MITIGATION MEASURES

6.1 During Investigation and Preparation
6.1.1 Social and Socio-Economic Impacts
.
Main Final Trace
Displacement of people
The RD has ta!en mitigator" action to reduce the num#er o$ $amilies that %ill #e
adversel" a$$ected due to various pro&ect interventions. s a result o$ such attempts made
through various studies' the num#er o$ $amilies to #e displaced has #een #rought do%n to
6() as at present. ll these 6() $amilies are presentl" resettled under t%o mitigator"
measures alread" implemented.
1. *reating RD sponsored resettlement sites and resettled ++, $amilies
+. -iven opportunities $or ./) $amilies %ho opted to resettle %ith their o%n
initiative.
The policies suggested on involuntar" resettlement #" the government o$ Sri 0an!a and
D12s policies on involuntar" resettlement %ere $ollo%ed #" the RD in the %hole
resettlement process. The RD has o#tained services o$ various parties to assist the
resettlement process #eside the activities o$ its o%n pro&ect sta$$.
#out +3,3 $amilies in total had various impacts and all o$ them have #een compensated
according to the Sri 0an!an government and D12s policies and guidelines on social
impact management $rame %or!. 4ut o$ +3,3 $amilies (1) houses 5ph"sical structures6
had negative impacts and the" all %ere demolished $or allo%ing the road construction
%or!s to ta!e place. 4nl" 6() o$ (1) houses %ere occupied #" people and there$ore' the"
%ere relocated. The other ., houses a$$ected %ere &ust ph"sical structures partiall"
constructed or not occupied #" people. The o%ners o$ these ., houses %ere given
compensation although there %as no need to relocate people 5#ut the structures %ere
demolished to ac7uire lands to carr" out pro&ect construction %or!6. The t"pes o$
properties a$$ected and the nature compensation paid to them are summari8ed in Ta#le
6.1.1.
Ta#le 6.1.1- Ph"sical Properties $$ected and 9ature o$ *ompensation
Type of properties Compensation package
Di$$erent t"pes o$ land *ompensation #ased on the mar!et values
o$ di$$erent categor" o$ lands'
*ompensation to the crops.
$$ected houses Paid compensation $or all. ++, $amilies
%ere provided %ith resettlement sites and
1
helped to #uild houses. The cost o$ the land
and ne% houses %ere paid #" the a$$ected
$amilies out o$ the amount paid to them #"
RD as compensation. The certain
common $acilities such as electricit"' %ater'
access etc. %ere provided #" RD $rom its
resettlement $unds. :ntil RD provided
ne% houses the a$$ected $amilies %ere
given mone" $or renting houses. nother
./) $amilies %ho %anted to resettle in their
o%n locations %ere paid compensation and
nother additional allo%ance 5Rs. 1,,,,,
$or each $amil"6 to get resettled #"
themselves. ll the a$$ected $amilies %ho
%ere to #e resettled %ere given shi$ting
allo%ances to transport their #elonging to
ne% places.
*ommercial esta#lishments Some o$ the $amilies among 6() %ere
small #usiness holders and the" %are given
additional mone" to compensate the
income the" had to $orego during
resettlement period. This group %as also
paid all other t"pes o$ compensation given
to other a$$ected householders such as
house rent' shi$ting allo%ances etc..
t the $ocus group discussions held %ith the a$$ected and alread" resettled communities
the participants e;pressed $ollo%ing vie%s on the resettlement process the" had
undergone<
Positie ie!s"
• $$ected $amilies %ere given uni$orm si8ed o$ +, perch lands in the RD initiated
resettlement sites.
• The in$rastructure $acilities re7uired to the resettlement sites 5roads' electricit"
and %ater6 %ere provided #" the RD in addition to the compensation.
• ssessed and recommended amounts #" the valuation sta$$ o$ RD %ere paid to
the a$$ected propert" 5land and houses6
+
Mitigatory action re#$ire% for some %ra!&acks of t'e resettlement process
accor%ing to t'e comm$nities"
• Remaining land development pro#lems to #e resolved $urther.
• Some resettlement sites are "et to #e provided %ith drin!ing %ater $acilities. The
e;isting %ater suppl" $acilities to #e improved to cater to the additional demand
created #" the resettlement process.
• Several $amilies are not satis$ied %ith the allocated land and their present
pro#lems should #e loo!ed into.
• ctive participation o$ the resettled $amilies should #e enlisted in the process in
order to ta!e into account the present needs o$ the settlers.
RD has ta!en post resettlement e$$orts $or the #ene$it o$ the a$$ected. Such communities
%ere provided %ith training on entrepreneurship development and other livehood
reesta#lishment activities. The *entral 1an! training e;perts %ere used in this e$$ort.
The $ollo%ing additional mitigator" action should #e incorporated.
1. %ell designed program should #e implemented during the post resettlement
phase to assist the a$$ected parties to reesta#lish their livehood s"stems through
the e$$ective utili8ation o$ the granted compensation.
+. This process should also #e e;tended to the parties %ho have resettled on their
o%n initiative.
=. Incorporate a veri$ication methodolog" and action plans to ensure the #etter status
o$ the resettled communities up to the end o$ the maintenance period.
-alle Port ccess Road
The same mitigator" action should #e ta!en $or the -alle Port ccess Road.
6.1.+ >"drological Impacts
6.1.+.1 ?ater
6.1.+.1.1 Sur$ace ?ater @uantit"
Main Final Trace
s there is no signi$icant impact on the sur$ace %ater 7uantit" during the investigation A
preparation stage no special mitigator" measures are necessar".
=
-alle Port ccess
s there is no signi$icant impact on the sur$ace %ater 7uantit" during the investigation A
preparation stage no special mitigator" measures are necessar".
6.1.+.1.+ -round%ater @uantit"
Main Final Trace
s there is no impact caused #" the e;ploitation o$ ground%ater during the investigation
A preparation stage no special mitigator" measures are necessar".
-alle Port ccess
s there is no impact caused #" the e;ploitation o$ ground%ater during the investigation
A preparation stage no special mitigator" measures are necessar".
6.1.= Impacts on Road Trace Design
The sun-shine e$$ect on the motorists operating on the road in the East to ?est direction'
has not #een considered in the previous studies and the Detailed Design Stage. The
$ollo%ing measures are applica#le to mitigate this impact.
• In critical sections suita#le tree planting at edges or median should #e carried out
a$ter a stud" o$ the mitigator" e$$ects due to such action.
t critical sections actions should #e ta!en to ensure that users are made a%are o$ the
$ollo%ing aspects.
• To drive cautiousl" and leave a proper distance to ensure ample reaction time.
• 0o%er visors o$ the vehicles to help #loc! some o$ the re$lected light.
• Prohi#it using high-gloss vin"l cleansers on dash#oards.
• Beep the car %indshield clean and the %indshield %asher $luid $ull.
• ?hen possi#le' ta!e an alternate edge lane lined %ith tress or tall #uildings in lieu
o$ middle lanes %ith e;treme glare.
• To turn on headlights to assist the possi#le poor visi#ilit" o$ oncoming drivers.
• To %ear sunglasses %ith polari8ed lenses and :C protection at all times %hen
using the e;press%a".
• Ensure e"e protection $rom harm$ul solar radiation.
The developer need to plan and ensure that the user compliance to a#ove $or proper
sa$et" o$ user A in$rastructure sa$et".
.
6.+ D$ring Constr$ction
6.+.1 >"drolog" and Drainage spects
6.+.1.1 ?ater
6.+.1.1.1 Sur$ace ?ater @uantit"
Main Final Trace
1. The removal o$ vegetal cover should #e minimi8ed and limited to the areas %hich
are a#solutel" necessar" $or road construction.
+. The paved area %atersheds should ensure retardation o$ sur$ace %ater through the
incorporation o$ retention and detention $acilities.
=. The drainage crossings o$ the road should #e designed to ensure su$$icient
drainage %ith minimum #ac!%ater e$$ects along the drainage paths %hich have
either #een hindered or altered #" the road em#an!ments.
-alle Port ccess
Steps should #e ta!en as indicated a#ove to ensure mitigation o$ impacts along the -alle
Port ccess.
6.+.1.1.+ -round%ater @uantit"
Main Final Trace
Mitigator" Measures $or 4ther Impacts
1. Increase in ground%ater ta#le #ecause o$ the uprooting o$ the deep rooted trees.
This impact is ver" lo% impact. The raise in the ground%ater ta#le due to this %ill also #e
marginal. In the process o$ landscaping the road trace and its environs' trees %ill #e
planted and these trees %ill o$$set the impact to a certain e;tent. 9o special mitigator"
measures are necessar".
+. Simultaneous reduction in ground%ater elevations in cut areas to match the
ultimate $inish ground levels.
s the construction is ongoing and most o$ the deep cuts are complete the impact has
alread" ta!en place. The reduction o$ domestic dug %ell %ater levels are monitored to
identi$" such impacts. PI: o$ the RD has started such a ground%ater monitoring
/
programme and continued long term monitoring %ould ena#le conclusive results.
There$ore %ith the collection o$ data periodic evaluations should #e per$ormed to assess
the status o$ ground%ater ta#le.
Sta!eholder complaints should #e treated %ith caution %ith suita#le mechanisms to
ensure the proper assessment o$ individual complaints. Environmental o$$icers in the PI:
could #e utili8ed $or this purpose.
=. Seepage o$ ground%ater $rom deep cuts and causing loss to the ground%ater %ells
on hills %here deep cut o$ the road run through.
The mitigation action are similar to the a#ove.
.. Reduction o$ ground%ater levels in the em#an!ment A other #oarder
development %or!s.
It %as identi$ied that this reduction is mainl" in laces on the road trace %here $illing is
underta!en. s the reduction is insigni$icant' there is no adverse e$$ect to #e mitigated.
/. Increase o$ the ground%ater levels in the em#an!ment areas and conse7uent
reduction in ground%ater levels in the do%nstream areas.
Mitigator" measures should #e implemented #" the provision o$ ade7uate drainage
$acilities through the road em#an!ment. 4pening si8es o$ the culverts and #ridges should
#e su$$icient to pass the $lo%s through the trace minimi8ing temporar" retention. It has
#een noted that' this is presentl" #eing practiced in the design o$ e$$ective drainage
structures.
6. Increase o$ the ground%ater levels in the temporar" ponding areas created #"
temporar" crossing %hich have not connected to do%nstream stream paths and
conse7uent reduction o$ ground%ater in the do%nstream areas.
ll the temporar" and permanent crossings should #e s"stematicall" connected to the
drainage paths leading to ade7uate passage. This should #e e;ercised to all drainage
crossings such as minor culverts' ma&or culverts' minor A ma&or #ridges. It has #een
o#served that this impact is $airl" critical in the most places %here construction is
ongoing. In these places the leader drainage clearing %or! is inade7uate.
-alle Port ccess
In the %or! o$ the -alle Port ccess all drainage paths should #e identi$ied and
do%nstream connection drainage paths $or the proposed crossings should also #e
identi$ied. The determination o$ the num#er o$ drainage structures and the si8e should #e
6
done a$ter considering #oth the upstream and do%nstream drainage and ground%ater
condition.
6.+.1.+ Processes
6.+.1.+.1 FloodsD>"drolog" and Drainage Patterns
>"drolog" A Drainage
Impacts on Retention reas
Deviated Final Trace
The $inal trace crosses lesser retention areas there#" causing lesser impacts on drainage.
The main impact on the retention areas is $looding A %ater logging. *ulverts convert the
e;isting sheet $lo% to converged $lo%. >o%ever as a mitigator" measure culvert %ater
pro$ile calculations have #een done and culvert si8es have #een designed to minimi8e the
%ater level rise.
-alle Port ccess
The -alle Port cess trace has #een identi$ied and resettlement o$ persons has alread"
#een done. The environs o$ the present trace is generall" lo% l"ing padd" areas there$ore
minor deviations %ould not mitigate impacts. To mitigate the impacts on retention areas
and $looding the culvertD#ridge openings should #e designed and constructed
appropriatel". Some o$ the e;isting opening si8es provided in the designs 5e.g 0unu%il
Ela crossing6 has to #e increased on $urther $lood studies. The reason $or this is that the
opening si8e have #een determined considering onl" the discharge 5calculated #" Rational
$ormula6 #ut not the retention and #ac!%ater aspects.
Flood Impacts
Deviated Final Trace
Flood of Gin Ganga
s there is an identi$ied impact $urther h"draulic studies should #e carried out in
colla#oration %ith the irrigation Department to determine the e;tent o$ the upstream
$looding. The solutions agreea#le should #e implemented. This ma" include curtailing the
em#an!ments near the #ridge a#utments' provision o$ additional $lood #unds $or possi#le
inundation areas. The designers have to per$orm #ac!%ater calculations in order to assess
the impacts on the upstream to $ul$ill the issues o$ the Irrigation Department.
Flooding at Other Segments
(
Flooding in most o$ the places in the construction area has ta!en place #ecause o$ the
a#sence o$ leada%a" drainage paths $rom the crossings alread" provided. s descri#ed in
the previous sections all leada%a" drainage paths $rom the culvert crossings should #e
properl" connected to the do%nstream to ensure the drainage continuit". This impact is
ver" common and the e;ecution o$ the mitigator" measures is a prime and urgent need.
-alle Port ccess
The ma&or and critical drainage crossing is at 0unu%ila Ela. The design needs to #e
revie%ed considering the upstream and do%nstream retention' the design return period
and the possi#le #ac!%ater e$$ects and upstream inundation in order to mitigate possi#le
$lood impacts.
()*)+)*)*) Irrigation an% ,loo% Protection Str$ct$res
Main ,inal Trace
5a6 Pro#a#le upstream inundation in -in -anga Scheme #ecause o$ the road
em#an!ment a#utting the #ridge at 9a"apamula.
Detailed h"draulic studies should #e carried out as discussed under E-in -anga
FloodsF.
5#6 Temporar" inundation 5drainage congestion6' and ponding o$ %ater in padd" areas
in the a#sence o$ leada%a" connections.
ll culverts and crossings should #e properl" connected to the do%nstream drainage
paths.

