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SAMPLE PROBLEMS: Fluid Mechanics

Taken From: Taken From: Richardson, J. H., et al, COULSON & RICHARDSON: CHEMICAL ENGINEERING,
Volumes 1 & 3, 5
th
edition, Butterworth-Heinemann 2002

PART 1
_____ 1. Water is contained in the basket of a centrifuge of 0.5 m internal diameter, rotating at
50 revolutions per second. If the inner radius of the liquid is 0.15 m, what is the pressure at the
walls of the basket?
a. 4.94 x 10
5
Pa b. 1.97 x 10
6
Pa c. 11.2 x 10
6
Pa d. none of these

_____ 2. A free vortex exists in the following except-
a. Outside the impeller of a centrifugal pump
b. In a cyclone separator or hydrocyclone
c. Inside the region of the agitator in a stirred tank
d. In liquid flowing round a bend in a pipe

_____ 3. The angular velocity of the liquid in a ____ vortex is maintained constant by mechanical
means, like in an agitator rotating in the liquid or by rotation in the basket of a centrifuge.
a. Forced b. free c. impulsive d. none of these

_____ 4. Which of the following is true?
a. The forced vortex tends to decay into a free vortex.
b. The free vortex tends to decay into a forced vertex.
c. Forced vortex occurs in the flow of liquid into a drain, as in a sink or bath
d. All of these

_____ 5. It is characterized by the rapid movement of fluid as eddies in random directions across
a tube. a. Laminar flow b. streamline flow c. turbulent flow d. boundary layer flow

_____ 6. In a turbulent layer, there is a thin region near the surface where the flow remains
laminar, and this is known as-
a. turbulent sub-layer b. laminar sub-layer c. boundary flow sub-layer d. none of these

_____ 7. Ninety-eight per cent sulfuric acid (viscosity = 25 x 10
-3
N s/m
2
, density = 1840 kg/m
3
) is
pumped at 1.25 kg/s through a 25 mm diameter pipe, 30 m long, to a reservoir 12 m higher than
the feed point. Calculate the pressure drop in the pipeline. Use mild steel pipe as the pipe.
a. 320 kPa b. 240 kPa c. 480 kPa d. 560 kPa

_____ 8. Water flows in a 50 mm pipe, 100 m long, whose relative roughness is equal to 0.013
mm. If the pressure drop across this length of pipe is not to exceed 50 kPa, what is the
maximum allowable water velocity? The density and viscosity of water is 1000 kg/m
3
and 1 cP,
respectively. a. 1.0 m/s b. 1.6 m/s c. 0.1 m/s d. 6.1 m/s

_____ 9. The velocity at any point in the cross-section is proportional to the one-seventh power
of the distance from the walls if the shear stress is in accordance to Blasius equation. This
equation is also known as-
a. Blausius one-seventh power rule c. Prandtl one-seventh power rule
b. Moody one-seventh power rule d. none of these

_____ 10. Water flows at 7.2 m
3
/hr through a sudden enlargement from a 40 mm to a 50 mm
diameter pipe. What is the loss in head?
a. 759 mm b. 165 mm c. 561 mm d. 957 mm

_____ 11. Ninety eight percent of sulfuric acid of viscosity 0.025 N s/m
2
and density 1840 kg/m
3
is pumped at 685 cm
3
/s through a 25 mm line. Calculate the value of the Reynolds number.
a. 2572 b. 2752 c. 7522 d. 5272

_____ 12. Calculate the ideal available energy produced by the discharge to atmosphere
through a nozzle of air stored in a cylinder of capacity 0.1 m
3
at a pressure of 5 MN/m
2
. The
initial temperature of the air is 290 K and the ratio of the specific heats is 1.4.
a. -480 kJ b. +480 kJ c. -840 kJ d. +840 kJ

_____ 13. Calculate the energy stored in 1000 cm
3
of gas at 80 MN/m
2
at 290 K using STP as the
datum.
a. +47.7 kJ b. -47.7 kJ c. -74.4 kJ d. +74.4 kJ

_____ 14. Calculate the hydraulic mean diameter of the annular space between a 40 mm and a
50 mm tube.
a. 10 mm b. 45 mm c. 40 mm d. 22.5 mm

