This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
All my successors who would do the same.
© Parvesh Singla, all rights reserved
This is the first edition of the book, for any clarifications, comments, or suggestions, please contact: email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org
This book is the result of my listening countless times the old proverb – 1- Character is everything 2- Money is lost , nothing is lost, health is lost, something is lost, and character is lost, everything is lost. I tried to ask people what the character is, everyone had the same thing – be honest, don’t’ tell a lie, and this and that, and it turned out , no one had any idea what character really is. So I tried search for more… And found 4 things. 1- Religion is nothing but an attempt to teach us good values ( or character) in life, even if you cannot put words to a particular quality, you tend to understand what it means. 2- Our forefathers have collected the all the character qualities, and made them in proverbs as well as folk tales. 3- Most of the character qualities are based on very simple rules- society comes before individual, don’t’ take more than your fair share of resources. 4– There is not even a single BOOK on character that I could find! Last book on character seems to have been written about 2000 years ago ( just after bible) I am not trying to be judgmental over what is right character or what is wrong character quality, that is for you to decide. This is all the information that I have collected over last week. Please fell free to distribute it, and improve it. Please give credit if you can and I hope you will have the best character according to your wishes.
This ebook is divided in 5 sections, 1- character qualities and their definition according to wikipedia ( the sum of all human knowledge, donate them if you can, they really do deserve it) 2- Short bedtime stories which you should be telling your kids every night ( every story is a character quality, read it even if you don’t understand it 3- A long stories for the teens, 4- Short stories for more like 15-17 year olds. 5- proverbs for the general life. About the author -- About the author, Born in 1982, Parvesh Singla has been living in Chandigarh, India. He is a graduate from Punjab university never really used the school education; he is also a writer of various articles on different subjects mostly on underground sites. His tryst with destiny of knowledge started with a chance encounter with a person from Netherlands who unknowingly put him on a path to self discovery, one of rare qualities that he has is that of a open mind. He has so far worked too many things to count. Failed in most of them, but hopefully learned from each of them. So far I have written ( or compiled) about 20 books, you can find them off the internet, search for – “ the manual of life – xxxxxxx“ And don’t’ hesistate to mail me : you just might find something interesting.
What is character
The complex of mental and ethical traits marking a person." "Reputation is the shadow. Character is the tree." It’s something that cannot be explained in logical terms, let me clarify it in in this way as : the rules that govern individualistic responses of a person in response to circumstances. Good and bad qualities of a character can be defined in general terms as : not taking what is not due and actions which promote the growth of a society as a whole.
In general, character, good or bad, is considered to be observable in one's conduct Thus, character is different from values in that values are orientations or dispositions whereas character involves action or activation of knowledge and values. what is good character; what causes or prevents it; how can it be measured so that efforts at improvement can have corrective feedback; and how can it best be developed? s one of the foundations for character. How a character is made : Following influence the person, what differentiates a person from just another animal. Heredity Early childhood experience Modeling by important adults and older youth Peer influence The general physical and social environment The communications media What is taught in the schools and other institutions Specific situations and roles that elicit corresponding behavior. What are the character qualities that are required or desired in a person by family, society and everyone else, this list by no means complete, and it surely tells everyone what is required by society. I have personally seen that due to fall of joint families, working parents as well as an assumption made by media that the character is being taught by teachers in school. The new generation is turning more into robots that do the work that is being given to them, and the one thing that makes them human, i.e. character is missing. ( this is actually a problem in modern society, due to recent social trend of having a nuclear family instead of a joint family, the tradition teachers of character have been lost. Initially the responsibility to teach character stayed with the grandmother. In nuclear family the ideal teacher should be parents or school, but parents are both working. Even where mother is not working, she herself does not know anything about character to teach the kids, and in schools, teachers teach algebra, finance or language, but not character, have you ever seen a school taking a character class)
• Acceptance • Friendliness • Self-discipline • Accountability • Honesty • Self-respect • Behavior • Integrity • Sportsmanship • Citizenship • Kindness • Temper • Compassion • Manners • Temptation • Courtesy • Morals • The Golden Rule • Conduct • Patience • Tolerance • Confidence • Perseverance • Truthfulness • Dependability • Reliability • Trustworthiness • Determination • Respect • Values • Endurance • Responsibility • Virtue • Ethics • Self-Control There are just the few qualities which have names, there are dozens more that are subcategories of the qualities given. and yet there are countless others which are understood by stories. ( given after this section)
I’ll write about each of the character qualities. I hope this book proves invaluable for you to teach yourself and your kids the character you have to have, and with it the person you want to be
Acceptance: This refers to a quality in character when a person experiences a situation or condition without attempting to change, protest, or exiting from it. In this context, this term usually refers to instances when the situation can’t be changed like that of dying, Notions of acceptance are prominent in many faiths and meditation practices. For example, Buddhism's first noble truth, "All life is suffering", invites people to accept that suffering is a natural part of life. The term "Kabbalah" means literally acceptance. Minority groups in society often describe their goal as "acceptance", wherein the majority will not challenge the minority's full participation in society. A majority may be said to "tolerate" minorities when it confines their participation to certain aspects of society. Acceptance is the fifth stage of the Kübler-Ross model (commonly known as the "stages of dying"). The Big Book of Alcoholics Anonymous describes the importance of acceptance in the treatment of alcoholism. It states that acceptance can be used to resolve situations where a person feels disturbed by a "person, place, thing or situation -- some fact of my life -[which is] unacceptable to me". It claims that an alcoholic person cannot find serenity until that person accepts that "nothing happens in God's world by mistake" and that the condition of alcoholism must be accepted as a given.
Self discipline Discipline is freedom. You may disagree with this statement, and if you do you are certainly not alone. For many people discipline is a dirty word that is equated with the absence of freedom. In fact the opposite is true. As Stephen R. Covey once wrote, “the undisciplined are slaves to moods, appetites and passions”. And in the longer term, the undisciplined lack the freedom that comes with possessing particular skills and abilities e.g. to play a musical instrument or speak a foreign language. Self-discipline involves acting according to what you think instead of how you feel in the moment. Often it involves sacrificing the pleasure and thrill of the moment for what matters most in life. Therefore it is self-discipline that drives you to: Work on an idea or project after the initial rush of enthusiasm has faded away Go to the gym when all you want to do is lie on the couch and watch TV Wake early to work on yourself Say “no” when tempted to break your diet Only check your email a few of times per day at particular times In the past self-discipline has been a weakness of mine, and as a result today I find myself lacking the ability to do a number of things which I would like - e.g. to play the guitar. But I have improved, and I can say that it is self-discipline that got me out of bed this morning at 5am to run and then write this book. Believe me, I would love to be curled up in bed right now, but this desire is subordinated by my inner sense of purpose. If you struggle with self-discipline, the good news is that it can be developed. For example, it is only in the past two years that I have trained myself to wake early. The following are what I have found to be the sub traits of self-discipline: Self-Knowledge Discipline means behaving according to what you have decided is best, regardless of how you feel in the moment. Therefore the first trait of discipline is self-knowledge. You need to decide what behavior best reflects your goals and values. This process requires introspection and self-analysis, and is most effective when tied to written expression. I highly recommend taking the time to write out your goals, dreams and ambitions. Even better, write out a personal mission statement. I found that writing such a statement gave me a greater understanding of who I am, what I am about and what I value. Self-discipline depends upon conscious awareness as to both what you are doing and what you are not doing. Think about it. If you aren’t aware your behavior is undisciplined, how will you know to act otherwise? As you begin to build self-discipline, you may catch yourself being in the act of being undisciplined - e.g. biting your nails, avoiding the gym, eating a piece of cake or checking your email constantly. Developing self-discipline takes time, and the key here is you are aware of your undisciplined behavior. With time this awareness will come
earlier, meaning rather than catching yourself in the act of being undisciplined you will have awareness before you act in this way. This gives you the opportunity to make a decision that is in better alignment with your goals and values. Commitment to Self-Discipline It is not enough to simply write out your goals and values. You must make an internal commitment to them. Otherwise when your alarm clock goes off at 5am you will see no harm in hitting the snooze button for “just another 5 minutes….” Or, when initial rush of enthusiasm has faded away from a project you will struggle to see it through to completion. If you struggle with commitment, start by making a conscious decision to follow through on what you say you’re going to do - both when you said you would do it and how you said you would do it. Then, I highly recommend putting in place a system to track these commitments. As the saying goes, “What gets measured gets improved”. Conscious Awareness Make no mistake, self-discipline is often extremely difficult. Moods, appetites and passions can be powerful forces to go against. Therefore self-discipline is highly dependent on courage. Don’t pretend something is easy for you to do when it is in fact very difficult and/ or painful. Instead, find the courage to face this pain and difficulty. As you begin to accumulate small private victories, your self-confidence will grow and the courage that underpins self-discipline will come more naturally.
Courage Courage, also known as bravery, will, intrepidity, and loyalty, is the ability to confront fear, pain, risk/danger, uncertainty, or intimidation. "Physical courage" is courage in the face of physical pain, hardship, or threat of death, while "moral courage" is the ability to act rightly in the face of popular opposition, shame, scandal, or discouragement. Courage is the mental and moral strength to venture, persevere, and withstand danger, fear, or difficulty. Courage (shauriya) and Patience (dhairya) appear as the first two of ten characteristics (lakshana) of dharma in the Hindu Manusmruti, besides forgiveness (kshama), tolerance (dama), honesty (asthaya), physical restraint (indriya nigraha), cleanliness (shouchya), perceptiveness (dhi), knowledge (vidhya), truthfulness (satya), and control of anger (akrodh).
Internal Coaching Self-talk is often harmful, but it can also be extremely beneficial if you have control of it. When you find yourself being tested, I suggest you talk to yourself, encourage yourself and reassure yourself. After all, it is self-talk that has the ability to remind you of your goals, call up courage, reinforce your commitment and keep you conscious of the task at hand. When I find my discipline being tested, I always recall the following quote: “The price of discipline is always less than the pain of regret”. Burn this quote into your memory, and recall in whenever you find yourself being tested. It may change your life.
Accountability : Accountability is defined as "A is accountable to B when A is obliged to inform B about A’s (past or future) actions and decisions, to justify them, and to suffer punishment in the case of eventual misconduct" In leadership roles, accountability is the acknowledgment and assumption of responsibility for actions, products, decisions, and policies including the administration, governance and implementation within the scope of the role or employment position and encompassing the obligation to report explain and be answerable for resulting consequences. Various authors on the subject classify it in 8 types of accountability, namely: moral, administrative, political, managerial, market, legal/judicial, constituency relation, and professional. Political accountability Political accountability is the accountability of the government, civil servants and politicians to the public and to legislative bodies such as congress or parliament. Administrative accountability Internal rules and norms as well as some independent commission are mechanisms to hold civil servant within the administration of government accountable. Within department or ministry, firstly, behavior is bounded by rules and regulations; secondly, civil servants are subordinates in a hierarchy and accountable to superiors. Nonetheless, there are independent “watchdog” units to scrutinize and hold departments accountable; legitimacy of these commissions is built upon their independence, as it avoids any conflicts of interest. Apart from internal checks, some “watchdog” units accept complaints from citizens, bridging government and society to hold civil servants accountable to citizens, but not merely governmental departments. Market accountability Under voices for decentralization and privatization of the government, services provided are nowadays more “customer-driven” and should aim to provide convenience and various choices to citizens; with this perspective, there are comparisons and competition between public and private services and this, ideally, improves quality of service. As mentioned by Bruce Stone, the standard of assessment for accountability is therefore “responsiveness of service providers to a body of ‘sovereign’ customers and produce quality service. Outsourcing service is one means to adopt market accountability. Government can choose among a shortlist of companies for outsourced service; within the contracting period, government can hold the company by rewriting contracts or by choosing another company.
Social implications Accountability constrains the extent to which elected representatives and other officeholders can willfully deviate from their theoretical responsibilities, thus reducing corruption. Communications scholars have extended this work through the examination of strategic uses of excuses, justifications, rationalizations, apologies and other forms of account giving behavior by individuals and corporations Honesty Honesty is the human quality of communicating and acting truthfully related to truth as a value. This includes listening, and any action in the human repertoire — as well as speaking. Superficially, honesty means simply stating facts and views as best one truly believes them to be. It includes both honesty to others, and to oneself and about one's own motives and inner reality. Honesty, at times, has the ability to cause misfortune to the person who displays it. Honesty can also mean fairness, and truthfulness, and the avoidance of misleading people. The concept of honesty applies to all behaviors. One cannot refuse to consider factual information, for example, and still claim that one's knowledge, belief, or position is an attempt to be truthful or is held in "good faith." Such willful blindness is clearly a product of one's desires and simply has nothing to do with the human ability to know. Basing one's positions on what one wants—rather than unbiased evidence gathering—is dishonest even when good intentions can be cited—after all even villains could cite good intentions and intended glory for a select group of people. Clearly then, an unbiased approach to the truth is a requirement of honesty. Because intentions are closely related to fairness, and certainly affect the degree of honesty/dishonesty, there is a widespread confusion about honesty. There is also a general belief that one is necessarily aware that dishonest behavior is dishonest. But it's at the moment when one willfully disregards information in order to benefit (such as to justify their actions or beliefs) that one shows whether they are interested in the truth or whether they have a lack of respect for the truth, which is dishonesty, regardless of whether they mislabel it stubbornness or conviction. Socrates had much to say about truth, honesty and morality, and explained that if people really understood that their behavior was wrong—then they simply would not choose it. Furthermore, the more dishonest someone is, the less likely they are to understand honesty and to characterize their behavior as wrong. Unfortunately, the meaning of honesty has been marginalized to specific lists of behaviors that more often than not— change over time like fashion. The understanding that honesty requires an unbiased approach to the truth and to evidence gathering at all times (a timeless approach) collides with ideologies of all types. This would explain why honesty, although often discussed— has failed to become a cultural norm. Ideologies and idealism inherently exaggerate and
suppress evidence in order to support their perspectives. They essentially state that their way is the only right way to view the world. This erodes the practice and understanding of honesty and creates ongoing conflicts in all human Confucius Confucius recognized several levels of honesty, fundamental to his ethics. His shallowest concept of honesty was implied in his notion of Li: all actions committed by a person to build the ideal society - aiming at meeting their surface desires of a person either immediately (bad) or longer term (good). To admit that one sought immediate gratification could however make a bad act better, and to hide one's long term goals could cloud a good act. A key principle was that a "gentleman" must strive to convey his feelings honestly on his face; so that these could help each other coordinate for long term gain for all. So there was a visible relation between time horizon, etiquette and one's image of oneself even in the mirror. This generates self-honesty and keeps such activities as business calm, unsurprising, and aboveboard. In this conception, one is honest because it suits one's own self-interest only. Deeper than Li was Yi or righteousness. Rather than pursuing one's own interests one should do what is right and moral - based on reciprocity. Here too time is central, but as a time span: since one's parents spent one's first three years raising one, one spent three mourning them after they die. At this level one is honest about one's obligations and duty. Even with no one else to keep one honest or to relate to directly, a deeply honest person would relate to ancestors as if they were alive and would not act in ways that would make them ashamed. This was part of the moral code that included ancestor worship, but Confucius had made it rigorous. The deepest level of honesty was Ren, out of which flowed Yi and thus Li. Confucius' morality was based upon empathy and understanding others, which required understanding one's own moral core first, rather than on divinely ordained rules, which could simply be obeyed. The Confucian version of the Golden Rule was to treat one's inferiors as one would want one's superiors to treat one. Virtue under Confucius is based upon harmony with others and a recognition of the honest reality that eventually (say in old age) one will come under the power of others (say one's children). So this level of honesty is to actually put oneself in context of one's whole life and future generations - and choose to do or say nothing that would not reflect one's family's honor and reputation for honesty and acceptance of truth, such as eventual death. Buddhism Thanissaro Bhikkhu taught: “Real honesty is being honest about what your possibilities are, what your potentials are. That's where true honesty lies. It stretches us. It’s not simply admitting where we are that’s a beginning step, it’s not the end step. So be honest about where you are but also be honest about what your possibilities are. That keeps the challenge of the path always before us.”
Self –respect / self esteem Self-esteem reflects a person's overall evaluation or appraisal of her or his own worth. Self-esteem encompasses beliefs (for example, "I am competent/incompetent") and emotions (for example, triumph/despair, pride/shame). Behavior may reflect self-esteem (for example, assertiveness/timorousness, confidence/caution). We regard self-esteem as an enduring personality characteristic (trait self-esteem), though normal, short-term variations (state self-esteem) occur. Self-esteem can apply specifically to a particular dimension (for example, "I believe I am a good writer, and feel proud of that in particular") or have global extent (for example, "I believe I am a good person, and feel proud of myself in general"). Synonyms or near-synonyms of self-esteem include: self-worth, self-regard, self-respect, self-love (which can express overtones of self-promotion), self-integrity. Self-esteem is different from self-confidence and self-efficacy, which involve beliefs about ability and future performance. Level and quality of self-esteem, though correlated, remain distinct. Level-wise, one can exhibit high but fragile self-esteem (as in narcissism) or low but stable self-esteem (as in humility). However, investigators can indirectly assess the quality of self-esteem in several ways: in terms of its constancy over time (stability) in terms of its independence of meeting particular conditions (non-contingency) in terms of its ingrained nature at a basic psychological level (implicitness or automatized). Humans have portrayed the dangers of excessive self-esteem and the advantages of more humility throughout history The presence of superiority-complexes can be seen both in individual cases, and in whole societies, such as Germany under the Nazi regime. Contingencies of self-worth comprise those qualities a person believes he or she must have in order to class as a person of value; proponents claim the contingencies as the core of self-esteem. In the field of social psychology, Jennifer Crocker says that her research "explores what it is that people believe they need to be or do to have value and worth as a person, and the consequences of those beliefs". She claims that people pursue self-esteem by trying to prove that they have worth and value, and this pursuit affects "the satisfaction of the fundamental human needs for learning, relationships, autonomy, self-regulation, and mental and physical health". Crocker argues that this pursuit of self-worth affects not only the individual, but everyone around the person as well.
