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Buoyancy is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object. In a column of fluid, pressure increases with depth as a result of the weight of the overlying fluid. Thus a column of fluid, or an object submerged in the fluid, experiences greater pressure at the bottom of the column than at the top. This difference in pressure results in a net force that tends to accelerate an object upwards. The magnitude of that force is proportional to the difference in the pressure between the top and the bottom of the column, and (as explained by Archimedes' principle) is also equivalent to the weight of the fluid that would otherwise occupy the column, i.e. the displaced fluid. For this reason, an object whose density is greater than that of the fluid in which it is submerged tends to sink. If the object is either less dense than the liquid or is shaped appropriately (as in a boat), the force can keep the object afloat. This can occur only in a reference frame which either has a gravitational field or is accelerating due to a force other than gravity defining a "downward" direction (that is, a non-inertial reference frame). In a situation of fluid statics, the net upward buoyancy force is equal to the magnitude of the weight of fluid displaced by the body

Buoyancy is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object. In a column of fluid, pressure increases with depth as a result of the weight of the overlying fluid. Thus a column of fluid, or an object submerged in the fluid, experiences greater pressure at the bottom of the column than at the top. This difference in pressure results in a net force that tends to accelerate an object upwards. The magnitude of that force is proportional to the difference in the pressure between the top and the bottom of the column, and (as explained by Archimedes' principle) is also equivalent to the weight of the fluid that would otherwise occupy the column, i.e. the displaced fluid. For this reason, an object whose density is greater than that of the fluid in which it is submerged tends to sink. If the object is either less dense than the liquid or is shaped appropriately (as in a boat), the force can keep the object afloat. This can occur only in a reference frame which either has a gravitational field or is accelerating due to a force other than gravity defining a "downward" direction (that is, a non-inertial reference frame). In a situation of fluid statics, the net upward buoyancy force is equal to the magnitude of the weight of fluid displaced by the body

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http://www.physics.usyd.edu.au/teach_res/jp/fluids/wfluids.htm

web notes: Fluidslect3.pdf

buoyancy.pdf

surface.pdf not examinable

Lecture 3

Dr Julia Bryant

Buoyancy and Archimedes

principle

Fluid statics

What is a fluid?

Density

Pressure

Fluid pressure and depth

Pascals principle

Buoyancy

Archimedes principle

Fluid dynamics

Reynolds number

Equation of continuity

Bernoullis principle

Viscosity and turbulent flow

Poiseuilles equation

2

Buoyancy

When a solid object is wholly

or partly immersed in a uid,

the uid molecules are

continually striking the

submerged surface of the

object.

The forces due to these

impacts can be combined into

a single force the buoyant

force which counteracts the

weight.

T = W - F

B

W

F

B

T

3

If F

b

> F

g

body floats.

If F

b

< F

g

body sinks.

A body floats in any

liquid with density

!

fluid

> !

body

F

b

F

b

> F

g

F

g

F

b

< F

g

DEMO

4

How high will it float?

- What fraction of an iceberg is under water?

Water expands on freezing

by 10%.

Density of ice is 0.9g/cm

3

Fraction of iceberg

submerged is

!

ice

/ !

water

= 0.9/1.0

Therefore 90% of the

iceberg is submerged

.

5

DEMO

How can we

measure the

force due to

buoyancy?

6

m

When an object is immersed in a

fluid, there is an upward buoyant

force equal to the weight of the

volume of fluid displaced by the

object.

This applies to either full or partial

immersion (i.e. a sinking or

floating object)

T = W - F

B

W

F

B

T

Archimedes Principle

7

W a t e r

d i s p l a c e d

Hung

T = W - F

B

Weight

F

B

Tension

Weight

F

B

Contact

F

C

= W - F

B

Sunk

8

weight

buoyant

force

Floating:

Floating: fully submerged

Water

displaced

Some fish can remain at a fixed

depth without moving by storing

gas in their bladder.

Submarines take on or discharge

water into their ballast tanks.

equals

Water

displaced

9

If you accidently drop

the bottle into the

water (with the lid on),

how much of the

Kahlua would you

have had to have

drunk for the bottle

to float back up to

you?

mg

F

B

You are floating

around a pool drinking

a bottle of Kahlua.

10

How much of the Kahlua would you

have had to have drunk for the bottle

to float back up to you?

F

B

> mg

mg

F

B

What is the volume of the bottle and its

contents?