_____ 15. 0.015 m
3
/s of acetic acid is pumped through a 75 mm diameter horizontal pipe 70 m
long. What is the pressure drop in the pipe? Viscosity of acid = 2.5mNs/m
2
, density of acid =
1060 kg/m
3
, and roughness of pipe surface = 6x10
-5
m.
a. 511 kPa b. 115 kPa c. 246 kPa d. 426 kPa

_____ 16. Find the drop in pressure due to friction in a glazed porcelain pipe 300 m long and 150
mm diameter when water is flowing at the rate of 0.05 m
3
/s.
a. 1 MPa b. 2 MPa c. 3 MPa d. 4 MPa

_____ 17. Calculate the pressure drop when 3 kg/s of sulphuric acid flows through 60 m of 25
mm pipe (density = 1840 kg/m
3
, viscosity 0.025 N s/m
2
).
a. 500 kPa b. 700 kPa c. 800 kPa d. 900 kPa

_____ 18. A heat exchanger is to consist of a number of tubes each 25 mm diameter and 5 m
long arranged in parallel. The exchanger is to be used as a cooler with a rating of 4 MW and the
temperature rise in the water feed to the tubes is to be 20 deg K. If the pressure drop over the
tubes is not to exceed 2 kN/m
2
, calculate the minimum number of tubes that are required.
Assume that the tube walls are smooth and that entrance and exit effects can be neglected.
Viscosity of water = 1mNs/m
2
.
a. 20 tubes b. 42 tubes c. 84 tubes d. 116 tubes

______ 19. Sulfuric acid is pumped at 3 kg/s through a 60 m length of smooth 25 mm pipe.
Calculate the drop in pressure. Density of acid = 1840 kg/m
3
. Viscosity of acid = 25 mN s/m
2
.
a. 480 kPa b. 840 kPa c. 620 kPa d. 260 kPa

______ 20. In problem # 19, If the pressure drop falls by one half, what will be the new flow
rate? a. 8.61 kg/s b. 1.68 kg/s c. 1.86 kg/s d. 16.8 kg/s

______ 21. Oil with a viscosity of 10 mNs/m
2
and density 900 kg/m
3
is flowing through a 500 mm
diameter pipe 10 km long. The pressure difference between the two ends of the pipe is 10
6

N/m
2
. What will the pressure drop be at the same flow rate if it is necessary to replace the pipe
by one only 300 mm in diameter? Assume the pipe surface to be smooth.
a. 9.11 x 10
7
Pa b. 11.9 x 10
7
Pa c. 1.19 x 10
7
Pa d. 91.1 x 10
7
Pa

______ 22. A pipeline 0.5 m diameter and 1200 m long is used for transporting an oil of density
950 kg/m
3
and of viscosity 0.01 Ns/m
2
at 0.4m
3
/s. If the roughness of the pipe surface is 0.5 mm,
what is the pressure drop?
a. 1.3 x 10
5
Pa b. 3.1 x 10
5
Pa c. 7.2 x 10
5
Pa d. 2.7 x 10
5
Pa

_____ 23. With the same pressure drop, what will be the flow rate of a second oil of density 980
kg/m
3
and of viscosity 0.02 Ns/m
2
?
a. 0.34 m
3
/s b. 4.30 m
3
/s c. 3.4 m
3
/s d. 0.43 m
3
/s

_____ 24. A venturi meter with a 50 mm throat is used to measure a flow of slightly salt water in
a pipe of inside diameter 100 mm. The meter is checked by adding 20 cm
3
/s of normal sodium
chloride solution above the meter and analyzing a sample of water downstream from the meter.
Before addition of the salt, 1000 cm
3
of water requires 10 cm
3
of 0.1 M silver nitrate solution in
a titration. 1000 cm
3
of the downstream sample required 23.5cm
3
of 0.1 M silver nitrate. If a
mercury-under-water manometer connected to the meter gives a reading of 221 mm, what is
the discharge coefficient of the meter? Assume that the density of the liquid is not appreciably
affected by the salt.
a. 0.982 b. 0.289 c. 0.829 d. 0.928

