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# 1

http://www.physics.usyd.edu.au/teach_res/jp/fluids/wfluids.htm
web notes: Fluidslect3.pdf
buoyancy.pdf
surface.pdf not examinable
Lecture 3
Dr Julia Bryant
Buoyancy and Archimedes
principle
Fluid statics
What is a fluid?
Density
Pressure
Fluid pressure and depth
Pascals principle
Buoyancy
Archimedes principle
Fluid dynamics
Reynolds number
Equation of continuity
Bernoullis principle
Viscosity and turbulent flow
Poiseuilles equation
2
Buoyancy
When a solid object is wholly
or partly immersed in a uid,
the uid molecules are
continually striking the
submerged surface of the
object.
The forces due to these
impacts can be combined into
a single force the buoyant
force which counteracts the
weight.
T = W - F
B
W
F
B
T
3
If F
b
> F
g
body floats.
If F
b
< F
g
body sinks.
A body floats in any
liquid with density
!
fluid
> !
body
F
b
F
b
> F
g
F
g
F
b
< F
g
DEMO
4
How high will it float?
- What fraction of an iceberg is under water?
Water expands on freezing
by 10%.
Density of ice is 0.9g/cm
3

Fraction of iceberg
submerged is
!
ice
/ !
water
= 0.9/1.0
Therefore 90% of the
iceberg is submerged
.
5
DEMO
How can we
measure the
force due to
buoyancy?
6
m
When an object is immersed in a
fluid, there is an upward buoyant
force equal to the weight of the
volume of fluid displaced by the
object.
This applies to either full or partial
immersion (i.e. a sinking or
floating object)
T = W - F
B
W
F
B
T
Archimedes Principle
7
W a t e r
d i s p l a c e d
Hung
T = W - F
B
Weight

F
B
Tension

Weight

F
B
Contact

F
C
= W - F
B
Sunk
8
weight
buoyant
force
Floating:
Floating: fully submerged
Water
displaced
Some fish can remain at a fixed
depth without moving by storing
Submarines take on or discharge
water into their ballast tanks.
equals
Water
displaced
9
If you accidently drop
the bottle into the
water (with the lid on),
how much of the
Kahlua would you
drunk for the bottle
to float back up to
you?
mg
F
B

You are floating
around a pool drinking
a bottle of Kahlua.
10
How much of the Kahlua would you
have had to have drunk for the bottle
to float back up to you?
F
B
> mg
mg
F
B

What is the volume of the bottle and its
contents?
Full bottle has 350mls of liquid
= 350cm
3
= 3.5x10
-4
m
3
with a specific gravity
1.15
Small amount of air in the top
="R
2
h= " x (1.5cm)
2
x 2cm = 14 cm
3
= 14 ml
How much glass is there?
375g (empty bottle) with density of
2500kg.m
3
==> V=1.5x10
-4
m
3
=150cm
3

Total volume = 350 + 14 + 150cm
3

= 514cm
3
=5.14x10
-4
m
3
11
Liquid before any is drunk
V
Kah
= 350cm
3
= 3.5x10
-4
m
3
#
Kah
= 1150 kg.m
-3

Air in the top V
air
=14 ml =1.4x10
-5
m
3

Glass
V
glass
= 150cm
3
with #
glass
= 2500Kg.m
3

Total volume =5.14x10
-4
m
3
Buoyant force F
B
= #
water
V g
= 1000 x 5.14x10
-4
x 9.8 = 5.037 N mg
F
B

mg = (#
air
V
air
+ #
Kah
V
Kah
+ #
glass
V
glass
) x g but some has been drunk
V
inside bottle
= V
air
+ V
kah_before
= 3.5x10
-4
+ 1.4x10
-5
m
3
= 3.64x10
-4
m
3
mg = [1.21 x (3.64x10
-4
- V
Kah
) + 1150 x V
Kah
+ 2500 x 1.5x10
-4
] x 9.8 N
= 0.00432 + 11258.14 V
Kah
+ 3.675 N
The bottle will float if F
B
> mg
5.037 > 0.00432 + 11258.14 V
Kah
+ 3.675
==> V
Kah
< 1.21x10
-4
m
3
or V
Kah
< 121ml
(equivalent mass to 139mls water)
12
What is wrong with the picture of the ship
on the left?
13
Why can ships float?
A steel ship can encompass a great deal of empty space
and so have a large volume and a relatively small density.
Weight of ship = weight of water displaced
14
A 200 tonne ship enters a lock of a canal.
The fit between the sides of the lock is so
tight that the weight of the water left in the
lock after it closes is much less than the
ship's weight. Can the ship float?
15
Volume of water displaced. This
volume is not necessarily the
volume present.
Weight of ship = weight of water displaced
The buoyant force is equal to the weight of the water displaced, not
the water actually present. The missing water that would have filled
the volume of the ship below the waterline is the displaced fluid.
16
h
#
F
bottom
#
o
Why is buoyancy due to the weight of fluid displaced?
An object floats because of the pressure difference between the
top and bottom of the object.
F = (p
bottom
p
top
) A
F = (p
atm
+ !
F
g h p
atm
) A
F = !
F
g h A = !
F
V
F
g
F = m
F
g = Weight of displaced fluid =>Buoyant force
A
top
p = p
0
+ ! g h
17
DEMO
Hydrometer can be used to measure fluid density.
A hydrometer floats due to buoyancy.
Higher fluid density => higher buoyant force
Hydrometer
F
B
= # V g
#
water
= 1000 kg.m
-3
#
kerosene
= 817 kg.m
-3
18
If a hydrometer was a rod that had a length of 0.250 m, cross sectional
area was 2.00\$10
-4
m
2
, and mass of 4.50\$10
-2
kg,
(a) How far from the bottom end of the rod should a mark of 1.000 be
placed to indicate the relative density of the water (density 1.000\$10
3

