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# Solutions to Crystallization Problems

Steps involved:
I. Find the molecular weights of the anhydrous salt and hydrated salt:
Molecular weight of :
Na =23 Mg = 24.3 Cu = 63.5 S = 32
Anhydrous salts:
Na
2
CO
3
= (23 x 2) + 2 + (6 x 3) = !6
Na
2
SO
4
= (23 x 2) + 32 + (6 x 4) ="42
MgSO
4
= 2!.3
CuSO
4
= 63.5 + 32 + (6 x 4) = 5#.5
\$ecah%&rate = !. '
2
O = ! x ( = (!
ydrated salts:
)lau*er +alt = Na
2
SO
4
.! '
2
O = 42 + (! = 322
MgSO
4
., '
2
O = 2!.3 + 26 = 246.3.
CuSO
4
.5 '
2
O = 5#.5 + #! = 24#.5
!emember the molecular weights of these salts.
II. "raw the flow sheet of the process. (-hi+ +te. i+ o.tio/al0 *ut hel.ful to
u/&er+ta/& the .ro*le1.)
III. Find the different streams involved and their composition in terms of weight
fractions:
#eight fraction of salt \$ % \$ mass of salt & mass of salt solution
\$ mass of salt & ' mass of salt ( mass of water)
F \$ Feed stream.
%
F
\$ weight fraction of anhydrous salt in the feed solution.
*o find %
F
:
Case +: In the problem itself, it will be given
2or exa1.le0 the fee& co/tai/+ 3!3 of +alt *% weight.
So x
2
= 3! 4!! = !.3.
Case -: *he feed is a saturated solution at temperature, *
F
.
5/ thi+ ca+e0 x
2
i+ calculate& fro1 the +olu*ilit% &ata at -
2
.
2or exa1.le0 the fee& i+ a +aturate& +olutio/ at 5!
!
C6 +olu*ilit% at 5!
!
C i+ 62 7g
.er !! 7g of water.
'ere0 x
2
= 62 4 (!! + 62) = 62 4 62 =
S \$ Saturated solution remaining in e.uilibrium with crystals.
'e/ce cr%+tal+ a/& S are at the +a1e te1.erature0 -
C
.
%
S
\$ weight fraction of anhydrous salt in the saturated solution,S.
*o find %
S
: x
S
i+ calculate& fro1 the +olu*ilit% &ata at -
C
.
2or exa1.le0 the cr%+talli8atio/ occur+ at 5
!
C6 +olu*ilit% at 5
!
C i+ 2! 7g
.er !! 7g of water.
'ere0 x
S
= 2! 4 (!! + 2!) = 62 4 2! =
C \$ Crystals remaining in e.uilibrium with Saturated solution,S .
Cr%+tal+ are at te1.erature0 -
C
.
%
C
\$ weight fraction of anhydrous salt in the crystals,C.
*o find %
C
: x
C
i+ calculate& fro1 the 1olecular weight of h%&rate& cr%+tal+ a/&
a/h%&rou+ +alt.
2or exa1.le0 the cr%+tal+ are )lau*er +alt = Na
2
SO
4
.! '
2
O = 42 + (! = 322
'ere0 x
C
= 1olecular weight of a/h%&rou+ +alt 4 1ol.wt. of h%&rate& +alt
= 1ol.wt. of Na
2
SO
4
4 1ol.wt. of Na
2
SO
4
.! '
2
O
= 42 4 322=
/ \$ 0oss due to vaporization.
%
/
\$ weight fraction of anhydrous salt in the vapor \$ 1.
'*he vapor does not contain salt.)
I/. Find the weight fractions of water vapor in different streams :
F \$ Feed stream.
+2 %
F
\$ weight fraction of water in the feed solution.
S \$ Saturated solution remaining in e.uilibrium with crystals.
+2 %
S
\$ weight fraction of water in the saturated stream,S.
C \$ Crystals remaining in e.uilibrium with Saturated solution,S .
+2 %
C
\$ weight fraction of watert in the crystals,C.
2or exa1.le0 the cr%+tal+ are )lau*er +alt = Na
2
SO
4
.! '
2
O = 42 + (! = 322
'ere0 9 x
C
= 1olecular weight of h%&rate& water 4 1ol.wt. of h%&rate& +alt
= 1ol.wt. of !.'