_____ 25. Air, at 1500 kN/m
2
and 370 K, flows through an orifice of 30 mm
2
to atmospheric
pressure. If the coefficient of discharge is 0.65, the critical pressure ratio 0.527, and the ratio of
the specific heats is 1.4, calculate the mass flow rate in kilograms per second.
a. 0.015 b. 0.061 c. 0.512 d. 1.060

_____ 26. In the rotational motion of a fluid, the angular velocity is a constant and is
independent of the radius of the vortex formation is described as-
a. Forced b. free c. impulsive d. none of these

_____ 27. Which of the following is NOT a result of the formation of forced vortex?
a. The movement of liquid within the impeller of a centrifugal pump when there is no
flow as, for example, when the outlet valve is closed.
b. The rotation of liquid within the confines of a stirrer in an agitated tank.
c. The rotation of liquid in the basket of a centrifuge.
d. None of these

_____ 28. Shear thinning liquids.
a. pseudoplastic b. Bingham plastic c. dilatants liquid d. Newtonian


_____ 29. Shear thickening liquids.
a. pseudoplastic b. Bingham plastic c. dilatants liquid d. Newtonian

_____ 30. A model used to describe the viscosity of non-Newtonian liquids.
a. Newtons Law of viscosity c. Ostwald de Waele Law
b. Martinas Law of consistency d. none of these

_____ 31. A pump is designed to be driven at 10 Hz and to operate at a maximum efficiency
when delivering 0.4 m
3
/s of water against a head of 20 m. Calculate the specific speed.
a. 0.211 b. 0.121 c. 0.112 d. none of these

_____ 32. In problem #31, what type of pump does this value suggest?
a. centrifugal pump c. positive-displacement pump
b. radial pump d. none of these

_____ 33. In problem #31, a pump built for these operating conditions has a measured overall
efficiency of 70%. The same pump is now required to deliver water at 30 m head. At what speed
should the pump be driven if it is to operate at maximum efficiency?
a. 12.24 Hz b. 24.21 Hz c. 42.12 Hz d. 14.22 Hz

_____ 34. In problem #33, What will be the power required?
a. 260 W b. 62 W c. 620 W d. 206 W

_____ 35. A centrifugal pump is to be used to extract water from a condenser in which the
vacuum is 640 mm of mercury. At the rated discharge, the net positive suction head must be at
least 3 m above the cavitation vapor pressure of 710 mm mercury vacuum. If losses in the
suction pipe account for a head of 1.5 m, what must be the least height of the liquid level in the
condenser above the pump inlet?
a. 5.33 m b. 3.55 m c. 1.77m d. 7.17 m

_____ 36. 1250 cm
3
/s of water is to be pumped through a steel pipe, 25 mm diameter and 30 m
long, to a tank 12 m higher than its reservoir. Calculate the approximate power required.
Viscosity of water = 1.30 mN s/m
2
. Density of water = 1000 kg/m
3
.
a. 752 W b. 275 W c. 496 W d. 649 W

_____ 37. 60% sulfuric acid is to be pumped at the rate of 4000 cm
3
/s through a lead pipe 25
mm diameter and raised to a height of 25 m. The pipe is 30 m long and includes two right-
angled bends. Calculate the theoretical power required. The density of the acid is 1531 kg/m
3

and its kinematic viscosity is 4.25 x 10
-5
m
2
/s. The density of water may be taken as 1000 kg/m
3
.
a. 11 kW b. 22 kW c. 33 kW d. 44 kW

_____ 38. In a stationary fluid the pressure is exerted equally in all directions and is referred to
as- a. gauge pressure b. static pressure c. absolute pressure d. may pressure

_____ 39. In a moving fluid, the ____ is exerted on any plane parallel to the direction of motion.
a. gauge pressure b. static pressure c. absolute pressure d. may pressure


_____ 40. With this instrument, a small element of fluid is brought to rest at an orifice situated
at right angles to the direction of flow. The velocity measured here is a small filament of fluid.
a. Nozzle b. pitot tube c. orifice meter d. venturi meter

_____ 41. With this instrument, the fluid is accelerated at a sudden constriction, known as the
orifice, and the pressure developed is then measured. This is a relatively cheap and reliable
instrument though the overall pressure drop is high because most of the kinetic energy of the
fluid at the orifice is wasted.
a. Nozzle b. pitot tube c. orifice meter d. venturi meter

