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International Journal of Scientific Research in Environmental Sciences, 2(9), pp.

340-345, 2014
Available online at http://www.ijsrpub.com/ijsres
ISSN: 2322-4983; 2014 IJSRPUB
http://dx.doi.org/10.12983/ijsres-2014-p0340-0345


340
Full Length Research Paper

Effect of Different Insecticides against Insect Pests and Predators Complex on
Brassica napus L., Under Field Conditions

Muhammad Abrar Amin
1
*, Asifa Hameed
2
, Muhammad Rizwan
1
, Muhammad Akmal
1


1
Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan,
Pakistan,
2
Cotton Research Station, Multan, Pakistan
*Corresponding Author: abrar.amin143@gmail.com

Received 20 June 2014; Accepted 15 August 2014

Abstract. The present study was conducted in the research area of Cotton Research Station, Multan during spring 2011. The
main objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of different insecticides against mustard aphid (Lipaphis erysimi Kalt.),
leaf miner (Phytomyza horticola Gour.), seven spotted lady beetle (Coccinella septumpunctata L.) and syrphid fly larvae under
field conditions. Bifenthrin, diafentheuron, dimethoate and imidacloprid were the insecticides used and data was recorded
before 1 day and after 1, 2, 3 and 7 days of spray application. Results on percent reduction indicated that bifenthrinwas most
effective insecticide against L. erysimi and P. horticola. Bifenthrin caused 74.06% and 75.22% reduction in L. erysimi
population and 85.13% and 84.02% reduction in P. horticola population after three and seven days of spraying. All
insecticides were found toxic to the C. septumpunctata and syrphid fly larvae. However, Imidacloprid and dimethoate were
found relatively safe as compared to other insecticides. Imidacloprid showed 57.34% reduction in C. septumpunctata
population whereas dimethoate 52.77% reduction in larval population of syrphid flies after seven days of spray application. It
is concluded that bifenthrin and imidacloprid can be used for the management of mustard insect pests because of their higher
efficacy against aphids and leaf miners and less toxicity to beneficial insects.

Keywords: Lipaphis erysimi, leaf miner, bifenthrin, imidacloprid, percent reduction, Coccinella septumpunctata.