kg.m
-3
)?
(b) If the hydrometer sinks to a depth of 0.229m when placed into an
alcohol solution. What is the density of the alcohol solution?
Hydrometer - example
Let h be the height to which it is submerged.
F
B
= #Ahg upwards F
g
= mg downwards
#Ahg = mg
In water:
h = m = 4.50\$10
-2
= 0.225m
(#A) (1.000\$10
3
)(2.00\$10
-4
)
In alcohol solution:
# = m = 4.50\$10
-2
= 983 kg.m
-3
(Ah) (2.00\$10
-4
)(0.229)
h
0.250m
A
19
? A
Two cups are lled to the same level.
One cup has ice cubes oating on it.
Which weighs more?
B
Two cups are lled to the same level.
One of the cups has ice cubes oating
in it. When the ice melts, in which cup
is the level higher?
Cup 1 Cup 2
20
? A
Two cups are lled to the same level.
One cup has ice cubes oating on it.
Which weighs more?
Cups weigh the same.
Weight of the ice cubes is equal to the buoyant force.
The buoyant force is equal to the weight of the water displaced by the
ice cubes.
This means that the weight that the ice cubes add to the cup is exactly
what an amount of water that is equal to that submerged volume of ice
mg F
B

Cup 1 Cup 2
21
? A
Two cups are lled to the same level.
One cup has ice cubes oating on it.
Which weighs more?
B
Two cups are lled to the same level.
One of the cups has ice cubes oating
in it. When the ice melts, in which cup
is the level higher?
Cup 1 Cup 2
22
? B
Two cups are lled to the same level.
One of the cups has ice cubes oating
in it. When the ice melts, in which cup
is the level higher?
The level is the same.
The weight of the ice cubes is equal to the weight of the water that
would ll the submerged volume of the cubes.
When the cubes melt into the water the volume of melted water is
exactly equal to the volume of water that the cubes were displacing.
Cup 1 Cup 2
23
A giant clam has a
mass of 470 kg and a
volume of 0.350 m
3

lies at the bottom of a
freshwater lake. How
much force is needed
to lift it at constant
velocity?
24
F
T
+ F
B
F
G
a = 0 m
m = 470 kg
V
clam
= 0.350 m
3
g = 9.8 m.s
-2

#
water
= 1.0x10
3
kg.m
-3
F
T
+ F
B
= F
G
F
T
= F
G
- F
B

F
T
= m g - #
water
g V
displaced
F
T
= m g - #
water
g V
clam

F
T
= (470)(9.8) (10
3
)(9.8)(0.350) N
F
T
= 1.2\$10
3
N
F
T
= ? N
%F = 0
= force to lift 70 full 750ml Kahlua bottles in air!
25
A ring weighs 6.327\$10
-3
N in air and
6.033\$10
-3
N when submerged in water.
What is the volume of the ring?
What is the density of the ring?
What is the ring made of?
air
water
26
Volume? density? What is the ring made of?
air
water
F
Tair
= F
G
F
Twater
+ F
B
= F
G
Archimedes Principle
F
B
= weight of water displaced
F
B
= #
F
V
ring
g
V
R
= 3.0x10
-8
m
3
#
R
= 2.2x10
4
kg.m
-3
maybe gold
Decrease in weight due to buoyant force
F
B
= F
Gair
F
Gwater
= 6.327\$10
-3
- 6.033\$10
-3
= 0.294x10
-3
N
Find the volume of the ring:
Since the ring is fully submerged
V
R
= F
B
/#
F
g =(0.294x10
-3
) / {(10
3
)(9.8)} m
3

= 3.00x10
-8
m
3
Find the density of the ring:
#
R
= m
R
/ V
R
= F
gair
/(g V
R
)=(6.327x10
-3
) / {(9.8)(3.0x10
-8
)} kg.m
-3

= 21.5x10
3
kg.m
-3
What is the ring made of?

Weighs 6.327\$10
-3
N in air and 6.033\$10
-3
N in water.
REYNOLDS NUMBER
A British scientist Osborne Reynolds (1842
1912) established that the nature of the flow
depends upon a dimensionless quantity, which
is now called the Reynolds number R
e
.
R
e
= # v L / &
# density of fluid
v average flow velocity over the cross
section of the pipe
L characteristic dimension
& viscosity
As a rule of thumb, for a flowing fluid
R
e
< ~ 2000 laminar flow
~ 2000 < R
e
< ~ 3000 unstable laminar
to turbulent flow
R
e
> ~ 2000 turbulent flow
pascal 1 Pa = 1 N.m
-2
newton 1 N = 1 kg.m.s
-2

1 Pa.s = kg.m.s
-2
. m
-2
.s
R
e
= # v L / &
[R
e
] ' [kg.m
-3
] [m.s
-1
][m]
[Pa.s]
' kg x m x m x s
2
.m
2
= [1]
m
3
s kg.m.s
R
e
is a dimensionless number
Consider an IDEAL FLUID
Fluid motion is very complicated. However, by
making some assumptions, we can develop a
useful model of fluid behaviour. An ideal fluid is
Incompressible the density is constant
Irrotational the flow is smooth, no turbulence
Nonviscous fluid has no internal friction (&=0)
Steady flow the velocity of the fluid at each
point is constant in time.
Velocity of particle is
tangent to streamline
Streamlines cannot cross
Streamlines