_____ 42. With this instrument, the fluid is gradually accelerated to a throat and gradually
retarded as the flow channel is expanded to the pipe size. A high proportion of the kinetic
energy is thus recovered but the instrument is expensive and bulky.
a. Nozzle b. pitot tube c. orifice meter d. venturi meter

_____ 43. With this instrument, the fluid is gradually accelerated up to the throat of the
instrument but expansion to pipe diameter is sudden as with an orifice. This instrument is again
expensive because of the accuracy required over the inlet section.
a. Nozzle b. weir c. orifice meter d. venturi meter

_____ 44. With this instrument, the fluid flows over it so that its kinetic energy is measured by
determining the head of the fluid flowing above it. This instrument is used in open-channel flow
and extensively in tray towers where its height is adjusted to provide the necessary liquid depth
for a given flow.
a. Nozzle b. weir c. orifice meter d. venturi meter

_____ 45. Water flows through an orifice of 25 mm diameter situated in a 75 mm diameter pipe,
at a rate of 300 cm
3
/s. What will be the difference in level on a water manometer connected
across the meter? The viscosity of water is 1 cP.
a. 51 mm water c. 15 mm water
b. 26 mm water d. 62 mm water

_____ 46. The rate of flow of water in a 150 mm diameter pipe is measured with a venturi meter
with a 50 mm diameter throat. When the pressure drop over the converging section is 121 mm
of water, the flow rate is 2.91 kg/s. What is the coefficient for the converging cone of the meter
at this flow rate?
a. 0.986 b. 0.786 c. 0.985 d. 0.785

_____ 47. An instrument wherein the tube contains a freely moving float which rests on a stop
at the base of the tube.
a. Venturi meter b. Bourdon gauge c. rotameter d. viscometer

_____ 48. A rotameter tube is 0.3 m long with an internal diameter of 25 mm at the top and 20
mm at the bottom. The diameter of the float is 20 mm, its density is 4800 kg/m
3
and its volume
is 6.0 cm
3
. If the coefficient of discharge is 0.7, what is the flow rate of water (density 1000
kg/m
3
) when the float is halfway up the tube?
a. 0.072 kg/s b. 0.502 kg/s c. 0.027 kg/s d. 0.205 kg/s

______ 49. Water flows in an open channel across a weir which occupies the full width of the
channel. The length of the weir is 0.5 m and the height of water over the weir is 100 mm. What
is the volumetric flow rate of water?
a. 0.01 m
3
/s b. 0.02 m
3
/s c. 0.03 m
3
/s d. 0.04 m
3
/s

______ 50. An organic liquid flows across a distillation tray and over a weir at the rate of 15 kg/s.
The weir is 2 m long and the liquid density is 650 kg/m
3
. What is the height of liquid flowing over
the weir?
a. 22 mm b. 33 mm c. 44 mm d. 55 mm

PART 2
____ 1. Water leaves the 25 mm diameter nozzle of a fire hose at a velocity of 25 m/s. What will
be the reaction force at the nozzle which the fireman will need to counterbalance?
a. 307 N b. 703 N c. 902 N d. 209 N

____ 2. Water is flowing at 5 m/s in a 50 mm diameter pipe
which incorporates a 90 bend, as shown. What is the additional
force to which a retaining bracket will be subjected, as a result
of the momentum changes in the liquid, if it is arranged
symmetrically in the pipe bend?
a. 49.6 N b. 69.4 N c. 46.9 N d. 64.9 N

_____ 3. ChE Board Exam, Nov. 2011. Water at a rate of 2.27 m
3
/h and at 320 K is pumped in a
40 mm inside diameter pipe through a distance of 150 m in a horizontal direction and then up
through a vertical height of 10m. In the pipe there is a control valve for which the friction loss
may be taken as equivalent to 200 pipe diameters and also other pipe fittings equivalent to 60
pipe diameters. Also in the line is a heat exchanger across which there is a loss in head of 1.5 m
of water. If the main pipe has a roughness of 0.2 mm, what power must be supplied to the
pump if it is 60 per cent efficient?
a. 0.136 kW b. 0.245 kW c. 0.527 kW d. 2.27 kW

