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- A Chaos Based Encryption Method for Monochrom Images and Text

1. Introduction

Recent advances in optical image encryption

and decryption techniques are capable of

protecting the digital images which are

being communicated over various

transmission media from leakage. Image

applications like medical image data bases,

military images, confidential video

conferencing, cable TV, personal

photograph album, etc. require reliable, fast

and robust security system to store and

transmit digital images. With the help of

efficient optical encryption and decryption

technique, one can fulfill the requirements

of security needs of digital images. A

number of optical image encryption systems

have been proposed by various research

groups‟ earlier [1–10].In real time

applications, highly accurate and fast

computing and parallelism of optics and

optoelectronics techniques are very useful.

Many parameters in optics such as

wavelength, phase, polarization, etc. by

which information can be hidden more

securely in various types of images [11].

Xinxin Li et al proposed propose a new

method for color image encryption by

wavelength multiplexing on the basis of

two-dimensional (2-D) generalization of 1-

fractional Hartley transform that has been

redefined recently in search of its inverse

transform. A color image can be considered

as three monochromatic images and then

divided into three components and each

component is encrypted independently with

different wavelength corresponding to red,

green or blue light [12]. Naveen Kumar

Nishchal et al. proposed and implemented a

fully phase-encrypted memory system using

cascaded extended fractional Fourier

transform (FRT). We encrypt and decrypt a

two-dimensional image obtained from an

amplitude image. The full phase image to be

encrypted is fractional Fourier transformed

three times and random phase masks are

placed in the two intermediate planes [13].

Madan Singh et al. proposed a simple and

secure double random phase encoding and

decoding system to encrypt and decrypt a

two-dimensional gray scale image. Jigsaw

transforms of the second random phase

mask and the encrypted image have been

used. The random phase mask placed in the

Fourier plane is broken into independent

non-overlapping segments by applying the

jigsaw transforms [14]. Yong-Ying Wang et

al. proposed a method of optical image

encryption with binary Fourier transform

computer-generated hologram (CGH) and

pixel-scrambling technology is presented. In

this method, the orders of the pixel

scrambling, as well as the encrypted image,

are used as the keys to decrypt the original

28

Transform for Information Security

image. Therefore, higher security is

achieved. Furthermore, the encrypted image

is binary, so it is easy to be fabricated and

robust against noise and distortion [15].

Huijuan Li et al. proposed a double-image

encryption algorithm is proposed, which can

simultaneously encrypt two images into a

single one as the amplitude of gyrator

transform with two different groups of

angles. The two original images can be

retrieved independently by gyrator

transforms with two different groups of

angles, one common phase mask, and two

different private phase masks. The proposed

approach can enlarge the key space, achieve

faster convergence in iterative process, and

avoid cross-talk between two images in

reconstruction. Numerical simulations are

presented to verify its validity and efficiency

[16]. Madan Singh et al. proposed the

encryption and decryption of two-

dimensional images. The encryption is done

by employing a sandwich phase diffuser

made by using two elongated speckle

patterns, and placed in the Fourier plane of a

double random phase encoding system.

After encryption, the two constituent phase

diffusers of such a sandwich diffuser are

separated. During decryption, if the

conjugate of either of the two elongated

phase speckle patterns is used, the image

cannot be retrieved. Correct decryption is

also not possible if a sandwich diffuser with

any of the phase speckle patterns is shifted

in position with respect to the other. For

decryption, the encrypted image is Fourier

transformed and multiplied by the conjugate

of the sandwich diffuser, and then the

product is further Fourier transformed [17].

Narendra Singh and Aloka Sinha proposed a

new method for image encryption, using

gyrator transform and chaos theory. Random

phase masks are generated using chaos

functions and are called a schaotic random

phase masks. In the proposed technique, the

image is encrypted using gyrator transform

and two chaotic random phase masks. Three

types of chaos functions have been used to

generate the chaotic random phase masks.

These chaos functions are the logistic map,

the tent map and the Kaplan-Yorke map

[18].

In the present investigation, a new optical

image encryption and decryption technique

based on Radon Transform and Chaos

Theory.

