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# ECS 518

## Further Mechanics of Solid

3-D Stress-Strain
GENERAL!ED "##\$E%S LA&
In general, a material is under a 3-D stress-state or triaxial stress state. That is, it has 3
components of normal (or axial) stresses
x
,
y
,
z
, respectively acting in 3 orthogonal
directions at any point. orrespondingly, there !ill "e 3 components of axial strains
x
,

y
,
z
, The sign convention follo!s that previously used for the #-D stress.
Assu'(tions) \$aterial is isotropic, homogeneous and linear-elastic.
The relationship "et!een the stress and strain is given "y the generalized %oo&e's la!,
( ( (
( ( (
( ( (
z
y
x
z
z
y
x
y
z
y
x
x

+
+

*+,
)r in matrix form

'

1
1
1
]
1

'

-
.
/
-
.
/
1 - -
- 1 -
- - 1
E
1
*olving the a"ove e+uations determine the stresses,
[ ] ) ( ) (
) )( (

z y x x
+ +
+
1
2 1 1
(
[ ] ) ( ) (
) )( (

z x y y
+ +
+
1
2 1 1
(
[ ] ) ( ) (
) )( (

y x z z
+ +
+
1
2 1 1
(
(,)
-ery often, the 3 stress e+uations are !ritten in a more compact form
/ /
0 e +
. .
0 e +
- -
0 e +
!here and are called the .ame constants, given "y
/
ECS 518
Further Mechanics of Solid
3-D Stress-Strain
) )( (

2 1 1 +

(
) (
G
+

1 2
(
(0ote that 1 is identically the shear modulus).
2nd
e 1
/
+
.
+
-

The term e is also called the dilatation or chan2e in 3olu'e as explain "elo!.
The a"ove stress-strain relationship can "e !ritten in a compact form.
45 1 6D745
3here 4D5 is called the constitutive matrix.
It is seen that for an isotropic material, only # constants (( and ) are re+uired to descri"e
the constitutive matrix 6D78 The third constant 6 can "e calculated from ( and .
S"EAR S9RESS
2 "ody under 3D state of stress !ill have 3 independent shear stress namely,
xy
,
xz
and

yz
. 0ote that in arriving at the 3 shear stress, !e have ma&e use of symmetry. That is,

xy
7
yx

xz
7
zx

yz
7
zy
Si2n Con3ention
2 vector pointing out!ards and perpendicular to a plane is called the out!ards normal.
(.g. The normal n
/
sho!n "elo! is the out!ards normal to the shaded plane, !hich is
perpendicular to the positive x-axis.. In the a"ove sym"ol, the first su"script points to the
direction of the out!ards normal and the second sym"ol points to the direction of the
shear stress. If "oth su"scripts are in the positive direction or "oth su"scripts are in the
negative direction, the shear is positive. If one of the su"scripts is in a different direction
from the other su"scripts, the shear is negative. This sign convention is consistent !ith
that previously used for the #D pro"lems.
#
ECS 518
Further Mechanics of Solid
3-D Stress-Strain
Shear Strain
orresponding to the 3 independent shear stresses are the 3 independent shear strains
xy
,

xz
,
yz
. 2gain the shear strains are symmetric.

xy
7
yx

xz
7
zx

yz
7
zy
The relationship "et!een shear stress and shear strain is given "y

xy
7
xy
6

xz
7
xz
6

yz
7
yz
6
!here 6 is the shear modulus.
3D Constituti3e E:uation
8rom the a"ove discussion, !e can also !rite the relationship
45 1 6D745
x
y
z
n
x
+
xy

xz

yz

yz

xz

i9
Direction of out!ard
normal
Direction of stress
3

xy

xy
ECS 518
Further Mechanics of Solid
3-D Stress-Strain
or

'

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

'