5c6 Road em#an!ments running on the e;isting minor irrigation canals longitudinall".
Em#an!ments on turnout structures E.g. Deegoda Irrigation *hannel =3G=6,6
s a mitigator" measure' RD has agreed to re-la" the canals in a ne% la" out' so that
irrigation %ater could #e delivered to padd" areas %ithout an" hindrance. This mitigator"
measure has to #e implemented in colla#oration %ith the District irrigation Engineer
5Provincial *ouncil6.
5d6 1isection o$ the irrigation schemes #ecause o$ the road em#an!ment 5E.g.
Deegoda Ha"a. ..G,,, I .(G,,,.6
s descri#ed a#ove although the scheme is #isected its suppl" and drainage continuit"
should #e ensured. de7uate culvert openings should #e provided $or $lood #alancing.
)
lso as stated a#ove' the a$$ected irrigation canals should #e realigned to mitigate the
impact.
5e6 *losure o$ irrigation channels due to eroded A em#an!ment soils.5E.g. =6G1,,-
Dandu%ana'=(G3,,'=3G6,,' .,G3),'6
These canals should #e re e;cavated and the original canal capacit" should #e restored.
RD should %or! ver" closel" %ith the Provincial Irrigation Engineer to avoid such
instances.
-alle Port ccess
• Flooding and drainage congestion near 0unu%il Ela crossing' Panagamu%a Ha"a
and Mana%ila lo% l"ing padd" areas #ecause o$ the em#an!ments and non-
continuit" o$ the drainage paths..
Reevaluation o$ the drainage designsDstudies should #e done to incorporate ade7uate
openings $or drainage continuit" and $lood #alancing. It is recommended to increase the
return period o$ the culvert $or 0unu%ila Ela to /, "ears or more.
• Deposition o$ eroded earth during construction in the lo% l"ing padd" areas in
Panagamu%a Ha"a and Mana%ila.
Mitigator" measure suggested $or the similar situations in the main trace appl"..
• Deposition o$ eroded earth $rom stoc!piles o$ earth and constructed untur$ed
em#an!ments in 0unu%ila Ela' 9ugadoo%a Ela and in some o$ the minor
irrigation canals in Panagamu%a and Mana%ila padd" areas.

Mitigator" measure suggested $or the similar situations in the main trace appl"
6.+.+ Education $or the *ontractor and ?or!ers
To provide mitigator" measures' %or!ers and contractors should #e educated o$ the good
construction practices and sa$et" measures during construction phase. Special attention
should #e given to $ollo%ing aspects.
1. Special #rie$ing and D or on-site training $or the contractors and %or!ers on the
environmental re7uirements o$ the pro&ect.
+. greement on critical areas to #e considered and necessar" mitigation measures'
among all parties %ho are involved in pro&ect activities.
=. Training on proper construction practices and %aste disposal to #e implemented
Such as<
3
5i6 Proper compaction o$ the $illings $or the road em#an!mentJ
5ii6 Importance o$ proper construction 7ualit" control measuresJ
5iii6 Removal o$ so$t soil and replacement %ith good 7ualit" material to reduce
long-term settlement o$ the road sur$ace'
5iv6 Temporar" storage o$ construction spoil %ithout contamination o$ the
ground %ater and %ithout o#struction o$ the %ater %a"s
5v6 Sa$et" aspects to #e o#served during e;cavation $or the road%a" and
material e;ploitation 5e.g. 1lasting' sta#ilit" o$ e;cavations etc.6
5vi6 Proper disposal o$ solid %aste $rom construction activities and la#or
camps.
.. 4rientation o$ ne% %or!ers should #e done continuall".
6.+.= ?ater @ualit"
This section descri#es the general mitigator" measures re7uired to #e implemented
during the construction phase o$ the high%a" pro&ect in the D1 section 5i.e. $inal and
com#ined trace6 and -alle Port ccess Road section. The measures to #e implemented
are applica#le to #oth D1 section and -alle Port ccess Road area. It should #e noted
that %ith re$erence to the mitigator" measures to #e ta!en into consideration during the
construction phase all the relevant mitigator" measures should #e included in the
contract documents' so that the contractor is held responsi#le $or carr"ing them out
during construction and on completion o$ the %or!.
6.+.=.1 Sur$ace ?ater @ualit"
Propose% Meas$res to A%%ress S$rface -ater .$ality Deterioration
Main and -alle Port ccess Road rea
s e;plained earlier in under the section' Sur$ace ?ater @ualit" I nticipated
*onstructional Impacts the %ater #odies +.S?' +/S? and +6S? in the D1 section are
not su#&ect to pollution during construction and operational phase o$ the high%a" since
these %ater #odies seems to #e not in the immediate vicinit" o$ the high%a"' hence
implementation o$ ma&or mitigator" measures and monitoring is not re7uired. >o%ever
the $ollo%ing measures have to #e implemented in order to avoid signi$icant deterioration
o$ the %ater 7ualities in %ater #odies +(S? in the $inal trace and +)S? in the $inal trace
o$ the D1 section.
T%o %ater #odies +3S? and =,S? in the -alle Port ccess Road area also should #e
considered $or %ater 7ualit" mitigation.
The %ater 7ualit" mitigation plan o$ action outlined in nne; should #e $ollo%ed.
1,
6.+.=.+ -round ?ater @ualit"
Propose% Meas$res to A%%ress Gro$n%!ater .$ality Deterioration
D1 Section and -alle Port ccess Road rea
Deep e;cavations $or $oundations particularl" $or the #ridge and culvert construction
%or!s should #e avoided to avoid an" alterations in %ater ta#le. The e;cavations to #e
done should not reach #elo% mean sea level to avoid saline %ater intrusion. lternative
$oundation techni7ues including sheet piling' in&ected #entonite %alls ma" #e considered
under such circumstances.
To minimi8e oil spills during the construction period' machiner" should #e properl" and
regularl" maintained. lso there needs to #e heav" restrictions on $uel storage $or an"
machiner" such as concrete mi;ers that ma" #e re7uired $or in-situ construction %or!s in
order to prevent soil and ground%ater contamination.
In #orro% areas %here the pro&ect does not permit the green land cover to #e #rought
#ac! closer to the previous status' it is imperative to plant %ith suita#le native trees in the
surrounding area to lo%er the ground %ater levels so that earlier levels could #e
maintained. ?herever sur$ace cover is tampered %ith during the pro&ect activities'
suita#le tree planting should #e carried out to ensure lo%ering the possi#ilities o$ the land
#ecoming saline due to rise in ground%ater. >eav" de$orestation should not also #e
allo%ed to minimi8e salini8ation.
?ater needed $or construction %or!s needs to #e provided to the sites in tan!ers or
#o%sers.