2
O 4 1ol.wt. of Na
2
SO
4
.! '
2
O
= (! 4 322=
/ \$ 0oss due to vaporization.
+2%
/
\$ weight fraction of water in the vapor \$ +.
'*he vapor contains only
-
3.)
4o Stream #eight fraction
Salt 'anhydrous) #ater
+ Feed,F %
F
+2 %
F
- Saturated solution,S %
S
+2 %
S
5 Crystals,C %
C
+2 %
C
6 /apour,/ 7
/
\$ 1 +2 %
/
/. 8se the following e.uations and solve any - of them simultaneously:
'i) 3verall balance:
F \$ / ( S ( C 9.'+)
'ii) Salt balance:
F%
F
\$ /%
/
( S%
S
( C%
C
9..'-)
3r
F%
F
\$ S%
S
( C%
C
9..'-)
'iii) #ater balance:
F'+2%
F
) \$ / '+2%
/
) ( S '+2%
S
) ( C '+2%
C
)9'5)
3r
F'+2%
F
) \$ / ( S '+2%
S
) ( C '+2%
C
)9'5)
:g.
: +alt +olutio/ weighi/g !!!! 7g with 3!3 Na2CO3 (*% weight) i+ coole& to 2#3 7. -he +alt
cr%+talli8e+ a+ the &ecah%&rate (Na2CO3. !'2O). ;hat will *e the %iel& of Na2CO3.'2O cr%+tal+ if
+olu*ilit% i+ 2.5 7g a/h%&rou+ Na2CO3 .er !! 7g of total water< :++u1e that 33 of the total
weight of the +olutio/ i+ lo+t *% e=a.oratio/ of water i/ cooli/g< (6) (No=4\$ec >!6)
Solution:
Mol.wt of Na
2
CO
3
= !6
Mol.wt of ! '
2
O = (!
Mol.wt of Na
2
CO
3
.! '
2
O = 2(6
2 = !!!! 7g
?= 33 of !!!! = (3 4 !!) x !!!! = 3!! @g
S a/& C are u/@/ow/.
x
2
= 3!3 = 3! 4!! = !.3
x
S
= 2.5 4 (!! + 2.5) = 2.5 4 2.5 =!.,,
x
C
= 1ol.wt. of Na
2
CO
3
4 1ol.wt. of Na
2
CO
3
.! '
2
O
= !6 4 2(6 = !.3,!6
'i) 3verall balance:
F \$ / ( S ( C
!!!! = 3!! + S + C
S + C = #,!! A()
'ii) Salt balance:
F%
F
\$ /%
/
( S%
S
( C%
C

!!!! x !.3 = ! + !.,, S + !.3,!6 C
!.,, S + !.3,!6 C = 3!!! A(2)
Sol=i/g eBuatio/+ () C (2) +i1ulta/eou+l%0
S = 3!,2.4 7g
C = 662,.6 7g
;ield of crystals \$ <<-=.< >g
: *atch of +aturate& Na2CO3 +olutio/ of !! 7g i+ to *e .re.are& at 5!
!
C. -he +olu*ilit% i+ 4.4(
g1ole+ 4 !!! g '2O at 5!
!
C. 5f the 1o/oh%&rate were a=aila*le0 how 1a/% 7g of water woul& *e
reBuire& to for1 the +olutio/< 5f the &ecah%&rate i+ a=aila*le0 how 1a/% 7g of +alt will *e reBuire&<
(() (Ma%4Du/e >!6)
Solution:
Mol.wt of Na
2
CO
3
= !6
Mol.wt of ! '
2
O = (!
Mol.wt of 1o/oh%&rate (Na
2
CO
3
. '
2
O) = !6 + ( = 24
Mol.wt of &ecah%&rate (Na
2
CO
3
.! '
2
O) = 2(6
2 = !! @g +aturate& +olutio/
x
2
:
Solu*ilit% = 4.4( g1ole 4.4( g1ole Na
2
CO
3
4 !!! g '
2
O
4 !!! g '
2
O
= 4.4( x !6 g Na
2
CO
3
4 !!! g '
2
O
= 4,4.(( @g Na
2
CO
3
4 !!! @g '
2
O
x
2
= 4,4.(( 4 (!!! + 4,4.(() = 4,4.(( 4 4,4.(( = !.322
@g of +aturate& +olutio/ co/tai/+ !.322 @g Na
2
CO
3
!! @g of +aturate& +olutio/ co/tai/+ 32.2 @g Na
2
CO
3
a/& !! E 32.2 = 6,.( @g water.