According to the "Contingencies of Self-Worth model" people differ in their bases of self-esteem. Their beliefs — beliefs about what they think they need to do or who they need to "be" in order to class as a person of worth — form these bases. Crocker and her colleagues (2001) identified seven "domains" in which people frequently derive their self-worth: Virtue God's love Support of family Academic competence Physical attractiveness Gaining others' approval Outdoing others in competition Individuals who base their self-worth in a specific domain (such as, for example, academic success) leave themselves much more vulnerable to having their self-esteem threatened when negative events happen to them within that domain (such as when they fail a test at school). A 2003 study by Crocker found that students who based their contingency of self-worth on academic criteria had a greater likelihood of experiencing lower-state self-esteem, greater negative affect, and negative self-evaluative thoughts when they did not perform well on academic tasks, when they received poor grades, or when graduate schools rejected them Crocker and her colleagues (2003) have constructed the "Contingencies of Self-Worth Scale", which measures the seven domains mentioned above that previous research had hypothesized as providing important internal and external sources of self-esteem. Crocker argues that the domains on which people base self-worth play a greater role than whether self-worth is actually contingent or not. Contingencies of self-worth can function internally, externally, or somewhere in between. Some research has shown that external contingencies of self-worth, such as physical appearance and academic success, correlate negatively to well-being, even promoting depression and eating-disorders. Other work has found internal contingencies, on the other hand, unrelated or even positively related to well-being. Research by Crocker and her colleagues also suggests that contingencies of self-worth have self-regulatory properties they define successful self-regulation as “the willingness to exert effort toward one’s most important goals, while taking setbacks and failures as opportunities to learn, identify weaknesses and address them, and develop new strategies toward achieving those goals”. Since many individuals strive for a feeling of value, it makes sense that those people would experience special motivation to succeed and actively to avoid failure in the domains on which they base their own self-worth. Accordingly, successful self-regulation can prove difficult for people aiming to maintain and enhance their self-esteem, because they would have to actually embrace failure or criticism as a learning opportunity, rather than avoid it. Instead, when a task which individuals see as fundamental to their self-worth proves difficult and failure seems probable, contingencies of self-worth lead to stress, feelings of pressure, and a loss of
intrinsic motivation. In these cases, highly contingent people may withdraw from the situation. On the other hand, the positive emotional affect following success in a domain of contingency may become addictive for the highly contingent individual. Over time, these people may require even greater successes to achieve the same satisfaction or emotional “high”. Therefore, the goal to succeed can become a relentless quest for these individuals Researchers such as Crocker believe that people confuse the boosts to self-esteem resulting from successes with true human needs, such as learning, mutually supportive relationships, autonomy, and safety. Crocker claims that people do not seek "selfesteem", but basic human needs, and that the contingencies on which they base their selfesteem have more importance than the level of self-esteem itself. Behaviour Behavior or Behaviour refers to the actions or reactions of an object or organism, usually in relation to the environment. Behavior can be conscious or unconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary. Human behaviorcan be common, unusual, acceptable, or unacceptable. Humans evaluate the acceptability of behavior using social norms and regulate behavior by means of social control. In sociology, behavior is considered as having no meaning, being not directed at other people and thus is the most basic human action. In context of modern world the correct usage of term is in the meaning of “Manners or Etiquettes” Integrity Integrity comprises perceived consistency of actions, values, methods, measures and principles integrity may be seen as the quality of having a sense of honesty and truthfulness in regard to the motivations for one's actions. The term hypocrisy is often used in contrast to integrity to assert that one part of a value system is demonstrably at odds with another, and to demand that the people holding conflicting values account for the discrepancy or change their beliefs & actions to improve internal consistency. In discussions on behavior and morality, one view of the property of integrity sees it as the virtue of basing actions on an internally-consistent framework of principles. One can describe a person as having integrity to the extent that everything that that person does or believes: actions, methods, measures and principles — all derive from the same core group of values and form a value system. Some commentators stress the idea of integrity as personal honesty: acting according to one's beliefs and values at all times. Many people appear to use the word "integrity" in a vague manner as an alternative to the perceived political incorrectness of using blatantly moralistic terms such as "good" or ethical. In this sense the term often refers to a refusal to
engage in lying, blaming or other behavior generally seeming to evade accountability. Integrity requires three steps: (1) discerning what is right and what is wrong; (2) acting on what you have discerned, even at personal cost; and (3) saying openly that you are acting on your understanding of right from wrong. Integrity is not the same as honesty.
Sportsmanship Sportsmanship is being a "good sport" involves being a "good winner" as well as being a "good loser" Often the pressures of competition, individual achievement, or introduction of technology can seem to work against enjoyment by participants. Examples of poor sportsmanship are winners "rubbing salt in the wounds" of the losers, or the losers expressing frustration at not winning, perhaps to the point of holding a grudge, failing to congratulate the winners and as such. Sportsmanship typically is regarded as a component of morality in sport as well as life, composed of three related and perhaps overlapping concepts: fair play, sportsmanship, and character. Fair play refers to all participants having an equitable chance to pursue victory. and acting toward others in an honest, straight forward, and a firm and dignified manner even when others do not play fairly. It includes respect for others including team members, opponents, and officials. Character refers to dispositions, values and habits that determine the way that person normally responds to desires, fears, challenges, opportunities, failures and successes and is typically seen in polite behaviors toward others such as helping an opponent up or shaking hands after a match. An individual is believed to have a “good character” when those dispositions and habits reflect core ethical values. Sportsmanship can be conceptualized as an enduring and relatively stable characteristic or disposition such that individuals differ in the way they are generally expected to behave in sport situations. In general, sportsmanship refers to virtues such as fairness, self-control, courage and persistence and has been associated with interpersonal concepts of treating others and being treated fairly, maintaining self-control in dealing with others, and respect for both authority and opponents. Five facets of sportsmanship have been identified: Full commitment to participation (e.g., showing up, working hard during all practices and games, acknowledging one’s mistakes and trying to improve); Respect and concern for rules and officials;
Respect and concern for social conventions (e.g., shaking hands, recognizing the good performance of an opponent); Respect and concern for the opponent (e.g., lending one’s equipment to the opponent, agreeing to play even if the opponent is late, not taking advantage of injured opponents); Avoiding poor attitudes toward participation (e.g., not adopting a win-at-all-costs approach, not showing temper after a mistake, and not competing solely for individual prizes).
- Citizenship Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city or town but now usually a country) and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. Citizenship status often implies some responsibilities and duties under social contract theory. "Active citizenship" is the philosophy that citizens should work towards the betterment of their community through economic participation, public service, volunteer work, and other such efforts to improve life for all citizens. In this vein, schools in some countries provide citizenship education. Polis citizenship The first form of citizenship was based on the way people lived in the ancient Greek times, in small-scale organic communities of the polis. In those days citizenship was not seen as a public matter, separated from the private life of the individual person. The obligations of citizenship were deeply connected into one’s everyday life in the polis. To be truly human, one had to be an active citizen to the community, which Aristotle famously expressed: “To take no part in the running of the community's affairs is to be either a beast or a god!” This form of citizenship was based on obligations of citizens towards the community, rather than rights given to the citizens of the community. This was not a problem because they all had a strong affinity with the polis; their own destiny and the destiny of the community were strongly linked. Also, citizens of the polis saw obligations to the community as an opportunity to be virtuous, it was a source of honour and respect. In Athens, citizens were both ruler and ruled, important political and judicial offices were rotated and all citizens had the right to speak and vote in the political assembly. Responsibilities or Duties of citizenship (in context of character) Purely ethical and moral duties tend to include: demonstrating commitment and loyalty to the democratic political community and state constructively criticizing the conditions of political and civic life participating to improve the quality of political and civic life respecting the rights of others defending one's own rights and the rights of others against those who would abuse them
Kindness Kindness is the act or the state of charitable behavior to other people. Kindness is considered to be one of the Knightly Virtues, and is a recognized value in many cultures and religions. It is considered to be one of the seven virtues, specifically the one of the Seven Contrary Virtues (direct opposites of the seven deadly sins) that is the direct opposite to envy. The Talmud claims that "deeds of kindness are equal in weight to all the commandments." Paul of Tarsus defines love as being `patient and kind...` (I Corinthians). In Buddhism, one of the Ten Perfections (Paramitas) is Mettā, which is usually translated into English as "loving-kindness". Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama wrote "my religion is kindness" and authored a book entitled Kindness, Clarity, and Insight. Confucius urges his followers to "recompense kindness with kindness." According to book two of Aristotle's Rhetoric it is one of the emotions (see list of emotions), which is defined as being "helpfulness towards some one in need, not in return for anything, nor for the advantage of the helper himself, but for that of the person helped". One of the four caryatids on the Wallace fountains in Paris represents kindness. In a study of 37 cultures around the world, 16000 subjects were asked about their most desired traits in a mate. For both sexes, the first preference was kindness (the second was intelligence). Philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche argued that kindness and love are the "most curative herbs and agents in human intercourse".
Seven Heavenly Virtues Chastity Temperance Charity Diligence Patience Kindness Humility Seven Deadly Sins (opposite of the seven virtues) Lust Gluttony Greed Sloth Wrath Envy Pride
Temper In psychology, temperament is the innate aspect of an individual's personality, such as introversion or extroversion. Temperament is defined as that part of the personality which is genetically based. Along with character, and those aspects acquired through learning, the two together are said to constitute personality. The specific behaviors are: activity level, regularity of sleeping and eating patterns, initial reaction, adaptability, intensity of emotion, mood, distractibility, persistence and attention span, and sensory sensitivity. Nine Temperament Characteristics Activity Activity refers to the amount of physical energy in the child. Does the child have to be constantly moving or do they have a relaxing approach? A child who has high energy may have difficulty sitting still in class, where a child with low energy can handle a very structured environment. The former may use his or her gross motor skills more frequently, such as running and jumping. Conversely, a child has a lower activity level may rely more on fine motor skills, such as drawing and putting puzzles together. This trait can also refer to mental activity, such as deep thinking or reading, activities which become more significant as the person matures. Regularity Regularity, also known as Rhythmicity refers to the level of predictability in a child’s biological functions such as waking, becoming tired, hunger and bowel movements. Does the child have a routine in their eating and sleeping habits or do they just seem to happen whenever? A child who is predictable will need to eat at 2pm everyday whereas a child who is less predictable will eat at sporadic times throughout the day. Initial reaction Initial reaction is also known as Approach or Withdrawal. This refers to how the child responds to new people or environments either positive or negative. Does the child check out people or things in their environment without hesitation or do they shy away? A child who is bold will tend to approach things quickly as if without thinking. Where as a child who is cautious typically prefers to watch for a while before engaging in new experiences. Adaptability Adaptability refers to how long it takes the child to adjust to change. This is different from what was mentioned above because adaptability refers to the long term adjustment
made after the child’s first reaction to the new situation. Does the child adjust to the changes in their environment easily or are they resistant to what is happening around them? For a child who adjusts easily they may be quick or it may take no time at all to settle into a new routine. Whereas a child who is resistant may take a long time to adjust to the situation. Intensity Intensity refers to the energy level of a positive or negative response. Does the child react intensely to a situation or do they respond in a calm and quiet manner? A child who leans more on the intense side may jump up and down screaming with excitement. Whereas a child who is mild mannered may just smile or show no emotion what-so-ever. Mood Mood refers to the child’s general tendency towards a happy or unhappy demeanor. All children have a variety of emotions and reactions that are opposite of each other such as cheerful and stormy, happy and unhappy. Each child biologically tends have generally a positive or negative mood. Does the child express a positive or negative outlook? A baby who may smile and coo all the time could be considered a cheerful baby. Whereas a baby who cries or is fussy all the time may be considered a stormy baby. Distractibility Distractibility refers to the child’s tendency to be sidetracked by other things going on around them. Does the child get easily distracted by what is happening in the environment around them or can they concentrate despite the interruptions? A child that is easily distracted notices everything going on around them and has a hard time returning back to the task at hand. Whereas a child that is rarely distracted has the ability to stay focused and completes the task at hand. Persistence & attention span Persistence and attention span refer to the child’s ability to stay with a task through frustrations and length of time on the task. Can the child stay with an activity for a long period of time or do they just give up when they become frustrated? A child who is persistent can sit and pull on their sock until the task is complete. Where a child who tends to have a short attention span will just give up when they become frustrated or distracted. Sensitivity Sensitivity refers to how easily a child is disturbed by changes in their environment. It is also referred to as Sensory Threshold or threshold of responsiveness. Does the child get bothered by external stimuli in their environment such as noises, textures, lights, etc. or do they just seem not to be bothered by them at all and simply ignore them? A child who
is sensitive may be distracted by a door slamming and will not be able to maintain focus. Whereas a child who tends to not be sensitive to external noises; they are able to maintain their focus. Family life Influences They affect the interactions among family members. While some children can adapt quickly and easily to family routines and get along with siblings, others who are more active or intense may have a difficult time adjusting. The interactions between these children and their parents and/or siblings are among a number of factors that can lead to stress and friction within the family life. Parents can also differ in temperament. For example, a slow paced parent may be irritated by a highly active child or if both parent and child are highly active and intense it could mean big conflict. This can be useful to parents for figuring out how temperaments affect family relationships. What may appear to be a behavioral problem may actually be a mismatch between the parent’s temperament and their child’s. By taking a closer look at the nine traits that are written here, parents can gain a better understanding of their child’s temperament and their own. Parents may also notice that situational factors cause a child's temperament to seem problematic; for example, a child with low rhythmicity can cause difficulties for a family with a highly scheduled life, and a child with a high activity level may be difficult to cope with if the family lives in a crowded apartment upstairs from sensitive neighbors. Parents can encourage new behaviors in their children, and with enough support a slowto-warm-up child can become less shy, or a difficult baby can become easier to handle. More recently infants and children with temperament issues have been called "spirited" to avoid negative connotations of "difficult" and "slow to warm up". Numerous books have been written advising parents how to raise their spirited youngsters. Understanding for improvement Understanding a child’s temperament can help reframe how parents interpret children’s behavior and the way parents think about the reasons for behaviors. By parents having access to this knowledge now helps them to guide their child in ways that respect the child’s individual differences. By understanding children’s temperaments and our own helps adults to work with them rather than try to change them. It is an opportunity to anticipate and understand a child’s reaction. It is also important to know that temperament does not excuse a child’s unacceptable behavior, but it does provide direction to how parents can respond to it. Making small and reasonable accommodations to routines can reduce tension. For example a child who is slow paced in the mornings may need an extra half hour to get ready. Knowing who or what may affect the child’s behavior can help to alleviate potential problems. Although children obtain their
temperament behaviors innately, a large part that helps determine a child's ability to develop and act in certain ways is determined by the parents. When a parent takes the time to identify and more importantly respond to the temperaments they are faced with in a positive way it will help them guide their child in trying to figure out the world. Recognizing the child’s temperament and helping them to understand how it impacts his/her life as well as others is important. It is just as important for parents to recognize their own temperaments. Recognizing each individual’s temperament, will help to prevent and manage problems that may arise from the differences among family members. Temperament continues into adulthood, these characteristics continue to influence behavior and adjustment throughout the life-span.
Compassion Compassion is a profound human emotion prompted by the pain of others., the feeling commonly gives rise to an active desire to alleviate another's suffering. It’s different than empathy because empathy is merely feeling concerned with one’s pain, compassion being doing an action to remove pain. Compassion is that which makes the heart of the good move at the pain of others. It crushes and destroys the pain of others. - The Buddha. The Dalai Lama has said, "If you want others to be happy, practice compassion. If you want to be happy, practice compassion." The noted American monk Bhikkhu Bodhi states that compassion "supplies the complement to loving-kindness: whereas loving-kindness has the characteristic of wishing for the happiness and welfare of others, compassion has the characteristic of wishing that others be free from suffering, a wish to be extended without limits to all living beings. compassion arises by entering into the subjectivity of others, by sharing their interiority in a deep and total way. It springs up by considering that all beings, like ourselves, wish to be free from suffering, yet despite their wishes continue to be harassed by pain, fear, sorrow, and other forms of dukkha. (Truth of suffering)" The Jain tradition Compassion for all life, human and non-human, is central to the Jain tradition. Though all life is considered sacred, human life is deemed the highest form of earthly existence. To kill any person, no matter their crime, is considered unimaginably abhorrent. It is the only substantial religious tradition that requires both monks and laity to be vegetarian. It is suggested that certain strains of the Hindu tradition became vegetarian due to strong Jain influences. The Jain tradition's stance on nonviolence, however, goes far beyond vegetarianism. Jains refuse food obtained with unnecessary cruelty. The Hindu traditions In the various Hindu traditions, compassion is called daya, and, along with charity and self-control, is one of the three central virtues. The importance of compassion in the Hindu traditions reaches as far back as the Vedas, sacred texts composed over a period prior to 1500 B.C. While the early Vedas sometimes glorify war and the worship of the war god, Indra, the later Vedas demonstrate a greater sensitivity to the values of compassion. The central concept particularly relevant to compassion in Hindu spirituality is that of ahimsa. The exact definition of ahimsa varies from one tradition to another. Ahimsa is a Sanskrit word which can be translated most directly as "refraining from harmfulness." It is a derivation of hinsa which means harmful, or having the intent to cause harm.
The Jewish tradition In the Jewish tradition, God is the Compassionate and is invoked as the Father of Compassion: Sorrow and pity for one in distress, creating a desire to relieve, is a feeling ascribed alike to man and God: Asked for a summary of the Jewish religion in the most concise terms, Hillel replied (reputedly while standing on one leg): "That which is hateful to you, do not do to your fellow. That is the whole Torah. The rest is the explanation; go and learn." The Christian tradition Christ's example challenges Christians to forsake their own desires and to act compassionately towards others, particularly those in need or distress. Jesus assures his listeners in the Sermon on the Mount that, "Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy." Islam Each of the 114 chapters of the Quran, with one exception, begins with the verse, "In the name of God the Merciful, the Compassionate". The Muslim scriptures urge compassion towards captives as well as to widows, orphans and the poor. Traditionally, Zakat, a toll tax to help the poor and needy, was obligatory upon all muslims (9:60). One of the practical purposes of fasting or sawm during the month of Ramadan is to help one empathize with the hunger pangs of those less fortunate, to enhance sensitivity to the suffering of others and develop compassion for the poor and destitute Manners In society, manners are the unenforced standards of conduct which show the actor to be cultured, polite, and refined. They are like laws in that they codify or set a standard for human behavior, but they are unlike laws in that there is no formal system for punishing transgressions, other than social disapproval. They are a kind of norm. What is considered "mannerly" is highly susceptible to change with time, geographical location, social stratum, occasion, and other factors. That manners matter is evidenced by the fact that large books have been written on the subject, advice columns frequently deal with questions of mannerly behavior, and that schools have existed for the sole purpose of teaching manners. A lady is a term frequently used for a woman who follows proper manners; the term gentleman is used as a male counterpart; though these terms are also often used for members of a particular social class. Temptation A temptation is an act that looks appealing to an individual. It is usually used to describe acts with negative connotations and as such, tends to lead a person to regret such actions, for various reasons: legal, social, psychological (including feeling guilt), health,
economic, etc. Temptation also describes the coaxing or inducing a person into committing such an act, by manipulation or otherwise of curiosity, desire or fear of loss. Though at present used in many non-religious connotations, the term has implications deeply rooted in Judaism and the The Old Testament, starting with the story of Eve and the original sin.
