Use-case description for deleting course for Teacher and Admin

Use Case Name: Delete course ID: 16 Important Level: Medium
Primary Actor: Teacher, Admin Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Teacher, Admin: want to delete course
Brief Description: this description explains how Teacher, Admin can delete already
existed course
Trigger: After logging into the system Teacher and Admin can delete course
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Teacher, Admin
Include: Upload course
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1. Teacher, Admin execute “View course” use case.
2. Teacher, Admin choose course
3. Teacher, Admin delete course
4. Teacher, Admin leave the system.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows:
3a Teacher can delete only the course that has been created by him/her


18. Use-case description for giving priorities to user for admin

Use Case Name: Assign privileges ID: 18 Important Level: High
Primary Actor: Admin Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Admin: want to give priorities to user
Brief Description: this description explains how admin assigns privileges between
164


users
Trigger: Admin assigns privileges to users
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Admin
Include: None
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1. Admin chooses user.
2. Admin assigns user privileges.
3. System checks if all required fields were filled.
4. System informs the privileges assigned successfully.
5. Admin executes Login use case.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows:
3a. System alerts error messages in case some fields are empty.
3b. Admin iterates step 3 until system will accept data.


19. Use-case description for browsing db for admin

Use Case Name: Browse db ID: 19 Important Level: High
Primary Actor: Admin Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Admin: want to browse database
Brief Description: this description explains how admin can browse database
Trigger: After logging into the system Admin can browse database
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Admin
Include: View data; Edit data.
Extend: None
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Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1. Admin executes view data use case.
2. Admin executes edit data use case.
3. Admin leaves the system.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows: None


20. Use-case description for editing data in db for admin

Use Case Name: Edit data ID: 20 Important Level: High
Primary Actor: Admin Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Admin: want to edit data
Brief Description: this description explains how admin can edit data.
Trigger: Admin can edit data: insert, update or delete.
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Admin
Include: None
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1. Admin browse the database of cars.
2. Admin chooses whether to insert, to update, to delete data.
If Admin wants to insert new data.
S1: Insert data sub flow is performed.
If Admin wants to update data.
S2: Update data sub flow is performed.
If Admin wants to delete data.
S3: Delete data sub flow is performed.
3. Admin can leave the system
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Sub flows:
S1: Insert data sub flow
1. Admin inserts data directly to database.
S2: Update data sub flow
1. Admin makes changes in new window
2. Admin confirms saving of changes.
S3: Delete data sub flow
1. Admin deletes data from database directly.
Alternate/Exceptional Flows:
3a. Admin executes Browse db use case


21. Use-case description for viewing data in db for admin

Use Case Name: View data ID: 21 Important Level: High
Primary Actor: Admin Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Admin: want to check all data in db.
Brief Description: this description explains how admin can check or view data in db
Trigger: Admin checks and views data
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Admin
Include: None
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1 Admin execute “View db” use case.
2 Admin choose data
3 Admin checks data
4 Admin leaves the system.

Alternate/Exceptional Flows: No
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3 Use Case Diagram



Figure B.4 System As-Is Use Case Diagram






168



4 Sequence Diagrams




Figure B.5 Sequence Diagram for Admin



169



Figure B.6 Sequence Diagram for Student


Figure B.7 Sequence Diagram for Teacher














170
















APPENDIX C

(FUNCTIONAL AND STUCTURAL MODELING FOR THE
PROPOSED SYSTEM)















