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# CRYSTALLIZATION

Student No:________

A hot solution of Ba(NO3)2 from an evaporator contains 30. For a feed solution of 100 kg total.0 kg Ba(NO3)2 per 100 kg water . calculate the following: a) The weight of crystals obtained is a) The yield of crystals if the solution is cooled to 290K. where the b) What is the weight of crystals obtained if 5% of the original water solubility is 8.6 kg Ba(NO3)2 per 100 kg water evaporates on cooling? b) The yield of crystals if the solution is cooled. where the solution is cooled solution of 363K. 10% of the original water is cooled to 293K. where the solubility is 35 wt% KCl in water. at which temperature its solubility is 25. where the solubility is 7.6 kg Ba(NO3)2 A batch of 1000 kg of KCl dissolved in sufficient water to make a saturated per 100 kg water and goes to a crystallizer. On cooling.4 wt%. evaporates. The solution and Ba(NO3)2 crystallizes.

55 at 360K and 34.45 kg sucrose/ kg A saturated solution containing 1500kg of potassium chloride at 360K is water. the solubility of potassium chloride per 100 parts of water by mass b) The supersaturation ratio in terms of kg/kg solution is 53. neglecting any loss of water by evaporation is .04 kg/kg water. a supersaturated solution of sucrose contains 2. If the equilibrium saturation value is 2. if the density of the solution is 1200 a) The supersaturation ratio in terms of kg/kg water kg/m3.5 at 290K calculate: a) The capacity of the tank required is b) The mass of crystals obtained.At 293K. what is cooled in an open tank to 290K.

Assume that no water is vaporized. which this solution must be cooled in order to crystallize out of 45% of the The solubility of the salt at 80F is 30. where FeSO4•7H2O crystals are removed.70 BTU/lbm-F. °C 70 10 0 solution is -4. Calculate the temperature to total water is cooled at 80°F.4 a) Calculate the yield of crystals b) Make a heat balance. Solubility. g/100g water 60.3 29.2 33.5 lb FeSO4 per 100 lb water. The NH4Cl.A feed solution of 10000 lbm at 130F containing 47 lb FeSO4 per 100 lb A solution of NH4Cl is saturated at 70°C. The QT is . The solubility of NH4Cl in water are: average heat capacity of the feed solution is 0.4 kcal/gmol FeSO4•7H2O. The heat of Temperature.

900 BTU/hr. is expected to be 20 BTU/hr-ft2-°F. The required rate of heat transfer is 44. The overall heat transfer coefficient. cooling 60°C is cooled to 20°C.6g/100g of water at cooled to 70°F. If a saturated solution of NaHCO3 at of crystallizer.The feed to a cooling crystallizer is 1000 lb/hr at 120°F. leaving at 85°F. It has a 3 ft2 of cooling surface per foot of running length 20°C and 16. what percentage of the dissolved salt crystallizes will be provided by a countercurrent flow of chilled water entering the out? cooling jacket at 60°F.4g/100g of water at 60°C. the length of the crystallizer is . U. The solution is The solubility of sodium bicarbonate in water is 9.

hC=-91. and hV= 1096. The amount of feed required is . per hour. The crystallizer vacuum is as such as to produce a crystallizer temperature of 80°F. The feed is a solution containing 38. the crystals leaving the crystallizer.A simple vacuum crystallizer is to produce 10.000 lb copper crystals. all in BTU/lb. the feed and vapor are: hL=-2. FeSO4•7H2O.2 parts FeSO4 per 100 parts total water.8. The enthalpies of saturated solution. Saturated solution at 80°F contains 30.9 parts FeSO4 per 100 parts total water. hF=46.4. and it enters the crystallizer at 158°F.

The 283 K is 9 kg anhydrous salt/100 kg water and the deposited crystals will overall heat transfer coefficient is 125 W/m2-K.2 kJ/kg. (NH4)2SO4 per 100 kg water.Ammonium sulfate is to be crystallized from a solution containing 48% What is the theoretical yield of crystals which may be obtained by cooling (NH4)2SO4 by cooling it in a counter-flow crystallizer from 85°C to 35°C. It may be surface required.97 kJ/kg-K. if the feed rate is 1000kg/hr. Solubility at 35°C is 75 kg assumed that 2% of the water will be lost by evaporation during cooling. and the latent heat of vaporization of water is 2414 kJ/kg. a solution containing 1000 kg of sodium sulphate (molecular mass = 142 During cooling the amount of water that evaporates is 5% of the mass of kg/kmol) in 5000 kg water to 283 K? The solubility of sodium sulphate at the feed solution. heat of crystallization of (NH4)2SO4 is 75. . Calculate the cooling consist of the deca-hydrate (molecular mass = 322 kg/kmol). specific heat of 48% solution is 2. Cooling water enters at 18°C and leaves at 29°C.