2. Radon Transform

The Radon transform in two dimensions, is

the integral transform consisting of the

integral of a function over straight lines. The

inverse of the Radon transform is used to

reconstruct images from medical computed

tomography scans. In the context of

tomography the Radon transform data is

often called a sinogram because the Radon

transform of a Dirac delta function is a

distribution with support on the graph of a

sine wave. Consequently the Radon

transform of a number of small objects

appears graphically as a number of blurred

sine waves with different amplitudes and

phases. The Radon transform is useful in

computed axial tomography (CAT scan),

electron microscopy of macromolecular

assemblies like viruses and protein

complexes, reflection seismology and in the

solution of hyperbolic partial differential

equations. Let f be a function vanishing

outside some large disc in the Eucildian

plane R

2

. The radon transform, denoted by

Rf, is a function defined on the space of

lines L in Let f be a continuous function

vanishing outside some large disc in the

Euclidean plane R

2

. The Radon transform,

denoted by R

f

, is a function defined on the

space of lines L in R

2

as shown in equation

(1).

L

x d x f L Rf ) ( ) ( ) (

(1)

29

where the integration is performed with

respect to the arclength measure dσ on L.

Concretely, any straight line L can be

parameterized by

) sin , (cos ) cos , (sin ) ( ), ( ( s t t y t x

where s is the distance of L from the origin

and α is the angle L makes with the x axis. It

follows that the quantities (α,s) can be

considered as coordinates on the space of all

lines in R

2

, and the Radon transform can be

expressed in these coordinates by

dt t y t x f s Rf ) ( ), )( ( ) , (

dt s t f )) sin , (cos ) cos , (sin (

(3)

More generally, in the n-dimensional

Euclidean space R

n

, the Radon transform of

a compactly supported continuous function

ƒ is a function Rƒ on the space Σ

n

of all

hyper planes in R

n

. It is defined by

) ( ) ( ) ( x d x f Rf

(4 )

for ξ ∈ Σ

n

, where the integral is taken with

respect to the natural hypersurface measure

dσ. Observe that any element of Σ

n

is

uniquely characterized as the solution locus

of an equation

3. Chaotic Functions

In mathematics, chaos theory describes the

behavior of certain dynamical systems ie.,

systems whose state evolves with time – that

may exhibit dynamics that are highly

sensitive to initial conditions (popularly

referred to as the butterfly effect). As a

result of this sensitivity, which manifests

itself as an exponential growth of

perturbations in the initial conditions, the

behavior of chaotic systems appears to be

random. This happens even though these

systems are deterministic, meaning that their

future dynamics are fully defined by their

initial conditions, with no random elements

involved. This behavior is known as

deterministic chaos, or simply chaos.

Chaotic behaviour is also observed in

natural systems, such as the weather. This

may be explained by a chaos-theoretical

analysis of a mathematical model of such a

system, embodying the laws of physics that

are relevant for the natural system. A chaotic

map is a map that exhibits some sort of

chaotic behavior. Maps may be

parameterized by a discrete-time or a

continuous-time parameter. Discrete maps

usually take the form of iterated functions.

Chaotic maps often occur in the study of

systems. In our encryption technique the

Random phase mask has been generated by

using logistic map as the chaotic map.

Logistic Chaos map is a one dimensional

and discrete map which is given by the

equation

(2)

where :

**is a number between zero and
**

one, and represents the population at year n,

and hence

represents the initial

population or seed value (at year 0)

r is a positive number, and represents a

combined rate for reproduction and

starvation. It can be any number between 0

and 4.

5. Cryptographic Enhancement

For an mxn image two sequence of random

number of length m and n corresponding to

each row and column of the image are

31

generated. At first each pixel of the image is

replaced by the r‟th pixel from the right

of the original pixel, where r is the random

number corresponding to that particular row.

Same action is performed with respect to

column. During decryption same action is

performed in the reverse direction yielding

the correct image. The procedure is

explained in fig.1. The sequence of random

number acts as a set of key, and this whole

operation adds additional security feature to

the encryption.