Case +: *o prepare a saturated solution with monohydrate '4a
-
C3
5
.
-
3):
:1ou/t of 1o/oh%&rate reBuire&
= ( 1ol.wt. of Na
2
CO
3
. '
2
O 4 1ol.wt. of Na
2
CO
3
) x 32.2
= (24 4 !6) x 32.2 = 3,.66( @g
:1ou/t of water i/ 3,.66( @g 1o/oh%&rate
= (1ol.wt. of water 4 1ol.wt. of 1o/oh%&rate) x 3,.66(
= (( 4 24) x 3,.66( = 5.46( @g
:1ou/t of water reBuire& to .re.are !! @g +aturate& +olutio/ with 1o/oh%&rate
= -otal water reBuire& E water .re+e/t i/ 1o/oh%&rate
= 6,.( E 5.46( = 62.332 7g.
Amount of water re.uired \$ <-.55- ?g
Case - : *o prepare a saturated solution with decahydrate '4a
-
C3
5
. +1
-
3):
:1ou/t of &ecah%&rate reBuire&
= ( 1ol.wt. of Na
2
CO
3
. !'
2
O 4 1ol.wt. of Na
2
CO
3
) x 32.2
= (2(6 4 !6) x 32.2 = (6.(( @g
Amount of salt re.uired \$ @<.@@ ?g.
: +aturate& +olutio/ of MgSO4 at 353 7 ((!
!
C) i+ coole& to 3!3 7 (3!
!
C) i/ a cr%+talli8er.
\$uri/g cooli/g0 43 +olutio/ i+ lo+t *% e=a.oratio/ of water. Calculate the Bua/tit% of the origi/al
+aturate& +olutio/ to *e fe& to the cr%+talli8er .er !!! @g cr%+tal+ of MgSO4.,'2O. Solu*ilitie+ of
of MgSO4 at 3!3 7 a/& 353 7 are 4!.( a/& 64.2 @g 4 !! @g of water re+.ecti=el%. (2) (:.ril >#().
Solution:
Mol.wt of MgSO
4
= 2!.3
Mol.wt of , '
2
O = ( x , = 26.!
Mol.wt of MgSO
4
., '
2
O = 246.3
2ee& i+ a +aturate& +olutio/ at (!
!
C.
Solu*ilit% at (!
!
C = 64.2 @g 4 !! @g water.
x
2
= 64.2 4 (!! + 64.2) = 64.2 4 64.2 = !.3#
-he cr%+tal+ a/& +aturate& +olutio/(S) i/ eBuili*riu1 with the1 are at 3!
!
C.
Solu*ilit% at 3!
!
C = 4!.( @g 4 !! @g water.
x
S
= 4!.( 4 (!! + 4!.() = 4!.( 4 4!.( = !.2(#(
x
C
= 2!.34 246.3 = !.4((4
? = 43 of fee& = !.!42
C = !!! @g
Salt balance:
F%
F
\$ S%
S
( C%
C

!.3#2 = !.2(#(S + (!.4((4 x !!!)
!.3#2 E !.2(#(S = 4((.4 A..()
#ater balance:
F'+2%
F
) \$ / ( S '+2%
S
) ( C '+2%
C
)9'-)
!.6!#2 = !.!42 + !.,!2S + (!.56 x !!!)
!.56#2 9 !.,!2S = 5.6 A.(2)
Sol=i/g eBuatio/+ () C (2) +i1ulta/eou+l%0
2 = 23#6. @g
Auantity of the original saturated solution to be fed to the crystallizer to get +111 ?g
of crystals \$ -5B<.+ ?g
;ield C of crystals \$Dhydrated salt in product 'C) & hydrated salt in feed 'F)E % +11
\$' FgS3
6
.=
-
3 in crystals & FgS3
6
.=
-
3 in Feed) % +11
FgS3
6
.=
-
3 in Product,C \$ !!! @g
FgS3
6
.=
-
3 in Feed \$ 2x
2
( Mol.wt. of MgSO
4
., '
2
O 4 Mol.wt. of MgSO
4
)
\$ 23#6. x !.3# x 246.3 4 2!.3
= #(.4 @g
C ;ield of crystals \$D+111 & +B+@.+6E %+11
\$ G-.+6C