6.+.. ir @ualit"
This section descri#es the general mitigator" measures re7uired to #e implemented
during the construction phase o$ the high%a" pro&ect in the D1 section 5i.e. $inal and
com#ined trace6 and -alle Port ccess Road section. The measures to #e implemented
are applica#le to #oth D1 section and -alle Port ccess Road area.
D1 Section and -alle Port ccess Road rea
ll dust emissions that could arise during the constructional phase needs minimi8ation
through measures such as %etting or %et spra"ing o$ dust" sur$aces' roads and e;posed
earth%or! sur$aces periodicall"' transporting construction and e;cavated material or spoil
%ith covers' regular cleaning o$ the site and removal o$ e;cessive or unnecessar"
e;cavated material 5%hich could #e rec"cled to #ac! $ill $oundations and $or other
construction %or!s6' screening and enclosing dust" %or!ing places' and even thatching o$
e;posed soil areas %ith live or dead vegetation. En$orcing limitations to speeds o$
construction vehicles carr"ing material is another measure that needs to #e practiced in
11
reducing dust emissions. Transport through more inha#ited areas should also #e avoided
%here possi#le.
*are should #e ta!en in stoc!piling construction material such as cement to avoid
unnecessar" dust emissions and the construction material needs to #e ade7uatel" covered
against %ind and rain. Moreover care needs to #e ta!en to avoid spillage o$ construction
material and dust emissions that occur during loading o$ construction material to the
pro&ect site.
ggregate piles $rom asphalt and concrete plants must #e !ept in places %here dust and
impurities are minimum. ?atering o$ stoc! piles o$ sand and coarse aggregates should #e
carried out to avoid dust emissions. :se o$ cement silos in high elevations and the use o$
dust collectors especiall" $a#ric #ag $ilters %herever possi#le needs to #e practiced.
*oncrete and asphalt $acilities should #e up%ind o$ sensitive receptors 5e.g. residential
areas and schools6 a minimum o$ /,, m and do%n%ind o$ sensitive receptors minimum
1,, m.
During the construction phase it is also imperative that the vehicles and the machiner" to
#e used are regularl" and %ell maintained in order to avoid smo!e emissions. The" shall
#e $itted in $ull compliance %ith the national and local regulations 59ational
Environmental ir Emissions Fuel and Cehicle Standards E.4. -a8ette 11=(D=/ o$ Kune
+,,,' updates #" air emissions $uel and vehicle standards 5importation standards6
1+6)D1) Decem#er +,,+ and 1+3/D11 Kune +,,=6
6.+./ 9oiseD-round Ci#ration
D1 Section and -alle Port ccess Road rea
During the construction phase operation o$ an" high noise generating e7uipment should
#e restricted onl" during da"time. Percussion 5pile driving6 operations should #e avoided
in sensitive areas unless geotechnical conditions re7uire this method to #e used. >ammer
t"pe pile driving operations should #e restricted to da" time.
The vehicles to #e used $or the construction phase needs to #e regularl" and %ell
maintained in order to avoid generation o$ signi$icant noise levels also. Further the
machiner" to #e used $or the construction phase should #e regularl" and %ell maintained
to avoid irritating noise levels %hich ma" include hums. For e;ample gear noise can #e
reduced #" e;amining their teeth and $iling high spots and #" chec!ing the depth o$
engagement. Similarl" proper lu#rication o$ the moving parts o$ the machiner" in contact
%ill reduce noise due to $riction. ?herever possi#le attempts should #e made to ma!e use
o$ lo% noise generating machiner". 1asicall" all heav" e7uipment and machiner" should
#e $itted in $ull compliance %ith the national and local regulations 5E;tra 4rdinar"
-a8ette 9o. 3+.D1+ Ma" 1336 amended #" E.4. -a8ette 3=(D( pril 13336. lso proper
tra$$ic management practices needs to #e implemented during o$ transport o$ materials'
including 7uarr" material in order to reduce tra$$ic noise.
1+
?ith re$erence to the siting o$ asphalt and concrete plants' proper site planning together
%ith noise a#atement measures should #e practiced to reduce air-#orne noise
transmission. *oncrete and asphalt $acilities should #e up%ind o$ sensitive receptors 5e.g.
residential areas and schools6 a minimum o$ /,, m and do%n%ind o$ sensitive receptors
minimum 1,, m.
?ith re$erence to #lasting activities ne%l" developed #lasting methods should #e used
%herever possi#le in order to reduce vi#ration e$$ects on near#" structures. This ma"
include special controlled vi#rationless techni7ues to avoid an" damage to e;isting
#uildings including houses in the ur#ani8ed areas in #oth sections. lternatel" #lasting
activities could #e carried out using the normal techni7ues i$ there is a possi#ilit" o$ using
ne%l" developed #lasting methods.
>o%ever under such circumstances #lasting should #e done at regular intervals and it is
essential to ma!e people a%are a#out the places' dates and times o$ #lasting. Reasona#le
compensation should also #e given to an" propert" %hich is damaged #" #lasting. Further
it is imperative to carr" out a care$ul continuous monitoring o$ near#" #uilding structures
particularl" in the ur#ani8ed areas to investigate an" insta#ilit" or damage $ollo%ing
#lasting. In other %ords regular monitoring o$ vi#ration levels in near#" #uilding
structures is o$ paramount importance and special attention should also #e paid to the
development o$ crac!s and crevices in near#" #uilding structures.
>o%ever the use o$ e;plosives should #e strictl" controlled or prohi#ited to avoid
signi$icant impacts on near#" structures especiall" in the ur#ani8ed areas o$ the road
traces. lso the sites o$ 7uarries should not #e close to transport routes and residential
areas.
In addition to continuous monitoring o$ near#" #uilding structures $or an" insta#ilit" or
damage $ollo%ing #lasting activities' there needs to #e an intensive monitoring o$ noise
levels especiall" in near#" noise sensitive areas. I$ predicted noise levels near noise
sensitive areas are e;cessive' then provision o$ noise #arriers is necessar" $or these
locations.
6.+.6 Soil ErosionDSur$ace Run-o$$
Main Trace
• *hange o$ the runo$$ pattern on the cleared road trace as the vegetal cover has
#een denuded and the underl"ing soil e;posed
The impact due to this is short term and once the tur$ing and road paving activities are
started this impact %ill #e mitigated. t present protective %or! is ongoing in certain
areas onl". The contract includes mitigator" measures to this e$$ect. The contractor
1=
should e;pedite the %or! in order to minimi8e the e$$ect on the ad&acent %ater #odies
and padd" areas.
• :ndesira#le stripped soils such as peat" soils are piled ad&acent to the road trace
and #ecause o$ the intense rain these soils gets %ashed o$$ to the ad&acent lo%
l"ing padd" areas.
The preset mitigator" measures are inade7uate. In some areas sand #ags are used to
prevent large scale sediment movement.
ll precautions should #e ta!en to avoid eroded soils invading the padd" areas as $armers
are a$$ected. The impact could #e mitigated i$ the em#an!ments are properl" compacted
%ithout leaving loose soil in the open. dditional drains could #e e;cavated to trap the
silts so that the soils %ill not get %ashed o$$ to the padd" areas. These are highl" site
speci$ic issues and the" should #e addressed a$ter properl" stud"ing the site conditions.
Peat" soils should not #e !ept in the open areas ad&acent to the padd" $ields. Peat" soils
once e;cavated should #e immediatel" transported to pre designated soil dumps. ll
temporar" peat" soil dumps should #e covered %ith thic! pol"thene sheets to mitigate
temporar" erosion.
• Ponding o$ %ater upstream o$ culverts #ecause o$ no leada%a" connections
The present mitigatoir" actions are ine$$ective. ll culverts should #e properl" connected
to the do%nstream leada%a" drains.
• Some culvert openings have directl" #een connected to the padd" area %ithout
#eing connected to a do%nstream %ater path.
The present ine$$ective %a" o$ sur$ace runo$$ drainage should #e recti$ied. s stated
a#ove culverts should #e properl" connected to the do%nstream %ater paths to ensure
drainage continuit" and siltDsediment traps should #e incorporated as a mitigator"
measure.
-alle Port ccess Road
The mitigator" action re7uired $or the main roads trace are applica#le to -P too
there$ore these mitigator" measures should #e noted and the" should #e applied to -P.
Sur$ace runo$$ and the resulting soil erosion could cause numerous construction related
pro#lems and environmental issues such as destro"ing the agricultural crops including tea
and padd". There$ore' $ollo%ing mitigation measures should #e implemented during the
construction phase<
1.
1. *onstruction sites 5including #orro% and disposal sites6 should #e
graded to original contours' re-vegetated' and compacted properl" in accordance
%ith design speci$ications
+. *ut areas and stoc!piles %ill #e con$igured to maintain sta#ilit" o$
the slopes.
=. Temporar" or permanent drainage %or!s shall #e installed and
maintained to minimi8e erosion.
.. The *ontractor should consult g. Societies' g. uthorities in
the area to solicit input on mitigation measures.
/. Sta#ili8ing vegetation to #e planted and maintained in a
continuousDongoing manner
6. 0arge scale nurseries should #e located %ith access to good suppl"
o$ %ater $or the care and storage o$ appropriate vegetation to #e re-used on site.
(. :se o$ temporar" or permanent drainage s"stems to collect %ater
coming to the slope and drain out %ithout causing soil erosion.
). *onstruction activities such as site clearing' cut A $ill and material
e;ploitation should #e planned during dr" periods o$ the "ear. >o%ever' i$ it is
not possi#le to carr" out these operations during dr" periods' silt traps and
interceptor drains should #e provided.
6.+.( Sta#ilit" o$ Slopes
Sta#ilit" o$ slopes o$ the sides o$ the e;cavation $or the road%a" is a ver" important
consideration since the -P road trace is running through hill" and undulating terrain.
There$ore' $ollo%ing measures should #e adopted to reduce the possi#ilit" o$ slope
$ailures.
1. 4riginal designs should #e revie%ed in light %ith the ne% su#sur$ace in$ormation
gathered during e;cavation $or the road%a".
+. Increase o$ the elevation o$ the height o$ the %ater ta#le' due to natural or
manmade reasons' at the top o$ the slope should #e monitored.
=. dditional 0oading at the top o$ the slope outside the R4?' due to construction
o$ ne% structures etc.' should #e avoided
.. Similarl" unloading at the toe o$ the slope even out side the R4? could reduce
the $actor o$ sa$et" o$ $ill slopes against sta#ilit".
/. Monitor other indications o$ slope insta#ilit" such as< settlement o$ the top o$ the
slope' crac!ing o$ the surrounding area including the road sur$ace' appearance o$
1/
springs at the #ottom o$ the slope and elevation o$ the ground%ater ta#le near the
top o$ the slope
6. -ro%ing a suita#le vegetation cover to minimi8e in$iltration o$ sur$ace %ater into
the slope and #inding o$ the su#sur$ace soil %ith the root net%or! o$ such
vegetation.
(. Provision o$ ade7uate drainage $acilities to drain out %ater $rom such slopes
%ithout in$iltration and creation o$ sur$ace erosion.
6.+.) Settlement and ground su#sidence
Post construction settlement o$ the road%a" %ill re7uire considera#le amount o$ road
maintenance %or!. There$ore' $ollo%ing $actors should #e considered during construction
stage $or minimi8ation o$ post construction road maintenance due to settlement and
ground su#sidence.
1. Proper construction practices and 7ualit" control programme during construction
o$ the road em#an!ment over lo%-l"ing areas.
+. de7uate compaction o$ the $ill portions o$ the cut A $ill sections to avoid large
