Image Encryption and Decryption Using Radon

1. Introduction

Recent advances in optical image encryption
and decryption techniques are capable of
protecting the digital images which are
being communicated over various
transmission media from leakage. Image
applications like medical image data bases,
military images, confidential video
conferencing, cable TV, personal
photograph album, etc. require reliable, fast
and robust security system to store and
transmit digital images. With the help of
efficient optical encryption and decryption
technique, one can fulfill the requirements
of security needs of digital images. A
number of optical image encryption systems
have been proposed by various research
groups‟ earlier [1–10].In real time
applications, highly accurate and fast
computing and parallelism of optics and
optoelectronics techniques are very useful.
Many parameters in optics such as
wavelength, phase, polarization, etc. by
which information can be hidden more
securely in various types of images [11].
Xinxin Li et al proposed propose a new
method for color image encryption by
wavelength multiplexing on the basis of
two-dimensional (2-D) generalization of 1-
fractional Hartley transform that has been
redefined recently in search of its inverse
transform. A color image can be considered
as three monochromatic images and then
divided into three components and each
component is encrypted independently with
different wavelength corresponding to red,
green or blue light [12]. Naveen Kumar
Nishchal et al. proposed and implemented a
fully phase-encrypted memory system using
cascaded extended fractional Fourier
transform (FRT). We encrypt and decrypt a
two-dimensional image obtained from an
amplitude image. The full phase image to be
encrypted is fractional Fourier transformed
three times and random phase masks are
placed in the two intermediate planes [13].
Madan Singh et al. proposed a simple and
secure double random phase encoding and
decoding system to encrypt and decrypt a
two-dimensional gray scale image. Jigsaw
transforms of the second random phase
mask and the encrypted image have been
used. The random phase mask placed in the
Fourier plane is broken into independent
non-overlapping segments by applying the
jigsaw transforms [14]. Yong-Ying Wang et
al. proposed a method of optical image
encryption with binary Fourier transform
computer-generated hologram (CGH) and
pixel-scrambling technology is presented. In
this method, the orders of the pixel
scrambling, as well as the encrypted image,
are used as the keys to decrypt the original
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Transform for Information Security
image. Therefore, higher security is
achieved. Furthermore, the encrypted image
is binary, so it is easy to be fabricated and
robust against noise and distortion [15].
Huijuan Li et al. proposed a double-image
encryption algorithm is proposed, which can
simultaneously encrypt two images into a
single one as the amplitude of gyrator
transform with two different groups of
angles. The two original images can be
retrieved independently by gyrator
transforms with two different groups of
angles, one common phase mask, and two
different private phase masks. The proposed
approach can enlarge the key space, achieve
faster convergence in iterative process, and
avoid cross-talk between two images in
reconstruction. Numerical simulations are
presented to verify its validity and efficiency
[16]. Madan Singh et al. proposed the
encryption and decryption of two-
dimensional images. The encryption is done
by employing a sandwich phase diffuser
made by using two elongated speckle
patterns, and placed in the Fourier plane of a
double random phase encoding system.
After encryption, the two constituent phase
diffusers of such a sandwich diffuser are
separated. During decryption, if the
conjugate of either of the two elongated
phase speckle patterns is used, the image
cannot be retrieved. Correct decryption is
also not possible if a sandwich diffuser with
any of the phase speckle patterns is shifted
in position with respect to the other. For
decryption, the encrypted image is Fourier
transformed and multiplied by the conjugate
of the sandwich diffuser, and then the
product is further Fourier transformed [17].
Narendra Singh and Aloka Sinha proposed a
new method for image encryption, using
gyrator transform and chaos theory. Random
phase masks are generated using chaos
functions and are called a schaotic random
phase masks. In the proposed technique, the
image is encrypted using gyrator transform
and two chaotic random phase masks. Three
types of chaos functions have been used to
generate the chaotic random phase masks.
These chaos functions are the logistic map,
the tent map and the Kaplan-Yorke map
[18].
In the present investigation, a new optical
image encryption and decryption technique
based on Radon Transform and Chaos
Theory.
2. Radon Transform
The Radon transform in two dimensions, is
the integral transform consisting of the
integral of a function over straight lines. The
inverse of the Radon transform is used to
reconstruct images from medical computed
tomography scans. In the context of
tomography the Radon transform data is
often called a sinogram because the Radon
transform of a Dirac delta function is a
distribution with support on the graph of a
sine wave. Consequently the Radon
transform of a number of small objects
appears graphically as a number of blurred
sine waves with different amplitudes and
phases. The Radon transform is useful in
computed axial tomography (CAT scan),
electron microscopy of macromolecular
assemblies like viruses and protein
complexes, reflection seismology and in the
solution of hyperbolic partial differential
equations. Let f be a function vanishing
outside some large disc in the Eucildian
plane R
2
. The radon transform, denoted by
Rf, is a function defined on the space of
lines L in Let f be a continuous function
vanishing outside some large disc in the
Euclidean plane R
2
. The Radon transform,
denoted by R
f
, is a function defined on the
space of lines L in R
2
as shown in equation
(1).