Full bottle has 350mls of liquid

= 350cm

3

= 3.5x10

-4

m

3

with a specific gravity

1.15

Small amount of air in the top

="R

2

h= " x (1.5cm)

2

x 2cm = 14 cm

3

= 14 ml

How much glass is there?

375g (empty bottle) with density of

2500kg.m

3

==> V=1.5x10

-4

m

3

=150cm

3

Total volume = 350 + 14 + 150cm

3

= 514cm

3

=5.14x10

-4

m

3

11

Liquid before any is drunk

V

Kah

= 350cm

3

= 3.5x10

-4

m

3

#

Kah

= 1150 kg.m

-3

Air in the top V

air

=14 ml =1.4x10

-5

m

3

Glass

V

glass

= 150cm

3

with #

glass

= 2500Kg.m

3

Total volume =5.14x10

-4

m

3

Buoyant force F

B

= #

water

V g

= 1000 x 5.14x10

-4

x 9.8 = 5.037 N mg

F

B

mg = (#

air

V

air

+ #

Kah

V

Kah

+ #

glass

V

glass

) x g but some has been drunk

V

inside bottle

= V

air

+ V

kah_before

= 3.5x10

-4

+ 1.4x10

-5

m

3

= 3.64x10

-4

m

3

mg = [1.21 x (3.64x10

-4

- V

Kah

) + 1150 x V

Kah

+ 2500 x 1.5x10

-4

] x 9.8 N

= 0.00432 + 11258.14 V

Kah

+ 3.675 N

The bottle will float if F

B

> mg

5.037 > 0.00432 + 11258.14 V

Kah

+ 3.675

==> V

Kah

< 1.21x10

-4

m

3

or V

Kah

< 121ml

(equivalent mass to 139mls water)

12

What is wrong with the picture of the ship

on the left?

13

Why can ships float?

A steel ship can encompass a great deal of empty space

and so have a large volume and a relatively small density.

Weight of ship = weight of water displaced

14

A 200 tonne ship enters a lock of a canal.

The fit between the sides of the lock is so

tight that the weight of the water left in the

lock after it closes is much less than the

ship's weight. Can the ship float?

15

Volume of water displaced. This

volume is not necessarily the

volume present.

Weight of ship = weight of water displaced

The buoyant force is equal to the weight of the water displaced, not

the water actually present. The missing water that would have filled

the volume of the ship below the waterline is the displaced fluid.

16

h

#

F

bottom

#

o

Why is buoyancy due to the weight of fluid displaced?

An object floats because of the pressure difference between the

top and bottom of the object.

F = (p

bottom

p

top

) A

F = (p

atm

+ !

F

g h p

atm

) A

F = !

F

g h A = !

F

V

F

g

F = m

F

g = Weight of displaced fluid =>Buoyant force

A

top

p = p

0

+ ! g h

17

DEMO

Hydrometer can be used to measure fluid density.

A hydrometer floats due to buoyancy.

Higher fluid density => higher buoyant force

Hydrometer

F

B

= # V g

#

water

= 1000 kg.m

-3

#

kerosene

= 817 kg.m

-3

18

If a hydrometer was a rod that had a length of 0.250 m, cross sectional

area was 2.00$10

-4

m

2

, and mass of 4.50$10

-2

kg,

(a) How far from the bottom end of the rod should a mark of 1.000 be

placed to indicate the relative density of the water (density 1.000$10

3

kg.m

-3

)?

(b) If the hydrometer sinks to a depth of 0.229m when placed into an

alcohol solution. What is the density of the alcohol solution?

Hydrometer - example

Let h be the height to which it is submerged.

F

B

= #Ahg upwards F

g

= mg downwards

#Ahg = mg

In water:

h = m = 4.50$10

-2

= 0.225m

(#A) (1.000$10

3

)(2.00$10

-4

)

In alcohol solution:

# = m = 4.50$10

-2

= 983 kg.m

-3

(Ah) (2.00$10

-4

)(0.229)

h

0.250m

A

19

? A

Two cups are lled to the same level.

One cup has ice cubes oating on it.

Which weighs more?

B

Two cups are lled to the same level.

One of the cups has ice cubes oating

in it. When the ice melts, in which cup

is the level higher?

Cup 1 Cup 2

20

? A

Two cups are lled to the same level.

One cup has ice cubes oating on it.

Which weighs more?

Cups weigh the same.

Weight of the ice cubes is equal to the buoyant force.

The buoyant force is equal to the weight of the water displaced by the

ice cubes.