di$$erential settlement o$ the $ill portion o$ the cut A $ill sections.
=. Proper implementation o$ the ground improvement methods such as complete
removal o$ the compressi#le so$t organic soil la"ers during replacement and
ade7uate compaction o$ the $ill.
.. Monitoring o$ the settlement and pore %ater pressure o$ the pre-loaded sections to
ensure that the long term settlement o$ the road sur$ace is %ithin tolera#le limits.
6.+.3 E;ploitation >andling' Transportation and Storage o$ *onstruction
Materials
Improper e;ploitation' handling' transportation and storage o$ construction material could
have some adverse e$$ects on the surrounding environment. There$ore' $ollo%ing
mitigation measures are proposed<
1. E;ploitation o$ the construction material and the su#se7uent usage should #e
planned in such a %a" to minimi8e material in temporar" storageJ
+. Sites to #e used as temporar" storage should #e selected on relativel" $lat land
%ell a%a" $rom drin!ing %ater sources %ithout o#structing natural drainage
pattern o$ the neigh#orhood area
16
=. ?hen e;cavated material %ithin the trace are used as $ill material' proper
planning and management o$ cut and $ill operations should #e practiced to
minimi8e distance o$ transport and the volume o$ material in temporar" storage.
1e$ore the #eginning o$ the construction' the cut sections and the corresponding
$ill sections should #e mar!ed on a map $or the entire trace considering the
distance o$ transport' easiness o$ transport' construction process etc.
.. Material generation and usage map' mentioned a#ove' should #e regularl" revised
depending on the progress o$ construction
/. 0icense $or #orro% pits must #e o#tained $rom the -SAM1 $or all mining
activities such as 7uarries and #orro% pits.
6. To prevent dust #lo%ing $rom open-topped 0orries' it is necessar" to ensure that
the loads are covered' %hen transported.
(. During dr" periods it is necessar" to dampen the e;posed areas and the access
roads at regular intervals to prevent emission o$ dust.
). 9ecessar" approval shall #e o#tained $rom *E and the relevant 0ocal uthorit"
$or the operation o$ the metal crushers prior to commencement o$ operations
3. ?hen e;ploited roc!s %ithin the trace are used to produce coarse and $ine
aggregates' 7uarr" sites should #e selected considering the location o$ the
predicted availa#ilit" o$ the roc! and distance o$ transport apart $rom other
environmental issues such as emission o$ dust' noise and vi#ration.
6.+.1, Spoil and *onstruction ?aste Disposal
This section descri#es the general mitigator" measures re7uired to #e implemented
during the construction phase o$ the high%a" pro&ect in the D1 section 5i.e. $inal and
com#ined trace6 and -alle Port ccess Road section. The measures to #e implemented
are applica#le to #oth D1 section and -alle Port ccess Road area.
Soli% -aste Management Tec'ni#$es
D1 Section and -alle Port ccess Road rea
Solid %astes should not #e disposed on the sides o$ the road and an" de#ris shall not #e
le$t a$ter construction %or!s is complete since it ma" #e carried a%a" #" %ater. 0ocations
o$ sites $or disposal o$ spoil and other construction %astes and reclamation needs to #e
care$ull" selected. It should #e noted that the rec"cling potential o$ some o$ the
construction generated %astes such as roc! material' e;cess concrete and #ric!s is good.
1(
There$ore attempts should #e made to trade o$$ or sell such %astes to relevant
sta!eholders.
For e;ample concrete and #ric!s could #e grinded up to ma!e aggregates re7uired in road
repairs. Similarl" the e;cavated material such as sand could #e rec"cled to #ac! $ill
$oundations and $or other construction %or!s. lternatel" e;cavated soil material could
#e used as dail" covering and $inal capping material $or sanitar" land$ills or trade o$$ to
the horticulture industr". The e;cavated peat material should not #e le$t in the
construction area or disposed to %ater #odies or le$t near %ater #odies in order to avoid
acidi$ication and hardness pro#lems in sur$ace %aters and ground%ater during periods o$
rain' #ut ma" #e dumped in padd" $ields provided ade7uate drainage $acilities are
supplied. lternatel" the peat material ma" #e traded o$$ to the agricultural or horticulture
or gardening related industr" and to sta!eholders %ho could cut and dr" the peat material
to ma!e $uel that #urns or the peat material ma" #e used $or the construction o$ noise
#arriers.
ll scrap materials such as ca#les' metal structures' steel %ires' insulators involved in
po%er line construction %or!s needs removal a$ter construction %or!s and attempts #e
made to evaluate their rec"cling potential.
0e$t-overs including %aste%ater treatment plant sludges $rom asphalt and concrete plants
should #e dumped onl" in pre-determined places %hich do not distur# pu#lic' a7uatic and
terrestrial #iodiversit". 9evertheless these le$t over material needs to #e sa$el" disposed
in accordance to guidelines on disposal o$ contaminated material and it is recommended
to carr" out the :S Environmental Protection genc" 5:SEP6 prescri#ed to;icit"
characteristics leaching protocol 5T*0P6 test prior to disposal. ?herever possi#le options
should #e evaluated in trading o$$ the le$t over material $or the construction industr". For
e;ample petroleum %aste%ater treatment plant sludges ma" #e utili8ed $or the
manu$acturing o$ masonr" #ric!s 5Sengupta et al.' +,,+6.
ll municipal solid %astes produced #" the %or! $orce should #e managed in
accordance to the principles o$ municipal solid %aste management %ith special
emphasis on segregation 5separation6 o$ rec"cla#les $rom #iodegrada#le material' %hich
could #e sold to the composting industr" to ma!e soil $ertili8er or incinerated a$ter
su$$icient sun dr"ing. lternatel" arrangements ma" #e made %ith 0ocal uthorities in
order to dispose o$ the collected %astes provided the collected %aste material is %ell
segregated.
It is e;pected that a large 7uantit" o$ %aste material %ill #e generated %ithin the pro&ect
area due to construction activities. Temporar" storage places should #e selected $or
collection o$ the spoil and construction %aste #e$ore transporting them to permanent
disposal sites. Follo%ing aspects should #e considered in selecting temporar" and
permanent spoil and construction %aste disposal sites<
1)
1. 4ptimum num#er o$ temporar" construction %aste disposal sites should #e
selected along the trace considering the distri#ution o$ generation o$ construction
%aste along the trace
+. Depending on the volume o$ construction %aste in temporar" %aste disposal sites
and the capacit" o$ the permanent %aste disposal sites' permanent %aste disposal
sites should #e selected to dispose %aste $rom one or more temporar" %aste
disposal sites. In practice' construction %aste $rom the original location could #e
directl" transported to permanent %aste disposal sites %ithout !eeping it in
temporar" storageJ
=. Temporar" and permanent %aste disposal sites should #e located on relativel" $lat
lands to minimi8e sur$ace erosion and slope sta#ilit" pro#lems. Those sites should
#e located %ell a%a" $rom the drin!ing %ater sources.
.. Temporar" construction %aste disposal sites should #e located in such a manner
not to o#struct natural ground %ater $lo% resulting stagnation o$ %ater
/. *onstruction %aste consisting o$ peat" soil' placed in permanent dump sites'
should #e covered %ith a suita#l" selected soil cap to avoid e;posure to rain
%aster and a grass cover should #e maintained on the e;posed sur$ace o$ such soil
caps to avoid erosion..
6. Peat" soils are highl" compressi#le and have ver" lo% shear strength parameters.
There$ore' sta#ilit" o$ the e;posed slopes o$ the permanent %aste disposal sites
should have a reasona#l" high $actor o$ sa$et" against $ailure under the most
critical condition
(. nticipated or alread" planned $uture developments o$ the surrounding area
should #e considered in location o$ the permanent construction %aste disposal
sites
). I$ a 1 I +m thic! la"er o$ inorganic soils could #e placed over disposed peat" soils
at permanent dumpsites' the underl"ing highl" compressi#le peat" soils %ill #e
compressed and improved.
3. Transportation o$ peat" soils immediatel" a$ter e;cavation should #e avoided' as
the li7uid nature o$ such %aste at that stage %ill pollute the environment due to
spilling during transportation. Such material should #e !ept in temporar" storage
at near #" places #e$ore transporting to distant permanent storage sites.
6.+.11 ?or! *amp 4peration and 0ocation
?or! camps should #e located at selected places to reduce the impact on the environment
during operation o$ such camps. Follo%ing mitigation measures are suggested $or
operation and location o$ %or! camps<
13
1. Identi$" location o$ %or! camps in consultation %ith -rama 9iladharies 5-9s6.
The location shall #e su#&ected to approval #" the RD. I$ possi#le' camps shall
not #e located near settlements or near drin!ing %ater suppl" inta!es.
+. *utting o$ trees shall #e avoided and removal o$ vegetation shall #e minimi8ed.
=. void' as much as possi#le' use o$ sloping lands $or %or! camps to avoid removal
o$ vegetation cover on sloping lands to minimi8e soil erosion and slope sta#ilit"
pro#lems.
.. ?ater and sanitar" $acilities shall #e provided $or emplo"ees.
/. /. Solid %aste and se%age shall #e managed according to the national and local
regulations. s a rule' solid %aste must not #e dumped' #uried or #urned at or
near the pro&ect site' #ut shall #e disposed o$ to the nearest sanitar" land$ill or site
having and compl"ing %ith the necessar" permits.
6. The *ontractor shall organi8e and maintain a %aste separation' collection and
transport s"stem.
(. The *ontractor shall document that all li7uid and solid ha8ardous and non-
ha8ardous %aste are separated' collected and disposed o$ according to the given
re7uirements and regulations.
). t the conclusion o$ the pro&ect' all de#ris and %aste shall #e removed. ll
temporar" structures' including o$$ice #uildings' shelters and toilets shall #e
removed.
3. E;posed areas shall #e planted %ith suita#le vegetation.
1,. The RD and Supervising Engineer shall inspect and report that the camp has
#een vacated and restored to pre-pro&ect conditions.
6.+.1+ 0oss o$ Cegetation *over o$ the reas $or Temporar" ?or! Space
Main Final Trace
The $ollo%ing measures have to #e implemented.
• *learing o$ green sur$ace cover $or construction' $or #orro% or $or development'
cutting trees and other important vegetation has to #e minimi8ed.
• Planting o$ native treesDshru#s and ornamental plants to contri#ute to the aesthetic
value o$ the area and compensate $or the lost capa#ilit" o$ the area to a#sor# *4+ and
arrest dust particles in the air.
+,
• t the conclusion o$ the pro&ect' all de#ris and %aste has to #e removed.
.
• Removed green sur$ace cover $or' construction activities' temporar" %or! spaces'
#orro% operations or $or an" other development activit" %ithin the purvie% o$ road
construction should #e piled and spread again on the slopes etc. to an ade7uate depth
to ensure gro%th o$ land cover and there#" to mitigate acceleration o$ sur$ace $lo%s
during the construction. These measures could #e implemented section #" section
%here the em#an!ment %or!s could #e completed.
• Trees should #e replanted according to a landscaping plan
• Cegetal cover should #e esta#lished on the em#an!ment slopes' stripped areas %ithin
the right o$ %a" to restore the soil $ertilit".
• Material storage A temporar" stoc!piling should #e underta!en %ithout damaging the
natural vegetal cover. For each localit" #est places should #e decided #" the
Environmental 4$$icers.
• ll temporar" structures including o$$ice #uildings' shelters' toilets and e;tra hard