Courtesy A courtesy title is a form of address in systems of nobility used by children, former wives and other close relatives of a peer. These styles are used 'by courtesy' in the sense that the users do not themselves hold substantive titles. There are several different kinds of courtesy titles in the British peerage. Courtesy prefix of "Lord" Another form of courtesy title is the honorific prefix of "Lord" before the name. The courtesy title is added before the person's name, as in the example of Lord Randolph Churchill. Courtesy prefix of "Lady" The honorific prefix of "The Lady" is granted to the daughters of Dukes, Marquesses and Earls. The courtesy title is added before the person's name, as in the example The Lady Diana Spencer. Courtesy prefix of "Sir" The honorific prefix of "Sir" is granted to the people in position of respect .The courtesy title is added before the person's name in writing, as in the example, “Sir, Bush” or after name in normal speaking, such as “Bush, Sir. Morality Morality ("manner, character, proper behavior") has three principal meanings. In its first, descriptive usage, morality means a code of conduct held to be authoritative in matters of right and wrong. Morals are created by and define society, philosophy, religion, or individual conscience. In its second, normative and universal sense, morality refers to an ideal code of conduct, one which would be espoused in preference to alternatives by all rational people, under specified conditions. In its third usage, 'morality' is synonymous with ethics, the systematic philosophical study of the moral domain. Ethics seeks to address questions such as how a moral outcome can be achieved in a specific situation (applied ethics), how moral values should be determined (normative ethics), what morals people actually abide by (descriptive ethics), what the fundamental nature of ethics or morality is, including whether it has any objective justification (metaethics), and how moral capacity or moral agency develops and what its nature is (moral psychology). In applied ethics, for example, the prohibition against taking human life is
controversial with respect to capital punishment, abortion and wars of invasion. In normative ethics, a typical question might be whether a lie told for the sake of protecting someone from harm is justified. In meta-ethics, a key issue is the meaning of the terms "right" or "wrong". Moral realism would hold that there are true moral statements which report objective moral facts, whereas moral anti-realism would hold that morality is derived from any one of the norms prevalent in society (cultural relativism); the edicts of a god (divine command theory); is merely an expression of the speakers' sentiments (emotivism); an implied imperative (prescriptive); falsely presupposes that there are objective moral facts (error theory). Some thinkers hold that there is no correct definition of right behavior, that morality can only be judged with respect to particular situations, within the standards of particular belief systems and socio-historical contexts. This position, known as moral relativism, often cites empirical evidence from anthropology as evidence to support its claims. The opposite view, that there are universal, eternal moral truths are known as moral absolutism. Moral absolutists might concede that forces of social conformity significantly shape moral decisions, but deny that cultural norms and customs define morally right behavior. Comparing cultures Peterson and Seligman approach the anthropological view looking across cultures and across millennia. The conclude that certain virtues have prevailed in all cultures they examined. The major virtues they identified include wisdom / knowledge; courage; humanity; justice; temperance; and transcendence. Each of these includes several divisions. For instance humanity includes love, kindness, and social intelligence. Fons Trompenaars, author of did the Pedestrian Die? Tested members of different cultures with various moral dilemmas. One of these was whether the driver of a car would have his friend, a passenger riding in the car, lie in order to protect the driver from the consequences of driving too fast and hitting a pedestrian. Trompenaars found that different cultures had quite different expectations (from none to almost certain). Some sociobiologists contend that the set of behaviors that constitute morality evolved largely because they provided possible survival and/or reproductive benefits (i.e. increased evolutionary success). Humans consequently evolved "pro-social" emotions, such as feelings of empathy or guilt, in response to these moral behaviors. In this respect, morality is not absolute, but relative and constitutes any set of behaviors that encourage human cooperation based on their ideology. Biologists contend that all social animals, from ants to elephants, have modified their behaviors, by restraining selfishness in order to make group living worthwhile. Human morality though sophisticated and complex relative to other animals, is essentially a natural phenomenon that evolved to restrict excessive individualism and foster human cooperation. The phenomenon of 'reciprocity' in nature is seen by evolutionary biologists as one way to begin to understand human morality. Its function is typically to ensure a reliable supply of essential resources, especially for animals living in a habitat where food
quantity or quality fluctuates unpredictably. For example, on any given night for vampire bats, some individuals fail to feed on prey while others consume a surplus of blood. Bats that have successfully fed then regurgitate part of their blood meal to save a conspecific from starvation. Since these animals live in close-knit groups over many years, an individual can count on other group members to return the favor on nights when it goes hungry If morality is the answer to the question 'how ought we to live' at the individual level, politics can be seen as addressing the same question at the social level. According to their model, political conservatives make their moral choices using five moral variables (harm/care, fairness/reciprocity, in group loyalty, authority/respect, purity/sanctity), whereas liberals use only two (harm/care and fairness/reciprocity). Haidt also hypothesizes that the origin of this division in the United States can be traced to geohistorical factors, with conservatism strongest in closely knit, ethnically homogenous communities, in contrast to port-cities, where the cultural mix is greater, thus requiring more liberalism. “ ... if we adopt the principle of universality : if an action is right (or wrong) for others, it is right (or wrong) for us. Those who do not rise to the minimal moral level of applying to themselves the standards they apply to others -- more stringent ones, in fact -plainly cannot be taken seriously when they speak of appropriateness of response; or of right and wrong, good and evil. ” “ In fact, one of the, maybe the most, elementary of moral principles is that of universality, that is, If something's right for me, it's right for you; if it's wrong for you, it's wrong for me. Any moral code that is even worth looking at has that at its core somehow. But that principle is overwhelmingly disregarded all the time. If you want to run through examples we can easily do it. Take, say, George W. Bush, since he happens to be president. If you apply the standards that we applied to Nazi war criminals at Nuremberg, he'd be hanged. Is it an even conceivable possibility? It's not even discussable. Because we don't apply to ourselves the principles we apply to others. There's a lot of talk about 'terror' and how awful it is. Whose terror? Our terror against them? I mean, is that considered reprehensible? No, it's considered highly moral; it's considered self-defense. Now, their terror against us, that's awful, and terrible. But, to try to rise to the level of becoming a minimal moral agent, and just entering into the domain of moral discourse is very difficult. Because that means accepting the principle of universality. And you can experiment for yourself and see how often that's accepted, either in personal or political life. Very rarely. “Morality can also be seen as the collection of beliefs as to what constitutes a good life. Since throughout most of human history, religions have provided both visions and regulations for an ideal life, morality is often confused with religious precepts. In secular communities, lifestyle choices, which represent an individual's conception of the good
life, are often discussed in terms of "morality." Individuals sometimes feel that making an appropriate lifestyle choice invokes a true morality, and that accepted codes of conduct within their chosen community are fundamentally moral, even when such codes deviate from more general social principles. Moral codes are often complex definitions of right and wrong that are based upon well-defined value systems. Although some people might think that a moral code is simple, rarely is there anything simple about one's values, ethics, etc. or, for that matter, the judgment of those of others. The difficulty lies in the fact that morals are often part of a religion and more often than not about culture codes. Sometimes, moral codes give way to legal codes, which couple penalties or corrective actions with particular practices. Note that while many legal codes are merely built on a foundation of religious and/or cultural moral codes, often at times they are one and the same. Religious belief systems usually include the idea of divine will and divine judgment and usually correspond to a moral code of conduct, and many religions claim that religion and morality are intimately connected. For example, the Roman Catholic Church maintains that although morality can be derived from unaided reason as it is simply the "right ordering" of man's actions, ultimately it derives from God because God created man and nature and that the ultimate sanction for immorality is the loss of a relationship with God. The Bible claims its morality is based on spiritual joy. Jesus says he commands people to love because that is what brings joy. The Apostles Paul and John likewise state their purpose is to help people's joy. The Bible also claims God is good because his divine commands are reasonable; they are meant to fill us with joy. Furthermore it claims God works within us making us want to do what is moral. The Bible's New Testament covenant for eternal life demands following the moral code written into our minds, which is also known as the voice of Jesus, and the human conscience. Because this moral code is based on receiving spiritual joy when doing acts of mercy, the Biblical morality often coincides with the saying, "When I do good I feel good, when I do bad I feel bad." Also note that in the first two chapters of the book of Romans moral law is the general revelation of God to mankind. • The Golden Rule or ethic of reciprocity The ethic of reciprocity is a fundamental moral value which "refers to the balance in an interactive system such that each party has both rights and duties, and the subordinate norm of complementarity states that one's rights are the other's obligation." In essence, it is an ethical code that states one has a right to just treatment, and a responsibility to ensure justice for others. Reciprocity is arguably the most essential basis for the modern concept of human rights, though it has its critics. Many assign the imperative commandment of Golden Rule as instruction for a positive only form of reciprocity. A key element of the golden rule is that a person attempting to live by this rule treats all people, not just members of his or her in-group with consideration. The golden rule, with roots in a wide range of world cultures, is well suited
to be a standard to which different cultures could appeal in resolving conflicts. Principal philosophers and religious figures have stated it in different ways. The Golden Rule was a common principle in ancient Greek philosophy. A few examples: "Do not to your neighbor what you would take ill from him." (Pittacus) "Avoid doing what you would blame others for doing." (Thales) "What you wish your neighbors to be to you, such be also to them." (Sextus the Pythagorean) "Do not do to others what would anger you if done to you by others." (Isocrates) "What thou avoidest suffering thyself seek not to impose on others." (Epictetus) Hinduism The Golden rule appears in the Mahabharata, where Brihaspati says: "One should never do that to another which one regards as injurious to one’s own self. This, in brief, is the rule of dharma. Other behavior is due to selfish desires." In addition to the law of karma, the Bhagavad Gita contains a dialogue between Krishna and Arjuna with the statement: That one I love who is incapable of ill will, And returns love for hatred. As portrayed by Swami Vivekananda- Do good and forget, don't expect any reward Islam In his Last Sermon, the Prophet Muhammad cautioned believers: "Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you." Jeffrey Wattles holds that the ethic of reciprocity appears in the following statements attributed to Muhammad: “Woe to those . . . who, when they have to receive by measure from men, exact full measure, but when they have to give by measure or weight to men, give less than due” The Qur'an commends "those who show their affection to such as came to them for refuge and entertain no desire in their hearts for things given to the (latter), but give them preference over themselves" “None of you [truly] believes until he wishes for his brother what he wishes for himself.” "Seek for mankind that of which you are desirous for yourself, that you may be a believer; treat well as a neighbor the one who lives near you, that you may be a Muslim [one who submits to God]."
“That which you want for yourself, seek for mankind.” "The most righteous of men is the one who is glad that men should have what is pleasing to himself, and who dislikes for them what is for him disagreeable."
• Conduct Patience Patience is the state of endurance under difficult circumstances, which can mean persevering in the face of delay or provocation without becoming annoyed or upset; or exhibiting forbearance when under strain, especially when faced with longer-term difficulties. It is also used to refer to the character trait of being steadfast. Patience is often described as a core virtue in religion or spiritual practices. For example, Job is a figure that appears in the Hebrew Bible, Christian Bible and the Qur'an; his story is considered a profound religious work. At its core, the theme is the co-existence of evil and God and the application of patience is highlighted as the antidote to the earthly struggles caused by that co-existence. The plot of the book is that Job endures nearapocalyptic calamities without losing his patience or reproaching Divine Providence. In the Qur'an, the person of Job is actually known as Ayyūb which is a name that is symbolic of the virtue of patience (although it does not mean patience in itself). Judaism Patience and fortitude are prominent themes in Judaism. The Talmud extols patience as an important personal trait. The story of Micah, for example, is that he suffers many challenging conditions and yet endures, saying "I will wait for the God who saves me." Patience in God, it is said, will aid believers in finding the strength to be delivered from the evils that are inherent in the physical life. In the Hebrew Bible, patience is referred to in several proverbs, such as "The patient man shows much good sense, but the quick-tempered man displays folly at its height" "An illtempered man stirs up strife, but a patient man allays discord." and "A patient man is better than a warrior, and he who rules his temper, than he who takes a city.". The emotion is also discussed in other sections, such as Ecclesiastes: "Better is the patient spirit than the lofty spirit. Do not in spirit become quickly discontented, for discontent lodges in the bosom of a fool. Christianity In the Christian religion, patience is one of the most valuable virtues of life. Increasing patience is viewed as the work of the Holy Spirit in the Christian who has accepted the gift of salvation. While patience is not one of the traditional biblical three theological virtues nor one of the traditional four cardinal virtues, it is one of the seven virtues, alongside chastity, temperance, charity, diligence, kindness, and humility. In the Christian Bible, patience is referred to in several sections. The Proverbs note that "through patience a ruler can be persuaded, and a gentle tongue can break a bone"; Ecclesiastes points out that the "end of a matter is better than its beginning, and patience
is better than pride" and Thessalonians states that we should "be patient with all. See that no one returns evil for evil; rather, always seek what is good for each other and for all". In James, the Bible urges Christians to be patient, and “see how the farmer waits for the precious fruit of the earth, until it receives the early and the late rains.". In Galatians, patience is listed as one of the "fruit of the Spirit": "love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness and self-control. Against such things there is no law". In Timothy, the Bible states that "Jesus might display his unlimited patience as an example for those who would believe on him and receive eternal life" Islam Patience in Islam is one of the best and most valuable virtues of life. Through patience, a Muslim believes that an individual can grow closer to Allah and thus attain true peace. It is also stressed in Islam, that Allah is with those who are patient, more specifically during suffering. Some of the Quran verses about patience urge Muslims to "seek God (Allah)'s help with patient perseverance and prayer” and "give glad tidings to those who patiently persevere". The Quran states that Muslims should "Persevere in patience and constancy" and "be steadfast in patience". It notes that "No one will be granted such goodness except those who exercise patience and self-restraint, none but persons of the greatest good fortune.". As well, the Quran states that "It is not righteousness that you turn your faces towards East or West. But it is righteousness to believe in Allah and the Last Day, And the Angels, and the Book, and the Messengers; To spend of your substance, out of love for Him, For your kin, for orphans, for the needy, for the wayfarer, for those who ask, and for the ransom of slaves; To be steadfast in prayer And give in charity; To fulfill the contracts which you have made; And to be firm and patient, in pain and adversity And throughout all periods of panic. Such are the people of truth, the God-fearing." The Muslim faith believes that without a good spirit while enduring, the struggle will not bear its full reward, thus, Patiently persevering, striving and going forward, despite the difficulty, is the pinnacle of behavior during challenging times. Through every difficulty, Allah promises there will be found relief upon its conclusion. Instead of wanting to skip challenging times, and avoid them, Allah is teaching that the way to the easing, is through, the difficulty. It takes Patient Perseverance, or enduring with a good spirit still intact, in order to reap both the internal and external rewards of struggle. Eastern religions (Kshanti) or shanti In Buddhism, patience is one of the "perfections" that a bodhisattva trains in and practices to realize perfect enlightenment. Patience is recognized within Hinduism in the Bhagavad Gita. In both Hinduism and Buddhism there is a particular emphasis on meditation, aspects of which lead to a natural state of mindfulness that is conducive to patient, effective and well-organized thought.
Tolerance Toleration and tolerance are terms used in social, cultural and religious contexts to describe attitudes and practices that prohibit discrimination against those practices or group memberships that may be disapproved of by those in the majority. Conversely, 'intolerance' may be used to refer to the discriminatory practices sought to be prohibited. Though developed to refer to the religious toleration of minority religious sects following the Protestant Reformation, these terms are increasingly used to refer to a wider range of tolerated practices and groups, or of political parties or ideas widely considered objectionable. The principle of toleration is controversial. Liberal critics may see in it an inappropriate implication that the "tolerated" custom or behavior is an aberration or that authorities have a right to punish difference; such critics may instead emphasize notions such as civility or pluralism. Other critics may regard a narrow definition of 'tolerance' as more useful, since it does not require a false expression of enthusiasm for groups or practices which are genuinely disapproved of. As a practical matter, governments have always had to consider the question of which groups and practices to tolerate and which to persecute. The earliest known example of ethnic and religious tolerance is found in the Cyrus cylinder, which was declared by Cyrus the Great after he founded the Persian Empire. Similarly, the Edicts of Ashoka issued by Ashoka the Great in the Maurya Empire also declared ethnic and religious tolerance. The later expanding Roman Empire faced the question of whether or to what extent practices or beliefs could be tolerated or vigorously persecuted. Likewise, during the middle Ages, the rulers of Christian Europe or the Muslim Middle East sometimes extended toleration to minority religious groups, and sometimes did not. Jews in particular suffered under anti-Semitic persecutions in medieval Europe. A notable exception was Poland, which served as a haven for European Jewry because of its relative tolerance - by the mid-sixteenth century, 80 percent of the world’s Jews lived in Poland. An early champion of toleration in Europe was Pawel Wlodkowic, who at the Council of Constance advocated the pagan nations' rights. However, the development of a body of theory on the subject of toleration didn't begin until the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, in response to the Protestant Reformation and the Wars of Religion and persecutions that followed the breaks with the Catholic Church instigated by Martin Luther and Huldrych Zwingli and others. In response to the theory of persecution that was used to justify wars of religion and the execution of persons convicted of heresy and witchcraft, writers such as Sebastian Castellio and Michel de Montaigne questioned the morality of religious persecution, and offered arguments for toleration. By contrast, Poland, which had been uniquely tolerant and ethnically as well as religiously diverse, officially confirmed its status as "a place of shelter for heretics" in the Confederation of Warsaw of 1573, the first toleration act in Europe.
