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In robbery with homicide cases, the prosecution need only to prove these elements: (a)
thetaking of personal property with vi ol ence or intimidation agai nst persons; (b) that
the propertytaken bel ongs toanother; (c) the taking be done with animus lucrandi;
and (d) on the occasi on of the robbery or by reason thereof, homici de (used i n its
generic sense) was committed. Theseelements were present when accused-
appellants, acting in unison, demanded money from her mot her , f or ci bl y t ook t ha
same agai nst her wi l l and t hen hacked her e t o deat h.
(PEOPLE vs.CABILES, G.R. No.113785. September 14, 1995)
It has been repeatedl y held that when direct and intimate connection exists
between ther obber y and t he k i l l i ng, r egar dl ess of whi ch t he t wo pr ecedes
t he ot her , or whet her t hey ar e committed at the same time, the crime committed
is the special complex crime of robbery withhomicide. It is a settled doctri ne that
when death supervenes by reason or on occasion of therobbery, it is immaterial that the
occurrence of death was by mere accident. What is important anddecisive is that death results
by reason or on occasion of the robbery. The death of robbery victimby accident can, however,
be considered as a mitigating circumstance. If the circumstances wouldindicate no intention to
kill, as in the instant case where evidently, the intention is to prevent thedeceased from making
an outcry, and so a pandesal was stuffed into her mouth, the mitigatingcircumstance of not
having intended to commit so grave may be appreci ated. The stuffing of
thepandesal in the mouth woul d not have produced asphyxi ation had it not sl id
into the neckli ne,caused by the victims own movements.
(PEOPLE vs. OPERO, No. L- 48796. J une 11, 1981)
KIDNAPPING WITH SERIOUS ILLEGAL DETENTIONThe essence of kidnapping or
serious illegal detention is the actual confinement orrestraint of the victim or the
deprivation of his liberty
. There is no kidnapping with murder , butonly murder where a 3-year old child was gagged,
hidden in a box where it did and ransom asked.The demand for ransom did not convert the
offense in to kidnapping with murder. The defendantwas wel l aware that the child woul d
be suffocated to death in a few moments after she left. Thedemand for ransom is only
a part of the diabolic scheme of the defendant to murder the child, toconceal his body and then
demand money before the discovery of the cadaver.
(PEOPLE vs. LORA,G.R. No.49430. March 30, 1982)
DEATH UNDER EXCEPTIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES
There is no question that the accused surprised his wife and her paramour, the
victim inthis case, in the act of illicit copulation, as a result of which, he went out to kill the
deceased in afit of a passionate outburst. Art. 247 prescribes the following elements: (1) that a
legally marriedperson surprises his spouse in the act of committing sexual intercourse with
another person; and (2)that he kills any of them or both of them in the act or immediately
thereafter. These elements arepresent in the case.Though about one hour, had passed
between the time the accused-appellant discovered hiswife having sexual intercourse with
the victim and the time the latter was actuall y shot, theshooting must be
understood to be the continuation of the pursuit of the victim by the accused-
appel l ant . The RPC, i n r equi r i ng t hat t he accused shal l ki l l any
of t hem or bot h of t hemimmediatel y after surprising his spouse in the act of
sexual intercourse, does not say that heshoul d commi t t he
ki l l i ng i nst ant l y t her eaf t er . I t onl y r equi r es t hat t he deat h caused be t hepr
oximate result of the outrage overwhelming the accused after chanci ng upon his
spouse i n thebasest act of infidelity. But the kill ing should have been actuall y
motivated by the same bli ndimpulse, and must not have been influenced by external
factors. The killing must be the direct by-product of the accuseds rage.
(PEOPLE vs. ABARCA. L-74433. September 14,1987).
CARNAPPING
Consideri ng the phraseology of amended Section 14 of R.A. No. 6539,
the carnapping andthe killing (or the rape) may be considered a single or indivisible or a
special complex crime which,however, is not covered by Article 48 of the Revised Penal
Code. As such, the killing (or the rape)

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merely qualifies the crime of carnapping whick for lack of specific nomenclature may be known
asqualified carnapping or carnapping in an aggravated form.Since Section 14 of R.A. No. 6539
uses the words IS KILLED, no distinction must be madebetween homicide and murder.