material shall #e removed immediatel" a$ter the construction is complete and in those
places as stated a#ove the vegetal cover should #e restored.
• In terrestrial areas %here vegetation has #een removed trees can #e replanted %ith
tree species suita#le $or %et 8one. Shad" trees are pre$era#le $or the edges o$ the
high%a" %hile $ruit and tim#er trees ma" #e used $or the other areas.
-alle port access Road
The mitigator" measures listed a#ove $or the main trace should #e adopted $or -P as
appropriate.
ppropriate treesD plants can #e introduced to such areas to re-vegetate them.
6.+.1= Sa$et" Precautions $or the ?or!ers and -eneral Pu#lic
1. Follo%ing sa$et" aspects should #e $ollo%ed during the construction phase o$ the
pro&ect.
1. de7uate %arning signs' #arriers and lighting as appropriate should #e provided
at the construction sites
+. Especial sa$et" measures such as road humps and tra$$ic diversion during
construction should #e adopted at locations %here e;isting roads cross the trace.
+1
=. ccess o$ general pu#lic to the construction sites should #e controlled
+. Providing %or!ers %ith s!ull guard or hard hat
=. The *ontractor shall instruct his %or!ers in health and sa$et" matters' and re7uire
the %or!ers to use the provided sa$et" e7uipment.
.. Esta#lish all relevant sa$et" measures as re7uired #" la% and good engineering
practice
6.+.1. Salini8ation
Main Final Trace
1. The proper design o$ h"draulic and irrigation structures should #e adopted to
curtail $ormation o$ stagnant %ater #odies' %hich ma" cause elevated levels o$
salinit".
+. The a#ove aspect is ver" important in positioning the structures in the lo% l"ing
areas. It is evident $rom the road design that man" num#er o$ underpasses'
culverts #ridges have #een provided on lo% l"ing areas $or drainage congestion
mitigation %hich %ill help mitigate the impacts $rom salinisation..
=. Impact due to leaching o$ salt $rom sea sand that might #e used $or $illing can #e
minimi8ed through the use o$ %ashed sand $or the construction purposes.
-alle Port ccess Road
Salini8ation o$ soils in the -alle Port ccess Road 5northern side6 is predicted i$ the area
is insu$$icientl" $lushed due to construction o$ the road across the drainage $lo% $rom its
immediate catchment. *ulverts that allo% ma;imum $lushing and least o#struction to
natural drainage could minimi8e the e$$ect.
6.+.1/ Impact on ?etlands
Main Trace
There is a short term impact %ith the construction o$ #ridges and other drainage
structures' em#an!ments etc. on rivers and streams. This could #e minimi8ed through
proper design $or drainage $acilities and measures to minimi8e soil erosion $rom e;posed
sur$aces.
++
Since trace does not traverse over large tracts o$ natural %etlands' including $resh%ater
%etlands' estuaries and lagoons' #ut a#andoned padd" $ields in most occasions' the
impact on %etlands is minimal. Mitigation o$ impacts there$ore' is less relevant in this
conte;t. The change o$ trace to minimi8e the impacts on %etlands has alread" #een
carried out.
-alle Port ccess Road
This road trace traverses along the north %estern #oundar" o$ the mangrove area at
Magalla' across the streams that drain its immediate catchment. Since $resh%ater input to
a mangrove area is as important as the tidal e$$ect $or its survival' it is vital to maintain
the $resh%ater input to this mangrove area. *ulverts o$ appropriate si8e and num#er that
$ul$ill this re7uirement should #e incorporated in the design as a mitigator" measure.
6.+.16 1io-Diversit"
Main Final Trace
Mitigator" measures must #e adopted to protect the $airl" large #ut $ragmented peacoc!
clusters that inha#its the area #et%een /.G,,, and /6G,,,' %hich appear to cross the
high%a". Speed reduction sign #oards indicating the presence o$ peacoc!s' #ird nets etc.
could #e adopted as mitigator" measures.
-alle Port ccess
The -alle port access road is mainl" traveling through the padd" areas and once
construction is complete there is no signi$icant impact on the #io diversit". The road is
short in length and usuall" high speeds are not practical there$ore no special mitigation
measures are necessar".
6.+.1( Social and Socio Economic Impacts
The main social impacts are caused during the investigation and preparation stage as the
sta!eholders in the road trace are directl" a$$ected. The resettlement process has
mitigated such direct impacts.
During the construction the social impacts are di$$erent and the parties directl" a$$ected
#" the construction activities are the ones %ho live ad&acent to the road trace. These
social impacts have #een descri#ed under EEnvironmental ImpactsF and ma&orit" o$ the
impacts descri#ed therein has its social component. E;amples are roc! #lasting' impacts
caused $rom deep cuts' impacts on ground%ater ta#le' impacts caused #" $looding' %ater
logging and soil erosion' impacts #" noise' impacts on air 7ualit" impact on agriculture
+=
etc. Mitigation actions $or these impacts have #een discussed under di$$erent su#
sections
1. gricultural Productivit" o$ the lands #ordering the proposed road' especiall" the
padd" lands' is li!el" to $all during the construction period due to soil erosion.
There$ore' the contractor should #e as!ed to adopt measures that minimi8e soil
erosion during the construction period in order to prevent an" loss o$ value due to
reduced agricultural productivit". 4ther%ise the $armers should pa" a su#stantial
amount $or their damages. 5Rs. 1/,.,, per perch o$ complete loss o$ cultivated
padd" land and Rs. /,.,, per perch $or not so%ing 51ut land preparation has #een
done6 due to pro#lems occurred %ith construction activities o$ high%a".
+. Since tea is particularl" vulnera#le to dust %hich ma" cause degradation o$ 7ualit"'
the contractor should ensure that dust emerging $rom various operations and moving
vehicles that carr" soil is !ept to a minimum #" ta!ing proper precautions in
handling cut and $ill operations %ithin the vicinit" o$ tea lands.
=. Provision o$ drainage $acilities #ecomes ver" important in lo% l"ing lands #ecause
%ater logging' especiall" in padd" lands #ordering the proposed road ma" cause
serious losses in "ields. There$ore' proper drainage structures should #e constructed
to avoid an" losses in agricultural output.
.. ?henever the construction o$ the proposed road lead to division o$ $ertile
agricultural land' it is necessar" to adopt measures that preserve the productivit" o$
#loc!s o$ divided land. 4ne o$ the strategies that can #e adopted to preserve the
productivit" o$ the divided #loc!s o$ $ertile agricultural land is to provide access to
such lands $rom close #" overpasses or underpasses 5#" constructing small access
roads6 i$ investment on such means o$ access is unli!el" to e;ceed the e;pected
social #ene$its.
/. It is o$ paramount importance to provide the people %ith access to agricultural lands'
%or! places and mar!ets #" constructing overpasses or underpasses across the
proposed road 5%hich %ill help preserve the e;isting road net %or! too6. Het' people
ma" still $ind pro#lems o$ access during the construction period. There$ore' the
contractor must ma!e sure that he provides the people %ith temporar" means o$
access to land and %or! places in order to avoid such short term negative impacts on
the societ".
6. ?hen ac7uisition o$ land leads to displacement o$ people #elonging to various
emplo"ment categories' precautions %ill have to #e ta!en in relocating them once
relocation sites are identi$ied. Relocation ma" #ring in additional #ene$its to some
emplo"ees and additional costs to the others' depending on $actors such as the status
o$ $actor mar!ets' product mar!ets' in$rastructure $acilities' access to %or! places'
etc. There$ore' in relocating people' it is necessar" to get the proper consent o$ the
+.
people a$$ected in order to avoid an" un$oreseen social costs imposed on some
emplo"ees.
(. s a measure o$ e7uit"' those %ho lost emplo"ment due to the pro&ect and see!
emplo"ment should #e given additional %eights %hen various vacancies $or
emplo"ment are $illed %ithin the a$$ected areas.
). :se o$ contractors2 o%n access roads $or transporting materials instead o$ using
e;isting rural roads in the area.
3. void rain" seasons in earth %or! closer to padd" lands and %ater #odies in order
prevent $rom moving soil through run o$$ %ater
1, ppropriate soil conserving structures to prevent movement o$ soil to ad&oining
lands.
11. E;cavated peat and #ogg" soils should not #e dumped closer to padd" $ields and
%ater #odies as acidic conditions created due to o;idi8ation o$ peat ma" #e
harm$ul to padd" cultivations and a7uatic resources.
1+. In the areas tea and vegeta#le' green #elts should #e maintained to protect the crops
$ro dust and various $orms o$ to;ic su#stances o$ vehicular emissions.
1=. :se o$ appropriate structures to protect the surrounding lands $rom the soil
transported %ith runo$$ %ater.
-alle Port cess Road
1. The recommendations indicated a#ove are also applica#le to -P as the trace
traverses through padd" land.
+. In 9ugadu%a area o$ the -R' it is recommended to use appropriate measures to
maintain the 7ualit" o$ %ater in coconut-hus!-pits in order to protect the
emplo"ment opportunities o$ the people in coir industr".
6.+.1) Institutional Strengthening and *apacit" 1uilding
()/ D$ring Operation
6.=.1 ir @ualit"
Main Final Trace and -alle Port ccess Road rea
+/
Proper tra$$ic management practices are crucial to #e implemented %ith appropriate
pollution control measures $or vehicles during the operational phase. It is also important
to emphasi8e the $act that vehicles to #e used in the road traces are regularl" %ell
maintained to reduce #oth air pollution and engine noise.
En$orcement o$ it is essential to en$orce stringent la%s governing maintenance aspects
o$ vehicles' periodic or random on-site monitoring o$ vehicular e;haust emissions #"
speciall" trained Police personnel perhaps %ith assistance o$ *E' ITI or 91R4.
Imposing o$ legall" possi#le heav" $ines or penalties $or vehicles not meeting e;haust
standards %ould mitigate the air 7ualit" impacts. Moreover development o$ mass transit
and re$ormulation o$ diesel oil %ould #e #ene$icial in the long run to mitigate the rate o$
SPM emission though air pollution.
6.=.+ 9oise
Main Final Trace
9ecessar" actions need to #e e;ercised in areas having noise sensitive places 5i.e. areas'
lands or places #elong *ategor" 16 such as residences and schools as %ell as in areas
having sensitive lands or lands in %hich serenit" and 7uiet are o$ importance 5i.e. areas or
lands #elong to *ategor" 6 such $orest patches' %etlands' etc. in #oth the com#ined and
$inal trace since the results o#tained using the F>? model revealed that noise level
generation increases %ith time period due to an increase in vehicular tra$$ic. Ta#le (.=.+
illustrates the necessar" actions to #e e;ercised in certain areas o$ the road traces.
Ta#le 6.=.+. 9ecessar" actions to control possi#le high noise levels in certain areas o$ the
$inal and com#ined trace in the D1 section
Category Description Ma0im$m
Permissi&le
1e#
2
Reme%ial Meas$re
:ndeveloped
lands
5*ategor" D6
Padd"' ru##er' tea'
coconut' %ater shru#s
and marsh" areas
- 9o action necessar"
Sensitive
areas
5*ategor" 16
Schools' religious
places' li#raries' pu#lic
meeting' rooms' courts'
residences' hospitals'
etc.
/+ 5Interior6
6(
5E;terior6
Sound #arriers and sound
installation techni7ues
Developed
lands
>ome gardens and
other areas not included
in the a#ove categories
(+
5E;terior6
1u$$er 8one %ith lu;uriant
vegetation and tree canop"
la"ers and sound insulation
o$ a$$ected #uildings 5n"
e;isting thic! and tall
vegetation nota#l" shru#s
+6
and trees such as %eeping
%illo%s could #e used $or
this purpose6