171




Functional modeling


1. Activity Diagrams



172



Figure C.0 System To-Be Sequence Diagram for Admin


Figure C.1 System To-Be Sequence Diagram for Student





173





Figure C.2 System To-Be Sequence Diagram for Teacher







174




Figure C.3 System To-Be Sequence Diagram for Coordinator





175


2. Use Case Descriptions


1. Use-case description for Login

Use Case Name: Login ID: 1 Important Level: High
Primary Actor: Admin, Teacher, Student,
Coordinator
Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Admin, Teacher, Student: want to log into system
Brief Description: Description explains how users log into system
Trigger: Users will enter user name and password to log into the system
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Admin, Teacher, Coordinator, Student
Include: Taking part in a training courses
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1. Users open the system.
2. Users enter user name and password.
3. System validates the user name and password and type of user.
4. System activates all other activities’ use cases.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows:
3a. System alerts error message if there is mismatch.
3b. System provides user with Password Assistance feature
3c. User can get its password to the valid e-mail
3d. User iterates step 2,3 until login and password will be entered correct





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2. Use-case description for setting user privileges

Use Case Name: User privileges ID: 2 Important Level: High
Primary Actor: Admin Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Admin wants to assign the priorities between users
Brief Description: Description explains how admin assigns privileges to users
Trigger: Admin assigns privileges to users
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Admin
Include: Modify user privileges
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1 Admin logs the system.
2 Admin chooses user.
3 Admin assign privileges to user.
4 Admin lefts system.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows: None


3. Use-case description for enrolling to the course for student

Use Case Name: Student enrollment ID: 3 Important Level: High
Primary Actor: Student Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Student: want to enroll to the system
Brief Description: this description explains how student can enroll to the system
Trigger: Student enrolls to the system.
Type: External
Relationships
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Association: Student
Include: Taking part in training
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1 Student clicks Enrollment link.
2 System outputs registration window.
3 Student inserts personal data.
4 System checks if all required fields were filled.
5 System informs enrollment was successful.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows:
4a. System alerts error messages in case some fields are empty.
4b. Student iterates step 4 until system will accept data.


4. Use-case description for viewing courses for student

Use Case Name: View courses ID: 4 Important Level: Medium
Primary Actor: Student Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Student: want to view existing courses.
Brief Description: this description explains how Student can view courses
Trigger: After logging into the system Student can view courses
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Student
Include: Taking part in training
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1 Student clicks on the “Courses” link.
2 Student views all available courses
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3 Student executes register course use case
4 Student leaves the system.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows: None


5. Use-case description for registering course for student

Use Case Name: Register course ID: 5 Important Level: High
Primary Actor: Student Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Student: want to register the course
Brief Description: this description explains how student can register the course
Trigger: Student registers course.
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Student
Include: Taking a part in training
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1. Student clicks Register Course link.
2. System outputs registration window.
3. Student chooses or enters course id.
4. Student inserts course data.
5. System checks if all required fields were filled.
6. System informs the registration was successful.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows:
5a. System alerts error messages in case some fields are empty.
5b. Student iterates step 5 until system will accept data.


179


6. Use-case description for viewing academic calendar for teacher and student

Use Case Name: View academic
calendar
ID: 6 Important Level: Medium
Primary Actor: Teacher, Student Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Teacher, Student: want to view academic calendar
Brief Description: this description explains how Teacher and Student can view
academic calendar
Trigger: After logging into the system Teacher and Student can view Academic
calendar
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Teacher, Student
Include: Take a part in a training
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1 Teacher, Student click on the “Academic calendar” link.
2 Teacher, Student view courses, schedules
3 Teacher, Student leave the system.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows: None


7. Use-case description for using interactive discussion for student

Use Case Name: Interactive discussion ID: 7 Important Level: Medium
Primary Actor: Student Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Student: want to take a part in interactive discussion
Brief Description: this description explains how Student can take a part in interactive
discussion
180


Trigger: After logging into the system Student can take a part in interactive
discussion
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Student
Include: Take a part in a training
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1. Student chooses course
2. Student views all available interactive discussions
3. Student takes a part in interactive discussion
4. Student leaves the system.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows: None


8. Use-case description for viewing progress and attendance grades data for
student

Use Case Name: View grades ID: 8 Important Level: Medium
Primary Actor: Student Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Student: want to view personal progress and attendance
grades.
Brief Description: this description explains how Student can view progress and
attendance grades
Trigger: After logging into the system Student can view personal progress data
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Student
Include: Take a part in a training.
Extend: None
181


Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1 Student clicks on the progress and attendance report link.
2 Student views personal progress and attendance grades
3 Student leaves the system.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows: None


9. Use-case description for downloading/uploading course materials for student
and teacher

Use Case Name: Download / Upload
materials
ID: 9 Important Level: Medium
Primary Actor: Student, Teacher Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Student, Teacher: want to download/upload course
materials.
Brief Description: this description explains how Student and Teacher can download
or upload course materials, assignments
Trigger: After logging into the system Student and Teacher can download/upload
course materials
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Student
Include: Take a part in training, create course.
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1 Student, Teacher choose course.
2 Student, Teacher download or upload selected course syllabus or assignment
3 Student, Teacher leave the system.
Sub flows: None
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Alternate/Exceptional Flows: None


10. Use-case description for creating course content for teacher and coordinator

Use Case Name: Create content ID: 10 Important Level: High
Primary Actor: Teacher, Coordinator Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Teacher, Coordinator: want to create course syllabus.
Brief Description: this description explains how Teacher and Coordinator create
course content
Trigger: After logging into the system Teacher and Coordinator can upload course
syllabus
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Teacher
Include: Develop learning content
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1 Teacher, Coordinator click on the “Create course content” link.
2 Teacher, Coordinator enter data into system
3 Teacher, Coordinator upload course material
4 System checks required fields
5 System informs content created was successfully.
6 Teacher, Coordinator leave the system.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows:
4a. System alerts error messages in case some fields are empty.
4b. Teacher, Coordinator iterates step 4 until system will accept data.



183


11. Use-case description for utilizing course content for teacher

Use Case Name: Utilize content ID: 11 Important Level: High
Primary Actor: Teacher Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Teacher: want to utilize course content.
Brief Description: this description explains how Teacher utilizes course content
Trigger: After logging into the system Teacher utilizes course content
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Teacher
Include: Develop learning content
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1. Teacher chooses course.
2. Teacher chooses tools for utilizing course content
3. Teacher executes content update and collaborate use case
4. Teacher leaves the system.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows: None


12. Use-case description for updating and collaborating course content for
teacher

Use Case Name: Update content ID: 12 Important Level: High
Primary Actor: Teacher Use Case Type: Detail; Essential

Stakeholders and Interest: Teacher: want to update and collaborate course content.
Brief Description: this description explains how Teacher updates and collaborates
course content
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Trigger: After logging into the system Teacher updates course content
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Teacher
Include: Develop learning content
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1. Teacher chooses course.
2. Teacher updates course content
3. Teacher sends messages about new course content to students
4. Teacher leaves the system.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows: None


13. Use-case description for creating course for teacher

Use Case Name: Create course ID: 13 Important Level: Medium
Primary Actor: Teacher Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Teacher: want to create course
Brief Description: this description explains how Teacher can create course
Trigger: After logging into the system Teacher can create new course
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Teacher
Include: Create course
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1 Teacher clicks “Add course” link.
2 Teacher enters course data
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3 System checks all required fields
4 System informs process success
5 Teacher leaves the system.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows:
3a System alerts error message in case some fields are empty.
3b User iterates steps 2 to 3, until system will accept data


14. Use-case description for creating interactive discussions for teacher

Use Case Name: Create course ID: 14 Important Level: Medium
Primary Actor: Teacher Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Teacher: want to create interactive discussions
Brief Description: this description explains how Teacher can create interactive
discussions
Trigger: After logging into the system Teacher can create interactive discussions
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Teacher
Include: Create course
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1. Teacher chooses course.
2. Teacher chooses interactive discussion tools
3. System checks all required fields
4. System informs process success
5. Teacher leaves the system.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows:
3a System alerts error message in case some fields are empty.
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3b User iterates steps 2 to 3, until system will accept data
15. Use-case description for evaluating student’s progress and attendance for
teacher