Whether it is one or the other which is committed in the course of carnapping or on the
occasion thereof makes no difference insofar as the penalty is concerned. Itfollows then that
the killing of the driver, whether it be homicide or murdercannot be treated asa separate
offense, but should only be considered to qualify the crime of carnapping.On the otherhand,
if attempted or frustrated murder or homicide is committed in thecourse of the
commission of the carnapping or on the occasion thereof, then it must be deemed tofall under
the clause (of Section 14) when the carnapping is committed by means of
violenceagai nst or i nt i mi dat i on of any per son.
(P EOP L E vs . MEJ I A. G. R. Nos . 118940- 41 and G. R. No.119407. J uly 7, 1997)
DANGEROUS DRUGS ACT
T o s u s t a i n a c o n v i c t i o n f o r s e l l i n g p r o h i b i t e d d r u g s , t h e s a l e mu s t
b e c l e a r l y a n d unmi st akabl y est abl i shed. To sel l means t o gi ve, whet her
f or money or any ot her mat er i al consideration. It must, therefore, be established
beyond reasonable doubt that appellant actuallysold and delivered two tea bags of marijuana
dried leaves to Sgt. Lopez, who acted as the poseur-buyer, in exchange for twenty-peso bills.
(PEOPLE vs. SIMON. G.R. No.93028. J uly 29,1994.)
TALLY OF FREQUENTLY ASKED BAR EXAM QUESTIONS
S U B J E C T S I
N C L U S I V E YEARSF R
E Q U E N C Y T O T A L S Book I
General principles in criminal law
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Aberratio ictus
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c c e s s
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t p r e m e d i t a t
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1 9
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1 2 A
g g r a v a t
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t o r v e h
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3 1 1
Aggravating: nighttime
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1 1 9 9
6 1 1 9
9 5 1 1
9 9 4 1
4Aggravating: recidivism
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A g g r a v
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r e l a t i
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Aggravating : treachery
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1 9 9 2
1 1 9 9
1 1
5
A g g r a v a t
i n g : u n i
n h a b i t e d
p l a c e 1 9
9 6 1 1 A g g
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w f u l e n
t r y 1 9 9 7
1 1 A l t e r
n a t i v e :
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t i o n 2 0 0 0
1 2 0
0 2
1 2 A p
p l i c a b i l
i t y o f t
h e R P C (
A r t . 2 ) 1 9
9 4 1 1 A p p l i c a
b i l i t y o f t h e R
P C ( A r t 2 ) 2 0 0 0
1 1 C i r c u m s t a n c e
s w / c e x e m p t f r
o m c r i m i n a l l i a
b i l i t y 1 9 9 4 1 1
Complex crime
2 0 0 4
1 1 9 9
9 1 1 9
9 6 1 2
0 0 0 2
5Conspiracy
2 0 0 3
2 1 9 9
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1 9 9 3
1 1 9 9
2 1 1 9
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8
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9 4 1 1
C o r
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t i 2
0 0 1
1 1
Criminal Liability
2 0 0 4
1 2 0 0
1 2 1 9
9 6 2 1
9 9 4 2
1 9 9 3
1 1 9 9
2 1
9
Delito continuado
1 9
9 4
1 1 D o
c t r i n e o
f i m p l i e
d c o n s p i
r a c y 1 9 9
8 1 1
Error in personae
1 9
9 9
1 1 E
x e m p t i
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c u m s t a
n c e s 1 9
9 8 1 1 E
x e m p t
i n g :
a c c i
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1 1 9
9 1
1 2 E
x e m p t i
n g : m i
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1 9
9 8
1 2 E x
t i n c t i o n o
f c r i m i n a l
l i a b i l i t y
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0 0
0 1
2
Felonies (attempted & frustrated)
1 9 9 8
1 1 9 9
6 2 1 9
9 4 1
4Habitual Delinquency
2 0 0 1
1 1 9 9
2 1 1 9
9 1 1
3
H e i n
o u s
c r i m
e s 1 9
9 7 1
1 9
9 5
1 2
Impossible crime
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1 2 0 0
0 3 1 9
9 4 1
5
J u s t i f y i
n g c i r c
u m s t a n c
e s 1 9 9 8 1
2 0
0 2
1 2


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J u s t i f y i n g : a v o i
d a n c e o f g r e a t e r