This means that the weight that the ice cubes add to the cup is exactly

what an amount of water that is equal to that submerged volume of ice

cubes would add.

mg F

B

Cup 1 Cup 2

21

? A

Two cups are lled to the same level.

One cup has ice cubes oating on it.

Which weighs more?

B

Two cups are lled to the same level.

One of the cups has ice cubes oating

in it. When the ice melts, in which cup

is the level higher?

Cup 1 Cup 2

22

? B

Two cups are lled to the same level.

One of the cups has ice cubes oating

in it. When the ice melts, in which cup

is the level higher?

The level is the same.

The weight of the ice cubes is equal to the weight of the water that

would ll the submerged volume of the cubes.

When the cubes melt into the water the volume of melted water is

exactly equal to the volume of water that the cubes were displacing.

Cup 1 Cup 2

23

A giant clam has a

mass of 470 kg and a

volume of 0.350 m

3

lies at the bottom of a

freshwater lake. How

much force is needed

to lift it at constant

velocity?

24

F

T

+ F

B

F

G

a = 0 m

m = 470 kg

V

clam

= 0.350 m

3

g = 9.8 m.s

-2

#

water

= 1.0x10

3

kg.m

-3

F

T

+ F

B

= F

G

F

T

= F

G

- F

B

F

T

= m g - #

water

g V

displaced

F

T

= m g - #

water

g V

clam

F

T

= (470)(9.8) (10

3

)(9.8)(0.350) N

F

T

= 1.2$10

3

N

F

T

= ? N

%F = 0

= force to lift 70 full 750ml Kahlua bottles in air!

25

A ring weighs 6.327$10

-3

N in air and

6.033$10

-3

N when submerged in water.

What is the volume of the ring?

What is the density of the ring?

What is the ring made of?

air

water

26

Volume? density? What is the ring made of?

air

water

F

Tair

= F

G

F

Twater

+ F

B

= F

G

Archimedes Principle

F

B

= weight of water displaced

F

B

= #

F

V

ring

g

V

R

= 3.0x10

-8

m

3

#

R

= 2.2x10

4

kg.m

-3

maybe gold

Decrease in weight due to buoyant force

F

B

= F

Gair

F

Gwater

= 6.327$10

-3

- 6.033$10

-3

= 0.294x10

-3

N

Find the volume of the ring:

Since the ring is fully submerged

V

R

= F

B

/#

F

g =(0.294x10

-3

) / {(10

3

)(9.8)} m

3

= 3.00x10

-8

m

3

Find the density of the ring:

#

R

= m

R

/ V

R

= F

gair

/(g V

R

)=(6.327x10

-3

) / {(9.8)(3.0x10

-8

)} kg.m

-3

= 21.5x10

3

kg.m

-3

What is the ring made of?

Weighs 6.327$10

-3

N in air and 6.033$10

-3

N in water.

REYNOLDS NUMBER

A British scientist Osborne Reynolds (1842

1912) established that the nature of the flow

depends upon a dimensionless quantity, which

is now called the Reynolds number R

e

.

R

e

= # v L / &

# density of fluid

v average flow velocity over the cross

section of the pipe

L characteristic dimension

& viscosity

As a rule of thumb, for a flowing fluid

R

e

< ~ 2000 laminar flow

~ 2000 < R

e

< ~ 3000 unstable laminar

to turbulent flow

R

e

> ~ 2000 turbulent flow

pascal 1 Pa = 1 N.m

-2

newton 1 N = 1 kg.m.s

-2

1 Pa.s = kg.m.s

-2

. m

-2

.s

R

e

= # v L / &

[R

e

] ' [kg.m

-3

] [m.s

-1

][m]

[Pa.s]

' kg x m x m x s

2

.m

2

= [1]

m

3

s kg.m.s

R

e

is a dimensionless number

Consider an IDEAL FLUID

Fluid motion is very complicated. However, by

making some assumptions, we can develop a

useful model of fluid behaviour. An ideal fluid is

Incompressible the density is constant

Irrotational the flow is smooth, no turbulence

Nonviscous fluid has no internal friction (&=0)

Steady flow the velocity of the fluid at each

point is constant in time.

Velocity of particle is

tangent to streamline

Streamlines cannot cross

Streamlines

- in steady flow,

a bundle of

streamlines

makes a flow

tube.

Consider the average motion of

the uid at a particular point in

space and time.

An individual uid element will

follow a path called a ow line.

Steady ow is when the pattern of

ow lines does not change with

time.

v

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