A detailed and influential body of writing on the question of toleration was produced in Britain in the seventeenth century, during and after the destructive English Civil Wars. John Milton and radical Parliamentarians such as Gerrard Winstanley argued that Christian and Jewish worship should be protected, and it was during the period that Oliver Cromwell allowed the return of Jews to England. These early theories of toleration were limited however, and did not extend toleration to Roman Catholics (who were perceived as disloyal to their country) or atheists (who were held to lack any moral basis for action). John Locke, in his Letter Concerning Toleration and Two Treatises of Government proposed a more detailed and systematic theory of toleration, which included a principle of Separation of Church and State that formed the basis for future constitutional democracies. The British Toleration Act of 1689 was the political result of seventeenth century theorists and political exigency, which despite the limited scope of the toleration it granted was nevertheless a key development in the history of toleration, which helped produce greater political stability in the British Isles. The philosophers and writers of the Enlightenment, especially Voltaire and Lessing, promoted and further developed the notion of religious tolerance, which however was not sufficient to prevent the atrocities of the Reign of Terror. The incorporation by Thomas Jefferson and others of Locke's theories of toleration into the Constitution of the United States of America was arguably more successful. The terms "toleration" and "tolerance" are increasingly used to refer to a wider range of tolerated practices and groups, such as the toleration of sexual practices and orientations, or of political parties or ideas widely considered objectionable. For example, a distinction is sometimes drawn between mere "Toleration" and a higher notion of "Religious Liberty": Some philosophers [. . .] regard toleration and religious freedom as quite distinct things and emphasize the differences between the two. They understand toleration to signify no more than forbearance and the permission given by the adherents of a dominant religion for other religions to exist, even though the latter are looked upon with disapproval as inferior, mistaken, or harmful. In contrast these thinkers recognize religious liberty as the recognition of equal freedom for all religions and denominations without any kind of discrimination among them [. . .] in the case of religious liberty, no one is rightfully possessed of the power not to tolerate or to cancel this liberty Bernard Lewis and Mark Cohen have argued that the modern understanding of tolerance, involving concepts of national identity and equal citizenship for persons of different religions, was not considered a value by pre-modern Muslims or Christians, due to the implications of monotheism. The historian G.R. Elton explains that in pre-modern times, monotheists viewed such toleration as a sign of weakness or even wickedness towards God. The usual definition of tolerance in pre-modern times as Bernard Lewis puts it was that: “
I am in charge. I will allow you some though not all of the rights and privileges that I enjoy, provided that you behave yourself according to rules that I will lay down and enforce. “ In particular, should a tolerant society tolerate intolerance? What if by tolerating action "A", society destroys itself? Tolerance of "A" could be used to introduce a new thought system leading to intolerance of vital institution "B". It is difficult to strike a balance and different societies do not always agree on the details, indeed different groups within a single society also often fail to agree. The current suppression of Nazism in Germany is considered intolerant by some countries, for instance, while in Germany itself it is Nazism which is considered intolerably intolerant. Philosopher John Rawls devotes a section of his influential and controversial book A Theory of Justice to the problem of whether a just society should or should not tolerate the intolerant, and to the related problem of whether or not, in any society, the intolerant have any right to complain when they are not tolerated. Rawls concludes that a just society must be tolerant; therefore, the intolerant must be tolerated, for otherwise, the society would then be intolerant, and so unjust. However, Rawls qualifies this by insisting that society and its social institutions have a reasonable right of self-preservation that supersedes the principle of tolerance. Hence, the intolerant must be tolerated but only in so far as they do not endanger the tolerant society and its institutions.
Perseverance (friendship), A relation that never tires out till the end of world. Perseverance is the affinity towards creating friendship out of thin air Dependability Dependability is a value showing the reliability of a person to others because of his/her integrity, truthfulness, and trustfulness, traits that can encourage someone to depend on him/her. Value Ethic value denotes something's degree of importance, with the aim of determining what action or life is best to do or live, or at least attempt to describe the value of different actions. It may be described as treating actions themselves as abstract objects, putting value to them. It deals with right conduct and good life, in the sense that a highly, or at least relatively highly, valuable action or may be regarded as ethic good (adjective sense), and an action of low, or at least relatively low, value may be regarded as bad. What makes an action valuable may in turn depend on the ethic values of the objects it increases, decreases or alters. An object with ethic value may be termed an ethic or philosophic good (noun sense). Virtue Virtue is moral excellence. Personal virtues are characteristics valued as promoting individual and collective well-being, and thus good by definition. The opposite of virtue is vice. Etymologically the word virtue first signified manliness or courage. In its widest sense, virtue refers to excellence, just as vice, its contrary, denotes its absence. The term as used by moral philosophers and theologians signifies an operative habit essentially good, in contrast to an operative habit essentially evil. What are traditionally known as the four cardinal virtues, enumerated by the classical Greek philosophers have been translated into English as Justice, Courage, Wisdom, and Moderation. The three virtues of Faith, Hope and Charity are central aspects of the Judaic, Christian and Muslim traditions. Virtue may also be identified from another perspective: it can have either normative or moral value; i.e. the virtue of a judge is to justly convict criminals; the virtue of an excellent judge is to specialize in justly convicting criminals, this being its normative value, whereas the virtues of reason, prudence, chastity, etc. have moral value. In classical Greek, virtue is more properly called, or "habitual excellence", something practiced at all times. The virtue of perseverance is itself a necessary adjunct to each and every individual virtue, since, overall, virtue is a species of habit which, in order to
maintain oneself in virtue, needs to be continuously sustained. Nietzsche, however, expressed the view that "when virtue has slept, it will arise all the more vigorous." Virtues and values Virtues can be placed into a broader context of values. Each individual has a core of underlying values that contribute to our system of beliefs, ideas and/or opinions (see value in semiotics). Integrity in the application of a value ensures its continuity and this continuity separates a value from beliefs, opinion and ideas. In this context a value (e.g., Truth or Equality or Greed) is the core from which we operate or react. Societies have values that are shared among many of the participants in that culture. An individual's values typically are largely, but not entirely, in agreement with their culture's values. Individual virtues can be grouped into one of four categories of values: Ethics (virtue - vice, good - bad, moral - immoral - amoral, right - wrong, permissible impermissible) Aesthetics (beautiful, ugly, unbalanced, pleasing) Doctrinal (political, ideological, religious or social beliefs and values) Innate/Inborn (inborn values such as reproduction and survival, a controversial category) A value system is the ordered and prioritized set of values (usually of the ethical and doctrinal categories described above) that an individual or society holds. Some virtues (a virtue is a character trait or character quality valued as being good) recognized in various Western cultures of the world include: ability acceptance altruism, appreciation assertiveness attention, focus autonomy awareness balance beauty benevolence candor caring caution charity chastity cleanliness commitment compassion confidence
consciousness consideration contentment cooperativeness courage courteousness creativity curiosity dependability detachment determination diligence discernment discipline empathy encouragement endurance enthusiasm egalitarianism equanimity equity excellence fairness faith faithfulness, fidelity fitness flexibility foresight forgiveness fortitude, strength friendliness generosity gentleness happiness health, health-minded helpfulness honesty honor hopefulness hospitality humility humor idealism imagination impartiality independence
innocence integrity intuition inventiveness joyfulness justice kindness lovingness loyalty mercy moderation modesty morality nonviolence nurturing obedience openness optimism patience peacefulness perseverance philanthropy philomathy piety potential prudence purity purposefulness resilience rememberance respectfulness reverence responsibility (moral & social) restraint self-awareness self-confidence self-discipline self-reliance self-respect sensitivity service sharing sincerity spirituality sympathy tactfulness
temperance tenacity thankfulness thoughtfulness tolerance trustworthiness truthfulness understanding unity unselfishness wisdom Prudence and virtue Seneca, the Roman Stoic, said that perfect prudence is indistinguishable from perfect virtue. Thus, in considering all consequences, a prudent person would act in the same way as a virtuous person. The same rationale was followed by Plato in Meno, when he wrote that people only act for what they perceive will maximize the good. It is the lack of wisdom which results in the making of a bad choice, rather than a good one. In this way, wisdom is the central part of virtue. However, he realized that if virtue was synonymous with wisdom, then it could be taught, a possibility he had earlier discounted. He then added "correct belief" as an alternative to knowledge, proposing that knowledge is merely correct belief that has been thought through and "tethered". Roman virtues Auctoritas — "Spiritual Authority" — The sense of one's social standing, built up through experience, Pietas, and Industria. Comitas — "Humour" — Ease of manner, courtesy, openness, and friendliness. Constantinum — "Perseverance" — Military stamina, mental and physical endurance. Clementia — "Mercy" — Mildness and gentleness. Dignitas — "Dignity" — A sense of self-worth, personal pride. Disciplina — "Discipline" — Military oath under Roman protective law & citizenship. Firmitas — "Tenacity" — Strength of mind, the ability to stick to one's purpose. Frugalitas — "Frugalness" — Economy and simplicity of style, without being miserly. Gravitas — "Gravity" — A sense of the importance of the matter at hand, responsibility and earnestness. Honestas — "Respectability" — The image that one presents as a respectable member of society. Humanitas — "Humanity" — Refinement, civilization, learning, and being cultured. Industria — "Industriousness" — Hard work. Iustitia — "Justice" — Sense of moral worth to an action.
Pietas — "Dutifulness" — More than religious piety; a respect for the natural order socially, politically, and religiously. Includes the ideas of patriotism and devotion to others. Prudentia — "Prudence" — Foresight, wisdom, and personal discretion. Salubritas — "Wholesomeness" — Health and cleanliness. Severitas — "Sternness" — Gravity, self-control. Veritas — "Truthfulness" — Honesty in dealing with others. Hindu virtues Hinduism, or Sanatana Dharma (Dharma means moral duty), has pivotal virtues that everyone keeping their Dharma is asked to follow. For they are distinct qualities of manusya (mankind), that allow one to be in the mode of goodness. There are three modes of material nature (guna), as described in the Vedas and other Indian Scriptures: Sattva (goodness, creation, stillness, intelligence), Rajas (passion, maintenance, energy, activity) , and Tamas (ignorance, restraint, inertia, destruction). Every person harbours a mixture of these modes in varying degrees. A person in the mode of Sattva has that mode in prominence in his nature, which he obtains by following the virtues of the Dharma . The modes of Sattva are as following. Altruism: Selfless Service to all humanity Restraint and Moderation: This is having restraint and moderation in all things. Sexual relations, eating, and other pleasurable activities should be kept in moderation. Some orthodox followers also believe in sex only in marriage, and being chaste. It depends on the sect and belief system, some people believe this means celibacy... While others believe in walking the golden path of moderation, i.e. Not to far to the side of forceful control and total abandon of human pleasures, but also not too far to the side of total indulgence and total abandon for moderation. Honesty: One is require to be honest with themselves, honest to their family, friends, and all of humanity. Cleanliness: Outer cleaniness is to be cultivated for good health and hygiene, inner cleaniness is cultivated through devotion to god, selflessness, non-violence and all the other virtues; which is maintained by refraining from intoxicants. Protection and reverence for the Earth. Universality: Showing tolerance and respect for everyone, everything and the way of the Universe. Peace: One must cultivate a peaceful manner in order to benefit themselves and those around them.
Non-Violence/Ahimsa: This means not killing, or being violent in any way to any life form or sentient being. This is why those who practice this Dharma are vegetarians because they see the slaughter of animals for the purpose of food as violent, when there are less violent ways to maintain a healthy diet. Reverence for elders and teachers: This is virtue is very important to learn respect and reverence for those who have wisdom and those who selflessly teach in love. The Guru or spiritual teacher is one of the highest principals in many Vedic based spiritualities, and is likened to that of God. Virtues according to Benjamin Franklin These are the virtues that Benjamin Franklin used to develop what he called 'moral perfection'. He had a checklist in a notebook to measure each day how he lived up to his virtues. They became known through Benjamin Franklin's autobiography and inspired many people all around the world. Authors and speakers in the self-help movement report being influenced by him, for example Anthony Robbins who based a part of his 'Date with Destiny' seminar on Franklin's concept. 1. Temperance. Eat not to Dullness Drink not to Elevation. 2. Silence. Speak not but what may benefit others or yourself. Avoid trifling Conversation. 3. Order. Let all your Things have their Places. Let each Part of your Business have its Time. 4. Resolution. Resolve to perform what you ought. Perform without fail what you resolve. 5. Frugality. Make no Expense but to do good to others or yourself: i.e. Waste nothing. 6. Industry. Lose no Time. Be always employ'd in something useful. Cut off all unnecessary Actions. 7. Sincerity. Use no hurtful Deceit. Think innocently and justly; and, if you speak, speak accordingly. 8. Justice. Wrong none, by doing Injuries or omitting the Benefits that are your Duty. 9. Moderation. Avoid Extremes. Forbear resenting Injuries so much as you think they deserve. 10. Cleanliness. Tolerate no Uncleanness in Body, Clothes or Habitation.
11. Tranquillity. Be not disturbed at Trifles, or at Accidents common or unavoidable. 12. Chastity. Rarely use Venery but for Health or Offspring; Never to Dullness, Weakness, or the Injury of your own or another's Peace or Reputation. 13. Humility. Imitate Jesus and Socrates. Vices (anti-virtue) the qualities you must NOT have These vices are pride, envy, avarice, anger, lust, gluttony, and sloth. The opposite of these vices are the following virtues: meekness, humility, generosity, tolerance, chastity, moderation, and zeal (meaning enthusiastic devotion to a good cause or an ideal). These virtues are not exactly equivalent to the Seven Cardinal or Theological Virtues mentioned above. Instead these capital vices and virtues can be considered the "building blocks" that rule human behaviour. Both are acquired and reinforced by practice and the exercise of one induces or facilitates the others. Ranked in order of severity as per Dante's Divine Comedy (in the Purgatorio), the seven deadly vices are: Pride or Vanity — an excessive love of self (holding self out of proper position toward God or fellows; Dante's definition was "love of self perverted to hatred and contempt for one's neighbor"). In the Latin lists of the Seven Deadly Sins, pride is referred to as superbia. Avarice (covetousness, Greed) — a desire to possess more than one has need or use for (or, according to Dante, "excessive love of money and power"). In the Latin lists of the Seven Deadly Sins, avarice is referred to as avaritia. Lust — excessive sexual desire. Dante's criterion was "lust detracts from true love". In the Latin lists of the Seven Deadly Sins, lust is referred to as luxuria. Wrath or Anger — feelings of hatred, revenge or even denial, as well as punitive desires outside of justice (Dante's description was "love of justice perverted to revenge and spite"). In the Latin lists of the Seven Deadly Sins, wrath is referred to as ira. Gluttony — overindulgence in food, drink or intoxicants, or misplaced desire of food as a pleasure for its sensuality ("excessive love of pleasure" was Dante's rendering). In the Latin lists of the Seven Deadly Sins, gluttony is referred to as gula. Envy or jealousy; resentment of others for their possessions (Dante: "Love of one's own good perverted to a desire to deprive other men of theirs"). In the Latin lists of the Seven Deadly Sins, envy is referred to as invidia.
Sloth or Laziness; idleness and wastefulness of time allotted. Laziness is condemned because others have to work harder and useful work can not get done. Several of these vices interlink, and various attempts at causal hierarchy have been made. For example, pride (love of self out of proportion) is implied in gluttony (the overconsumption or waste of food), as well as sloth, envy, and most of the others. Each sin is a particular way of failing to love God with all one's resources and to love fellows as much as self. The Scholastic theologians developed schema of attribute and substance of will to explain these sins. The 4th century Egyptian monk Evagrius Ponticus defined the sins as deadly "passions," and in Eastern Orthodoxy, still these impulses are characterized as being "Deadly Passions" rather than sins. Instead, the sins are considered to invite or entertain these passions. In the official Catechism of the Catholic Church published in 1992 by Pope John Paul II, these seven vices are considered moral transgression for Christians and the virtues should complement the Ten Commandments and the Beatitudes as the basis for any true Morality.
Ethics Ethics is a major branch of philosophy, encompassing right conduct and good life. It is significantly broader than the common conception of analyzing right and wrong. A central aspect of ethics is "the good life", the life worth living or life that is simply satisfying, which is held by many philosophers to be more important than moral conduct. Socrates Socrates was one of the first Greek philosophers to encourage both scholars and the common citizen to turn their attention from the outside world to the condition of man. In this view, Knowledge having a bearing on human life was placed highest, all other knowledge being secondary. Self-knowledge was considered necessary for success and inherently an essential good. A self-aware person will act completely within their capabilities to their pinnacle, while an ignorant person will flounder and encounter difficulty. To Socrates, a person must become aware of every fact (and its context) relevant to his existence, if he wishes to attain self-knowledge. He posited that people will naturally do what is good, if they know what is right. Evil or bad actions are the result of ignorance. If a criminal were truly aware of the mental and spiritual consequences of his actions, he would neither commit nor even consider committing them. Any person who knows what is truly right will automatically do it, according to Socrates. While he correlated knowledge with virtue, he similarly equated virtue with happiness. The truly wise man will know what is right, do what is good and therefore be happy. Aristotle Aristotle posited an ethical system that may be termed "self-realizationism". In Aristotle's view, when a person acts in accordance with his nature and realizes his full potential, he will do good and be content. At birth, a baby is not a person, but a potential person. In order to become a "real" person, the child's inherent potential must be realized. Unhappiness and frustration are caused by the unrealized potential of a person, leading to failed goals and a poor life. Aristotle said, "Nature does nothing in vain." Therefore, it is imperative for persons to act in accordance with their nature and develop their latent talents, in order to be content and complete. Happiness was held to be the ultimate goal. All other things, such as civic life or wealth, are merely means to the end. Selfrealization, the awareness of one's nature and the development of one's talents, is the surest path to happiness. Aristotle asserted that man had three natures: vegetable (physical), animal (emotional) and rational (mental). Physical nature can be assuaged through exercise and care, emotional nature through indulgence of instinct and urges, and mental through human reason and developed potential. Rational development was considered the most important, as essential to philosophical self-awareness and as uniquely human. Moderation was encouraged, with the extremes seen as degraded and immoral. For example, courage is the moderate virtue between the extremes of cowardice and
recklessness. Man should not simply live, but live well with conduct governed by moderate virtue. This is regarded as difficult, as virtue denotes doing the right thing, to the right person, at the right time, to the proper extent, in the correct fashion, for the right reason. Stoicism The Stoic philosopher Epictetus posited that the greatest good was contentment and serenity. Peace of mind, or Apatheia, was of the highest value; self-mastery over one's desires and emotions leads to spiritual peace. The "unconquerable will" is central to this philosophy. The individual will should be independent and inviolate. Allowing a person to disturb the mental equilibrium is in essence offering yourself in slavery. If a person is free to anger you at will, you have no control over your internal world, and therefore no freedom. Freedom from material attachments is also necessary. If a thing breaks, the person should not be upset, but realize it was a thing that could break. Similarly, if someone should die, those close to them should hold to their serenity because the loved one was made of flesh and blood destined to death. Stoic philosophy says to accept things that cannot be changed, resigning oneself to existence and enduring in a rational fashion. Death is not feared. People do not "lose" their life, but instead "return", for they are returning to God (who initially gave what the person is as a person). Epictetus said difficult problems in life should not be avoided, but rather embraced. They are spiritual exercises needed for the health of the spirit, just as physical exercise is required for the health of the body. He also stated that sex and sexual desire are to be avoided as the greatest threat to the integrity and equilibrium of a man's mind. Abstinence is highly desirable. Epictetus said remaining abstinent in the face of temptation was a victory for which a man could be proud.