L
x d x f L Rf ) ( ) ( ) ( 
(1)

29
where the integration is performed with
respect to the arclength measure dσ on L.
Concretely, any straight line L can be
parameterized by
) sin , (cos ) cos , (sin ) ( ), ( (     s t t y t x   


where s is the distance of L from the origin
and α is the angle L makes with the x axis. It
follows that the quantities (α,s) can be
considered as coordinates on the space of all
lines in R
2
, and the Radon transform can be
expressed in these coordinates by





 dt t y t x f s Rf ) ( ), )( ( ) , (


 
   dt s t f )) sin , (cos ) cos , (sin (    

(3)
More generally, in the n-dimensional
Euclidean space R
n
, the Radon transform of
a compactly supported continuous function
ƒ is a function Rƒ on the space Σ
n
of all
hyper planes in R
n
. It is defined by



  ) ( ) ( ) ( x d x f Rf

(4 )
for ξ ∈ Σ
n
, where the integral is taken with
respect to the natural hypersurface measure
dσ. Observe that any element of Σ
n
is
uniquely characterized as the solution locus
of an equation

3. Chaotic Functions
In mathematics, chaos theory describes the
behavior of certain dynamical systems ie.,
systems whose state evolves with time – that
may exhibit dynamics that are highly
sensitive to initial conditions (popularly
referred to as the butterfly effect). As a
result of this sensitivity, which manifests
itself as an exponential growth of
perturbations in the initial conditions, the
behavior of chaotic systems appears to be
random. This happens even though these
systems are deterministic, meaning that their
future dynamics are fully defined by their
initial conditions, with no random elements
involved. This behavior is known as
deterministic chaos, or simply chaos.
Chaotic behaviour is also observed in
natural systems, such as the weather. This
may be explained by a chaos-theoretical
analysis of a mathematical model of such a
system, embodying the laws of physics that
are relevant for the natural system. A chaotic
map is a map that exhibits some sort of
chaotic behavior. Maps may be
parameterized by a discrete-time or a
continuous-time parameter. Discrete maps
usually take the form of iterated functions.
Chaotic maps often occur in the study of
systems. In our encryption technique the
Random phase mask has been generated by
using logistic map as the chaotic map.
Logistic Chaos map is a one dimensional
and discrete map which is given by the
equation
(2)
where :

is a number between zero and
one, and represents the population at year n,
and hence

represents the initial
population or seed value (at year 0)
r is a positive number, and represents a
combined rate for reproduction and
starvation. It can be any number between 0
and 4.
5. Cryptographic Enhancement
For an mxn image two sequence of random
number of length m and n corresponding to
each row and column of the image are
31
generated. At first each pixel of the image is
replaced by the r‟th pixel from the right
of the original pixel, where r is the random
number corresponding to that particular row.
Same action is performed with respect to
column. During decryption same action is
performed in the reverse direction yielding
the correct image. The procedure is
explained in fig.1. The sequence of random
number acts as a set of key, and this whole
operation adds additional security feature to
the encryption.