L
Ma;imum permissi#le limits stipulated #" the Federal >igh%a" ssociation o$ :S
5F>?6
Drastic noise level reduction should #e practiced #" means o$ noise #arriers i$ necessar"
together %ith acoustic insulation o$ #uildings in areas having noise sensitive places such
as residences' schools' etc. *onstruction o$ thic! parapet %alls o$ su$$icient height
5around /-/.. m in height6 on #oth sides o$ the high%a" roads to achieve noise
attenuations up to around 1/-+, d156 is one good method o$ reducing tra$$ic noise
transmission to noise sensitive areas 5-arg' 13(36. >o%ever such noise #arriers to #e
#uilt have to #e constructed such that there %ould #e no development o$ crac!s or gaps
on e;posure to sun and rain' and there$ore the masonr" %alls should #e $inished %ith
render or cement #ased paint. n" development o$ crac!s and gaps in noise #arriers have
to #e regularl" monitored and immediatel" repaired #" the RD. lternatel" concrete or
an" other t"pe o$ #arrier s"stems is recommended in places %here there is no possi#ilit"
o$ having an earthen #eam due to lac! o$ space.
Intensive noise reduction programmes %ill also #e necessar" in areas %here *ategor"
lands such as $orest patches and %etlands are occurring. In this respect strict la%s
pertaining to prohi#iting the #eeping o$ horns 5especiall" the large diesel po%ered
vehicles such as truc!s' lorries and #uses %hich are !no%n to produce loud and highl"
irritating noise $rom #eeping horns6 %ith heav" $ines has to #e imposed #" RD %ith
assistance $rom mo#ile Police $orces. lso notice #oards clearl" stating that #eeping o$
horns are prohi#ited 5since a particular stretch in the road trace encounters sensitive
lands6 have to #e properl" erected on #oth sides o$ the road traces and even in the island
stretch o$ the road traces. Incorporation national polic" on vehicle maintenance needs to
#e #ased on noise levels is important as a mitigator" measure.
-alle Port ccess Road rea
9oise sensitive areas such as schools and religious sites are not encountered in the -alle
Port ccess Road area. >o%ever the provision o$ noise #arriers %ith proper landscaping
using native trees %ould #e necessar" in areas such as 9ugadu%a %here su#stantial
human settlement occurs. The noise #arriers to #e #uilt have to #e constructed such that
there %ould #e no development o$ crac!s or gaps on e;posure to sun and rain' and
there$ore the masonr" %alls should #e $inished %ith render or cement #ased paint. n"
development o$ crac!s and gaps in noise #arriers have to #e regularl" monitored and
immediatel" repaired #" the RD. lternatel" concrete or an" other t"pe o$ #arrier
s"stems is recommended in places %here there is no possi#ilit" o$ having an earthen
#eam due to lac! o$ space.
+(
6.=.= Tra$$ic *ondition
• suita#le terminal %ith #us stops $or long distance and local #uses as %ell as
par!ing $or three %heelers and other local vehicles must #e provided as a road
side $acilit" and #e properl" separated $rom the Southern E;press%a" right o$ %a"
and this connecting road.
• Redesign the tra$$ic sign la"out as it %as $ound that the preset tra$$ic sign la" out
is too general and the site conditions have not #een ta!en into account. It should
in detail speci$" the location o$ all tra$$ic signs and road mar!ings
• 4n-street par!ing must #e controlled that should #e limited to e;igencies and o$$-
street par!ing must #e provided at pre identi$ied locations.
6.=.= Road ccidents
1. The sa$et" standards' motor tra$$ic la%s or regulations $or access controlled
high%a"s should #e incorporated in the Motor Tra$$ic ct. This is still in dra$t
$orm.
+. 4nl" road%orth" vehicles should #e used during the operation stage to minimi8e
road accidents.
=. In case o$ an accident the #ro!en crash #arriers or #rea!a#le posts should #e
immediatel" replaced %ith ne% ones.
.. ll crash #arriers' posts etc. should #e properl" maintained and there has to #e a
special cre% assigned $or this %or!.
/. There %ill #e man" #rea!do%ns o$ vehicles' t"re punctures' vehicle stoppages due
to lac! o$ $uel etc. Properl" organi8ed automo#ile service units should #e engaged
to #e in charge o$ these operations. The" should have $ull" e7uipped vehicles'
to%ing truc!s' trained people etc. to carr" out these operations.
6. Telephone $acilities should #e provided on either side o$ the road to contact
police' am#ulance' automo#ile services etc. during emergencies. It is
recommended to have these stations at +-!m intervals.
(. Police vehicles' am#ulances' $ire engines etc. should #e availa#le +. hr. a da" $or
emergencies' accidents' $ires etc. n organi8ation needs to #e esta#lished $or
high%a" surveillance' high%a" patrol' rescue operations. The police and
+)
emergenc" vehicles should #e provided %ith emergenc" access and e;its in
accordance %ith international standards.
). t interchanges' a suita#le terminal %ith #us stops $or long distance and local
#usses as %ell as par!ing $or three %heelers and other local vehicles must #e
provided as a road side $acilit" and #e properl" separated $rom Southern >igh%a"
right o$ %a" and its access roads.
3. Speed control measures li!e %ell designed rum#le strips and humps should #e
implemented in the access roads to Southern >igh%a".
1,. Due to prevailing securit" situation in the countr"' a special police or militar"
$orce needs to #e assigned to protect #ridges' culverts' overpasses' underpasses
etc. $rom terrorist attac!s.
6.=./ -ar#age Disposal
Gar&age Disposal an% Street Cleanliness
D1 Section and -alle Port ccess Road rea
rrangements must #e made %ith 0ocal uthorities 50s6 or %ith private environmental
5solid %aste6 management $irms such as #ans *leantech 5PCT6 0imited in order to
dispose o$ the municipal solid %aste disposed #" persons using the high%a" in a proper
manner either #" closed truc!s or an" other means such as semi-automated collection
s"stems or $ull" automated collection s"stems 5vehicles e7uipped %ith Ecan snatchersF6.
Proper large #ins or containers lined %ith #iodegrada#le #ags 5not >DPE or 0DPE
material $or e;ample6 must #e provided at least ever" 1 !m intervals along %ith
sign#oards on #oth sides o$ the road traces in order to collect all solid %astes until the"
are ta!en a%a". The #ins provided must #e %ell closed %ith lids in order to avoid
rummaging #" stra" dogs or other animals and #irds. Further it %ill lead to !eep the $lies
and other insects out o$ the area. It should #e noted that the gar#age #ins to #e provided
should #e o$ di$$erent colours %ith clear instructions and %ith $igures in #rie$ e;plaining
as to %hat sort o$ %astes are to #e disposed 5i.e. $or segregation or separation o$
perisha#le or putresci#le %astes $rom rec"cla#les6. Implementation o$ heav" $ines is
necessar" is to #e carried out #" Police personnel $or persons involved in careless and
open dumping o$ #ottles' cans and other gar#age. This is also applica#le to persons %ho
thro% trash out o$ car %indo%s' etc.
It is also imperative that the RD underta!e regular surve"s pertaining to the ade7uac" o$
#ins $or gar#age collection and assess the e$$icienc" o$ %aste management $irms or
authorities pertaining to the dail" collection $re7uenc".
*ollection o$ gar#age and cleaning o$ the road traces has to #e done on a regular #asis #"
the 0s particularl" during periods o$ lo% tra$$ic 5e.g. during late night and earl"
+3
morning hours6. Regular s%eeping o$ roads using manual la#or or mechanical litter
collection s"stems 5$or e;ample devices having a series o$ rotating plastic teeth that $ling
the litter into a collection #as!et or devices e7uipped %ith vacuum arms on a truc! to
suc! up the roadside litter %hile cruising at high%a" speed6 is recommended rather than
$lushing %ith %ater to e$$ectivel" remove litter as %ell as nutrient rich dirt' organic matter
and other contaminants' hence more #ene$icial to avoid contamination o$ %ater #odies
5%hich generall" occurs $rom road $lushing activities6. Further regular s%eeping tends to
improve the aesthetics o$ the streetscape and %ater #odies and prevents #loc!ing o$
drains and an" locali8ed $looding o$ an" near#" %ater%a"s.
lso organi8ation o$ in$ormation campaigns and communit" education programme on
gar#age disposal in roads' streets and high%a"s #" the 0S ma" #e a use$ul strateg" to
reduce careless gar#age disposal.
6.=.6 Transportation o$ Dangerous *hemicalsD-oods
D1 Section and -alle Port ccess Road rea
*urrentl" there is no proper legislation in Sri 0an!a pertaining to the sa$e storage and
transport o$ prescri#ed %astes and ha8ardous material such as $lamma#le li7uids.
There$ore strict la%s or policies have to #e esta#lished #" the *E %ith other relevant
government authorities. It is imperative that the $ollo%ing #asic measures #e
implemented to prevent possi#le spills $rom ha8ardous materials transporting vehicles
either during periods o$ material transport or accidents. These monitoring aspects and
implementation o$ la%s and regulations need #e carried out #" speciall" trained police
personnel 5pre$era#l" police personnel having a good science #ac!ground6 and RD %ith
assistance $rom the $ire emergenc" authorities and *E in the $orm o$ regular vehicular
chec!ings' speed monitoring programmes' heav" $ines i$ necessar"' etc.
• Cer" stringent speed limits o$ around +, !mDhr have to #e imposed $or truc!s'
containers and other vehicles carr"ing ha8ardous material.
• The sta$$ and drivers involved in transporting o$ such material have to #e over heav"
%eight' ph"sicall" and mentall" health" persons having a valid driver2s license to
drive heav" vehicles.
• Ensure that vehicles have a valid permit to transport prescri#ed %astes and ha8ardous
materials.
• Ensure that vehicles have a valid registration num#er and $ull" insured.
• Ensure that drivers and assistants are not under the in$luence o$ li7uor.
=,
• Ensure that vehicles are provided %ith suita#le $ire e;tinguishers %hich are serviced
at regular intervals and ensure that the drivers and their assistants are capa#le in the
use o$ e;tinguishers.
• The vehicles carr"ing ha8ardous material should displa" clear placards on all sides o$
the vehicle as to %hat sort o$ %astes or chemicals are carried. The placards should
clearl" state the ha8ardous nature o$ the load as the :9 >a8ard *lass and su#sidiar"
ris!sJ $or e;ample *lass = $or $lamma#le li7uids and *lass ) $or corrosive su#stances.
I$ the %aste cannot #e classi$ied as dangerous goods 5e.g. a#attoir e$$luent' scallop
shells' etc.6 then the descriptions =,MH or =,MM ma" #e used to designate
environmentall" ha8ardous %astes or the num#ers :9 =,)+ 5Environmentall"
>a8ardous Su#stances' 0i7uid' Enot other%ise speci$iedF6 or :9 =,((
5Environmentall" >a8ardous Su#stances' Solid' Enot other%ise speci$iedF6 ma" #e
used instead.
• Pressure-relieving e7uipment and other sa$et" devices $itted to tan!s should #e in
good condition.
• Truc!s designed to carr" solid %astes %hich ma" oo8e li7uid during transport have to
