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# Exp1: Write a c++ program illustrating Variable scope

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

// Global variable declaration:
int g = 20;

int main ()
{
// Local variable declaration:
int g = 10;

cout << g;

return 0;
}
O/P:
10

Exp2: Write a c++ program illustrating swapping integer values by reference

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

// function declaration
void swap(int& x, int& y);

int main ()
{
// local variable declaration:
int a = 100;
int b = 200;

cout << "Before swap, value of a :" << a << endl;
cout << "Before swap, value of b :" << b << endl;

/* calling a function to swap the values.*/
swap(a, b);

cout << "After swap, value of a :" << a << endl;
cout << "After swap, value of b :" << b << endl;

return 0;
}

// function definition to swap the values.
void swap(int& x, int& y)
{
int temp;
temp = x; /* save the value at address x */
x = y; /* put y into x */
y = temp; /* put x into y */

return;
}

OUTPUT:
Before swap, value of a :100
Before swap, value of b :200
After swap, value of a :200
After swap, value of b :100

Exp3: Write a c++ program illustrating checking whether the number is even or odd
using ternary operator

#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>

int main()
{
int a;
cout<<"Enter the Number : ";
cin>>a;
(a%2==0)?cout<<"Number is even":cout<<"Number is odd";

getch();
return 0;
}

OUTPUT:
enter The number: 42
Number is even

Exp4: Write a c++ program illustrating a program to find the roots of a quadratic
equation. Use switch statements to handle different values of discriminant (b
2
-4*a*c)

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

class printData
{
public:
void print(int i) {
cout << "Printing int: " << i << endl;
}

void print(double f) {
cout << "Printing float: " << f << endl;
}

void print(char* c) {
cout << "Printing character: " << c << endl;
}
};

int main(void)
{
printData pd;

pd.print(5);
pd.print(500.263);
pd.print("Hello C++");
return 0;
}

O/P:
Printing int: 5
Printing float: 500.263
Printing character: Hello C++

Exp12: Write a c++ program illustrateing inline functions

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
inline int Max(int x, int y)
{
return (x > y)? x : y;
}
// Main function for the program
int main( )
{
cout << "Max (20,10): " << Max(20,10) << endl;
cout << "Max (0,200): " << Max(0,200) << endl;
cout << "Max (100,1010): " << Max(100,1010) << endl;
return 0;
}
O/P:

Exp13: Write a c++ program illustrating Friend functions

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

class Box
{
double width;
public:
friend void printWidth( Box box );
void setWidth( double wid );
};
void Box::setWidth( double wid )
{
width = wid;
}
void printWidth( Box box )
{
cout << "Width of box : " << box.width <<endl;
}

int main( )
{
Box box;
box.setWidth(10.0);
printWidth( box );
return 0;
}
O/P:
Width of box : 10
Exp14: Write a c++ program illustrating EXCEPTION HANDELING

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

double division(int a, int b)
{
if( b == 0 )
{
throw "Division by zero condition!";
}
return (a/b);
}

int main ()
{
int x = 50;
int y = 0;
double z = 0;

try {
z = division(x, y);
cout << z << endl;
}catch (const char* msg) {
cerr << msg << endl;
}
return 0;
}
O/P: Division by zero condition!

#include <iostream.h>
class Overclass
{
public:
int x;
int y;
Overclass() { x = y = 0; }
Overclass(int a) { x = y = a; }
Overclass(int a, int b) { x = a; y = b; }
};
int main()
{
Overclass A;
Overclass A1(4);
Overclass A2(8, 12);
cout << "Overclass A's x,y value:: " <<
A.x << " , "<< A.y << "\n";
cout << "Overclass A1's x,y value:: "<<
A1.x << " ,"<< A1.y << "\n";
cout << "Overclass A2's x,y value:; "<<
A2.x << " , "<< A2.y << "\n";
return 0;
}

o/p:

Exp21: Write a c++ program illustrating COPY CONSTRACTOR

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
class Line
{
public:
int getLength( void );
Line( int len ); // simple constructor
Line( const Line &obj); // copy constructor
~Line(); // destructor

private:
int *ptr;
};

Line::Line(int len)
{
cout << "Normal constructor allocating ptr" << endl;
ptr = new int;
*ptr = len;
}

Line::Line(const Line &obj)
{
cout << "Copy constructor allocating ptr." << endl;
ptr = new int;
*ptr = *obj.ptr; // copy the value
}

Line:: ~Line(void)
{
cout << "Freeing memory!" << endl;
delete ptr;
}
int Line::getLength( void )
{
return *ptr;
}

void display(Line obj)
{
cout << "Length of line : " << obj.getLength() <<endl;
}
int main( )
{
Line line(10);
display(line);
return 0;
};
}

Exp7: Write a c++ program illustrating sort integer numbers

#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
void exchange(int (&a)[],int &n);
int main()
{
int a[10],size;
clrscr();
cout<<"Enter the Array size : ";
cin>>size;
cout<<"Enter the Array elements :\n";
for(int i=0;i<size;i++)
cin>>a[i];
exchange(a,size);
cout<<"After sorting :\n";
for(i=0;i<size;i++)
cout<<a[i]<<endl;
getch();
return 0;
}
void exchange(int (&a)[],int &n)
{
for(int i=0;i<n;i++)
for(int j=0;j<n;j++)
if(a[i]<a[j])
{
int temp=a[i];
a[i]=a[j];
a[j]=temp;
}
}