Use Case Name: Evaluate progress ID: 15 Important Level: Medium
Primary Actor: Teacher Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Teacher: want to evaluate student progress and
attendance.
Brief Description: this description explains how Teacher can assess student progress
and attendance to the course
Trigger: After logging into the system Teacher can evaluate student progress and
attendance
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Teacher
Include: Create course
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1 Teacher clicks “Assessment” link.
2 Teacher chooses course ID
3 Teacher chooses student’s group
4 Teacher assess grades for progress and attendance
5 Teacher leaves the system.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows:
4a Teacher may view students progress and attendance grades


16. Use-case description for viewing address book for teacher

Use Case Name: View address book ID: 16 Important Level: Medium
187


Primary Actor: Teacher Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Teacher: want to view address book.
Brief Description: this description explains how Teacher can view address book and
edit it
Trigger: After logging into the system Teacher can view address book
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Teacher
Include: None
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1 Teacher clicks on the “Address book” link.
2 Teacher views all contacts
3 Teacher enters contact details if necessary
4 Teacher leaves the system.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows: None


17. Use-case description for creating course curriculum

Use Case Name: Create curriculum ID: 17 Important Level: Medium
Primary Actor: Coordinator Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Coordinator: want to create course curriculum
Brief Description: this description explains how Coordinator can create course
curriculum
Trigger: After logging into the system Coordinator can create course curriculum
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Coordinator
188


Include: Create and manage course
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1. Coordinator chooses course.
2. Coordinator upload file
3. System checks all required fields
4. System informs process success
5. Coordinator leaves the system.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows:
3a System alerts error message in case some fields are empty.
3b User iterates steps 2 to 3, until system will accept data


18. Use-case description for inspect leaner’s activities

Use Case Name: Inspect activities ID: 18 Important Level: Medium
Primary Actor: Coordinator Use Case Type: Detail; Essential
Stakeholders and Interest: Coordinator: want to check learning tools, materials
Brief Description: this description explains how Coordinator can inspect and check
learning course materials
Trigger: After logging into the system Coordinator can inspect learner activities
Type: External
Relationships
Association: Coordinator
Include: Create and manage course
Extend: None
Generalization: None
Normal Flow of Events:
1. Coordinator chooses course.
2. Coordinator views all activities
189


3. Coordinator leaves the system.
Sub flows: None
Alternate/Exceptional Flows: None




3. Use Case Diagrams



Figure C.4 General Use Case Diagram


190



Figure C.5 Use Case diagram detailed for the system administrator




Figure C.6 Use Case diagram detailed for student
191



Figure C.7 Use Case diagram detailed for teacher


192



Figure C.8 Use Case diagram detailed for coordinator




Structural modeling


1. Data model. Class Responsibility- Collaboration Cards (CRC Cards)

Front
Class Name : Employee ID : 1 Type : Concrete, Domain
Description : An employee of Kazakh National
University
Associated Use Case :
Responsibilities Collaborators
193


Interact with the system as user by entry
data, update user accounts and update
student data.
Admin, teacher, coordinator

Attributes
eId (Integer)
eName (string)
eSirname (string)
eAddress (string)
ePhone (string)
eGender (string)
eFaculty (string)
eRole (string)
Relationship
Generalization (a-kind-of) :
Aggregation (has-parts) : Admin, Teacher, Coordinator
Other Associations :


Front
Class Name : Admin ID : 2 Type : Concrete, Domain
Description : An employee and responsible to the system Associated Use Case : 1
Responsibilities Collaborators
Delete user, update data, print
certificates and create user account
Teacher, coordinator

Attributes

Relationship
194


Generalization (a-kind-of) :
Aggregation (has-parts) :
Other Associations :


Front
Class Name : Teacher ID : 3 Type : Concrete, Domain
Description : Academic staff, for teaching and
conducting researches and consultancy.
Associated Use Case : 1
Responsibilities Collaborators
Setting learning content
Marking progress
Entry data into system
Admin, coordinator