1. INTRODUCTION

Canola Brassica napus L., is a very important oilseed
crop as its seeds contain >2% erucic acid and
<30mg
-1
of gulcosinolates in the oil free meal.
Canola oil also contains 5-8% saturated fats, which is
lower as compared to other vegetable oils (Raymer,
2002). Insect pests and diseases are two most
important factors responsible for yield reduction in
canola crop. Major insect pests of canola include
aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Aphididae:
Homoptera), cabbage caterpillar Pieris brassicae
(Linn) (Pieridae: Lepidoptera) and leaf miner
Phytomyza horticola Gour. (Agromyzidae: Diptera)
(Saljoqi, 2006).
Mustard aphid (Lipaphis erysimi Kalt.) is known as
destructive insect pests of B. napus in the main
districts (Multan, Bahawalpur and Dera Ghazi Khan)
of Southern Punjab, Pakistan (Aslam and Razaq,
2007). L. erysimi (Kalt.) causes approximately 50-
75% yield loss in canola (Beg, 1982). Aphids attack
plants in two different ways, such as i) suck cell sap
from leaves, flowers, flower-buds, pod and twigs of
the plants and (ii) secrete honeydew which acts as a
medium for development of sooty mold fungus that
diminish the photosynthetic activity of plant. As a
consequence, plants lose their vigor and growth
becomes stunted (Morzia and Huq, 1991). The leaf
miners are also known to limit production in a number
of agricultural ecosystems (Spencer, 1973). Leaf
miners can cause damage to the host plants by mining
in the leaves during larval stage and oviposition
(Johnson et al., 1983). Severe infestation may cause
early leaf drop that leads to lack of shading, decrease
in photosynthetic activity and eventually less pod
bearing and seed oil reduction (Capinera, 2001). In
addition to larval leaf mining, the females may serve
as vectors for many diseases during oviposition
(Matteoni and Broadbent, 1988; Zitter and Tsai,
1977).
Seven spotted ladybird beetle C. septempunctata
(L.,) is one of the potential predators of the mustard
aphid L. erysimi (Kalt.) (Mathur, 1983). C.
septempunctata controls mustard aphid population
naturally and plays an important role in decreasing the
aphid population in the field (Kalra, 1988). Syrphid
Amin et al.
Effect of Different Insecticides against Insect Pests and Predators Complex on Brassica napus L., Under Field
Conditions
341
flies or hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) also have
substantial influence on the aphid populations and
other insect pests. High rates of reproduction and
voracities allow the hover flies to exploit aphid
colonies proficiently. Each larva eats about 400 aphids
to complete its development (Dixon, 2000).
Frequent uses of insecticides have led to the
development of resistance in many species of insect
pests and also have negative effects on the survival
and adaptation of natural enemies (Hossain and
Poehling, 2006). Talpur (2006) evaluated different
insecticides against L. erysimi and found that Talstar
2.5 EC and Baythroid 5 EC were very effective for the
control of this pest. (Rana et al., 2007) reported that
carbosulfan, bifenthrin and imidacloprid were
effective for management of mustard aphid. (Maula et
al., 2010) conducated field trials to determine the
efficacy of three insecticides against L. erysimi and C.
septempunctata. In their results, highest mortality of
L. erysimi was recorded in Metasystox-R treated
plots, while lowest mortality of C. septempunctata
was observed in Dimethion treated plots. (Ujjan et al.,
2014) studied the efficacy of different insecticides and
papaya leaf extract against L. erysimi and reported
that Lambda-Cyhalothrin showed higher toxicity
(LC50 value 0.57 ppm) as compared to other
insecticides. For controlling the L. erysimi effectively
and to save C. septempunctata, insecticides should be
applied at appropriate dose and at right time. Keeping
in view the impact of aphid and leaf miner damage
and importance of predators in the mustard crop, the
present study was conducted to evaluate four different
insecticides against these insect pests and their
predators under field conditions.

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1. Experimental design

The field study was conducted in the research area of
Cotton Research Station (CRS), Old Shujabad road,
Multan during spring 2011. In this study, four
different insecticides were tested for their effects on
two mustard insect pests i.e. mustard aphid L. erysimi,
mustard leaf miner P. horticola and predators i.e.
Syrphid fly larvae and ladybird beetle C.
septempunctata L. in the canola crop. The experiment
was laid out in randomized complete block design
with five treatments (plots) and three replications. The
untreated control plot was also kept in every
replication. The size of each plot was about 54 m.
All the recommended agronomic practices were
applied to each plot uniformly.

2.2. Insecticides

Four insecticides namely Diafentheuron (Polo 500SC)
Syngenta Pakistan Ltd, Bifenthrin (Talstar 10EC)
FMC (Pvt) Ltd, Imidacloprid (Confidor 200SL) Bayer
Crop Sciences (Pvt) Ltd and Dimethoate (Rogor
40EC) GHR (Pvt) Ltd were used for experimentation.
The insecticides were applied at recommended doses
when insect pest populations exceeded ETL and spray
application was carried out by hand operated
knapsack sprayer at 9-11 am.

2.3. Data collection

Population of mustard aphid L. erysimi in the field
was recorded from five randomly selected plants at
each plot. For this purpose, top 10cm portion of the
terminal shoots was beaten several times with a stick.
Aphids collected on a piece of white paper sheet were
counted visually. For leaf miner P. horticola, number
of mines and larvae per leaf were recorded from five
plants in every plot. For C. septempunctata and
syrphid fly larvae, five plants were selected randomly
from each plot and numbers of C. septempunctata
adults & grubs and syrphid fly larvae were counted.
Data was recorded before 1 day and after 1, 2, 3 and 7
days of spray application.