Self control Self control refers to the ability to control human behavior through the exertion of will. Self-control is required in order to inhibit impulsivity, and has been a recurrent theme throughout history, culture, and philosophy, where it is considered a key to volition (psychology) and free will. In contemporary psychology it is sometimes referred to as self-regulation, and exerting self-control through the executive functions in decision making is thought to deplete a resource in the ego. Context People demonstrate great differences in the level of self-control. It can be affected because of illness and past experiences and it can be improved through the course of life. Many religions have teachings about self control. In the Christian context, Paul describes self control in the epistle to the Galatians, as one of the fruits of the Spirit. In the epistle addressed to Titus he instructs to 'Urge the younger men to be self controlled.' The Apostle Peter describes an increase in self control as fundamental to the salvation of a Christian "A man without self-control is as defenseless as a city with broken-down walls" The importance of using self control for patience In the 1960s, Walter Mischel tested four year old children for self control in "The Marshmallow Test": the children were each given a marshmallow and told that they can eat it anytime they want, but if they waited 15 minutes, they would receive another marshmallow. Follow up studies showed that the results correlated well with these children's success levels in later life. Pigeon self-control Pigeon self-control research is typically done in a delay-reduction paradigm innovated in the early 1970s. In this model of research two responses are made available simultaneously. Each response leads to a different outcome. One response typically leads to a smaller-reinforcement with a small or no delay from the selection of that response to the onset of the consequence. The other response is typically a larger-reinforcement which has some element of delay. In pigeons a common level of delay is as little as 6 seconds to qualify as "large". A typical small-reinforcer, small delay response might be a red key that produces 2 seconds of food access with no delay. A typical larger-reinforcer response might produce 6 seconds of food access, but only after 6 seconds of delay from that selection. To ensure that the delayed response represents an overall superior choice a delay of several seconds usually follows the smaller-reinforcement choice.
Modern view Most of the research in the field of self control assumes that self control is in general better than impulsiveness. Some developmental psychologists argue that this is normal, and people age from infants, who have no ability to think of the future, and hence no self control or delayed gratification, to adults. As a result almost all research done on this topic is from this standpoint and very rarely is impulsiveness the more adaptive response in experimental design. Self control as a limited resource Research by Roy Baumeister and others shows that the ability to self-control oneself relies on a power source that diminishes after exertion. Subjects that were given a task that involves self-control were later less able for selfcontrol even in entirely different areas. This result was replicated in over a hundred experiments. Self control was also shown to improve upon exercise. Exercise in these experiments varied. Taking care on posture, doing regular exercise, and other forms of self-control improved over time the self-control ability in seemingly unrelated areas. Self control and the quality of life Reviews concluded that self control is correlated with various positive life outcomes, such as happiness, adjustment and various positive psychological factors. Impulse control Self Control as defined here is also known as impulse control or self regulation. Some psychologists prefer the term impulse control because it may be more precise. The term Self regulation is used to refer to the many processes individuals use to manage drives and emotions. Therefore, self regulation also embodies the concept of will power. Self Regulation is an extremely important executive function of the brain. Deficits in self control/regulation are found in a large number of psychological disorders including ADHD, Antisocial Personality Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, addiction, eating disorders and impulse control disorders Skinner's Exhaustive Survey of Self-Control Techniques In B.F. Skinner's Science and Human Behavior he provides a survey of nine categories of self control methods. Physical Restraint and physical aid
The manipulation of the environment to make some response easier to physically execute and others physically more difficult illustrates this principle. Clapping one's hand over your own mouth, placing your hands in your pockets to prevent fidgeting, using a 'bridge' hand position to steady a pool shot all represent physical methods to affect behavior. Changing the stimulus Manipulating the occasion for behavior may change behavior as well. Removing distractions that induce undesired actions or adding a prompt to induce it are examples. Hiding temptation and reminders are two more. Depriving and satiating One may manipulate one's own behavior by affecting states of deprivation or satiation. By skipping a meal before a free dinner one may more effectively capitalize on the free meal. By eating a healthy snack beforehand the temptation to eat free "junk food" is reduced. Manipulating emotional conditions Going for a 'change of scene' may remove emotional stimuli, as may rehearsing injustice to motivate a strong response later. Using aversive stimulation Setting an alarm clock to awake ourselves later is a form of aversive control. By doing this we arrange something that will only be escapable by awakening ourselves.
Drugs The use of self-administered drugs allows us to simulate changes in our conditioning history. The ingestion of caffeine allows us to simulate a state of wakefulness which may be useful for various reasons.
Operant conditioning The use of a token economy, or other methods or techniques unique to operant conditioning may be seen as a special form of self-control.
Punishment Self-punishment of responses would include the arranging of punishment contingent upon undesired responses. This might be seen in the behavior of whipping oneself which
some monks and religious persons do. This is different from aversive stimulation in that, for example, the alarm clock generates escape from the alarm, while self-punishment presents stimulation after the fact to reduce the probability of future behavior.
"Doing something else" Skinner notes that Jesus exemplified this principle in loving his enemies. When we are filled with rage or hatred we might control ourselves by 'doing something else' or more specifically something that is incompatible with our response. When we give three miles of service to someone who compels us one, or submit tenderly a cheek after the other is slapped, we may find ourselves less enraged and so able to control our responses.
These are the emotions that a person feels Acceptance · Affection · Alertness · Ambivalence · Anger · Angst · Annoyance · Anticipation · Anxiety · Apathy · Awe · Boredom · Calmness · Compassion · Confusion · Contempt · Contentment · Curiosity · Depression · Desire · Disappointment · Disgust · Doubt · Ecstasy · Embarrassment · Empathy · Emptiness · Enthusiasm · Envy · Epiphany · Euphoria · Fanaticism · Fear · Frustration · Gratification · Gratitude · Grief · Guilt · Happiness · Hatred · Homesickness · Honesty · Hope · Hostility · Humiliation · Hysteria · Inspiration · Interest · Jealousy · Kindness · Limerence · Loneliness · Love · Lust · Melancholia · Nostalgia · Panic · Patience · Pity · Pride · Rage · Regret · Remorse · Repentance · Resentment · Righteous indignation · Sadness · Saudade · Schadenfreude · Sehnsucht · Self-pity · Shame · Shyness · Suffering · Surprise · Suspicion · Sympathy · Wonder · Worry These small emotions are the a totally different subject matter, which is beyond the scope of this book, I shall try to write something about the emotions in a different book.
Following are some short stories from various cultures, which promote hundreds of small character qualities, which are not big enough in themselves, but together they form the person. The short story is the designed use of language purposely intended to convey a hidden and secret meaning other than that contained in the words themselves; The true short storyteller , therefore, discharges the most important function. He is neither a narrator, nor an allegorist. He is a great teacher, a corrector of morals, a censor of vice, and a commander of virtue. I have tried to the best of my abilities to show the hidden character quality in each of them, but have failed most of the time, however you should read it, and I know even if you don’t know what is it that you want to teach the kids, kids will understand it automatically.
1- The Wolf and the Lamb WOLF, meeting with a Lamb astray from the fold, resolved not to lay violent hands on him, but to ﬁnd some plea to justify to the Lamb the Wolf’s right to eat him. He thus addressed him: “Sirrah, last year you grossly insulted me.” “Indeed,” bleated the Lamb in a mournful tone of voice, “I was not then born.” Then said the Wolf, “You feed in my pasture.” “No, good sir,” replied the Lamb, “I have not yet tasted grass.” Again said the Wolf, “You drink of my well.” “No,” exclaimed the Lamb, “I never yet drank water, for as yet my mother’s milk is both food and drink to me.” Upon which the Wolf seized him and ate him up, saying, “Well! I won’t remain supperless, even though you refute every one of my imputations.”
The tyrant will always ﬁnd a pretext for his tyranny.
2- The Bat and the Weasels A BAT who fell upon the ground and was caught by a Weasel pleaded to be spared his life. The Weasel refused, saying that he was by nature the enemy of all birds. The Bat assured him that he was not a bird, but a mouse, and thus was set free. Shortly afterwards the Bat again fell to the ground and was caught by another Weasel, whom he likewise entreated not to eat him. The Weasel said that he had a special hostility to mice. The Bat assured him that he was not a mouse, but a bat, and thus a second time escaped. It is wise to turn circumstances to good account.
3- The Ass and the Grasshopper AN ASS having heard some Grasshoppers chirping, was highly enchanted; and, desiring to possess the same charms of melody, demanded what sort of food they lived on to give them such beautiful voices. They replied, “The dew.” The Ass resolved that he would live only upon dew, and in a short time died of hunger.
4- The Lion and the Mouse A LION was awakened from sleep by a Mouse running over his face. Rising up angrily, he caught him and was about to kill him, when the Mouse piteously entreated, saying: “If you would only spare my life, I would be sure to repay your kindness.” The Lion laughed and let him go. It happened shortly after this that the Lion was caught by some hunters, who bound him by st ropes to the ground. The Mouse, recognizing his
roar, came gnawed the rope with his teeth, and set him free, exclaim “You ridiculed the idea of my ever being able to help you, ex-pecting to receive from me any repayment of your favor; I now you know that it is possible for even a Mouse to con beneﬁts on a Lion.”
5- The Charcoal-Burner and the Fuller A CHARCOAL-BURNER carried on his trade in his own house. One day he met a friend, a Fuller, and entreated him to come and live with him, saying that they should be far better neighbors and that their housekeeping expenses would be lessened. The Fuller replied, “The arrangement is impossible as far as I am con-cerned, for whatever I should whiten, you would immediately blacken again with your charcoal.” Like will draw like.
6- The Father and His Sons A FATHER had a family of sons who were perpetually quarreling among them-selves. When he failed to heal their disputes by his exhortations, he determined to give them a practical illustration of the evils of disunion; and for this purpose he one day told them to bring him a bundle of sticks. When they had done so, he placed the faggot into the hands of each of them in succession, and ordered them to break it in pieces. They tried with all their strength, and were not able to do it. He next opened the faggot, took the sticks separately, one by one, and again put them into his sons’ hands, upon which they broke them easily. He then addressed them in these words: “My sons, if you are of one mind, and unite to assist each other, you will be as this faggot, uninjured by all the attempts of your enemies; but if you are divided among yourselves, you will be broken as easily as these sticks.”
7- The Boy Hunting Locusts A BOY was hunting for locusts. He had caught a goodly number, when he saw a Scorpion, and mistaking him for a locust, reached out his hand to take him. The Scorpion, showing his sting, said: If you had but touched me, my friend, you would have lost me, and all your locusts too!”
8- The Cock and the Jewel A COCK, scratching for food for himself and his hens, found a precious stone and exclaimed: “If your owner had found thee, and not I, he would have taken thee up, and have set thee in thy ﬁrst estate; but I have found thee for no purpose. I would rather have one barleycorn than all the jewels in the world.”
9- The Kingdom of the Lion THE BEASTS of the ﬁeld and forest had a Lion as their king. He was neither wrathful, cruel, nor tyrannical, but just and gentle as a king could be. During his reign he made a royal proclamation for a general assembly of all the birds and beasts, and drew up conditions for a universal league, in which the Wolf and the Lamb, the Panther and the Kid, the Tiger and the Stag, the Dog and the Hare, should live together in perfect peace and amity. The Hare said, “Oh, how I have longed to see this day, in which the weak shall take their place with impunity by the side of the strong.” And after the Hare said this, he ran for his life.
10- The Wolf and the Crane A WOLF who had a bone stuck in his throat hired a Crane, for a large sum, to put her head into his mouth and draw out the bone. When the Crane had extracted the bone and demanded the promised payment, the Wolf, grinning and grinding his teeth, exclaimed: “Why, you have surely already had a sufficient recompense, in having been permitted to draw out your head in safety from the mouth and jaws of a wolf.” In serving the wicked, expect no reward, and be thankful if you escape injury for your pains.
11- The Fisherman Piping A FISHERMAN skilled in music took his ﬂute and his nets to the seashore. Standing on a projecting rock, he played several tunes in the hope that the ﬁsh, attracted by his melody, would of their own accord dance into his net, which he had placed below. At last, having long waited in vain, he laid aside his ﬂute, and casting his net into the sea, made an excellent haul of ﬁsh. When he saw them leaping about in the net upon the rock he said: “O you most perverse creatures, when I piped you would not dance, but now that I have ceased you do so merrily.”
( Everything that happens, happens for a reason, if it’s too good to be true, it definitely is.) 12- Hercules and the Wagoner A CARTER was driving a wagon along a country lane, when the wheels sank down deep into a rut. The rustic driver, stupeﬁed and aghast, stood looking at the wagon, and did nothing but utter loud cries to Hercules to come and help him. Hercules, it is said, appeared and thus addressed him: “Put your shoulders to the wheels, my man. Goad on your bullocks, and never more pray to me for help, un-til you have done your best to help yourself, or depend upon it you will henceforth pray in vain.” Self-help is the best help.
13- The Ants and the Grasshopper THE ANTS were spending a ﬁne winter’s day drying grain collected in the summertime. A Grasshopper, perishing with famine, passed by and earnestly begged for a little food. The Ants inquired of him, “Why did you not treasure up food during the summer?’ He replied, “I had not leisure enough. I passed the days in singing.” They then said in derision: “If you were foolish enough to sing all the summer, you must dance supperless to bed in the winter.”
14- The Traveler and His Dog A TRAVELER about to set out on a journey saw his Dog stand at the door stretching himself. He asked him sharply: “Why do you stand there gaping? Eve-rything is ready but you, so come with me instantly.” The Dog, wagging his tail, replied: “O, master! I am quite ready; it is you for whom I am waiting.” The loi-terer often blames delay on his more active friend.
15- The Dog and the Shadow A DOG, crossing a bridge over a stream with a piece of ﬂesh in his mouth, saw his own shadow in the water and took it for that of another Dog, with a piece of meat double his own in size. He immediately let go of his own, and ﬁercely at-tacked the other Dog to get his larger piece from him. He thus lost both: that which he grasped at in the water, because it was a shadow; and his own, because the stream swept it away.
16- The Mole and His Mother A MOLE, a creature blind from birth, once said to his Mother: “I am sure than I can see, Mother!” In the desire to prove to him his mistake, his Mother placed before him a few grains of frankincense, and asked, “What is it?’ The young Mole said, “It is a pebble.” His Mother exclaimed: “My son, I am afraid that you are not only blind, but that you have lost your sense of smell.
17- The Herdsman and the Lost Bull A HERDSMAN tending his ﬂock in a forest lost a Bull-calf from the fold. After a long and fruitless search, he made a vow that, if he could only discover the thief who had stolen the Calf, he would offer a lamb in sacriﬁce to Hermes, Pan, and the Guardian Deities of the forest. Not long afterwards, as he ascended a small hillock, he saw at its foot a Lion feeding on the Calf. Terriﬁed at the sight, he lifted his eyes and his hands to heaven, and said: “Just now I vowed to offer a lamb to the Guardian Deities of the forest
if I could only ﬁnd out who had robbed me; but now that I have discovered the thief, I would willingly add a full-grown Bull to the Calf I have lost, if I may only secure my own escape from him in safety.”
18- The Hare and the Tortoise A HARE one day ridiculed the short feet and slow pace of the Tortoise, who replied, laughing: “Though you be swift as the wind, I will beat you in a race.” The Hare, believing her assertion to be simply impossible, assented to the proposal; and they agreed that the Fox should choose the course and ﬁx the goal. On the day appointed for the race the two started together. The Tortoise never for a mo-ment stopped, but went on with a slow but steady pace straight to the end of the course. The Hare, lying down by the wayside, fell fast asleep. At last waking up, and moving as fast as he could, he saw the Tortoise had reached the goal, and was comfortably dozing after her fatigue. Slow but steady wins the race.
19- The Pomegranate, Apple-Tree, and Bramble THE POMEGRANATE and Apple-Tree disputed as to which was the most beautiful. When their strife was at its height, a Bramble from the neighboring hedge lifted up its voice, and said in a boastful tone: “Pray, my dear friends, in my presence at least cease from such vain disputings.”
20- The Farmer and the Stork A FARMER placed nets on his newly-sown plowlands and caught a number of Cranes, which came to pick up his seed. With them he trapped a Stork that had fractured his leg in the net and was earnestly beseeching the Farmer to spare his life. “Pray save me, Master,” he said, “and let me go free this once. My broken limb should excite your pity. Besides, I am no Crane, I am a Stork, a bird of excel-lent character; and see how I love and slave for my father and mother. Look too, at my feathers -- they are not the least like those of a Crane.” The Farmer laughed aloud and said, “It may be all as you say, I only know this: I have taken you with these robbers, the Cranes, and you must die in their company.” Birds of a feather ﬂock together.
21- The Farmer and the Snake ONE WINTER a Farmer found a Snake stiff and frozen with cold. He had compassion on it, and taking it up, placed it in his bosom. The Snake was quickly revived by the warmth, and resuming its natural instincts, bit its benefactor, in-ﬂicting on him a
mortal wound. “Oh,” cried the Farmer with his last breath, “I am rightly served for pitying a scoundrel.” The greatest kindness will not bind the ungrateful.
22- The Fawn and His Mother A YOUNG FAWN once said to his Mother, “You are larger than a dog, and swifter, and more used to running, and you have your horns as a defense; why, then, O Mother! do the hounds frighten you so?” She smiled, and said: “I know full well, my son, that all you say is true. I have the advantages you mention, but when I hear even the bark of a single dog I feel ready to faint, and ﬂy away as fast as I can.” No arguments will give courage to the coward.
23- The Bear and the Fox A BEAR boasted very much of his philanthropy, saying that of all animals he was the most tender in his regard for man, for he had such respect for him that he would not even touch his dead body. A Fox hearing these words said with a smile to the Bear, “Oh! that you would eat the dead and not the living.”
24- The Swallow and the Crow THE SWALLOW and the Crow had a contention about their plumage. The Crow put an end to the dispute by saying, “Your feathers are all very well in the spring, but mine protect me against the winter.” Fair weather friends are not worth much.
25- The Mountain in Labor A MOUNTAIN was once greatly agitated. Loud groans and noises were heard, and crowds of people came from all parts to see what was the matter. While they were assembled in anxious expectation of some terrible calamity, out came a Mouse. Don’t make much ado about nothing.