Attributes

Relationship
Generalization (a-kind-of) :
Aggregation (has-parts) :
Other Associations :
Front
Class Name : Coordinator ID : 4 Type : Concrete, Domain
Description : Academic staff, for managing course
content and managing students’ progress
Associated Use Case : 1
Responsibilities Collaborators
Checking learning content
Creating progress reports
Entry data into system
Admin, teacher

195


Attributes

Relationship
Generalization (a-kind-of) :
Aggregation (has-parts) :
Other Associations :


Front
Class Name : Faculty ID : 5 Type : Concrete, Domain
Description : Kazakh National University’s faculty Associated Use Case : 1,6
Responsibilities Collaborators
Offers courses , researches and
consultancies
Attributes
fID (integer)
fName (string)
fDecan (string)
Relationship
Generalization (a-kind-of) :
Aggregation (has-parts) :
Other Associations :


Front
Class Name : Faculty ID : 5
Type : Concrete,
Domain

Description : Kazakh National University’s faculty
Associated Use
Case : 1, 6
196


Responsibilities Collaborators
Offers courses , researches and consultancies
Attributes
fID (integer)
fName (string)
fDecan (string)
Relationship
Generalization (a-kind-of) :
Aggregation (has-parts) :
Other Associations :
Front
Class Name : Student ID : 6
Type : Concrete,
Domain
Description : Detail student information and interact with
system
Associated Use Case :
5, 7
Responsibilities Collaborators
Takes part in training course
Attributes
sID (integer)
sName (string)
sAddress (string)
sPhone (string)
sCourse (string)
sSemester (string)
Relationship
Generalization (a-kind-of) :
Aggregation (has-parts) :
Other Associations :
Front
197


Class Name : Section ID : 8 Type : Concrete, Domain
Description : If a course exceeds 30 students, should be
put into sections.
Associated Use Case : 7
Responsibilities Collaborators

Attributes
ID (integer)
Name (string)
studNum (integer)
SemNum (integer)
Relationship
Generalization (a-kind-of) :
Aggregation (has-parts) :
Other Associations :


Front
Class Name : Semester ID : 9 Type : Concrete, Domain
Description : in one year two semester Associated Use Case : 7,10
Responsibilities Collaborators

Attributes
semID (integer)
semNum (integer)
SemYear (date)
Relationship
Generalization (a-kind-of) :
198


Aggregation (has-parts) :
Other Associations :


Front
Class Name : Training ID : 10 Type : Concrete, Domain
Description : Learning processes Associated Use Case : 9,11
Responsibilities Collaborators
Offer students with learning tools
(tests, quizzes, assignments,
discussions)
Attributes

Relationship
Generalization (a-kind-of) :
Aggregation (has-parts) :
Other Associations :


Front
Class Name : Progress/
attendance report
ID : 11 Type : Concrete, Domain
Description : Details document for student
achievement per
semester.
Associated Use Case : 10
Responsibilities Collaborators
Generalization (a-kind-of): -
Aggregation (has-parts): -
199


Other associations: semester
Attributes
ReportId (integer)
reportNumber (integer)
courseId(integer)
fId(integer)
grade(string)
date(date)
Relationship
Generalization (a-kind-of) :
Aggregation (has-parts) :
Other Associations :




2. Class Diagrams



Figure C.9 Class diagram
200


3. Sequence Diagrams




Figure C.10 Sequence diagram for administrator


201




Figure C.11 Sequence diagram for coordinator




Figure C.12 Sequence diagram for student
202




Figure C.13 Sequence diagram for teacher




4. State Chart Diagrams



Figure C.14 State Chart Diagram for Administrative mode
203



Figure C.15 State Chart Diagram for Student mode




Figure C.16 State Chart Diagram for Student mode
204



Figure C.17 State Chart Diagram for Coordinator mode




















205













APPENDIX D

(DATABASE STRUCTURE)



