2.4. Percent reduction

Average population of insect pests and predators for
each treatment was calculated. Percent reduction was
calculated by the formula (Arif et al., 2012) given
below



2.5. Data analysis

Data on percent reduction was subjected to analysis of
variance (ANOVA) by using Statistix version 8.1
(Analytical Software, 2005) and treatment means
were separated by Fishers LSD test at significance
level p=0.05
International Journal of Scientific Research in Environmental Sciences, 2(9), pp. 340-345, 2014
342
Table 1: Effect of different insecticides on the percent reduction of Lipaphis erysimi under field conditions
Insecticides Percent reduction after different spray intervals
Common Name Trade Name 1 day 2 days 3 days 7 days
Bifenthrin Talstar 10EC 76.66 a 81.58 a 74.06 a 75.22 a
Diafentheuron Polo 500SC 64.23 a 51.20 b 49.46 b 42.28 c
Dimethoate Rogor 40EC 68.77 a 78.70 a 67.86 ab 68.40 ab
Imidacloprid Confidor 200SL 73.00 a 73.68 ab 60.54 ab 60.27 b
Control -- 0.41 b 3.06 c 5.82 c 3.04 d
LSD Value 22.21 26.85 20.95 13.54
Means followed by the same letters in each column are not significantly different (P<0.05) according to the Fishers LSD test

Table 2: Effect of different insecticides on percent reduction of Phytomyza horticola under field conditions
Insecticides Percent reduction after different spray intervals
Common Name Trade Name 1 day 2 days 3 days 7 days
Bifenthrin Talstar 10EC 88.19 a 86.11 a 85.13 a 84.02 a
Diafentheuron Polo 500SC 75.00 ab 70.83 ab 50.00 ab 58.33 c
Dimethoate Rogor 40EC 56.66 ab 66.66 ab 58.88 a 62.22 bc
Imidacloprid Confidor 200SL 77.77 ab 72.22 ab 75.00 a 73.33 ab
Control -- 0.00 b 3.33 b 5.00 b 1.66 d
LSD Value 63.97 61.25 51.11 12.95
Means followed by the same letters in each column are not significantly different (P<0.05) according to the Fishers LSD test

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

3.1. Percent population reduction of L. erysimi and
P. horticola

The percent reduction of mustard aphid L. erysimi and
leaf miner P. horticola was significantly different
among treatments. Bifenthrin showed maximum
percent reduction in the L. erysimi population after
three and seven days of spraying (74.06% and 75.22%
respectively). While the minimum percent reduction
(49.46% and 42.28% respectively) was observed in
the diafenthuron treated plots after three and seven
days of spray (Table 1). These findings were in
agreement with (Razzaq et al., 2010) who reported
that bifenthrin was the most effective insecticide for
the control of mustard aphid at Multan after three and
seven days of insecticide application. Dimethoate and
imidacloprid gave 68.40% and 60.27% reduction in
the L. erysimi population after seven days of spraying
(Table 1). These results are similar to (Gour and
Pareek, 2003) who evaluated nine insecticides each
with two concentrations against L. erysimi (Kalt.) and
found that treatment of dimethoate (0.03%) was most
effective followed by dimethoate (0.015%),
imidacloprid (0.05%), acephate (0.05%) and
cypermethrin (0.002%). Pyrethroid insecticides were
also found effective against aphids on canola in
Pakistan (Khattak et al., 2002; Sarwar, et al., 2003).
The highest percent reduction in the leaf miner P.
horticola population was recorded in the bifenthrin
treated plots after three and seven days of spraying
(85.13% and 84.02% respectively). Whereas the
minimum percent reduction was recorded in the
diafenthuron plots after three and seven days of
insecticide application (50.00% and 58.33%) as in
table 2. The results are similar to Ramesh and Ukey
(2007) who reported that the low number of mines per
leaf in cypermethrin 0.01% and abamectin 0.002% at
5 and 7 days after insecticide application respectively.
Imidacloprid and dimethoate caused 73.33% and
62.22% reduction in the P. horticola population
(Table 2). Al-Zyoud (2008) tested different
insecticides against the cereal leaf miner Syringopais
temperatella and reported that in direct spray method
chlorpyrifos caused the highest mortality and in the
residual exposure, diazinon and chlorpyrifos caused
high mortality after one and three days. Cypermethrin
and methomyl caused the highest mortality after five
days.