26- The Ass, the Fox, and the Lion THE ASS and the Fox, having entered into partnership together for their mutual protection, went out into the forest to hunt. They had not proceeded far when they met a Lion. The Fox, seeing imminent danger, approached the Lion and promised to contrive for him the capture of the Ass if the Lion would pledge his word not to harm the Fox. Then, upon assuring the Ass that he would not be injured, the Fox led him to a deep pit and arranged that he should fall into it. The Lion, seeing that the Ass was secured,
immediately clutched the Fox, and attacked the Ass at his leisure. 27- The Tortoise and the Eagle A TORTOISE, lazily basking in the sun, complained to the sea-birds of her hard fate, that no one would teach her to ﬂy. An Eagle, hovering near, heard her lamentation and demanded what reward she would give him if he would take her aloft and ﬂoat her in the air. “I will give you,” she said, “all the riches of the Red Sea.” “I will teach you to ﬂy then,” said the Eagle; and taking her up in his talons he carried her almost to the clouds suddenly he let her go, and she fell on a lofty mountain, dashing her shell to pieces. The Tortoise exclaimed in the mo-ment of death: “I have deserved my present fate; for what had I to do with wings and clouds, who can with difﬁculty move about on the earth?’ If men had all they wished, they would be often ruined.
28- The Flies and the Honey-Pot A NUMBER of Flies were attracted to a jar of honey which had been over-turned in a housekeeper’s room, and placing their feet in it, ate greedily. Their feet, however, became so smeared with the honey that they could not use their wings, nor release themselves, and were suffocated. Just as they were expiring, they exclaimed, “O foolish creatures that we are, for the sake of a little pleasure we have destroyed ourselves.” Pleasure bought with pains, hurts.
29- The Man and the Lion A MAN and a Lion traveled together through the forest. They soon began to boast of their respective superiority to each other in strength and prowess. As they were disputing, they passed a statue carved in stone, which represented “a Lion strangled by a Man.” The traveler pointed to it and said: “See there! How strong we are, and how we prevail over even the king of beasts.” The Lion replied: “This statue was made by one of you men. If we Lions knew how to erect statues, you would see the Man placed under the paw of the Lion.” One story is good, till another is told.
30- The Farmer and the Cranes SOME CRANES made their feeding grounds on some plowlands newly sown with wheat. For a long time the Farmer, brandishing an empty sling, chased them away by the terror he inspired; but when the birds found that the sling was only swung in the air, they ceased to take any notice of it and would not move. The Farmer, on seeing this, charged his sling with stones, and killed a great number. The remaining birds at once forsook his ﬁelds, crying to each other, “It is time for us to be off to Liliput: for this man is no longer
content to scare us, but begins to show us in earnest what he can do.” If words sufﬁce not, blows must follow. 31- The Dog in the Manger A DOG lay in a manger, and by his growling and snapping prevented the oxen from eating the hay which had been placed for them. “What a selﬁsh Dog!” said one of them to his companions; “he cannot eat the hay himself, and yet refuses to allow those to eat who can.” 32- The Fox and the Goat A FOX one day fell into a deep well and could ﬁnd no means of escape. A Goat, overcome with thirst, came to the same well, and seeing the Fox, inquired if the water was good. Concealing his sad plight under a merry guise, the Fox indulged in a lavish praise of the water, saying it was excellent beyond measure, and encouraging him to descend. The Goat, mindful only of his thirst, thought-lessly jumped down, but just as he drank, the Fox informed him of the difﬁculty they were both in and suggested a scheme for their common escape. “If,” said he, “you will place your forefeet upon the wall and bend your head, I will run up your back and escape, and will help you out afterwards.” The Goat readily assented and the Fox leaped upon his back. Steadying himself with the Goat’s horns, he safely reached the mouth of the well and made off as fast as he could. When the Goat upbraided him for breaking his promise, he turned around and cried out, “You foolish old fellow! If you had as many brains in your head as you have hairs in your beard, you would never have gone down before you had inspected the way up, nor have exposed yourself to dangers from which you had no means of escape.” Look before you leap.
33- The Bear and the Two Travelers TWO MEN were traveling together, when a Bear suddenly met them on their path. One of them climbed up quickly into a tree and concealed himself in the branches. The other, seeing that he must be attacked, fell ﬂat on the ground, and when the Bear came up and felt him with his snout, and smelt him all over, he held his breath, and feigned the appearance of death as much as he could. The Bear soon left him, for it is said he will not touch a dead body. When he was quite gone, the other Traveler descended from the tree, and jocularly inquired of his friend what it was the Bear had whispered in his ear. “He gave me this advice,” his companion replied. “Never travel with a friend who deserts you at the approach of danger.” Misfortune tests the sincerity of friends. 34- The Oxen and the Axle-Trees
A HEAVY WAGON was being dragged along a country lane by a team of Oxen. The Axle-trees groaned and creaked terribly; whereupon the Oxen, turning round, thus addressed the wheels: “Hullo there! why do you make so much noise? We bear all the labor, and we, not you, ought to cry out.” Those who suffer most cry out the least.
35- The Thirsty Pigeon A PIGEON, oppressed by excessive thirst, saw a goblet of water painted on a signboard. Not supposing it to be only a picture, she ﬂew towards it with a loud whir and unwittingly dashed against the signboard, jarring herself terribly. Hav-ing broken her wings by the blow, she fell to the ground, and was caught by one of the bystanders. Zeal should not outrun discretion.
36- The Raven and the Swan A RAVEN saw a Swan and desired to secure for himself the same beautiful plumage. Supposing that the Swan’s splendid white color arose from his wash-ing in the water in which he swam, the Raven left the altars in the neighborhood where he picked up his living, and took up residence in the lakes and pools. But cleansing his feathers as often as he would, he could not change their color, while through want of food he perished. Change of habit cannot alter Nature.
37- The Goat and the Goatherd A GOATHERD had sought to bring back a stray goat to his ﬂock. He whistled and sounded his horn in vain; the straggler paid no attention to the summons. At last the Goatherd threw a stone, and breaking its horn, begged the Goat not to tell his master. The Goat replied, “Why, you silly fellow, the horn will speak though I be silent.” Do not attempt to hide things which cannot be hid.
38- The Miser A MISER sold all that he had and bought a lump of gold, which he buried in a hole in the ground by the side of an old wall and went to look at daily. One of his workmen observed his frequent visits to the spot and decided to watch his move-ments. He soon discovered the secret of the hidden treasure, and digging down, came to the lump of gold, and stole it. The Miser, on his next visit, found the hole empty and began to tear his hair and to make loud lamentations. A neighbor, seeing him overcome with grief and learning the cause, said, “Pray do not grieve so; but go and take a stone, and place it in the hole, and fancy that the gold is still lying there. It will do you quite the same service; for when
the gold was there, you had it not, as you did not make the slightest use of it.”
39- The Sick Lion A LION, unable from old age and inﬁrmities to provide himself with food by force, resolved to do so by artiﬁce. He returned to his den, and lying down there, pretended to be sick, taking care that his sickness should be publicly known. The beasts expressed their sorrow, and came one by one to his den, where the Lion devoured them. After many of the beasts had thus disappeared, the Fox discov-ered the trick and presenting himself to the Lion, stood on the outside of the cave, at a respectful distance, and asked him how he was. “I am very middling,” replied the Lion, “but why do you stand without? Pray enter within to talk with me.” “No, thank you,” said the Fox. “I notice that there are many prints of feet entering your cave, but I see no trace of any returning.” He is wise who is warned by the misfor-tunes of others.
40- The Horse and Groom A GROOM used to spend whole days in currycombing and rubbing down his Horse, but at the same time stole his oats and sold them for his own proﬁt. “Alas!” said the Horse, “if you really wish me to be in good condition, you should groom me less, and feed me more.”
41- The Ass and the Lapdog A MAN had an Ass, and a Maltese Lapdog, a very great beauty. The Ass was left in a stable and had plenty of oats and hay to eat, just as any other Ass would. The Lapdog knew many tricks and was a great favorite with his master, who often fon-dled him and seldom went out to dine without bringing him home some tidbit to eat. The Ass, on the contrary, had much work to do in grinding the corn-mill and in carrying wood from the forest or burdens from the farm. He often lamented his own hard fate and contrasted it with the luxury and idleness of the Lapdog, till at last one day he broke his cords and halter, and galloped into his master’s house, kicking up his heels without measure, and frisking and fawning as well as he could. He next tried to jump about his master as he had seen the Lapdog do, but he broke the table and smashed all the dishes upon it to atoms. He then at-tempted to lick his master, and jumped upon his back. The servants, hearing the strange hubbub and perceiving the danger of their master, quickly relieved him, and drove out the Ass to his stable with kicks and clubs and cuffs. The Ass, as he returned to his stall beaten nearly to death, thus lamented: “I have brought it all on myself! Why could I not have been contented to labor with my companions, and not wish to be idle all the day like that useless little Lapdog!”
42- The Lioness A CONTROVERSY prevailed among the beasts of the ﬁeld as to which of the animals deserved the most credit for producing the greatest number of whelps at a birth. They rushed clamorously into the presence of the Lioness and demanded of her the settlement of the dispute. “And you,” they said, “how many sons have you at a birth?’ The Lioness laughed at them, and said: “Why! I have only one; but that one is altogether a thoroughbred Lion.” The value is in the worth, not in the number.
43- The Boasting Traveler A MAN who had traveled in foreign lands boasted very much, on returning to his own country, of the many wonderful and heroic feats he had performed in the different places he had visited. Among other things, he said that when he was at Rhodes he had leaped to such a distance that no man of his day could leap any-where near him as to that, there were in Rhodes many persons who saw him do it and whom he could call as witnesses. One of the bystanders interrupted him, saying: “Now, my good man, if this be all true there is no need of witnesses. Suppose this to be Rhodes, and leap for us.”
44- The Cat and the Cock A CAT caught a Cock, and pondered how he might ﬁnd a reasonable excuse for eating him. He accused him of being a nuisance to men by crowing in the night-time and not permitting them to sleep. The Cock defended himself by saying that he did this for the beneﬁt of men, that they might rise in time for their labors. The Cat replied, “Although you abound in specious apologies, I shall not remain sup-perless”; and he made a meal of him.
45- The Piglet, the Sheep, and the Goat A YOUNG PIG was shut up in a fold-yard with a Goat and a Sheep. On one oc-casion when the shepherd laid hold of him, he grunted and squeaked and resisted violently. The Sheep and the Goat complained of his distressing cries, saying, “He often handles us, and we do not cry out.” To this the Pig replied, “Your handling and mine are very different things. He catches you only for your wool, or your milk, but he lays hold on me for my very life.” 46- The Boy and the Filberts A BOY put his hand into a pitcher full of ﬁlberts. He grasped as many as he could possibly hold, but when he tried to pull out his hand, he was prevented from doing so by the neck of the pitcher. Unwilling to lose his ﬁlberts, and yet unable to withdraw his hand, he burst into tears and bitterly lamented his disappointment. A bystander said to
him, “Be satisﬁed with half the quantity, and you will readily draw out your hand.” Do not attempt too much at once.
47- The Lion in Love A LION demanded the daughter of a woodcutter in marriage. The Father, un-willing to grant, and yet afraid to refuse his request, hit upon this expedient to rid himself of his importunities. He expressed his willingness to accept the Lion as the suitor of his daughter on one condition: that he should allow him to extract his teeth, and cut off his claws, as his daughter was fearfully afraid of both. The Lion cheerfully assented to the proposal. But when the toothless, clawless Lion returned to repeat his request, the Woodman, no longer afraid, set upon him with his club, and drove him away into the forest.
48- The Laborer and the Snake A SNAKE, having made his hole close to the porch of a cottage, inﬂicted a mortal bite on the Cottager’s infant son. Grieving over his loss, the Father re-solved to kill the Snake. The next day, when it came out of its hole for food, he took up his axe, but by swinging too hastily, missed its head and cut off only the end of its tail. After some time the Cottager, afraid that the Snake would bite him also, endeavored to make peace, and placed some bread and salt in the hole. The Snake, slightly hissing, said: “There can henceforth be no peace between us; for whenever I see you I shall remember the loss of my tail, and whenever you see me you will be thinking of the death of your son.” No one truly forgets injuries in the presence of him who caused the injury.
49- The Wolf in Sheep’s Clothing ONCE UPON A TIME a Wolf resolved to disguise his appearance in order to secure food more easily. Encased in the skin of a sheep, he pastured with the ﬂock deceiving the shepherd by his costume. In the evening he was shut up by the shepherd in the fold; the gate was closed, and the entrance made thoroughly secure. But the shepherd, returning to the fold during the night to obtain meat for the next day, mistakenly caught up the Wolf instead of a sheep, and killed him instantly. 50- The Ass and the Mule A MULETEER set forth on a journey, driving before him an Ass and a Mule, both well laden. The Ass, as long as he traveled along the plain, carried his load with ease, but when he began to ascend the steep path of the mountain, felt his load to be more than he could bear. He entreated his companion to relieve him of a small portion, that he might
carry home the rest; but the Mule paid no attention to the request. The Ass shortly afterwards fell down dead under his burden. Not knowing what else to do in so wild a region, the Muleteer placed upon the Mule the load carried by the Ass in addition to his own, and at the top of all placed the hide of the Ass, after he had skinned him. The Mule, groaning beneath his heavy burden, said to himself: “I am treated according to my deserts. If I had only been willing to assist the Ass a little in his need, I should not now be bearing, together with his burden, himself as well.”
51- The Frogs Asking for a King THE FROGS, grieved at having no established Ruler, sent ambassadors to Jupiter entreating for a King. Perceiving their simplicity, he cast down a huge log into the lake. The Frogs were terriﬁed at the splash occasioned by its fall and hid themselves in the depths of the pool. But as soon as they realized that the huge log was motionless, they swam again to the top of the water, dismissed their fears, climbed up, and began squatting on it in contempt. After some time they began to think themselves ill-treated in the appointment of so inert a Ruler, and sent a second deputation to Jupiter to pray that he would set over them another sovereign. He then gave them an Eel to govern them. When the Frogs discovered his easy good nature, they sent yet a third time to Jupiter to beg him to choose for them still another King. Jupiter, displeased with all their complaints, sent a Heron, who preyed upon the Frogs day by day till there were none left to croak upon the lake.
52- The Boys and the Frogs SOME BOYS, playing near a pond, saw a number of Frogs in the water and be-gan to pelt them with stones. They killed several of them, when one of the Frogs, lifting his head out of the water, cried out: “Pray stop, my boys: what is sport to you, is death to us.”
53- The Sick Stag A SICK STAG lay down in a quiet corner of its pasture-ground. His companions came in great numbers to inquire after his health, and each one helped himself to a share of the food which had been placed for his use; so that he died, not from his sickness, but from the failure of the means of living. Evil companions bring more hurt than proﬁt.
54- The Salt Merchant and His Ass A PEDDLER drove his Ass to the seashore to buy salt. His road home lay across a stream into which his Ass, making a false step, fell by accident and rose up again with his
load considerably lighter, as the water melted the sack. The Peddler re-traced his steps and reﬁlled his panniers with a larger quantity of salt than before. When he came again to the stream, the Ass fell down on purpose in the same spot, and, regaining his feet with the weight of his load much diminished, brayed triumphantly as if he had obtained what he desired. The Peddler saw through his trick and drove him for the third time to the coast, where he bought a cargo of sponges instead of salt. The Ass, again playing the fool, fell down on purpose when he reached the stream, but the sponges became swollen with water, greatly increasing his load. And thus his trick recoiled on him, for he now carried on his back a double burden.
55- The Oxen and the Butchers THE OXEN once upon a time sought to destroy the Butchers, who practiced a trade destructive to their race. They assembled on a certain day to carry out their purpose, and sharpened their horns for the contest. But one of them who was exceedingly old (for many a ﬁeld had he plowed) thus spoke: “These Butchers, it is true, slaughter us, but they do so with skillful hands, and with no unnecessary pain. If we get rid of them, we shall fall into the hands of unskillful operators, and thus suffer a double death: for you may be assured, that though all the Butchers should perish, yet will men never want beef.” Do not be in a hurry to change one evil for another.
56- The Lion, the Mouse, and the Fox A LION, fatigued by the heat of a summer’s day, fell fast asleep in his den. A Mouse ran over his mane and ears and woke him from his slumbers. He rose up and shook himself in great wrath, and searched every corner of his den to ﬁnd the Mouse. A Fox seeing him said: “A ﬁne Lion you are, to be frightened of a Mouse.” “’Tis not the Mouse I fear,” said the Lion; “I resent his familiarity and ill-breeding.” Little liberties are great offenses. 57- The Vain Jackdaw JUPITER DETERMINED, it is said, to create a sovereign over the birds, and made proclamation that on a certain day they should all present themselves be-fore him, when he would himself choose the most beautiful among them to be king. The Jackdaw, knowing his own ugliness, searched through the woods and ﬁelds, and collected the feathers which had fallen from the wings of his compan-ions, and stuck them in all parts of his body, hoping thereby to make himself the most beautiful of all. When the appointed day arrived, and the birds had assem-bled before Jupiter, the Jackdaw also made his appearance in his many feathered ﬁnery. But when Jupiter proposed to make him king because of the beauty of his plumage, the birds indignantly protested, and each plucked from him his own feathers, leaving the Jackdaw nothing but a Jackdaw.
58- The Goatherd and the Wild Goats A GOATHERD, driving his ﬂock from their pasture at eventide, found some Wild Goats mingled among them, and shut them up together with his own for the night. The next day it snowed very hard, so that he could not take the herd to their usual feeding places, but was obliged to keep them in the fold. He gave his own goats just sufﬁcient food to keep them alive, but fed the strangers more abundantly in the hope of enticing them to stay with him and of making them his own. When the thaw set in, he led them all out to feed, and the Wild Goats scamp-ered away as fast as they could to the mountains. The Goatherd scolded them for their ingratitude in leaving him, when during the storm he had taken more care of them than of his own herd. One of them, turning about, said to him: “That is the very reason why we are so cautious; for if you yesterday treated us better than the Goats you have had so long, it is plain also that if others came after us, you would in the same manner prefer them to ourselves.” Old friends cannot with impunity be sacriﬁced for new ones.
