You are on page 1of 41

# Hydraulic Proppant Fracturing

Klaas van Gijtenbeek
Halliburton

2
Introduction

Will T Louviere quote:

“To effectively and economically drain
a reservoir in 5 years time the propped
frac length needs to cover 50 to 70% of
3
20 Rules for Gas Fracturing by Steve Holditch
Rule#9. The optimum fracture length will be
a function of the (optimum) drainage area
(xe). The following can be used to estimate
the optimum fracture length as a function of
gas permeability.
4
20 Rules for Gas Fracturing by Steve
Holditch
Rule#16. The pad volume of a treatment should be
• In most reservoirs 25 – 30%
• In tight reservoirs 10 – 20%
• In high permeability reservoirs 50 – 70%
If the pad volume is too small, the treatment may
screen out. If the pad volume is too large, you will
waste money, the propped fracture length will be
shorter, and the fracture will not close as rapidly
as it would with a smaller pad volume.
5
20 Rules for Gas Fracturing by Steve Holditch
Rule#18. No well is straight and no well is vertical.
As such, the chances that multiple fractures will
occur increase with the length of the perforated
interval. A perforation interval of 20 ft. or less,
located in the most porous and permeable zone,
should be sufficient for most cases. A properly
packed fracture will connect the entire pay interval
to the well bore assuming the treatment is pumped
correctly and is not over flushed.
6
FC vs Prop Concentration

7
Prop Concentration
2000 lb/ per 1000 sq ft or 2 lb/ft^2 what does
it mean?
w
1 ft
1 ft
Bulk volume of sand is
100 lbs/ft^3 so 2lb/ft^2
gives 0.02 ft width or w
= 0.24 in.
How many proppant
layers is that?
8
Prop Concentration
Proppants Size
Mesh
Maximum Diameter -
in.
Maximum Diameter -
mm
Average Proppant Diameter -
in.
Average Proppant Diameter -
mm
4/8 0.187 4.75 0.173 4.39
6/12** 0.132 3.35 0.099 2.51
8/12 0.093 2.36 0.087 2.21
8/16** 0.093 2.36 0.082 2.08
10/20 0.079 2.01 0.061 1.55
10/30 0.079 2.01 0.056 1.42
12/20* 0.067 1.70 0.054 1.37
16/20** 0.047 1.19 0.041 1.04
16/30** 0.047 1.19 0.039 0.99
18/20** 0.039 0.99 0.036 0.91
18/35 0.039 0.99 0.032 0.81
20/40* 0.0336 0.85 0.0272 0.69
20/50 0.0336 0.85 0.0218 0.55
30/50** 0.0237 0.60 0.0185 0.47
30/60 0.0237 0.60 0.018 0.46
40/60 0.0168 0.43 0.014 0.36
40/70* 0.0168 0.43 0.013 0.33
70/140**(100 mesh) 0.0099 0.25 0.0084 0.21
*Recognized by API as a primary proppant size
**Recognized by API as an alternate proppant
Properties for Various Size Proppants
9
Prop Concentration
2 lb/ft^2 what does it
mean?
That is equivalent to
1.712.802
proppant grains, or 1.88
million grains in a
kilo.....so next time that
you go to the beach.....

w
1 ft
1 ft
Bulk volume of sand is
100 lbs/ft^3 so 2lb/ft^2
gives 0.02 ft width or w
= 0.24 in.
How many proppant
layers is that?
0.24 / 0.0272 = 8.8 !

10
FC vs Prop Concentration

8.8 layer
0.5 partial mono layer
11
Perforation Diameter based on Max
Proppant Diameter (6:1 ratio)

12
Perforation Diameter based on Max
Proppant Diameter (6:1 ratio)

13
Frac Geometry Example
2 lb/ft^2 S = 80 acres
50 ft
500 ft
Area = 2 wings * 50’ * 500’ = 50,000 ft^2
Proppant Amount Required: 50,000 ft^2 * 2 lb/ft^2 = 100,000 lbs
500 ft
14
Square Circular
Well Spacing (S) in Acres Drainage Length (Re) in ft Drainage Radius (Re) in ft
Re =104.4*S^0.5 Re =117.8*S^0.5
40 660 745
80 933 1,053
160 1,320 1,490
320 1,867 2,107
640 2,641 2,980
15
Frac Schedule
100,000 lbs of proppant required
Assume 4 lbs/gal average concentration
25,000 gal fluid required for proppant

S-shape proppant addition curve (to reduce NWB and avoid proppant convection)

10,000 gal w/ 1 ppg-10,000 lbs stage
2,000 gal w/ 2 pgg-4,000 lbs stage
1,500 gal w/ 3 ppg-4,500 lbs stage
1,000 gal w/ 4 ppg-4,000 lbs stage
1,000 gal w/ 5 ppg-5,000 lbs stage
2,000 gal w/ 6 ppg-12,000 lbs stage
3,000 gal w/ 7 ppg-21,000 lbs stage
5,000 gal w/ 8 ppg-40,000 lbs stage