/-
.-
/.
-
.
/
/-
.-
/.
-
.
/
0
, 0 1 *
;
0
, 0 1 *
S<M
; ;
0
, 0 1 *
; ; ; , 1 *
; ; ; , 1 *
; ; ; , 1 *
, 0 1 ,* 1 *
E
The matrix 6D7 is called the 3D constitutive matrix for isotropic material.
=olu'e Chan2e
*hear deformation produces no volume change. )nly the axial deformation produces
volume change.
onsider an element in uni-axial tension. :efore the tension is applied, the dimensions
are dx, dy and dz. The original volume is thus given "y
-
o
7 dxdydz
3hen the uniaxial tension stress is applied, the final dimensions are
;-direction< (/=
x
)dx
>-direction< (/-
y
)dy
?-direction< (/-
z
)dz
The final volume is
-
f
7 (/=
x
)dx.(/-
y
).dy(/-
z
)dz
(xpanding and ignoring +uadratic or higher order terms of strains, !e have
-
f
7 4/=
x
(/-#)5dxdydz 7 -
o
= -
The change in volume per unit volume (called the unit volume change or dilatation) is
( )
( )
x x
o
V 1 2
e 1 2
V E

@
ECS 518
Further Mechanics of Solid
3-D Stress-Strain
In general, the unit volume change for a triaxial stress is given "y
( )
( )
x y z x y z
o
V 1 2
e
V E

+ + + +
3D Mohr Circle
*imilar to the #D case, !e can !rite the 3D stress matrix as
1
1
1
]
1

- .- /-
.- . /.
/- /. /
The principle stresses are then the eigenvalues of the matrix, !hich can "e determined "y
find the determinant and setting it to zero,
; det
( - .- /-
.- ( . /.
/- /. ( /

1
1
1
]
1

In general, there !ill "e 3 distinct eigenvalues (
p
) !hich corresponds to the 3 principle
stresses denoted as
/
,
#
,
3
. :y convention, !e denote
/
A
#
A
3
. That is

max
7
/

min
7
3
The 3D \$ohr circle can then "e dra!n using the 3 principle stresses. 0ote that there are 3
circles dra! corresponding to (
/
-
#
), (
/
-
3
) and (
#
-
3
). The shaded area "ounded "y
the 3 circles is called the admissi"le state of stress.
In #D stress state, the normal-shear stress can "e located any!here on the circumference
of the \$ohr circle. In the 3D (tri-axial) stress state, the normal-shear stress can "e located
at any points in the admissi"le area.
0ote that
x
=
y
+
z
7
/
=
#
+
3
. This is called the invariant.
orresponding to the 3 eigenvalues !ill "e 3 eigenvectors. The eigenvectors are the
out!ard normal to the principle planes.
The a"solute maximum shear stress is given "y the radius of the "iggest circle, i.e.
B
ECS 518
Further Mechanics of Solid
3-D Stress-Strain
#
) (
3 /
max

abs
)n the plane !here this maximums shear stress acts is the average normal stress given "y
the center of the "iggest circle
0
, *
3 1
a32
+

3e !ant to emphasize that the internal stresses in the "ody have not changed (since the
external loadings have not changed). The \$ohr circle (#D or 3D) is merely reflecting
different stresses at different orientation of the "ody of the same internal stresses
>LANE S9RESS and >LANE S9RAN
Clane stress and plane strain pro"lems are 3D pro"lems that can "e solved using #-D
stress-strain principles. These classes of pro"lems (especially the plane stress pro"lems)
commonly occur in engineering.
>lane Stress)
Clane stress occurs !hen the surfaces in one direction (say the z-direction) have no
stresses. Clane stress condition occurs !hen one axis of the "ody is very short. (.g.
8langes and !e"s of I-"eams, thin !all cylinders, flat plates
The plane stress "oundary conditions are

z
7 D
and
xz
7
yz
7 D
and
xz
7
yz
7 D
"ut
z
E D
*u"stituting the a"ove plane stress conditions into the (,), !e o"tain the follo!ing
e+uations for plane stress pro"lems.
E E
.
/
-