206


1. System’s roles tables





Table D.1: Role tables descriptions

Table Description
role defines a role, its name, etc. Other parts of the role
definition are stored in the role_capabilities and
role_context_levels tables.
capabilites the various permissions that can be granted.
207



context a context is a scope in Moodle, for example the whole
system, a course, a particular activity. The type is
given by contextlevel, and depending on context level,
instanceid points to one of a number of different tables.
role_allow_assign which roles can assign which other roles
role_allow_override which roles can override which other roles
role_assignments which users are assigned which roles in which contexts
role_capabilities the permission for each capability in either a role
definition (if contextid points to the system context) or
a role override (if contextid points to some other
context)

role_names used to implement the feature where roles can be given
different names in different courses (or, more
gererally, contexts)

















208


2. Quiz setting and runtime overview










209


3. Quiz report tables overview















210


4. Question database structure








211


5. Groups and grouping database structure



course
• groupingid - default grouping used in course (new activities, etc.)
course_modules
• groupingid - grouping used in activity
• groupmembersonly - limit access to and visibility of activity based on
group membership - if user is not member of at least one group in grouping, the
activity is invisible for them; this needs a new shared option in
course/moodleform_mod.php







212












APPENDIX E

(CURRENT SYSTEM QUESTIONNAIRE)




















213


Educational domain


Table E.0: Students’ answers regarding educational domain

# Question Agree Agree to
some
extend
Disagree
1 The content of the course is accurate and clear

2 The course content is regularly updated

3 “INTRANET” provides all the materials that are
necessary for the study

4 Materials presented in the “Intranet” are helpful

5 If existing system in KazNU will have more
opportunities for learning you will use them, and it
will motivates you to study harder

6 Do you wish to use learning & teaching methods
(forums, tests, quizzes, discussions) during the
study

7 Do you consider that sitting in front of the
computer is more challenging than learning in the
traditional classroom










214


Technological domain


Table E.1: Students’ answers regarding technological domain

# Question Agree Agree to
some
extend
Disagree
8 Accessing to the “Intranet” system is very
easy

9 University should provide briefings and
orientation program for explaining
technical issues before starting the course

10 The registration instruction given to you
have been adequate for you to complete the
registration

11 The “Intranet” system was available all the
time when you needed to access it

12 “Intranet” doesn’t require high computer
characteristics

13 The hardware requirements illustrated at
the “Intranet” web site

14 Do you think discussions and video
conferencing lectures is a good way of
providing educational materials

15 Web site has a links to the necessary
software programs for courses

16 How do you communicate with the
teacher?

17 “Intranet” has attractive interface

18 Course materials well organized and easily
to navigate

215




There were two more open questions related to technological domain:

1. What kind of technological devises could be included in “Intranet”
system?
2. What would you change in the current design of “Intranet” interface?






















19 The search engine within the “Intranet” is
meeting your requirements

20 The login procedure in “Intranet” is simple

216















APPENDIX F

(SYSTEM USER ACCEPTANCE QUESTIONNAIRE)

















217



Questionnaire


System Name: e-learning at Kazakh National University
Company name: Kazakh National University
Total Respondent: 10
System Performance Rating: Disagree 1 2 3 4 5 Agree N/A




218






219


















220













APPENDIX G

(USER MANUAL)



















221


Student moodle user manual


Contents of the Student Manual
1. Registering to the course
2. Logging in to Moodle
3. My courses
4. Editing your profile
5. Moodle tools
6. Help in Moodle


1. Registering to the course. Student usually automatically enrolled to the
courses by admin. If student wants to enroll to the course that he isn’t enrolled in this
case he has to just click to the course and click button “enroll to this course”. Some
courses have enrolment key. The teacher or the course administrator sets course
enrolment key.




Figure G.0 Enrolment key


2. Logging in to Moodle. Choose the Login-block at the left side of the front
page. Enter your username and password.