4. Proposed Technique

The proposed encryption and decryption

technique is based on the Radon Transforms

and chaos. Let f(x,y) denotes the original

image to be encrypted. In the proposed

technique, the image is encrypted using

Radon Transform and and double CRPMs.

The problem of bare

decryption [23] in HT has been resolved by

introducing the random intensity mask

(RIM)at the input plane. Recently, chaotic

based encryption method using optical

communication [25], Ikeda-based non linear

delay dynamics [26] and optical ring

resonators[27] have been proposed. Chaos

functions are very sensitive to the initial

conditions [28–30]. In optical image

encryption techniques using RIM, the image

is encrypted using RIMs and the whole

random intensity mask has to be sent to the

receiver side to decrypt the original image

The input image is multiplied by the first

CRIM represented as C(x,y), where C(x,y)

is the random numbers sequence generated

by the chaotic function at input plane.Then

the improper HT with fractional

parameter„p‟ is performed over it. The

output image obtained after improper HT is

then multiplied by the second CRIM

represented by the C(u,v), where C(u,v) is

the random number sequence generated by

the chaotic function at image plane.After

this process, the encrypted image is obtained

at the improper HTplane. The encryption

process can be explained as follows and the

block diagram for optical image encryption

is shown in figure i(a).

The input image as well as all other images

after each process has been given in figures

A gray scaled Lena (256 x256)image is used

as input image in digital form. The input

image is transformed by using Radon

transform. The transformed image is of a

different size (367x451)with respect to the

input image .The number of rows of the

transformed image depends on the number

of intensity level present in the image while

the number of column depends on the total

number of angel for which RT is taken ,

which acts as a security feature .The

transformed image is multiplied with the

random phase mask represented by

exp(ipiC(x)) here C(x) is the logistic map

function. The row column shift operation is

performed on this output to generate the

encrypted image. The encryption procedure

is shown in fig 1.a

6

International Journal of Image Processing and Visual Communication

Volume 1 , Issue1, August 2012

32

For decryption the pixels are shifted to their

original coordinates by applying row

column shift operation in the reverse

direction, and then this image is multiplied

with the conjugate of the random phase

mask. Now inverse radon transform applied

for the same set angel as of radon transform

yields the original input image . The

decryption procedure is shown in fig 1.b

Resu

The results obtained are shown through fig 2.a to 2.i

Fig 2.a Input image Fig 2.b Radon transformed image Fig 2.cLogistic chaos function

Fig 2.d Random chaos phase mask Fig 2.e radon transform multiplied with phased mask Fig 2.f Row & Coulmn shifted(Encrypted image)

Input

Image

(m x n)

Radon

transform

(m1x n1)

Shift

Column

Shift Row

Encrypted

Image

(m1 x n1)

Encrypted

Image

(m1 x n1)

Radon

transform

(mx n)

Shift Row

Back

Shift

Coulmn

Back

Decrypted

Image

(m x n)

Conjugate of logistic Chaos RPM ( m1xn1)

Logistic Chaos RPM (m1xn1)

(_

Fig.1.a Block diagram for encryption

Fig.1.b Block diagram for decryption

33

Fig 2.g Image decrypted with correct

keys Fig

2.h Image decrypted with conjugate of

wrong chaos mask

Fig 2.i Image decrypted without shifting

the row-coulmn bac

6. Robustness of the algorithm to blind

Decryption

Various Analysis carriedout to determine the

robustness and reliability of the proposed

scheme.They are described below.

a.MSE - An ideal image encryption

procedure should be sensitive with respect to

the secret key i.e. the slightest change in the

key should results in a failed decryption .

For testing the key sensitivity of the

proposed image encryption procedure, we

have plotted the MSE between the original

image and image decrypted with different

wrong keys .