#e ensured that the" are %ell constructed so as to retain li7uids inside the vehicle until
the" are loaded.
• Cehicles transporting li7uid %astes have to #e ensured that such vehicles are %ell
sealed to prevent spillage or loss o$ contentsJ $or e;ample discharge outlets should #e
chec!ed %hether the" are properl" sealed %ith a #lan! $lange or cap on the outside o$
the discharge valve6.
• 4pen truc!s transporting %aste or ha8ardous materials should not #e allo%ed to travel
unless such vehicles are %ell covered to prevent spills' possi#le dust and vapour
emissions' access to $lies and #irds' etc.
• Ensure that hoses are sto%ed in such a %a" that no li7uid is discharged %hile
transporting.
lso policies should #e introduced pertaining to the issuing o$ %aste transport
certi$icates 5comprising one original !no%n as ?hite and . copies !no%n as *op" 1 or
Pin!' *op" + or -reen' *op" = or Hello% and *op" . or -old6 #" the *E as has #een
conducted in developed countries such as ustralia in order to trac! do%n the prescri#ed
%aste material $rom its production to $inal disposal or treatment 5*lare"' 133(6. These /
$orms have to #e divided into = parts namel" Part 5to #e completed #" the %aste
producer or storer %ith necessar" details6' Part 1 5to #e completed' signed and dated #"
the transporter %ith necessar" details such as permit and vehicle registration num#er6
and Part * 5to #e completed and signed #" a licensed receiver %hich could #e a
treatment or a disposal $acilit"6. The polic" should #e such that there has to #e a
re7uirement that the original cop" 5%hich is to #e $illed #" the licensed receiver on
completion o$ Part *6 and cop" 1 5%hich is to #e $illed #" the %aste producer %ith Parts
=1
and 1 complete6 to #e $or%arded to the *E %ithin ( da"s o$ transporting the
material $or the purpose o$ matching and monitoring o$ the generation and disposal 5i.e.
%hile the other copies +' = and . are to #e retained #" the %aste producer or storer'
%aste receiver and %aste transporter' respectivel"6. It is imperative that regular measures
#e ta!en to inspect these %aste transport certi$icates 5i.e. cop" . %hich is to #e retained
#" the %aste transporter6 $rom the drivers involved in transporting the prescri#ed %astes
or the ha8ardous materials.
6.=.( 0andslides and Soil Erosion
4nce the road is in $ull operation it is e;pected that most o$ the slopes %ill have #een
made sta#ili8ed #" tur$ing' provision o$ ade7uate drainage other structural sta#ilit"
measures such as em#an!ment piling etc. as mitigator" measures. >o%ever' regular
monitoring and preventive maintenance is essential to mitigate sporadic impacts during
operation. -reat care should #e e;ercised on deep cuts as $ailure could occur during
intense rain events. de7uate maintenance e7uipment should #e made availa#le to deal
%ith such contingencies.
6.=.) Social and Socio Economic Impacts
The social impacts %hich are li!el" to cause to the residents %ho live close to the road
trace could #e
1. 9oise and vi#ration
+. Dust $rom the tarred sur$ace
=. 1isection o$ social matri; $rom the road and di$$iculties o$ social interaction
#et%een relatives' neigh#ors etc.
.. Possi#le accidents to inha#itants
/. Flood impacts $rom e;treme events
>o%ever mitigator" measures have #een suggested to overcome the a#ove impacts.
9oise impact could #e mitigated #" noise #arriers' dust impacts $rom the tarred sur$ace
%ill #e ver" marginal and regular maintenance %ill prevent the minor impacts' #isection
o$ the social matri; could #e mitigated though not $ull" #" the provision o$ underpasses
etc.' accidents are avoided #" prohi#iting the inha#itants to veer into the road area and to
use underpasses and provision o$ culverts' underpasses' large #ridges %ill mitigate $lood
impacts. Regular preventive maintenance o$ the road in$rastructure is necessar" to
mitigate the long term impacts.
=+
6.=.3 4ther Measures to #e Implemented during the 4perational Phase
D1 Section and -alle Port ccess Road rea
During the operational phase it is anticipated that maintenance construction activities
%ould #e re7uired to #e conducted depending on prevailing circumstances. For e;ample
the $re7uenc" o$ road maintenance %ould #ecome high depending on the e;tent o$ tear
and %ear or damage' %hich in turn is dependent on tra$$ic $lo%. n" impacts arising
during these activities could #e temporar". 9evertheless the proper solid %aste
management techni7ues and the mitigator" measures applica#le $or the construction
phase %ith re$erence to minimi8ation or prevention o$ sur$ace and ground%ater 7ualit"
deterioration' air pollution and generation o$ high noise levels are also applica#le $or the
maintenance construction activities %here deemed necessar" and hence such measures
should #e implemented #" the RD and the contractor. For e;ample ver" deep
e;cavations have to #e avoided unless alternative $oundation techni7ues such as sheet
piling' in&ected #entonite %alls have #een considered' heav" restrictions have to #e placed
on an" storage o$ oil or oil rich products and %ashing o$ construction vehicles and
machiner" near %ater #odies' and the use o$ high noise generating pneumatic
construction e7uipment should #e restricted to da" time onl". During maintenance
construction %or!s environmental monitoring #" the RD and contractor %ould #e o$
paramount importance to minimi8e or avoid environmental pollution and generation o$
high distur#ing noise levels. This tas! should #e carried out %ith assistance $rom ITI or
91R4 throughout the period o$ the maintenance construction %or!s and depending on
the location and complaints made #" the local people $rom their premises.
?ith re$erence to management o$ impacts arising $rom roadside development activities'
imposing strict landuse controls %ould #e o$ paramount importance. In this respect the
:D should pla" a ma&or role to implement these regulations.
In areas %here the proposed road traces distur# the rustic nature o$ the landscape' visual
intrusion impacts ma" #e minimi8ed #" using a green%a"s concept 5i.e. planting %ith
native vegetation6. Planting %ith thic! and tall native trees pre$era#l" in a 8ig-8ag
manner %ould also #e #ene$icial in the long run to reduce noise and simultaneousl" to
arrest %ind induced dust' air#orne P# particles 5produced $rom 5*+>/6.P# added petrol
po%ered vehicles6 and gaseous pollutants. Further planted vegetation %ould intercept
rain and decelerate run-o$$ %hile $iltering out sediments' nutrients and heav" metals
such as P# and Nn present in the ur#an run-o$$ and hence minimi8e such pollutants
present in the run-o$$ $rom entering an" near#" %ater #odies. In this respect it is also
desira#le that the vegetation to #e planted are native trees and deep-rooted shru#s that
could use signi$icant 7uantities o$ su#-sur$ace %aters so that the 7uantit" o$ pathogens'
nutrients' salts and other contaminants entering an" near#" %ater #odies #" this path%a"
could #e reduced.
==
(.= Further Studies 9eeded
It is recommended to underta!e action oriented studies to support the Social impact
management process o$ the pro&ect. It %ill help in t%o %a"s $or the pro&ect developer
5RD6<
• -enerate use$ul in$ormation $or ma!ing e$$ective decisions to carr" outDmanage
the social impact mitigation process and $acilitate the implementation o$ the on
going development pro&ect.
• It %ill also provide generic lessons $or RD to replicateDappl" in other similar
road development pro&ects in the countr".
In this conte;t the $uture studies recommended are<
• ction oriented stud" to document the social impact mitigation process
underta!en #" the di$$erent institutions and also assess the strengths and
%ea!nesses o$ the process. 5Provide $re7uent $eed#ac! to the relevant
sta!eholders on the process monitored and recommend corrective measures $or
redirecting the pro&ect decisionsD actions6
It is recommended to underta!e multidisciplinar" action research program #" e;perts in
di$$erent disciplines 5griculturists' Engineers' Sociologists' Polic" ma!ers etc6 to $ind
environmental and social impacts o$ the pro&ect in order to provide necessar" in$ormation
$or sta!eholders and decision ma!ers and also to gather !no%ledge $or $uture programs.
Periodic counts on the migrator" #irds that visit the Panape %etland is recommended as
an indicator o$ the 7ualit" o$ the environment.
1io Diversit"- Impacts on Fauna
During the operation phase it is appropriate to monitor the mo#ilit" o$ $auna' t"pe o$
accidents' sensitivit" to noise levels' etc. across and in the vicinit" o$ the road trace. This
in$ormation is ver" relevant to identi$" the ne% impacts on $auna #ecause o$ the road
trace and to design suita#le $urther mitigator" measures.
Social spects
The measures suggested in Section (.=.) should #e implemented as $urther studies.
=.
>"drolog" A Drainage
Drainage monitoring should #e underta!en during the monitoring stage. There are t%o
ver" important aspects to #e monitored.
5a6 The longitudinal drainage on the paved road sur$ace- In this case the ade7uac"
o$ the side drains' runo$$ inlets etc. should #e monitored at selected locations.
This %ill help identi$" the $uture impacts and to provide mitigator" measures
such as increase o$ side drain %idths' increase the num#er o$ runo$$ inlets etc.
5#6 The cross drainage through culverts #ridges and during e;treme events
through underpasses.- *are$ul monitoring %ill give an idea o$ the ade7uac" o$
the structures to cater to general annual runo$$ c"cle and to the e;treme
events. It is essential that all culverts #ridges should #e a#le to pass the annual
runo$$ %ithout an" drainage congestion. I$ de$iciencies are $ound suita#le
mitigator" measures such as provision o$ additional culverts' clearing the lead
a%a" drains could #e adopted.
=/
()3 S$mmary
()3)+ Mitigation of Social Impacts
No Potential Impacts E0isting mitigation
Meas$res 4if any5
A%%itional Mitigation Meas$res
1 0ost o$ income $rom crops'
lost o$ long standing
properties.
Monitoring the impact on
income' supporting to
reesta#lish livelihood
s"stem
*ontinuation o$ e;isting monitoring activities and
esta#lishment o$ -R* 5-rievances readiness committee6
+ 0ost o$ income' lost o$ long
stranded residences'
ps"chological impact
Providing in$rastructure
5ph"sical' economic and
social6 at the resettlement
sites.
-R*' monitoring the ade7uac" o$ in$rastructure and other
supports
= Dust' noise and other
distur#ances to the
communities
4n going monitoring and
attending the communit"
pro#lem
Improve and intensi$" the RD MAE process
. Dust' noise' access
di$$iculties 5routine travels
and to the special locations6
4n going MAE program'
process o$ attending to
communit" grievances
The continuation o$ e;isting MAE program. Improve and
intensi$" the e$$ectiveness o$ MAE activities
/ 9oise' accidents' access
di$$iculties
9o "et implemented Recurrent surve"s $or identi$"ing the pro#lems
=6
6./.+ Mitigation o$ >"drological Impacts