( )
. / 0 /
, 1 *
E
+

( )
y x y
v
) (
E
+

2
1

/.
1
./
G
In matrix form, !e can !rite
45 1 6D7
str
45
F
ECS 518
Further Mechanics of Solid
3-D Stress-Strain
or

'

1
1
1
1
]
1

'

/.
.
/
0
/.
/
0
, 1 *
; ;
; 1
; 1
, 1 *
E
.
!here the matrix 6D7
str
is called the plane stress constitutive matrix
>lane Strain
Clane strain occurs !hen the surfaces in one direction (say the z-direction) are
constrained to have no deformation. Clane strain pro"lems usually exist !hen one axis of
the "ody is very long. (.g. The interior of a long retaining !all
The plane strain "oundary conditions are.

z
7 D

xz
7
yz
7 D
and
xz
7
yz
7 D
"ut
z
E D
*u"stituting the a"ove plane strain conditions into the (,), !e o"tain the follo!ing
e+uations for plane strain pro"lems,
( )
. / /
, 1 *
, 0 1 ,* 1 *
E
+
+

( )
. / .
, 1 *
, 0 1 ,* 1 *
E
+
+

( )
. / -
, 0 1 ,* 1 *
E
+
+

/.
1
./
G
In matrix form, !e can !rite
45 1 6D7
stn
45
or

'

1
1
1
1
1
]
1

'

/.
.
/
/.
/
0
, 0 1 *
; ;
; , 1 *
; , 1 *
, 0 1 ,* 1 *
E
.
!here the matrix 6D7
stn
is called the plane strain constitutive matrix
G
ECS 518
Further Mechanics of Solid
3-D Stress-Strain
9her'al Stresses *>lane stresses,
3e !ill loo& at thermal stresses in plane stress. 8or a material !ith coefficient of linear
thermal expansion, , su"9ected to a temperature rise of T, the thermal strain is given "y

t
7 (T)
Thus, the strain in the x and y directions are
( )
( )
y
x
x
y
x
y
T
E E
T
E E

+ +
#r
( )
) / (
) T ( (
/
y x # x

+

E
( )
) / (
) T ( (
/
y x # y

+

E
xy xy
G
The shearing strain is unaffected "y the thermal stress as the elongation due to
temperature changes are linear (and not angular)
H
ECS 518
Further Mechanics of Solid
3-D Stress-Strain
e8281
The steel "loc& is su"9ected to a uniform pressure p on all faces. Ino!ing that the change
in length of side 2: is -D.D3 mm, det
a. the change in length of the other t!o faces
". the pressure p
c. The change in volume of the steel "loc&
6iven< (7#DD6Ca
7 D.#H
2ll dimensions are in mm

x
7 -D.D3J/DD
7 -3.D(-@
Kniform pressure, so

x
7
y
7
z
7 -p (assume compression)
*u"stitute into (=)
) (
E
p p p p

) (
E
p p p p

) (
E
p p p p

z
y
x
2 1
2 1
2 1
+ +
+ +
+ +
( ( (
( ( (
( ( (
It can "e seen that
y
7
z
7
x
7 -3.D(-@
Thus,
: 7
y
: 7 (-3.D(-@),BD 7 -D.D/Bmm
:D 7
z
:D 7 (-3.D(-@),GB 7 -D.D##Bmm
*olving,
( )( . )
( ) [ ( . )]
x
E 200E3 3 0E 4
p
1 2 1 2 0 28

)r p 7 /3F.@\$Ca (ompression)
The unit volume change is
L
x
y
z
2
:

D
/DD
BD
GB
x
y
z
/#D
HD
/DD
3
4

ECS 518
Further Mechanics of Solid
3-D Stress-Strain
e 7
x
=
y
=
z
7 -3p(/-#)J(
7 -3(/3F.@)(/-#,D.#H)J(#DD(3)
7 -D.DDDL
Therefore
- 7 e-
7 -D.DDDL(/DD,BD,GB)
7 -33G.BL mm
3
(negative imply reduction in volume)
e828 0
The linear elastic isotropic "loc& si su"9ected to stresses as sho!n. The strain in the z-
direction is determined to "e FDD(-F. Determine the forces on each face, the change in
length in each direction and the volume change in the "loc&.
6iven< (7#DD6Ca
7 D.#B
8rom the figure

x
7 -@

y
7 -3

z
7
%ence,
F ( FDD 5 ) # ( #B . D ) @ ( #B . D 4
#DDDDD
/
z
y
x
z
+

E E E
*olving,
7 @3.F@ \$Ca.
Forces in each face
8
x
7
x
2
x
7 (-@,@3.F@),(HD,/DD) 7 -/3LF@H 0
/D
ECS 518
Further Mechanics of Solid
3-D Stress-Strain
8
y
7
y
2
y
7 (-3,@3.F@),(/#D,/DD) 7 -/BG/D@D 0
8
z
7
z
2
z
7 (@3.F@),(/#D,HD) 7 @/HL@@ 0
F ( G . GF3
5 #B . D ) 3 ( #B . D @ 4
#DDDDD
F@ . @3
5 ) 3 ( @ 4
(
z
y
x
x

E E E
F ( LB . @LD
5 #B . D 3 ) #B . D ( @ 4
#DDDDD
F@ . @3
5 ) 3 ( @ 4
(
z
y
x
y

+

E E E
Chan2e in len2th8
l
x
7
x
l
x
7 (-GF3.G(-F),/#D 7 -D.DL/F mm
l
y
7
y
l
y
7 (-@LD.L(-F),HD 7 -D.D3L3 mm
l
z
7
z
l
z
7 (FDD(-F),/DD 7 D.DF mm
=olu'e chan2e
e 7
x
=
y
=
z
7 -GF3.G(-F = (-@LD.L(-F) = FDD(-F
7 -D.DDDFB@F
- 7 e-
7 -D.DDDFB@F (/#D,/DD,HD)
7 -F#L mm
3
(negative implies reduction in volume)
2lternative solution
0e! l
x
7 /#D = l
x
7 /#D M D.DL/F 7 //L.L/mm
//
ECS 518
Further Mechanics of Solid
3-D Stress-Strain
0e! l
y
7 HD = l
y
7 HD M D.D3L3 7 GL.LFmm
0e! l
z
7 /DD = l
z
7 /DD = D.DF 7 /DD.DFmm
- 7 (//L.L/,GL.LF,/DD.DF) - (/#D,HD,/DD)
7 -F#@ mm
3
(note rounding error)
E/a'(le 3
The "loc& is fitted "et!een the fixed supports. If the glue 9oint can resist a
max
of /@
\$Ca, determine the temperature rise that !ill cause the 9oint to fail.
6iven< ( 7 GD(3 \$Ca, 7 D.# and 7/#(-F J
o

In this type of pro"lem !here the orientation of the plane is ar"itrary and not necessary
corresponding to the principle planes or plane of maximum shear, it is easier to solve this
pro"lem using analytical e+uations of the \$ohr circle.
8ix support,
y
7 D
Knrestrained in x and z direction. Therefore
x
7
z
7 D
( )
y
x
y
y
T
E E
12E 6 T
70000

+ +

+
)r
@D
y
x
/#
ECS 518
Further Mechanics of Solid
3-D Stress-Strain

y
7 -D.H@T
8rom e+uili"rium of forces in the >-direction, the corresponding shear in the plane
normal to the y-axis is zero

xy
7 D
2t the @D degree plane, the shear stress is

x'y'
7 -/J# (
x
-
y
)sin(#) =
xy
cos(#)
7 -/J# (D = D.H@(T))sin(-HD) = D 7 /@\$Ca
Therefore, (T) 7 33.HB
o
(2lternative solution using 6eometricalJ\$ohr's circle 2pproach.)
E/a'(le ?
The triaxial state of stress at a point is
x
7 BD,
y
7 /D,
z
7 -#D,
xy
7 -/B,
yz
7
xz
7D (all
in units of \$Ca). Determine the principle stresses and the maximum shear stress. Dra!
the 3D \$ohr circle.
The stress matrix is
1
1
1
]
1