i n j u r y / e v i l 2 0 0 4
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9 0
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s t i f y i n g
: d e f e n s
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0 0 2 1 1 J u s t
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i s e o f a r
i g h t 1 9 9 1 1 1
Justifying: self-defense
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J u s t i f y i
n g : P e r f
o r m a n c e
o f a D u t
y 2 0 0 0 1 1 L
i f e i
m p r i s
o n m e n
t 2 0 0 1
1 1 9
9 4
1 2
Mala in se
2 0
0 1
1 1
Mala Prohibita
2 0 0 1
1 2 0
0 0
1 2 M a r r
i a g e a g a i n s t t h
e p r o v i s i o n s o f
t h e m a r r i a g e l
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Mitigating circumstances
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1 2 0 0
3 1 2 0
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5
M i t i g a t i n g : i m m e d i a t e
v i n d i c a t i o n o f a g r a v e
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0 0
2 1
2 M i t i g
a t i n g : p a
s s i o n &
o b f u s c a t
i o n 1 9 9 5 1
1
Mitigating : plea of guilty
1 9 9 9
2 1 9 9
7 1 1 9
9 2 1
4Mitigating : voluntary surrender
1 9 9 9
1 1 9 9
7 1 1 9
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9 9 2 1
4
M i t i g a t i n g : N o
i n t e n t t o c o m
m i t s o g r a v e
a w r o n g 2 0 0 0 1 1
M i t i g a t i n
g : S u f f i c
i e n t P r o v
o c a t i o n 2 0
0 0 1 1
Pardon
2 0 0 4
1 1 9 9
4 1 1 9
9 1 1 1
9 9 0 1
4Penalties
1 9 9 9
1 1 9 9
7 3
4
P e n a l t i e
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n i n g 3 p
e r i o d s 1
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Praeter intentionem
1 9
9 9
1 1
Principals
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2 2 0 0
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9 9 4 1
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P r i v i l e g e d
m i t i g a t i n
g : m i n o r i t
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Prescription of crimes
2004200120001111 9 9
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9 3 1
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P r e v e n t
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n t 1 9 9 9 1
1 9
9 4
1 2
Probation
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1
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2
11
Q u a s i
-
R e c i d
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1 9
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1 2 R
e c l u s
i o n p
e r p e t
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9 9
4 1
2 S u s p e n s
i o n o f d e a t
h p e n a l t y u
n d e r t h e R P
C 1 9 9 5 1 1
Book II
Acts of lasciviousness
1 9 9 6
1 1 9 9
4 1 1 9
9 3 1
3
A d
u l
t e
r y
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1 1 A
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s &
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d a l 1
9 9 6 1
1 A r b
i t r a r
y D e t
e n t i o
n 1 9 9 2
1 1
Arson (Arts.320-326-B as repealed by PD 1613)
2 0 0 0
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5 1 1 9
9 4 1
4Bigamy
2 0 0 4
1 1 9 9
6 1 1 9
9 5 1 1
9 9 4 2
5
C a r
n a p
p i n
g 1 9
9 3 1
1
Coup d' etat
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1 2 0 0
2 2 1 9
9 8 2 1
9 9 1 1
6
C o n
c u b
i n a
g e 2
0 0 2
1 1 9
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1 2 C o
n n i v i n g /
c o n s e n t i
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a s i o n 1 9 9
6 1 1 C o n
s e n t e
d A b d
u c t i o
n 2 0 0 2
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p t i o n o f
p u b l i c o f
f i c i a l s 2 0
0 1 1 1
9 9
3 1
2 D e a t h u n
d e r e x c e p t i o n
a l c i r c u m s t a n
c e s 2 0 0 1 1 1
9 9
1 1
2 D a
m a g e
t o
p r o p
e r t y
1 9 9 3
1 1 D e a
t h i n
t u m u l t
u o u s a
f f r a y 1
9 9 7 1 1 D e
l a y i n t h e
d e l i v e r y o f
d e t a i n e d p
e r s o n s 1 9 9 0 1
1 D e l i v e r
y o f p r i
s o n e r s f
r o m j a i l
s 2 0 0 2 1 1 D
e r e l i c t i o n i n t
h e p r o s e c u t i o n
o f o f f e n s e s 1 9 9 2
1 1 9
9 1
1 2
Direct assault
2 0 0 2
1 2 0 0
1 1 1 9
9 3 1
3
D i r e
c t b
r i b e
r y 2 0
0 1 1


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