_____ 4. This represents the work which must be done in order to introduce the fluid, without
change in volume, into the system. It is therefore given by the product Pv, where P is the
pressure of the system and v is the volume of unit mass of fluid.
a. pressure energy b. internal energy c. potential energy d. kinetic energy

_____ 5. Water flows from a tap at a pressure of 250 kN/m
2
above atmospheric. What is the
velocity of the jet if frictional effects are neglected?
a. 10.3 m/s b. 15.6 m/s c. 22.4 m/s d. 24.7 m/s

____ 6. ChE Board Exam, Nov. 2012. Six thousand liters per second (600 L/s) of water at 320 K is
pumped in a 40 mm inside diameter pipe through a length of 150 m in a horizontal direction and
up through a vertical height of 10 m. In the pipe there is a control valve which may be taken as
equivalent to 200 pipe diameters and other pipe fittings equivalent to 60 pipe diameters. Also in
the line there is a heat exchanger across which there is a loss in head of 1.5 m of water. If the
main pipe has a roughness of 0.0002 m, what power must be delivered to the pump if the unit is
60% efficient?
a. 218 W b. 128 W c. 521 W d. 512 W
____ 7. Crude oil is pumped from a terminal to a refinery through a 0.3 m diameter pipeline. As
a result of frictional heating, the temperature of the oil is 20 deg K higher at the refinery end
than at the terminal end of the pipe and the viscosity has fallen to one half its original value.
What is the ratio of the pressure gradient in the pipeline at the refinery end to that at the
terminal end? Viscosity of oil at terminal = 90 mNs/m
2
. Density of oil (approximately constant) =
960 kg/m
3
. Flow rate of oil = 20,000 tonne/day.
a. 0.50 b. 0.60 c. 0.70 d. 0.80

____ 8. It is defined as the ratio of the increase of stress within the fluid and the resulting
volumetric strain.
a. Youngs modulus b. Poissons ratio c. Bulks modulus d. compressibility

____ 9. ChE Board Exam, Nov. 2012. Hydrogen is pumped from a reservoir at 2 MN/m
2
pressure
through a clean horizontal mild steel pipe 50 mm diameter and 500 m long. The downstream
pressure is also 2 MN/m
2
and the pressure of this gas is raised to 2.6 MN/m
2
by a pump at the
upstream end of the pipe. The conditions of flow are isothermal and the temperature of the gas
is 293 K. What is the flowrate? Viscosity of hydrogen = 0.009 mN s/m
2
at 293 K.
a. 0.312 kg/s b. 0.456 kg/s c. 0.213 kg/s d. 0.564 kg/s

____ 10. ChE Board Exam, Nov. 2012. In Problem #9, what is the effective rate of working of the
pump? a. 113 W b. 311 W c. 133 W d. 331 W

____ 11. Lazal nozzles are famous to be called as ____.
a. converging-diverging nozzles c. converging nozzles
b. diverging nozzles d. none of these

____ 12. A vacuum distillation plant operating at 7 kN/m
2
pressure at the top has a boil-up rate
of 0.125 kg/s of xylene. Calculate the pressure drop along a 150 mm bore vapor pipe used to
connect the column to the condenser. The pipe length may be taken as equivalent to 6 m, e/d =
0.002 and absolute viscosity = 0.01 mN s/m
2
.
a. 70 Pa b. 80 Pa c. 90 Pa d. 100 Pa

____ 13. Sulfuric acid of density 1300 kg/m
3
is flowing through a pipe of 50 mm, internal
diameter. A thin-lipped orifice, 10 mm in diameter is fitted in the pipe and the differential
pressure shown on mercury manometer is 0.1 m. Assuming that the leads to the manometer are
filled with the acid, calculate the mass flow rate of acid. The coefficient of discharge of the
orifice may be taken as 0.61, the density of mercury as 13,550 kg/m
3
and the density of the
water as 1000 kg/m
3
.
a. 0.268 kg/s b. 0.862 kg/s c. 0.682 kg/s d. 0.286 kg/s

____ 14. In problem #13, find the approximate drop in pressure caused by the orifice.
a. 10 kPa b. 12 kPa c. 14 kPa d. 16 kPa