#D D D
D /D /B
D /B BD
alculate the determinant to determine the principle stresses
/3
ECS 518
Further Mechanics of Solid
3-D Stress-Strain
det
{ } D
) #D ( D D
D ) /D ( /B
D /B ) BD (
p
p
p

1
1
1
]
1

)r
0
20 0
0 15
15
20 0
0 10
50

) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
p p
p
p
)r
(BD-
p
) (/D-
p
) (-#D-
p
) = (/B) (-#D-
p
)(-/B) 7 D

3
p
= @D
2
p
= L#B
p
M BBDD 7 D
*olving,

/
7 BB \$Ca,
#
7 B \$Ca and
3
7 -#D \$Ca
2nd the maximum shear stress is

max
7 N 4BB-(-#D)5 7 3G.B \$Ca.
9hin &all C.lindrical >ressure =essels *e828 @oilersA Bater (i(es,
(%2CT(O H./)
onsider the thin !all cylindrical pressure vessel sho!n "elo!. Due to the internal
pressure, the !alls of the vessel !ill have stresses
/
and
2
. The stress
/
!hich acts in
the direction tangent to the circumference of the cylinder is called the hoop stress
!hereas
#
!hich acts in the longitudinal direction is called the longitudinal stress. The
hoop and longitudinal stresses are also principle stresses "ecause there is no t!ist and
therefore no shear stresses in the cylinder. The conditions of symmetry also exclude the
existence of any shearing stresses in the cylinder.
/@
ECS 518
Further Mechanics of Solid
3-D Stress-Strain
The free "ody diagram of the longitudinal section Px long through the vessel is sho!n in
8ig ("). 8rom e+uili"rium, !e can !rite
#,
/
tx 7 pDx
)r
t #
pD
/

3here
C is the internal pressure
D can "e ta&en as the diameter of the cylindrical vessel a"out the middle surface or inner
diameter.
The free "ody diagram of a transverse section is sho!n in 8ig (c). 8rom e+uili"rium

#
, circumference , t 7 p , area

#
, Dt 7 CD
#
J@
)r
t @
pD
#

%ence, it can "e seen that in a cylindrical pressure vessel the hoop stress is t!ice the
longitudinal stress

/
7 #
#
9hin Ball S(herical >ressure =essels
Due to symmetry, the stress in a thin !all spherical pressure vessel is uniform and is also
the principle stress. .et this stress "e denoted "y
1
.
8ig. (a) (lement in cylinder
vessel
Px
/B
ECS 518
Further Mechanics of Solid
3-D Stress-Strain
8rom the free "ody diagram,

1
,Dt 7 p D
#
J@
)r
t @
pD
/

E/a'(le 5
2 cylindrical pressure vessel of #.Bm diameter !ith !alls /#mm thic& operates at /.B
\$Ca internal pressure. If the plates are "utt-!elded on a 3D
o
helical spiral as sho!n
"elo!, determine the stresses acting normal and tangential to the !eld.
\$Ca #B . /BF
D/# . D , #
B . # , B . /
t #
pD
/

3D
o
FD
o
/F
ECS 518
Further Mechanics of Solid
3-D Stress-Strain

/
7 #
#
Therefore,
#
7 /BF.#BJ#
7 GH./#B \$Ca.
Dra! \$ohr circle,
O 7 (
/
-
#
)J#
7 (/BF.#B - GH./#B)J#
7 3L.DF#B \$Ca
7 (
/
=
#
)J#
7 (/BF.#B = GH./#B)J#
7 //G./L \$Ca
7 Osin(/HD-#,FD)
7 3L.DF#B,sin(FD)
7 33.H \$Ca

xQ
7 = Ocos(FD)
7 //G./L = 3L.DF#B,cos(FD)
7 /3F.G# \$Ca

yQ
7 - Ocos(FD)
7 //G./L - 3L.DF#B,cos(FD)
7 LG.FF \$Ca
/G