33 kN/m2. The solubility of Na3PO4 at 298 K is 15. what length of crystallizer is required.7 K. c2 = 0.5 kg/100 kg water.5 kJ/kg deg K K.A solution containing 23% by mass of sodium phosphate is cooled from What is the yield of sodium acetate crystals (CH3COONa.33 kN/m2 when it is supplied Na3PO4•12H2O. capacity of the solution is 3.2 kJ/kg deg K and the heat of crystallization is Data: 146.539 kg/kg water. and the overall coefficient of heat transfer is 140 W/m2 deg Heat capacity of the solution.46 MJ/kg is.3H2O) obtainable 313 to 298 K in a Swenson-Walker crystallizer to form crystals of from a vacuum crystalliser operating at 1. with 0. The mean heat boiling point elevation of the solution is 11.063 kg/s. 1m2/m length? Boiling point of water at 1.7 K Solubility of sodium acetate at 290.33 kN/m2 = 290. Cp = 3. assuming that the area available Latent heat of water at 1.5 kJ/kg. Heat of crystallisation.56 kg/s of a 40 per cent aqueous solution of the salt at 353 K? The and the required product rate of crystals is 0. If cooling water enters and leaves at 288 and 293 K. . q = 144 kJ/kg trihydrate respectively.5 deg K. λ = 2. typically.

What is the heat of crystallization per unit mass of the salt? .3 MJ.The heat required when 1 kmol of MgSO4•7H2O is dissolved isothermally at 291 K in a large mass of water is 13.

The molecular weight of lactose monohydrate is 360 and the solubility of lactose at 10°C is 1. . what is the yield of crystals? crystallizes with one molecule of water of crystallization.A batch of 1500 kg of saturated potassium chloride solution is cooled from Lactose syrup is concentrated to 8 g lactose per 10 g of water and then run 360 K to 290 K in an unagitated tank. If the solubilities of KCl are 53 and 34 into a crystallizing vat which contains 2500 kg of the syrup. Lactose evaporation may be neglected. kg/100 kg water at 360 K and 290 K respectively and water losses due to containing 2500 kg of syrup. it is cooled from 57°C to 10°C. In this vat. Assume that 1% of the water evaporates and that the heat loss through the vat walls is 4 x 104 kJ.500 kJ-mol-1. Calculate the heat to be removed in the cooling process. The heat of solution for lactose monohydrate is -15. The specific heat of the lactose solution is 3470 J kg-1 °C-1.5 g / 10 g water.

at a temperature of 40°C. Na2B4O7•10H2O at 150°F. After / 100 g water.If sodium chloride solution. filtered. and run to of 50% when the solubility of sodium chloride at this temperature is 36. calculate the quantity of sodium chloride crystals that will cooling to 100°F. The mother liquor contains 8% borax.6 g the crystallizer as a 25% solution of borax. The crystals are centrifuged and go to the drier form once crystallization has been started. What yield of the crystals is obtained per ton of rasorite processed? . has a concentration Rasorite containing 85% Na2B4O7•4H2O is dissolved. containing 5% moisture.

5 38. 640 lb of water are evaporated.8 . From 1000 A tank holds 10.A solution of potassium dichromate in water is 13% by weight. To what temperature must the solution be cooled? Solubility at 20°C is 0. g/100g water 12. The remaining solution crystallize from this solution 3000 kg of Na2CO3•10H2O without is cooled to 20°C. you want to lb of this solution.5 21. °C 10 20 30 Solubility.390 lbmole per 1000 lb of water. Calculate the percentage yield of crystals produced.000 kg of a saturated Na2CO3 at 30°C. Temperature. accompanying water.

5H2O? .5H2O crystals. How much FeCl3•H2O must be added to produce the most FeCl3•2.1000 kg of FeCl3•6H2O are added to a mixture crystals of FeCl3•H2O to produce a mixture of FeCl3•2.