3.2. Percent population reduction of syrphid fly
larvae and C. septumpunctata

All the insecticides were found toxic to syrphidae
larvae and C. septumpunctata as compared to control
after different intervals of spraying. Dimethoate was
found relatively safe to syrphid fly larvae with the
minimum percent reduction (52.77%) after seven days
of spray while diafenthuron was found highly toxic
with 76.66% population reduction. Imidacloprid and
bifenthrin showed moderate toxicity with 63.88% and
58.33% reduction in the larval population of syphid
fly (Table 3). The results are in agreement with
(Khedkar et al., 2012) who reported higher number of
larvae/plant in the phosphamidon plots followed by
flonicamid 0.015%, dimethoate 0.03% and thiacloprid
0.024%. Whereas, Imidacloprid and thiamethoxam
found toxic to syrphid fly larva. Higher population of
honey bee, Apis cerana indica in cartap hydrochloride
(0.04 and 0.08%), malathion (0.025 and 0.05%),
dimethoate (0.015 and 0.03%) treated plots and
minimum population in acephate (0.05%),
imidacloprid (0.05%), ethofenprox (0.004%) and
Amin et al.
Effect of Different Insecticides against Insect Pests and Predators Complex on Brassica napus L., Under Field
Conditions
343
cypermethrin (0.001 and 0.002%) treated plots were
reported by Gour and Pareek (2004).
Diafenthuron was found highly toxic to C.
septumpunctata as it showed maximum percent
reduction (78.93%) after seven days of spray
application whereas imidacloprid was safe and
showed minimum percent reduction (57.34%) after
seven days of spraying. Diamethoate and bifenthrin
were moderately toxic with 72.87% and 65.55%
reduction in the C. septumpunctata population (Table
4). The results are similar to (Ahmad et al., 2011) who
studied the effect of different insecticides by using
glass vial method and treated leaves for the residual
effects of insecticides and reported that profenofos
was the most toxic in both methods whereas
imidacloprid was least toxic to C. undecimpunctata.
(Arif et al., 2012 and Sohail et al., 2011), evaluated
different insecticides against mustard aphid and
ladybird beetles and reported that imidacloprid was
less toxic to the C. septempunctata as compared to
other insecticides.

Table 3: Effect of different insecticides on the percent reduction of syrphid fly larvae under field conditions
Insecticides Percent reduction after different spray intervals
Common Name Trade Name 1 day 2 days 3 days 7 days
Bifenthrin Talstar 10EC 77.77 a 68.05 ab 65.27 ab 58.33 ab
Diafentheuron Polo 500SC 79.44 a 85.00 a 80.55 a 76.66 a
Dimethoate Rogor 40EC 69.44 a 72.22 ab 75.00 a 52.77 ab
Imidacloprid Confidor 200SL 72.22 a 69.44 ab 61.11 ab 63.88 ab
Control -- 15.55 b 30.55 b 23.33 b 32.77 b
LSD Value 53.82 30.63 46.57 29.85
Means followed by the same letters in each column are not significantly different (P<0.05) according to the Fishers LSD test