Fig 3.ix MSE wrt variation in rate of the logistic

function

Tabel 1. MSE wrt different key

Rate of logistic map MSE for lena

3.7

3.72

3.74

221504.8843

234863.5641

266149.2004

3.76

3.78

3.79

3.799

3.7999

3.8

3.8001

3.801

3.81

3.82

3.84

3.86

3.88

253565.5016

261938.1427

262371.1103

265253.1471

264224.9905

48.5119

269381.7596

285538.7191

276406.204

355639.5019

355639.5019

326725.9495

313454.6869

7. Conclusions:

A highly efficient optical image encryption

and decryption Technique Using Radon

Transforms and Chaos function has been

proposed .The technique is highly robust

and has great immunity to unauthorized

decryption.The original and decrypted

image are highly correlated .The Technique

can be realized by optical means and hence

is useful for optical networks.

References:

[1] N. Bourbakis, C. Alexopoulos, Picture

data encryption using SCAN pattern, Pattern

Recogn. 25 (1992) 567–581.

[2] Refregier, B Javidi, Optical image

encryption based on input plane and fourier

plane random encoding, Opt. Lett. 20 (1995)

767–769.

[3] H.K.L. Chang, J.L. Liu, A linear quad

tree compression scheme for image

34

encryption, Signal Process. 10 (4) (1997)

279–290.

[4] Fridrich Jiri, Symmetric ciphers based on

two dimensional chaotic maps, Int. J.

Bifurcat Chaos 8 (6) (1998) 1259–1284.

[5] J. Scharinger, Fast encryption of image

data using chaotic Kolmogrov flow, J.

Electronic Eng 7 (2) (1998) 318–325.

[6] J.C. Yen, J.I. Guo, A new image

encryption algorithm and its VLSI

architecture, in: Proceedings of the IEEE

workshop signal processing systems, 1999,

pp. 430–437

[7] J.C. Yen, J.I. Guo, An efficient

hierarchical chaotic image encryption

algorithm and its VLSI realization, IEE

Proc. Vis. Image Process. 147 (2000) 167–

175.

[8] H. Cheng, X.B. Li, Partial encryption of

compressed image and videos, IEEE Trans.

Signal Process. 48 (8) (2000) 2439–2451.

[9] J.C. Yen, J.I. Guo, A new chaotic key

based design for image encryption and

decryption, Proceedings of the IEEE

International Symposium Circuits and

Systems, vol. 4, 2000, pp. 49–52

[10] C.C. Chang, M.S. Hwang, T.S. Chen, A

new encryption algorithm for image

cryptosystems, J. Syst. Software 58 (2001)

83–91.

749–761.

[11] Nishchal NK, Joseph J, Singh K. Fully

phase-encrypted memory using cascaded

extended fractional Fourier transform. Opt

Lasers Eng 2004;42(2):141–51.

[12]X.Li,D.Zhao,Opticalcolorimageencrypti

onwithredefinedfractionalHartleytransform,

Opt.Int.J.LightElectron. Opt.

(2009),doi:10.1016/j.ijleo.2008.10.008.

[13] Naveen Kumar Nishchal, Joby Joseph,

Kehar Singh,” Fully phase-encrypted

memory using cascaded extended fractional

Fourier transform”, Optics and Lasers in

Engineering 42 (2004) 141–151.

[14] Madan Singh a, Arvind Kumar b,_,

Kehar Singh,” Optical security system using

jigsaw transforms of the second random

phase mask and the encrypted image in a

double random phase encoding system”,

Optics and Lasers in Engineering 46 (2008)

763–768

[15] Yong-Ying Wang_, Yu-Rong Wang,

Yong Wang, Hui-Juan Li, Wen-Jia Sun,

“Optical image encryption based on binary

Fourier transform computer-generated

hologram and pixel scrambling technology”,

Optics and Lasers in Engineering 45 (2007)

761–765.

[16] Huijuan Li ,, Yurong Wang, “Double-

image encryption based on iterative gyrator

transform”, Optics Communications 281

(2008) 5745–5749.

[17] M. Singh, et al., Encryption and

decryption using a sandwich phase diffuser

made by using two speckle patterns and

placed in the Fourier plane: Simulation

results, Opt. Int. J. Light Electron. Opt.

(2008), doi:10.1016/j.ijleo.2008.03.025.

[18] Narendra Singh, Aloka Sinha ,” Gyrator

transform-based optical image encryption,

using chaos”, Optics

andLasersinEngineering47(2009)539–546.

35

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