____ 15. The rate of flow of water in a 150 mm diameter pipe is measured with a venturi meter
with a 50 mm diameter throat. When the pressure drop over the converging section is 121 mm
of water, the flow rate is 2.91 kg/s. What is the coefficient for the converging cone of the meter
at this flow rate?
a. 0.895 b. 0.598 c. 0.859 d. 0.985

____ 16. Air, at 1500 kN/m
2
and 370 K, flows through an orifice of 30 mm
2
to atmospheric
pressure. If the coefficient of discharge is 0.65, the critical pressure ratio 0.527, and the ratio of
the specific heats is 1.4, calculate the mass flow rate in kg/s.
a. 0.061 b. 0.160 c. 0.016 d. 0.610

____ 17. Water flowing at 1.5 L/s in a 50 mm diameter pipe is metered by means of a simple
orifice of diameter 25 mm. What is the Reynolds number for the flow in the pipe? Density of
water = 1000 kg/m
3
. Viscosity of water = 1 mN s/m
2
.
a. 3.83 x 10
3
b. 3.83 x 10
4
c. 3.83 x 10
5
d. 3.83 x 10
6


____ 18. From problem #17, if the coefficient of discharge of the meter is 0.62, what will be the
reading on a mercury-under-water manometer connected to the meter?
a. 29 mmHg b. 37 mmHg c. 73 mmHg d. 92 mmHg

____ 19. What size of orifice would give a pressure difference of 0.3 m water gauge for the flow
of a petroleum product of density 900 kg/m
3
at 0.05 m
3
/s in a 150 mm diameter pipe? (Assume
C
D
= 0.6)
a. 0.20 m b. 0.14 m c. 0.16 m d. 0.18 m

____ 20. A gas of molecular weight 44 kg/kmol, temperature 373 K and pressure 202.6 kN/m
2
is
flowing in a duct. A pitot tube is located at the centre of the duct and is connected to a
differential manometer containing water. If the differential reading is 38.1 mm water, what is
the velocity at the center of the duct? The volume occupied by 1 kmol at 273 K and 101.3 kN/m
2
is 22.4 m
3
.
a. 11.6 m/s b. 16.1 m/s c. 6.11 m/s d. 0.61 m/s

____ 21. A single-acting reciprocating pump has a cylinder diameter of 110 mm and a stroke of
230 mm. The suction line is 6 m long and 50 mm in diameter and the level of the water in the
suction tank is 3 m below the cylinder of the pump. What is the maximum speed at which the
pump can run without an air vessel if separation is not to occur in the suction line? The piston
undergoes approximately simple harmonic motion. Atmospheric pressure is equivalent to a
head of 10.36 m of water and separation occurs at an absolute pressure corresponding to a
head of 1.20 m of water
a. 0.765 Hz b. 0.675 Hz c. 0.567 Hz d. 1.567 Hz

____ 22. Which of the following is false about the advantages of using a centrifugal pump?
a. It is simple in construction and can, therefore, be made in a wide range of materials.
b. There is a complete absence of valves.
c. It operates at low speed (up to 100 Hz) and, therefore, can be coupled directly to an
electric motor. In general, the higher the speed the smaller the pump and motor for a
given duty.
d. It gives a steady delivery.

____ 23. Which of the following is FALSE about the disadvantages of using a centrifugal pump?
a. It operates at a high efficiency over only a limited range of conditions: this applies
especially to turbine pumps.
b. It is not usually self-priming.
c. If a non-return valve is not incorporated in the delivery or suction line, the liquid will run
back into the suction tank as soon as the pump stops.
d. Very viscous liquids can be handled efficiently.

____ 24. A centrifugal pump is required to circulate a liquid of density 800 kg/m
3
and viscosity
0.5 x 10
-3
Ns/m
2
from the reboiler of a distillation column through a vaporizer at the rate of
0.004 m
3
/s, and to introduce the superheated vapor above the vapor space in the reboiler which
contains a 0.07 m depth of liquid. If smooth-bore 25 mm diameter pipe is to be used, the
pressure of vapor in the reboiler is 1 kN/m
2
and the Net Positive Suction Head required by the
pump is 2 m of liquid, what is the minimum height required between the liquid level in the
reboiler and the pump?
a. 0.03 m b. 2.0 m c. 2.3 m d. 1.5 m