Table 4: Effect of different insecticides on percent reduction of Coccinella septumpunctata under field conditions
Insecticides Percent reduction after different spray intervals
Common Name Trade Name 1 day 2 days 3 days 7 days
Bifenthrin Talstar 10EC 70.00 a 71.11 a 73.33 ab 65.55 ab
Diafentheuron Polo 500SC 74.77 a 80.60 a 75.90 a 78.93 a
Dimethoate Rogor 40EC 83.33 a 72.57 a 75.60 ab 72.87 ab
Imidacloprid Confidor 200SL 66.86 a 62.89 a 59.32 b 57.34 b
Control -- 14.16 b 16.66 b 15.00 c 19.16 c
LSD Value 43.43 27.50 16.50 19.72
Means followed by the same letters in each column are not significantly different (P<0.05) according to the Fishers LSD test

4. CONCLUSION

Results from the present studies revealed that
bifenthrin and imidacloprid were very effective
insecticides and gave good control of L. erysimi and P.
horticola after three and seven days of spray
application. Imidacloprid and dimethoate were
relatively safe to C. septempunctata and syrphid fly
larvae, as compared to other insecticides. Therefore,
bifenthrin and imidacloprid can be used for the
effective management of mustard insect pests and as
these are safer to predators and other beneficial insects
in the mustard crop.

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Muhammad Abrar Amin has graduated from Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan with B.Sc
(Hons) in Agriculture (2011). He obtained his master's degree in M.Sc (Hons) Agriculture
(Entomology) from Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan (2013). His major area of research is
entomology, with emphasis on bio-ecology and insect pest management. He is also interested in
research on new techniques and methods for monitoring and management of gall flies. He has more
than two years of experience in Australia-Pakistan Mango ASLP project Phase II. Under this project,
he has worked on monitoring and management of mango gall flies (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in the
mango orchards. He has published 4 research papers in well reputed journals and 9 abstracts in
proceedings of national and international conferences.




Asifa Hameed, Assistant Entomologist Cotton Research Station Multan has obtained her MSc (Hons.)
Agricultural Entomology degree from Bhauddin Zakariya University Multan. She has worked as a
junior scientist in Entomological Research Institute Faisalabad from 2005-2010. Now she is working
as Assistant Entomologist, Cotton Research Station Multan. She has experience of pest management
on cotton, wheat, onion, canola, roses, and mango crop. She is expert in insects forecasting and
modeling in south Punjab. She has vast experience on insecticide resistance and its management. She
has worked on biological control of cotton mealybug in PARB (Punjab Agricultural Research Board)
projects. She has worked in one international project of Switzerland Government and three Asian
Development Bank projects. She has published 32 research papers in different international and
national journals of scientific repute. She has worked in farmers awareness programs regarding cotton
and mango pest management.



Muhammad Rizwan has received his first degree from Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan,
Pakistan in 2011 with B. Sc (Hons) in Agriculture. He obtained a degree in M.Sc (Hons) Agriculture
(Entomology) from Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan in 2013. His main focus of
research is assessment of yield losses due to insect pests in mango. He has worked in Australia-
Pakistan Mango ASLP project Phase II for two years. In this project, he has worked on damage
assessment and yield losses due to gall flies in mango. He has attended the 6th International
Symposium on the Biology & Ecology of Gall Inducing Arthrpopods at OReillys Rainforest Retreat
Queensland, Australia. Now he is working as a Territory Manager in Jaffer Agro Services (Pvt)
Limited.





Muhammad Akmal is a Ph.D candidate in Entomology at Department of Entomology, Faulty of
Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan Pakistan. He has
received his first degree from Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan in 2011 awarded with
B.Sc (Hons) in Agriculture with major subject of Entomology. He obtained a degree in M.Sc (Hons)
in Agriculture (Entomology) from Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan Pakistan in 2013. He has
worked as Agricultural Expert in Public Welfare Organization for one year. His current research
focuses will be on Insect Microbiology and Biotechnology. He is interested to find out new pest
control technologies for sustainable agriculture. To date he has published five research papers on
Entomology, Insect pathogenic fungi and Pest Management related fields.