4. Proposed Technique
The proposed encryption and decryption
technique is based on the Radon Transforms
and chaos. Let f(x,y) denotes the original
image to be encrypted. In the proposed
technique, the image is encrypted using
Radon Transform and and double CRPMs.
The problem of bare
decryption [23] in HT has been resolved by
introducing the random intensity mask
(RIM)at the input plane. Recently, chaotic
based encryption method using optical
communication [25], Ikeda-based non linear
delay dynamics [26] and optical ring
resonators[27] have been proposed. Chaos
functions are very sensitive to the initial
conditions [28–30]. In optical image
encryption techniques using RIM, the image
is encrypted using RIMs and the whole
random intensity mask has to be sent to the
receiver side to decrypt the original image
The input image is multiplied by the first
CRIM represented as C(x,y), where C(x,y)
is the random numbers sequence generated
by the chaotic function at input plane.Then
the improper HT with fractional
parameter„p‟ is performed over it. The
output image obtained after improper HT is
then multiplied by the second CRIM
represented by the C(u,v), where C(u,v) is
the random number sequence generated by
the chaotic function at image plane.After
this process, the encrypted image is obtained
at the improper HTplane. The encryption
process can be explained as follows and the
block diagram for optical image encryption
is shown in figure i(a).
The input image as well as all other images
after each process has been given in figures

A gray scaled Lena (256 x256)image is used
as input image in digital form. The input
image is transformed by using Radon
transform. The transformed image is of a
different size (367x451)with respect to the
input image .The number of rows of the
transformed image depends on the number
of intensity level present in the image while
the number of column depends on the total
number of angel for which RT is taken ,
which acts as a security feature .The
transformed image is multiplied with the
random phase mask represented by
exp(ipiC(x)) here C(x) is the logistic map
function. The row column shift operation is
performed on this output to generate the
encrypted image. The encryption procedure
is shown in fig 1.a

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International Journal of Image Processing and Visual Communication
Volume 1 , Issue1, August 2012
32


For decryption the pixels are shifted to their
original coordinates by applying row
column shift operation in the reverse
direction, and then this image is multiplied
with the conjugate of the random phase
mask. Now inverse radon transform applied
for the same set angel as of radon transform
yields the original input image . The
decryption procedure is shown in fig 1.b




Resu
The results obtained are shown through fig 2.a to 2.i

Fig 2.a Input image Fig 2.b Radon transformed image Fig 2.cLogistic chaos function


Fig 2.d Random chaos phase mask Fig 2.e radon transform multiplied with phased mask Fig 2.f Row & Coulmn shifted(Encrypted image)
Input
Image
(m x n)
Radon
transform
(m1x n1)
Shift
Column
Shift Row
Encrypted
Image
(m1 x n1)
Encrypted
Image
(m1 x n1)
Radon
transform
(mx n)
Shift Row
Back
Shift
Coulmn
Back
Decrypted
Image
(m x n)
Conjugate of logistic Chaos RPM ( m1xn1)
Logistic Chaos RPM (m1xn1)


(_
Fig.1.a Block diagram for encryption
Fig.1.b Block diagram for decryption
33


Fig 2.g Image decrypted with correct
keys Fig
2.h Image decrypted with conjugate of
wrong chaos mask
Fig 2.i Image decrypted without shifting
the row-coulmn bac


6. Robustness of the algorithm to blind
Decryption

Various Analysis carriedout to determine the
robustness and reliability of the proposed
scheme.They are described below.

a.MSE - An ideal image encryption
procedure should be sensitive with respect to
the secret key i.e. the slightest change in the
key should results in a failed decryption .
For testing the key sensitivity of the
proposed image encryption procedure, we
have plotted the MSE between the original
image and image decrypted with different
wrong keys .



Fig 3.ix MSE wrt variation in rate of the logistic
function

Tabel 1. MSE wrt different key

Rate of logistic map MSE for lena
3.7
3.72
3.74
221504.8843
234863.5641
266149.2004
3.76
3.78
3.79
3.799
3.7999
3.8
3.8001
3.801
3.81
3.82
3.84
3.86
3.88
253565.5016
261938.1427
262371.1103
265253.1471
264224.9905
48.5119
269381.7596
285538.7191
276406.204
355639.5019
355639.5019
326725.9495
313454.6869
7. Conclusions:
A highly efficient optical image encryption
and decryption Technique Using Radon
Transforms and Chaos function has been
proposed .The technique is highly robust
and has great immunity to unauthorized
decryption.The original and decrypted
image are highly correlated .The Technique
can be realized by optical means and hence
is useful for optical networks.
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