16
Frac Schedule Pump Rate
Pump rate depends on:
1) Completion. Check minimum ID’s in wellbore and try to keep
velocity below 44 ft/sec. This is based on yardtests. We are
using 20 ft/sec when pumping proppant on the outside of coil. In
general 35/ft/sec is ok.
2) Available equipment. Maximum rate through surface lines is
2*ID^2. So, 3” is 18 bpm, 4” is 32 bpm etc.
3) Pressure rating. WHTP = BHTP-Hydrostatic+Friction

Hydraulic Horsepower:
(Max WHTP*Design rate)/40.8 = 4411hhp for 10,000 psi and 18
bpm
17
Frac Schedule Pump Rate
There are some velocity guidelines for Wellhead Isolation Tools/Tree
Savers.
To minimize the risk of excessive tubing wear, restrict velocity
through the tool to the rates listed below for each material.
Clean fluids ........................................... 200 ft/sec
High-strength proppant .......................... 100 ft/sec
Foamed fluid with sand ........................... 100 ft/sec
Foamed fluid with high-strength proppant ... 80 ft/sec
These values are for reference only if proppant concentration does
not exceed 8 lb/gal or 6 lb/gal with foam.
18
Frac Schedule Pump rate
V=(17.157* Q)/ID^2, where
V velocity (ft/sec)
Q pump rate (bbl/min)
ID internal diameter of inner mandrel (in.)
Sand Laden Fluid through 2.922 in tubing:
Q =(2.922^2 * 125)/17.157 = 62.2 bpm
With 35 ft/sec this would be: 17.4 bpm, so a design rate
of 17 to 18 bpm for 3.5” tubing is ok.
19
Production Increase Curves
Flow capacity: 2800 md-ft
K
i
=0.1 mD
C
r
= 17.8 ->Y-axis: 4.2
J fs/J i = (4.2 * ln(1053/.375))/6.215 = 5.36

20
Frac Schedule other Considerations
1) DFIT: Diagnostic Fluid Injection test

2) Minifrac using linear gel and Stepdown Rate test

3) Minifrac using gel for mainfrac and proppant slug
21
Layout – All Water in Tanks prior to job start
22
Production Enhancement Equipment
Available out of Celle Base
Description Quantity

 2000 HHP Grizzly Pump Trailer 10
 2000 HHP HQ Twin Pump Trailer 2
 100 bpm ARC Blender 1
 50 bpm ARC Blender 1
 100 bpm ARC Pre Gel Blender 1
 50 bpm ARC Pre Gel Blender 1
 Technical Command Center with RTO & Field Lab 2
 80 m³ Fluid Storage Tank 12
 60 m³ Liquid KCL Storage Tank 2
 60 m³ Proppant Silo 2
 34 m³ Proppant Silo 2
 1000 HHP Annulus Truck ( HT 400 ) 2
 600 HHP Annulus Truck ( HT 400 ) 2
 60 / 80 k Coiled Tubing Unit 1 3/4”-2 3/8” 3
 38 k Coiled Tubing Unit 1
 2000 scf/min N2 Unit 2
 3000 scf/min N2 Unit 1
 6000 scf/min N2 Unit 2
 2500 kw Mobile Fluid Heating Unit 1

23
2000 HHP Grizzly Pump Trailer
24
Pumprate vs pressure, 4" FE, HQ-Pump

Gear Minimum Maximum
P
Rating Minimum Maximum
P
Rating
bpm bpm psi m³/min m³/min bar

1 2,6 3,6 14200 0,41 0,57 979,3
2 4,8 6,6 7201 0,76 1,05 496,6
3 6,6 9 5294 1,05 1,43 365,1
4 8,5 11,7 4066 1,35 1,86 280,4
5 11,2 15,3 3086 1,78 2,43 212,8

Pumprate vs pressure, 4" FE, Grizzley-Pump

Gang Minimum Maximum
P
Rating Minimum Maximum
P
Rating
bpm bpm psi m³/min m³/min bar

1 3,1 4,3 14200 0,48 0,68 979,3
2 4,7 5,9 14200 0,75 0,94 979,3
3 5,7 7,3 11917 0,9 1,15 821,9
4 7 9,1 9572 1,11 1,44 660,1
5 8 10,1 8403 1,27 1,6 579,5
6 9,8 12,6 6803 1,55 2 469,2
7 12,3 16 5476 1,95 2,54 377,7