OUTPUT:

Enter the Array size : 10
Enter the Array elements :
15
46
89
62
-5
-78
0
5
45
9
After sorting :
-78
-5
0
5
9
15
45
46
62
89

Exp17: Write a c++ program illustrating Virtual Function

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

class Shape
{
protected:
double width, height;
public:
void set_data (double a, double b)
{
width = a;
height = b;
}
virtual double area() = 0;
};

class Rectangle: public Shape
{
public:
double area ()
{
return (width * height);
}
};

class Triangle: public Shape
{
public:
double area ()
{
return (width * height)/2;
}
};

int main ()
{
Shape *sPtr;

Rectangle Rect;
sPtr = &Rect;

sPtr -> set_data (5,3);
cout << "Area of Rectangle is " << sPtr -> area() << endl;

Triangle Tri;
sPtr = &Tri;

sPtr -> set_data (4,6);
cout << "Area of Triangle is " << sPtr -> area() << endl;
return 0;
}

OUTPUT:
Area of Rectangle is 15
Area of Triangle is 12

Exp26: Write a c++ program illustrating Inheritance (multiple, multilevel, Hybrid)

i) Multiple Inheritances
#include <iostream>

using namespace std;

// Base class Shape
class Shape
{
public:
void setWidth(int w)
{
width = w;
}
void setHeight(int h)
{
height = h;
}
protected:
int width;
int height;
};

// Base class PaintCost
class PaintCost
{
public:
int getCost(int area)
{
return area * 70;
}
};

// Derived class
class Rectangle: public Shape, public PaintCost
{
public:
int getArea()
{
return (width * height);
}
};

int main(void)
{
Rectangle Rect;
int area;

Rect.setWidth(5);
Rect.setHeight(7);

area = Rect.getArea();

// Print the area of the object.
cout << "Total area: " << Rect.getArea() << endl;

// Print the total cost of painting
cout << "Total paint cost: \$" << Rect.getCost(area) << endl;

return 0;
}

OUTPUT:
Total area: 35
Total paint cost: \$2450

ii) multilevel Inheritance

#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
class student
{
protected : int rollno;
public : void get_num();
void put_num();
};
void student::get_num()
{
cout<<"\nEnter the roll number:\t";
cin>>rollno;
}
void student::put_num()
{
cout<<"Rollnumber: "<<rollno;
}
class test:public student
{
protected : float sub1,sub2;
public:
void get_marks()
{
cout<<"\nEnter the sub1 marks: ";
cin>>sub1;
cout<<"\nEnter the sub2 marks: ";
cin>>sub2;
}
void put_marks()
{
cout<<"\nSub1="<<sub1;
cout<<"\nSub2="<<sub2;
}
};
class result : public test
{
float total;
public:
void display()
{
total=sub1+sub2;
put_num();
put_marks();
cout<<"\nTotal= "<<total;
}
};
int main()
{
clrscr();
result r;
r.get_num();
r.get_marks();
r.display();
getch();
return 0;
}
OUTPUT:
Enter the roll number: 11111
Enter the sub1 marks: 67
Enter the sub2 marks: 56
Rollnumber: 11111
Sub1=67
Sub2=56
Total= 123

iii) Hybrid Inheritance

Program:
#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
class arithmetic
{
protected:
int num1, num2;
public:
void getdata()
{
cout<<"\nEnter the first number: ";
cin>>num1;
cout<<"\nEnter the second number: ";
cin>>num2;
}
};
class plus:public arithmetic
{
protected:
int sum;
public:
{
sum=num1+num2;
}
};
class minus
{
protected:
int n1,n2,diff;
public:
void sub()
{
cout<<"\nFor Subtraction:";
cout<<"\nEnter the first number: ";
cin>>n1;
cout<<"\nEnter the second number: ";
cin>>n2;
diff=n1-n2;
}
};
class result:public plus, public minus
{
public:
void display()
{
cout<<"\nSum of "<<num1<<" and "<<num2<<"= "<<sum;
cout<<"\nDifference of "<<n1<<" and "<<n2<<"= "<<diff;
}
};
void main()
{
clrscr();
result z;
z.getdata();
z.sub();
z.display();
getch();
}

OUTPUT:

Enter the First Number: 10

Enter the Second Number: 5

For subtraction:
Enter the First Number: 9

Enter the Second Number: 7

Sum of 10 and 5 =15
Difference of 9 and 7 =2

Exp8: Write a c++ program illustrating Factorial Using Recursion

#include<iostream>
#include<conio.h>

using namespace std;

//Function
long factorial(int);

int main()
{

// Variable Declaration
int counter, n;

// Get Input Value
cout<<"Enter the Number :";
cin>>n;

// Factorial Function Call
cout<<n<<" Factorial Value Is "<<factorial(n);

// Wait For Output Screen
getch();
return 0;
}

// Factorial recursion Function
long factorial(int n)
{
if (n == 0)
return 1;
else
return(n * factorial(n-1));
}

Output
Enter the Number :6
6 Factorial Value Is 720