59- The Mischievous Dog A DOG used to run up quietly to the heels of everyone he met, and to bite them without notice. His master suspended a bell about his neck so that the Dog might give notice of his presence wherever he went. Thinking it a mark of distinction, the Dog grew proud of his bell and went tinkling it all over the marketplace. One day an old hound said to him: Why do you make such an exhibition of yourself? That bell that you carry is not, believe me, any order of merit, but on the contrary a mark of disgrace, a public notice to all men to avoid you as an ill mannered dog.” Notoriety is often mistaken for fame. 60- The Fox Who Had Lost His Tail A FOX caught in a trap escaped, but in so doing lost his tail. Thereafter, feel-ing his life a burden from the shame and ridicule to which he was exposed, he schemed to convince all the other Foxes that being tailless was much more attrac-tive, thus making up for his own deprivation. He assembled a good many Foxes and publicly advised them to cut off their tails, saying that they would not only look much better without them, but that they would get rid of the weight of the brush, which was a very great inconvenience. One of them interrupting him said, “If you had not yourself lost your tail, my friend, you would not thus counsel us.”
61- The Boy and the Nettles A BOY was stung by a Nettle. He ran home and told his Mother, saying, “Al-though it hurts me very much, I only touched it gently.” “That was just why it stung you,” said his Mother. “The next time you touch a Nettle, grasp it boldly, and it will be soft as silk to your hand, and not in the least hurt you.” Whatever you do, do with all your might.
62- The Man and His Two Sweethearts A MIDDLE-AGED MAN, whose hair had begun to turn gray, courted two wom-en at the same time. One of them was young, and the other well advanced in years. The elder woman, ashamed to be courted by a man younger than herself, made a point, whenever her admirer visited her, to pull out some portion of his black hairs. The younger, on the contrary, not wishing to become the wife of an old man, was equally zealous in removing every gray hair she could ﬁnd. Thus it came to pass that between them both he very soon found that he had not a hair left on his head. Those who seek to please everybody please nobody.
63- The Astronomer AN ASTRONOMER used to go out at night to observe the stars. One evening, as he wandered through the suburbs with his whole attention ﬁxed on the sky, he fell accidentally into a deep well. While he lamented and bewailed his sores and bruises, and cried loudly for help, a neighbor ran to the well, and learning what had happened said: “Hark ye, old fellow, why, in striving to pry into what is in heaven, do you not manage to see what is on earth?’
64- The Wolves and the Sheep “WHY SHOULD there always be this fear and slaughter between us?” said the Wolves to the Sheep. “Those evil-disposed Dogs have much to answer for. They always bark whenever we approach you and attack us before we have done any harm. If you would only dismiss them from your heels, there might soon be trea-ties of peace and reconciliation between us.” The Sheep, poor silly creatures, were easily beguiled and dismissed the Dogs, whereupon the Wolves destroyed the un-guarded ﬂock at their own pleasure.
65- The Old Woman and the Physician AN OLD WOMAN having lost the use of her eyes, called in a Physician to heal them, and made this bargain with him in the presence of witnesses: that if he should cure her blindness, he should receive from her a sum of money; but if her inﬁrmity remained, she should give him nothing. This agreement being made, the Physician, time after time, applied his salve to her eyes, and on every visit took something away, stealing all her property little by little. And when he had got all she had, he healed her and demanded the promised payment. The Old Woman, when she recovered her sight and saw none of her goods in her house, would give him nothing. The Physician insisted on his claim, and. as she still refused, sum-moned her before the Judge. The Old Woman, standing up in the
Court, argued: “This man here speaks the truth in what he says; for I did promise to give him a sum of money if I should recover my sight: but if I continued blind, I was to give him nothing. Now he declares that I am healed. I on the contrary afﬁrm that I am still blind; for when I lost the use of my eyes, I saw in my house various chattels and valuable goods: but now, though he swears I am cured of my blindness, I am not able to see a single thing in it.”
66- The Fighting Cocks and the Eagle TWO GAME COCKS were ﬁercely ﬁghting for the mastery of the farmyard. One at last put the other to ﬂight. The vanquished Cock skulked away and hid himself in a quiet corner, while the conqueror, ﬂying up to a high wall, ﬂapped his wings and crowed exultingly with all his might. An Eagle sailing through the air pounced upon him and carried him off in his talons. The vanquished Cock im-mediately came out of his corner, and ruled henceforth with undisputed mastery. Pride goes before destruction.
67- The Charger and the Miller A CHARGER, feeling the inﬁrmities of age, was sent to work in a mill instead of going out to battle. But when he was compelled to grind instead of serving in the wars, he bewailed his change of fortune and called to mind his former state, saying, “Ah! Miller, I had indeed to go campaigning before, but I was barbed from counter to tail, and a man went along to groom me; and now I cannot understand what ailed me to prefer the mill before the battle.” “Forbear,” said the Miller to him, “harping on what was of yore, for it is the common lot of mortals to sustain the ups and downs of fortune.” 68- The Fox and the Monkey A MONKEY once danced in an assembly of the Beasts, and so pleased them all by his performance that they elected him their King. A Fox, envying him the honor, discovered a piece of meat lying in a trap, and leading the Monkey to the place where it was, said that she had found a store, but had not used it e had kept it for him as treasure trove of his kingdom, and counseled him to lay hold of it. The Monkey approached carelessly and was caught in the trap; and on his accus-ing the Fox of purposely leading him into the snare, she replied, “O Monkey, and are you, with such a mind as yours, going to be King over the Beasts?”
69- The Horse and His Rider A HORSE SOLDIER took the utmost pains with his charger. As long as the war lasted, he looked upon him as his fellow-helper in all emergencies and fed him carefully
with hay and corn. But when the war was over, he only allowed him chaff to eat and made him carry heavy loads of wood, subjecting him to much slavish drudgery and illtreatment. War was again proclaimed, however, and when the trumpet summoned him to his standard, the Soldier put on his charger its mili-tary trappings, and mounted, being clad in his heavy coat of mail. The Horse fell down straightway under the weight, no longer equal to the burden, and said to his master, “You must now go to the war on foot, for you have transformed me from a Horse into an Ass; and how can you expect that I can again turn in a moment from an Ass to a Horse?’
70- The Belly and the Members THE MEMBERS of the Body rebelled against the Belly, and said, “Why should we be perpetually engaged in administering to your wants, while you do nothing but take your rest, and enjoy yourself in luxury and self-indulgence?’ The Mem-bers carried out their resolve and refused their assistance to the Belly. The whole Body quickly became debilitated, and the hands, feet, mouth, and eyes, when too late, repented of their folly.
71- The Vine and the Goat A VINE was luxuriant in the time of vintage with leaves and grapes. A Goat, passing by, nibbled its young tendrils and its leaves. The Vine addressed him and said: “Why do you thus injure me without a cause, and crop my leaves? Is there no young grass left? But I shall not have to wait long for my just revenge; for if you now should crop my leaves, and cut me down to my root, I shall provide the wine to pour over you when you are led as a victim to the sacriﬁce.”
72- Jupiter and the Monkey JUPITER ISSUED a proclamation to all the beasts of the forest and promised a royal reward to the one whose offspring should be deemed the handsomest. The Monkey came with the rest and presented, with all a mother’s tenderness, a ﬂat-nosed, hairless, illfeatured young Monkey as a candidate for the promised reward. A general laugh saluted her on the presentation of her son. She resolutely said, “I know not whether Jupiter will allot the prize to my son, but this I do know, that he is at least in the eyes of me his mother, the dearest, handsomest, and most beautiful of all.”
73- The Widow and Her Little Maidens A WIDOW who was fond of cleaning had two little maidens to wait on her. She was in the habit of waking them early in the morning, at cockcrow. The maidens, aggravated by
such excessive labor, resolved to kill the cock who roused their mis-tress so early. When they had done this, they found that they had only prepared for themselves greater troubles, for their mistress, no longer hearing the hour from the cock, woke them up to their work in the middle of the night.
74- The Shepherd’s Boy and the Wolf A SHEPHERD-BOY, who watched a ﬂock of sheep near a village, brought out the villagers three or four times by crying out, “Wolf! Wolf!” and when his neigh-bors came to help him, laughed at them for their pains. The Wolf, however, did truly come at last. The Shepherd-boy, now really alarmed, shouted in an agony of terror: “Pray, do come and help me; the Wolf is killing the sheep”; but no one paid any heed to his cries, nor rendered any assistance. The Wolf, having no cause of fear, at his leisure lacerated or destroyed the whole ﬂock. There is no believing a liar, even when he speaks the truth.
75- The Cat and the Birds A CAT, hearing that the Birds in a certain aviary were ailing dressed himself up as a physician, and, taking his cane and a bag of instruments becoming his profes-sion, went to call on them. He knocked at the door and inquired of the inmates how they all did, saying that if they were ill, he would be happy to prescribe for them and cure them. They replied, “We are all very well, and shall continue so, if you will only be good enough to go away, and leave us as we are.” 76- The Kid and the Wolf A KID standing on the roof of a house, out of harm’s way, saw a Wolf passing by and immediately began to taunt and revile him. The Wolf, looking up, said, “Sir-rah! I hear thee: yet it is not thou who mockest me, but the roof on which thou art standing.” Time and place often give the advantage to the weak over the strong.
77- The Ox and the Frog AN OX drinking at a pool trod on a brood of young frogs and crushed one of them to death. The Mother coming up, and missing one of her sons, inquired of his brothers what had become of him. “He is dead, dear Mother; for just now a very huge beast with four great feet came to the pool and crushed him to death with his cloven heel.” The Frog, pufﬁng herself out, inquired, “if the beast was as big as that in size.” “Cease, Mother, to puff yourself out,” said her son, “and do not be angry; for you would, I assure you, sooner burst than successfully imitate the hugeness of that monster.”
78- The Shepherd and the Wolf A SHEPHERD once found the whelp of a Wolf and brought it up, and after a while taught it to steal lambs from the neighboring ﬂocks. The Wolf, having shown himself an apt pupil, said to the Shepherd, “Since you have taught me to steal, you must keep a sharp lookout, or you will lose some of your own ﬂock.”
79- The Father and His Two Daughters A MAN had two daughters, the one married to a gardener, and the other to a tilemaker. After a time he went to the daughter who had married the gardener, and inquired how she was and how all things went with her. She said, “All things are prospering with me, and I have only one wish, that there may be a heavy fall of rain, in order that the plants may be well watered.” Not long after, he went to the daughter who had married the tilemaker, and likewise inquired of her how she fared; she replied, “I want for nothing, and have only one wish, that the dry weather may continue, and the sun shine hot and bright, so that the bricks might be dried.” He said to her, “If your sister wishes for rain, and you for dry weather, with which of the two am I to join my wishes?’
80- The Farmer and His Sons A FATHER, being on the point of death, wished to be sure that his sons would give the same attention to his farm as he himself had given it. He called them to his bedside and said, “My sons, there is a great treasure hid in one of my vine-yards.” The sons, after his death, took their spades and mattocks and carefully dug over every portion of their land. They found no treasure, but the vines repaid their labor by an extraordinary and superabundant crop.
81- The Crab and Its Mother A CRAB said to her son, “Why do you walk so one-sided, my child? It is far more becoming to go straight forward.” The young Crab replied: “Quite true, dear Mother; and if you will show me the straight way, I will promise to walk in it.” The Mother tried in vain, and submitted without remonstrance to the reproof of her child. Example is more powerful than precept.
82- The Heifer and the Ox A HEIFER saw an Ox hard at work harnessed to a plow, and tormented him with reﬂections on his unhappy fate in being compelled to labor. Shortly after-wards, at the harvest festival, the owner released the Ox from his yoke, but bound the Heifer with
cords and led him away to the altar to be slain in honor of the occasion. The Ox saw what was being done, and said with a smile to the Heifer: “For this you were allowed to live in idleness, because you were presently to be sacriﬁced.”
83- The Swallow, the Serpent, and the Court of Justice A SWALLOW, returning from abroad and especially fond of dwelling with men, built herself a nest in the wall of a Court of Justice and there hatched seven young birds. A Serpent gliding past the nest from its hole in the wall ate up the young unﬂedged nestlings. The Swallow, ﬁnding her nest empty, lamented greatly and exclaimed: “Woe to me a stranger! that in this place where all others’ rights are protected, I alone should suffer wrong.”
84- The Thief and His Mother A BOY stole a lesson-book from one of his schoolfellows and took it home to his Mother. She not only abstained from beating him, but encouraged him. He next time stole a cloak and brought it to her, and she again commended him. The Youth, advanced to adulthood, proceeded to steal things of still greater value. At last he was caught in the very act, and having his hands bound behind him, was led away to the place of public execution. His Mother followed in the crowd and violently beat her breast in sorrow, whereupon the young man said, “I wish to say something to my Mother in her ear.” She came close to him, and he quickly seized her ear with his teeth and bit it off. The Mother upbraided him as an un-natural child, whereon he replied, “Ah! if you had beaten me when I ﬁrst stole and brought to you that lesson-book, I should not have come to this, nor have been thus led to a disgraceful death.”
85- The Old Man and Death AN OLD MAN was employed in cutting wood in the forest, and, in carrying the faggots to the city for sale one day, became very wearied with his long journey. He sat down by the wayside, and throwing down his load, besought “Death” to come. “Death” immediately appeared in answer to his summons and asked for what rea-son he had called him. The Old Man hurriedly replied, “That, lifting up the load, you may place it again upon my shoulders.”
86- The Fir-Tree and the Bramble A FIR-TREE said boastingly to the Bramble, “You are useful for nothing at all; while I am everywhere used for roofs and houses.” The Bramble answered: ‘You poor creature,
if you would only call to mind the axes and saws which are about to hew you down, you would have reason to wish that you had grown up a Bramble, not a Fir-Tree.” Better poverty without care, than riches with.
87- The Mouse, the Frog, and the Hawk A MOUSE who always lived on the land, by an unlucky chance formed an in-timate acquaintance with a Frog, who lived for the most part in the water. The Frog, one day intent on mischief, bound the foot of the Mouse tightly to his own. Thus joined together, the Frog ﬁrst of all led his friend the Mouse to the meadow where they were accustomed to ﬁnd their food. After this, he gradually led him towards the pool in which he lived, until reaching the very brink, he suddenly jumped in, dragging the Mouse with him. The Frog enjoyed the water amazingly, and swam croaking about, as if he had done a good deed. The unhappy Mouse was soon suffocated by the water, and his dead body ﬂoated about on the surface, tied to the foot of the Frog. A Hawk observed it, and, pouncing upon it with his talons, carried it aloft. The Frog, being still fastened to the leg of the Mouse, was also carried off a prisoner, and was eaten by the Hawk. Harm hatch, harm catch.
88- The Man Bitten by a Dog A MAN who had been bitten by a Dog went about in quest of someone who might heal him. A friend, meeting him and learning what he wanted, said, “If you would be cured, take a piece of bread, and dip it in the blood from your wound, and go and give it to the Dog that bit you.” The Man who had been bitten laughed at this advice and said, “Why? If I should do so, it would be as if I should beg every Dog in the town to bite me.” Beneﬁts bestowed upon the evil-disposed increase their means of injuring you.
89- The Two Pots A RIVER carried down in its stream two Pots, one made of earthenware and the other of brass. The Earthen Pot said to the Brass Pot, “Pray keep at a distance and do not come near me, for if you touch me ever so slightly, I shall be broken in pieces, and besides, I by no means wish to come near you.” Equals make the best friends.
90- The Wolf and the Sheep A WOLF, sorely wounded and bitten by dogs, lay sick and maimed in his lair. Being in want of food, he called to a Sheep who was passing, and asked him to fetch some water from a stream ﬂowing close beside him. “For,” he said, “if you will bring me drink, I will
ﬁnd means to provide myself with meat.” “Yes,” said the Sheep, “if I should bring you the draught, you would doubtless make me provide the meat also.” Hypocritical speeches are easily seen through.
91- The Aethiop THE PURCHASER of a black servant was persuaded that the color of his skin arose from dirt contracted through the neglect of his former masters. On bring-ing him home he resorted to every means of cleaning, and subjected the man to incessant scrubbings. The servant caught a severe cold, but he never changed his color or complexion. What’s bred in the bone will stick to the ﬂesh.
92- The Fisherman and His Nets A FISHERMAN, engaged in his calling, made a very successful cast and cap-tured a great haul of ﬁsh. He managed by a skillful handling of his net to retain all the large ﬁsh and to draw them to the shore; but he could not prevent the smaller ﬁsh from falling back through the meshes of the net into the sea.
93- The Huntsman and the Fisherman A HUNTSMAN, returning with his dogs from the ﬁeld, fell in by chance with a Fisherman who was bringing home a basket well laden with ﬁsh. The Huntsman wished to have the ﬁsh, and their owner experienced an equal longing for the con-tents of the game-bag. They quickly agreed to exchange the produce of their day’s sport. Each was so well pleased with his bargain that they made for some time the same exchange day after day. Finally a neighbor said to them, “If you go on in this way, you will soon destroy by frequent use the pleasure of your exchange, and each will again wish to retain the fruits of his own sport.” Abstain and enjoy.
94- The Old Woman and the Wine-Jar AN OLD WOMAN found an empty jar which had lately been full of prime old wine and which still retained the fragrant smell of its former contents. She greed-ily placed it several times to her nose, and drawing it backwards and forwards said, “O most delicious! How nice must the Wine itself have been, when it leaves behind in the very vessel which contained it so sweet a perfume!” The memory of a good deed lives.
95- The Fox and the Crow
A CROW having stolen a bit of meat, perched in a tree and held it in her beak. A Fox, seeing this, longed to possess the meat himself, and by a wily stratagem suc-ceeded. “How handsome is the Crow,” he exclaimed, in the beauty of her shape and in the fairness of her complexion! Oh, if her voice were only equal to her beauty, she would deservedly be considered the Queen of Birds!” This he said deceitfully; but the Crow, anxious to refute the reﬂection cast upon her voice, set up a loud caw and dropped the ﬂesh. The Fox quickly picked it up, and thus addressed the Crow: “My good Crow, your voice is right enough, but your wit is wanting.”
96- The Two Dogs A MAN had two dogs: a Hound, trained to assist him in his sports, and a House-dog, taught to watch the house. When he returned home after a good day’s sport, he always gave the Housedog a large share of his spoil. The Hound, feeling much aggrieved at this, reproached his companion, saying, “It is very hard to have all this labor, while you, who do not assist in the chase, luxuriate on the fruits of my exertions.” The Housedog replied, “Do not blame me, my friend, but ﬁnd fault with the master, who has not taught me to labor, but to depend for subsistence on the labor of others.” Children are not to be blamed for the faults of their parents.