25
100 bpm ARC Pre Gel Blender
Mixing system:
Two Gorman/Rupp 12 x 12 centrifugal pumps, hydraulically driven. The mixing system is capable of
mixing at rates up to 100 bbl/min (15.9 m3/min).
Dimensions:
Length: 13.39 mtr
Width: 2.44 mtr
Height: 4.11 mtr
Weight: 22 200 kg
Engine:
CAT C11 diesel engine (420 HP at 2100 rpm) or equivalent driving four hydraulic pumps through a four-pump
drive gearbox
26

100 bpm ARC Blender

27
Frac Van

28
Fluid Storage

Description: Tank Trailer
Dimensions:
Weight: 12,300 Kg
Height: 4,00 mtr
Width: 2,50 mtr
Length: 13,10 mtr
Capacity:
Volume: 80m³
Capabilities Manifold:

Mixline: 4”
Size: 10” with 4 each outlets with 4” fig 206 weco unions
J eager air connection: to connect multiple tanks in one common manifold
29
Proppant Silo

Dimensions:
34 m3 60 m³

Weight: 6.500 Kg 7.500 Kg
Height: 9,00 mtr 13,12 mtr
Width: 2,44 mtr 2,50 mtr
Length: 2,80 mtr 2,56 mtr
Description:
34 m3 Sand Silo
60 m³ Sand Silo
30
Mounted Equipment

Description: 15,000 psi Manifold Trailer ( Connects 16 Pumps )
Capacity: 50,000 lb (22 676 kg) lift for positioning trailer for hookup and/or disconnect from tractor
Stroke: 36 in. (914 mm)
31
60 – 100K Coiled Tubing Unit 1 1/4” -2 3/8”

Dimensions: 60k 100k
Weight: 48,000 Kg 48,000 Kg
Height: 4,10 mtr 4,10 mtr
Width: 2,55 mtr 2,55 mtr
Length: 13,30 mtr 13,30 mtr
Capacity:
Tubing OD Range: 1.25” – 2 3/8” 1.50” – 2 3/8”
Hydr. Pressure: 5000 psi 5000 psi
Max. Pull 60 000 lbs 100,000 lbs
Max. Push 30 000 lbs 45,000 lbs
32
Transverse CT Reel
2 3/8” CT

Total length 7200 mtr
34
2500KW Heating Unit
 Capable to heat 80m3 water from 5C to 50C in 1hour 15min
 Diesel usage ca 200ltr/hour

35
Multi Purpose Twin Pump Unit
36
Skandi Fjord – Stimulation Vessel
37
Frac Schedule
100,000 lbs of proppant required
Assume 4 lbs/gal average concentration
25,000 gal fluid required for proppant

S-shape proppant addition curve (to reduce NWB and avoid proppant convection)

10,000 gal w/ 1 ppg-10,000 lbs stage
2,000 gal w/ 2 pgg-4,000 lbs stage
1,500 gal w/ 3 ppg-4,500 lbs stage
1,000 gal w/ 4 ppg-4,000 lbs stage
1,000 gal w/ 5 ppg-5,000 lbs stage
2,000 gal w/ 6 ppg-12,000 lbs stage
3,000 gal w/ 7 ppg-21,000 lbs stage
5,000 gal w/ 8 ppg-40,000 lbs stage

38
Model Input
39
Model Output
Fracture Half-Length (ft) 530 Propped Half-Length (ft) 500
Total Fracture Height (ft) 108 Total Propped Height (ft) 102
Depth to Fracture Top (ft) 9551 Depth to Propped Fracture Top (ft) 9557
Depth to Fracture Bottom (ft) 9659 Depth to Propped Fracture Bottom (ft) 9659
Equivalent Number of Multiple Fracs 1.0 Max. Fracture Width (in) 0.35
Fracture Slurry Efficiency** 0.44 Avg. Fracture Width (in) 0.20
Avg. Proppant Concentration (lb/ft²) 1.28
Model Net Pressure** (psi) 2364 BH Fracture Closure Stress (psi) 5961
Observed Net Pressure** (psi) 0 Closure Stress Gradient (psi/ft) 0.620
Hydrostatic Head*** (psi) 4144 Avg. Surface Pressure (psi) 6234
Reservoir Pressure (psi) 4180 Max. Surface Pressure (psi) 6775
Total Clean Fluid Pumped (bbls) 954.5 Total Proppant Pumped (klbs) 103.9
Total Slurry Pumped (bbls) 1062.2 Total Proppant in Fracture (klbs) 102.8
Pad Volume (bbls) 238.1 Avg. Hydraulic Horsepower (hp) 2747
Pad Fraction (% of Slurry Vol)** 24.3 Max. Hydraulic Horsepower (hp) 2985
Pad Fraction (% of Clean Vol)** 27.4 Avg Btm Slurry Rate (bpm) 18.1
Primary Fluid Type HYBOR H 30#-
WG-11
Primary Proppant Type CarboLite 16/20
Secondary Fluid Type Secondary Proppant Type