____ 25. The volume remaining in the cylinder after the forward stroke of the piston.
a. clearance volume b. swept volume c. piston volume d. compressed volume

____ 26. A single-acting air compressor supplies 0.1 m
3
/s of air measured at, 273 K and 101.3
kN/m
2
which is compressed to 380 kN/m
2
from 101.3 kN/m
2
. If the suction temperature is 289 K,
the stroke is 0.25 m, and the speed is 4.0 Hz, what is the cylinder diameter? Assuming the
cylinder clearance is 4 per cent and compression and re-expansion are isentropic (y = 1.4).
a. 0.113 m b. 0.0283 m c. 0.38 m d. 0.0264 m

____ 27. From problem #26, what are the theoretical power requirements for the compression?
a. 17.1 kW b. 11.7 kW c. 7.11 kW d. 71.1 kW

For numbers 28-31, Air at 290 K is compressed from 101.3 kN/m
2
to 2065 kN/m
2
in a two-stage
compressor operating with a mechanical efficiency of 85 per cent. The relation between
pressure and volume during the compression stroke and expansion of the clearance gas is PV
1.25

= constant. The compression ratio in each of the two cylinders is the same, and the interstage
cooler may be assumed 100 per cent efficient. If the clearances in the two cylinders are 4 per
cent and 5 per cent respectively, calculate the following:

_____ 28. the work of compression per kg of air compressed (kJ/kg)
a. 345.5 b. 20.4 c. 293.7 d. 252.3

_____ 29. isothermal efficiency
a. 37% b. 20.4% c. 73% d.
66.2%

_____ 30. isentropic efficiency (y = 1.4).
a. 110 % b. 115% c. 120%
d. 125%

_____ 31. the ratio of the swept volumes in the two cylinders.
a. 1.14 b. 4.41 c. 3.25 d. 2.35



_____ 32. An air-lift pump is used for raising 7.5 x 10
-4
m
3
/s of a liquid of density 1200 kg/m
3
to a
height of 20 m. Air is available at a pressure of 450 kN/m
2
. Assuming isentropic compression of
the air, what is the power requirement of the pump its efficiency is 30 per cent? (y = 1.4). Take
the volume of 1 kmol of an ideal gas at 273 K and 101.3 kN/m
2
as 22.4 m
3
.
a. 0.733 kW b. 0.377 kW c. 0.844 kW d. 0.488 kW

_____ 33. 2.16 m
3
/h (600 x 10
-6
m
3
/s) water at 320 K is pumped through a 40 mm i.d. pipe,
through a length of 150 m in a horizontal direction, and up through a vertical height of 10 m. In
the pipe there are a control valve, equivalent to 200 pipe diameters, and other pipe fittings
equivalent to 60 pipe diameters. Also in the line is a heat exchanger across which the head lost
is 2 m water. Assuming the main pipe has a roughness of 0.0002 m. what power must be
supplied to the pump if it is 60 per cent efficient?
a. 135 W b. 315 W c. 425 W d. 524
W

_____ 34. A twin-cylinder, single-acting compressor, working at 5 Hz, delivers air at 515 kN/m
2

at the rate of 0.2 m
3
/s. If the diameter of the cylinder is 20 cm, the cylinder clearance ratio 5%,
and the temperature of the inlet air 283 K, calculate the delivery temperature.
a. 400 K b. 450 K c. 500 K d. 550 K

_____ 35. In problem #34, calculate the length of stroke of the piston.
a. 0.40 m b. 0.45 m c. 0.50 m d. 0.55 m

_____ 36. A single-stage double-acting compressor running at 3 Hz is used to compress air from
110 kN/m
2
and 282 K to 1150 kN/m
2
. If the internal diameter of the cylinder is 20 cm, the length
of stroke 25 cm, and the piston clearance 5%, calculate the maximum capacity of the machine,
referred to air at the initial temperature and pressure.
a. 0.047 m
3
/s b. 0.074 m
3
/s c. 0.024 m
3
/s d. 0.042 m
3
/s

_____ 37. From problem #36, calculate the theoretical power requirements under isentropic
conditions.
a. 17.3 kW b. 13.7 kW c. 31.7 kW d. 71.3 kW


gerrylouquiles 2014