9
o
P
r
o
&
e
c
t

c
t
i
v
i
t
i
e
s
P
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l

I
m
p
a
c
t
s
P
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l

l
o
c
a
t
i
o
n

%
h
e
r
e

t
h
e

i
m
p
a
c
t
s

%
i
l
l

#
e

o
c
c
u
r
r
e
d
E
;
i
s
t
i
n
g

m
i
t
i
g
a
t
i
o
n

M
e
a
s
u
r
e
s

5
i
$

a
n
"
6

d
d
i
t
i
o
n
a
l

M
i
t
i
g
a
t
i
o
n

M
e
a
s
u
r
e
s
M
i
t
i
g
a
t
i
o
n

*
o
s
t
s
P
a
r
t
"

%
h
o

i
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
t

M
i
t
i
g
a
t
i
o
n

M
e
a
s
u
r
e
s
P
a
r
t
"

%
h
o

s
u
p
e
r
v
i
s
e
d

t
h
e

i
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n

o
$

m
i
t
i
g
a
t
i
o
n

m
e
a
s
u
r
e
s
Em#an!ment
*onstruction
Drainage congestion'
upstream $looding A
ponding
In all lo% l"ing
areas as given
#elo%.
Provision o$
temporar"
culvert
crossings
Enlarge the si8e o$
temporar" culverts'
*ontractor RD A
*onsultan
t
Temporar" and
permanent
drainage
crossing
construction
Drainage congestion'
upstream $looding A
ponding o%ing to lac!
o$ leada%a" drainage
path connection
In all lo% l"ing
areas.
=,G((,' ==G,,,'
=/G,,,'=3G=6,'=
/G,,,-=6G,,,
9one S"stematicall" stud"
the location A nature
o$ drainage paths A
esta#lish leada%a"
connections.
*ontractor
'
*onsultant
RD A
*onsultan
t
Em#an!ment
construction
Eroded soil $rom soil
dumps getting
deposited in padd"
$ield' drainage paths
etc.
=/G(,,'
=/G,,'=(G3,,'.+
G,,,'.+G,,,-
.3G,,,
9one *over soil dumps
%ith thic! pol"thene
sheets' esta#lish
temporar" drain
paths'
*onstruction o$
the road across
irrigation
ll the impacts stated
a#ove. Inconvenience
to $armers. 1isection
=6G1,,'=(G3,,'
=3G6,,'.,G3),'
=,G((,' ==G,,,'
*oordinate
%ith the
District
nal"se sta!eholder
complaints
s"stematicall"'
DIE'
DS'-S'
ID' SD'
RD A
*onsultan
t' ID A
=(
schemes o$ irrigation schemes =/G,,,'=3G=6,'=
/G,,,-=6G,,,
Irrigation
Engineer A
implement
suggested
changes.
appoint a committee
%ith District
Irrigation Engineer
5DIE6' Divisional
Secretar" 5DS6'
-rama Seva!a5-S6'
Pradeeshee"s
Sa#a5PS6' Irrigation
Department5ID6 A
grarian Service
Department 5SD6
reps A e$$ect suita#le
changes. Re la" the
irrigation canal
net%or!.
PS'
*ontractor
DIE
*ulvert
*rossing
construction
Flooding o%ing to
inade7uate culvert si8e
-alle Port
ccess ,G/,,
50unu%ila Ela
crossing6
Redesign the
culvert
Redesign the culverts
%ith increased return
period.
*onsulta
nt
RD
Preparation o$
deep cuts
-round%ater
depletion o$ close #"
%ells
+,G3/,R>S'
13G/,,0>S'1)G
,/,0>S'1(G/,,
R>S'1(G6,,0>
S'16G1,,R>S'11
G3/,0>S
*arr" out
monitoring
*arr" out intensive
ground%ater level
monitoring A rain$all
depths
RD A
*onsulta
nt
RD
=)
()3)/ Mitigation of Aest'etic Aspects
9o Pro&ect
ctivities
Potential
Impacts
Potential location
%here the impacts
%ill #e occurred
E;isting
mitigation
Measures 5i$ an"6
dditional
Mitigation Measures
Mitigation
*osts
Part" %ho implement
Mitigation Measures
Part" %ho supervised the
implementation o$
mitigation measures
,1. Earth cut
A $ill
during
cons.
Stage
>igh Impact
during cons.
>igh impact areas 9o pplication o$
engineering
Measurements
- *ontractor D RD
*onsultant
RD D Pro$. Institute
,+ Roc!
#lasting
during
cons.
Stage
>igh Impact
during cons.
@uarr" sites Cisual
Supervision onl"
9oise A dust - *ontractor D RD
*onsultant
RD D Pro$. Institute
,=. Reloading
materials
Intermediate
impact
Storage "ards Cisual
Supervision onl"
Dust A air pollution - *ontractor D RD
*onsultant
RD D Pro$. Institute
,.. 1ill
1oards
0o% impact 9ear To%n *entres 9o Cisual Supervisions - RD :D D Pro$. Institute
,/. Road Side
0ighting
>igh impact To%n *entres 9o 0ight Intensit" - RD D *E1 :D D Pro$. Institute
,6. So$t
1u$$er
8one
planting
0o% impact >igh sensitive areas 9o Ph"sical
Measurements
- *E D RD :D D 0andscape unit
Pro$. Institute
=3
RE,ERENCES 6 CITED 78 RESOURCE PERSONS
*lare"' 133(. Integrated Management o$ >a8ardous Materials I Part +. Dea!in :niversit" Press' -eelong' ustralia.
-arg' S.B.' 13(3. Se%age Disposal and ir Pollution Engineering I Environmental Engineering 5Col. II6. Bhanna Pu#lishers' Dehli-11,,,6'
India.
Sengupta' P.' 9. Sai!ia and P.*. 1ortha!ur' +,,+. 1ric!s $rom petroleum e$$luent treatment plant sludge< properties and environmental
characteristics. Kournal o$ Environmental Engineering' 1+)< 1,3,-1,3..
.,