97- The Stag in the Ox-Stall A STAG, roundly chased by the hounds and blinded by fear to the danger he was running into, took shelter in a farmyard and hid himself in a shed among the oxen. An Ox gave him this kindly warning: “O unhappy creature! why should you thus, of your own accord, incur destruction and trust yourself in the house of your enemy?’ The Stag replied: “Only allow me, friend, to stay where I am, and I will undertake to ﬁnd some favorable opportunity of effecting my escape.” At the approach of the evening the herdsman came to feed his cattle, but did not see the Stag; and even the farmbailiff with several laborers passed through the shed and failed to notice him. The Stag, congratulating himself on his safety, began to express his sincere thanks to the Oxen who had kindly helped him in the hour of need. One of them again answered him: “We indeed wish you well, but the danger is not over. There is one other yet to pass through the shed, who has as it were a hundred eyes, and until he has come and gone, your life is still in peril.” At that moment the master himself entered, and having had to complain that his oxen had not been properly fed, he went up to their racks and cried out: “Why is there such a scarcity of fodder? There is not half enough straw for them to lie on. Those lazy fellows have not even swept the cobwebs away.” While he thus examined everything in turn, he spied the tips of the antlers of the Stag peeping out of the straw. Then summoning his laborers, he ordered that the Stag should be
seized and killed.
98- The Hawk, the Kite, and the Pigeons THE PIGEONS, terriﬁed by the appearance of a Kite, called upon the Hawk to defend them. He at once consented. When they had admitted him into the cote, they found that he made more havoc and slew a larger number of them in one day than the Kite could pounce upon in a whole year. Avoid a remedy that is worse than the disease.
99- The Widow and the Sheep A CERTAIN poor widow had one solitary Sheep. At shearing time, wishing to take his ﬂeece and to avoid expense, she sheared him herself, but used the shears so unskillfully that with the ﬂeece she sheared the ﬂesh. The Sheep, writhing with pain, said, “Why do you hurt me so, Mistress? What weight can my blood add to the wool? If you want my ﬂesh, there is the butcher, who will kill me in an instant; but if you want my ﬂeece and wool, there is the shearer, who will shear and not hurt me.” The least outlay is not always the greatest gain.
100- The Wild Ass and the Lion A WILD ASS and a Lion entered into an alliance so that they might capture the beasts of the forest with greater ease. The Lion agreed to assist the Wild Ass with his strength, while the Wild Ass gave the Lion the beneﬁt of his greater speed. When they had taken as many beasts as their necessities required, the Lion un-dertook to distribute the prey, and for this purpose divided it into three shares. “I will take the ﬁrst share,” he said, “because I am King: and the second share, as a partner with you in the chase: and the third share (believe me) will be a source of great evil to you, unless you willingly resign it to me, and set off as fast as you can.” Might makes right.
101- The Eagle and the Arrow AN EAGLE sat on a lofty rock, watching the movements of a Hare whom he sought to make his prey. An archer, who saw the Eagle from a place of conceal-ment, took an accurate aim and wounded him mortally. The Eagle gave one look at the arrow that had entered his heart and saw in that single glance that its feath-ers had been furnished by himself. “It is a double grief to me,” he exclaimed, “that I should perish by an arrow feathered from my own wings.”
102- The Sick Kite A KITE, sick unto death, said to his mother: “O Mother! do not mourn, but at once invoke the gods that my life may be prolonged.” She replied, “Alas! my son, which of the gods do you think will pity you? Is there one whom you have not out-raged by ﬁlching from their very altars a part of the sacriﬁce offered up to them?’ We must make friends in prosperity if we would have their help in adversity.
103- The Lion and the Dolphin A LION roaming by the seashore saw a Dolphin lift up its head out of the waves, and suggested that they contract an alliance, saying that of all the animals they ought to be the best friends, since the one was the king of beasts on the earth, and the other was the sovereign ruler of all the inhabitants of the ocean. The Dolphin gladly consented to this request. Not long afterwards the Lion had a combat with a wild bull, and called on the Dolphin to help him. The Dolphin, though quite willing to give him assistance, was unable to do so, as he could not by any means reach the land. The Lion abused him as a traitor. The Dolphin replied, “Nay, my friend, blame not me, but Nature, which, while giving me the sovereignty of the sea, has quite denied me the power of living upon the land.”
104- The Lion and the Boar ON A SUMMER DAY, when the great heat induced a general thirst among the beasts, a Lion and a Boar came at the same moment to a small well to drink. They ﬁercely disputed which of them should drink ﬁrst, and were soon engaged in the agonies of a mortal combat. When they stopped suddenly to catch their breath for a ﬁercer renewal of the ﬁght, they saw some Vultures waiting in the distance to feast on the one that should fall ﬁrst. They at once made up their quarrel, say-ing, “It is better for us to make friends, than to become the food of Crows or Vul-tures.”
105- The One-Eyed Doe A DOE blind in one eye was accustomed to graze as near to the edge of the cliff as she possibly could, in the hope of securing her greater safety. She turned her sound eye towards the land that she might get the earliest tidings of the approach of hunter or hound, and her injured eye towards the sea, from whence she enter-tained no anticipation of danger. Some boatmen sailing by saw her, and taking a successful aim, mortally wounded her. Yielding up her last breath, she gasped forth this lament: “O wretched creature that I am! to take such precaution against the land, and after all to ﬁnd this seashore, to which I had come for safety, so much more perilous.”
106- The Shepherd and the Sea A SHEPHERD, keeping watch over his sheep near the shore, saw the Sea very calm and smooth, and longed to make a voyage with a view to commerce. He sold all his ﬂock, invested it in a cargo of dates, and set sail. But a very great tempest came on, and the ship being in danger of sinking, he threw all his merchandise overboard, and barely escaped with his life in the empty ship. Not long afterwards when someone passed by and observed the unrufﬂed calm of the Sea, he interrupted him and said, “It is again in want of dates, and therefore looks quiet.”
107- The Ass, the Cock, and the Lion AN ASS and a Cock were in a straw-yard together when a Lion, desperate from hunger, approached the spot. He was about to spring upon the Ass, when the Cock (to the sound of whose voice the Lion, it is said, has a singular aversion) crowed loudly, and the Lion ﬂed away as fast as he could. The Ass, observing his trepidation at the mere crowing of a Cock summoned courage to attack him, and galloped after him for that purpose. He had run no long distance, when the Lion, turning about, seized him and tore him to pieces. False conﬁdence often leads into danger. 108- The Mice and the Weasels THE WEASELS and the Mice waged a perpetual war with each other, in which much blood was shed. The Weasels were always the victors. The Mice thought that the cause of their frequent defeats was that they had no leaders set apart from the general army to command them, and that they were exposed to dan-gers from lack of discipline. They therefore chose as leaders Mice that were most renowned for their family descent, strength, and counsel, as well as those most noted for their courage in the ﬁght, so that they might be better marshaled in battle array and formed into troops, regiments, and battalions. When all this was done, and the army disciplined, and the herald Mouse had duly proclaimed war by challenging the Weasels, the newly chosen generals bound their heads with straws, that they might be more conspicuous to all their troops. Scarcely had the battle begun, when a great rout overwhelmed the Mice, who scampered off as fast as they could to their holes. The generals, not being able to get in on account of the ornaments on their heads, were all captured and eaten by the Weasels. The more honor the more danger.
109- The Mice in Council THE MICE summoned a council to decide how they might best devise means of warning themselves of the approach of their great enemy the Cat. Among the many plans suggested, the one that found most favor was the proposal to tie a bell to the neck of the Cat, so that the Mice, being warned by the sound of the tinkling, might run away and hide
themselves in their holes at his approach. But when the Mice further debated who among them should thus “bell the Cat,” there was no one found to do it.
110- The Wolf and the Housedog A WOLF, meeting a big well-fed Mastiff with a wooden collar about his neck asked him who it was that fed him so well and yet compelled him to drag that heavy log about wherever he went. “The master,” he replied. Then said the Wolf: “May no friend of mine ever be in such a plight; for the weight of this chain is enough to spoil the appetite.”
111- The Rivers and the Sea THE RIVERS joined together to complain to the Sea, saying, “Why is it that when we ﬂow into your tides so potable and sweet, you work in us such a change, and make us salty and unﬁt to drink?” The Sea, perceiving that they intended to throw the blame on him, said, “Pray cease to ﬂow into me, and then you will not be made briny.” 112- The Playful Ass AN ASS climbed up to the roof of a building, and frisking about there, broke in the tiling. The owner went up after him and quickly drove him down, beating him severely with a thick wooden cudgel. The Ass said, “Why, I saw the Monkey do this very thing yesterday, and you all laughed heartily, as if it afforded you very great amusement.”
113- The Three Tradesmen A GREAT CITY was besieged, and its inhabitants were called together to con-sider the best means of protecting it from the enemy. A Bricklayer earnestly rec-ommended bricks as affording the best material for an effective resistance. A Carpenter, with equal enthusiasm, proposed timber as a preferable method of defense. Upon which a Currier stood up and said, “Sirs, I differ from you altogeth-er: there is no material for resistance equal to a covering of hides; and nothing so good as leather.” Every man for himself.
114- The Master and His Dogs A CERTAIN MAN, detained by a storm in his country house, ﬁrst of all killed his sheep, and then his goats, for the maintenance of his household. The storm still continuing, he was obliged to slaughter his yoke oxen for food. On seeing this, his Dogs took counsel together, and said, “It is time for us to be off, for if the master spare not his oxen, who work for his gain, how can we expect him to spare us?’ He is not to be trusted as a friend who mistreats his own family.
115- The Wolf and the Shepherds A WOLF, passing by, saw some Shepherds in a hut eating a haunch of mutton for their dinner. Approaching them, he said, “What a clamor you would raise if I were to do as you are doing!”
116- The Dolphins, the Whales, and the Sprat THE DOLPHINS and Whales waged a ﬁerce war with each other. When the battle was at its height, a Sprat lifted its head out of the waves and said that he would reconcile their differences if they would accept him as an umpire. One of the Dolphins replied, “We would far rather be destroyed in our battle with each other than admit any interference from you in our affairs.” 117- The Ass Carrying the Image AN ASS once carried through the streets of a city a famous wooden Image, to be placed in one of its Temples. As he passed along, the crowd made lowly pros-tration before the Image. The Ass, thinking that they bowed their heads in token of respect for himself, bristled up with pride, gave himself airs, and refused to move another step. The driver, seeing him thus stop, laid his whip lustily about his shoulders and said, “O you perverse dull-head! it is not yet come to this, that men pay worship to an Ass.” They are not wise who give to themselves the credit due to others.
118- The Two Travelers and the Axe TWO MEN were journeying together. One of them picked up an axe that lay upon the path, and said, “I have found an axe.” “Nay, my friend,” replied the oth-er, “do not say ‘I,’ but ‘We’ have found an axe.” They had not gone far before they saw the owner of the axe pursuing them, and he who had picked up the axe said, “We are undone.” “Nay,” replied the other, “keep to your ﬁrst mode of speech, my friend; what you thought right then, think right now. Say ‘I,’ not ‘We’ are un-done.” He who shares the danger ought to share the prize.
119- The Old Lion A LION, worn out with years and powerless from disease, lay on the ground at the point of death. A Boar rushed upon him, and avenged with a stroke of his tusks a longremembered injury. Shortly afterwards the Bull with his horns gored him as if he were an enemy. When the Ass saw that the huge beast could be as-sailed with impunity, he let drive at his forehead with his heels. The expiring Lion said, “I have reluctantly brooked the insults of the brave, but to be compelled to endure such treatment from thee, a disgrace to Nature, is indeed to die a double death.”
120- The Old Hound A HOUND, who in the days of his youth and strength had never yielded to any beast of the forest, encountered in his old age a boar in the chase. He seized him boldly by the ear, but could not retain his hold because of the decay of his teeth, so that the boar escaped. His master, quickly coming up, was very much disap-pointed, and ﬁercely abused the dog. The Hound looked up and said, “It was not my fault. master: my spirit was as good as ever, but I could not help my inﬁrmi-ties. I rather deserve to be praised for what I have been, than to be blamed for what I am.” 121- The Bee and Jupiter A BEE from Mount Hymettus, the queen of the hive, ascended to Olympus to present Jupiter some honey fresh from her combs. Jupiter, delighted with the offering of honey, promised to give whatever she should ask. She therefore be-sought him, saying, “Give me, I pray thee, a sting, that if any mortal shall ap-proach to take my honey, I may kill him.” Jupiter was much displeased, for he loved the race of man, but could not refuse the request because of his promise. He thus answered the Bee: “You shall have your request, but it will be at the peril of your own life. For if you use your sting, it shall remain in the wound you make, and then you will die from the loss of it.” Evil wishes, like chickens, come home to roost.
122- The Milk-Woman and Her Pail A FARMER’S daughter was carrying her Pail of milk from the ﬁeld to the farm-house, when she fell a-musing. “The money for which this milk will be sold, will buy at least three hundred eggs. The eggs, allowing for all mishaps, will produce two hundred and ﬁfty chickens. The chickens will become ready for the market when poultry will fetch the highest price, so that by the end of the year I shall have money enough from my share to buy a new gown. In this dress I will go to the Christmas parties, where all the young fellows will propose to me, but I will toss my head and refuse them every one.” At this moment she tossed her head in unison with her thoughts, when down fell the milk pail to the ground, and all her imaginary schemes perished in a moment.
123- The Seaside Travelers SOME TRAVELERS, journeying along the seashore, climbed to the summit of a tall cliff, and looking over the sea, saw in the distance what they thought was a large ship. They waited in the hope of seeing it enter the harbor, but as the object on which they looked was driven nearer to shore by the wind, they found that it could at the most be a small boat, and not a ship. When however it reached the beach, they discovered that it was only a large faggot of sticks, and one of them said to his companions, “We have waited for no purpose, for after all there is nothing to see but a load of wood.” Our mere
anticipations of life outrun its realities.
124- The Brazier and His Dog A BRAZIER had a little Dog, which was a great favorite with his master, and his constant companion. While he hammered away at his metals the Dog slept; but when, on the other hand, he went to dinner and began to eat, the Dog woke up and wagged his tail, as if he would ask for a share of his meal. His master one day, pretending to be angry and shaking his stick at him, said, “You wretched little sluggard! what shall I do to you? While I am hammering on the anvil, you sleep on the mat; and when I begin to eat after my toil, you wake up and wag your tail for food. Do you not know that labor is the source of every blessing, and that none but those who work are entitled to eat?’
125- The Ass and His Shadow A TRAVELER hired an Ass to convey him to a distant place. The day being in-tensely hot, and the sun shining in its strength, the Traveler stopped to rest, and sought shelter from the heat under the Shadow of the Ass. As this afforded only protection for one, and as the Traveler and the owner of the Ass both claimed it, a violent dispute arose between them as to which of them had the right to the Shadow. The owner maintained that he had let the Ass only, and not his Shadow. The Traveler asserted that he had, with the hire of the Ass, hired his Shadow also. The quarrel proceeded from words to blows, and while the men fought, the Ass galloped off. In quarreling about the shadow we often lose the substance.
126- The Ass and His Masters AN ASS, belonging to an herb-seller who gave him too little food and too much work made a petition to Jupiter to be released from his present service and pro-vided with another master. Jupiter, after warning him that he would repent his request, caused him to be sold to a tile-maker. Shortly afterwards, ﬁnding that he had heavier loads to carry and harder work in the brick-ﬁeld, he petitioned for another change of master. Jupiter, telling him that it would be the last time that he could grant his request, ordained that he be sold to a tanner. The Ass found that he had fallen into worse hands, and noting his master’s occupation, said, groaning: “It would have been better for me to have been either starved by the one, or to have been overworked by the other of my former masters, than to have been bought by my present owner, who will even after I am dead tan my hide, and make me useful to him.”
127- The Oak and the Reeds A VERY LARGE OAK was uprooted by the wind and thrown across a stream. It fell among some Reeds, which it thus addressed: “I wonder how you, who are so light and weak, are not entirely crushed by these strong winds.” They replied, “You ﬁght and contend with the wind, and consequently you are destroyed; while we on the contrary bend before the least breath of air, and therefore remain unbroken, and escape.” Stoop to conquer. 128- The Fisherman and the Little Fish A FISHERMAN who lived on the produce of his nets, one day caught a single small Fish as the result of his day’s labor. The Fish, panting convulsively, thus en-treated for his life: “O Sir, what good can I be to you, and how little am I worth? I am not yet come to my full size. Pray spare my life, and put me back into the sea. I shall soon become a large ﬁsh ﬁt for the tables of the rich, and then you can catch me again, and make a handsome proﬁt of me.” The Fisherman replied, “I should indeed be a very simple fellow if, for the chance of a greater uncertain proﬁt, I were to forego my present certain gain.”
129- The Hunter and the Woodman A HUNTER, not very bold, was searching for the tracks of a Lion. He asked a man felling oaks in the forest if he had seen any marks of his footsteps or knew where his lair was. “I will,” said the man, “at once show you the Lion himself.” The Hunter, turning very pale and chattering with his teeth from fear, replied, “No, thank you. I did not ask that; it is his track only I am in search of, not the Lion himself.” The hero is brave in deeds as well as words.
130- The Wild Boar and the Fox A WILD BOAR stood under a tree and rubbed his tusks against the trunk. A Fox passing by asked him why he thus sharpened his teeth when there was no danger threatening from either huntsman or hound. He replied, “I do it advisedly; for it would never do to have to sharpen my weapons just at the time I ought to be using them.”
131- The Lion in a Farmyard A LION entered a farmyard. The Farmer, wishing to catch him, shut the gate. When the Lion found that he could not escape, he ﬂew upon the sheep and killed them, and then attacked the oxen. The Farmer, beginning to be alarmed for his own safety, opened the gate and released the Lion. On his departure the Farmer grievously lamented the destruction of his sheep and oxen, but his wife, who had been a spectator to all that took place, said, “On my word, you are rightly served, for how could you for a moment think
of shutting up a Lion along with you in your farmyard when you know that you shake in your shoes if you only hear his roar at a distance?’ 132- Mercury and the Sculptor MERCURY ONCE DETERMINED to learn in what esteem he was held among mortals. For this purpose he assumed the character of a man and visited in this disguise a Sculptor’s studio having looked at various statues, he demanded the price of two ﬁgures of Jupiter and Juno. When the sum at which they were valued was named, he pointed to a ﬁgure of himself, saying to the Sculptor, “You will certainly want much more for this, as it is the statue of the Messenger of the Gods, and author of all your gain.” The Sculptor replied, “Well, if you will buy these, I’ll ﬂing you that into the bargain.”
133- The Swan and the Goose A CERTAIN rich man bought in the market a Goose and a Swan. He fed the one for his table and kept the other for the sake of its song. When the time came for killing the Goose, the cook went to get him at night, when it was dark, and he was not able to distinguish one bird from the other. By mistake he caught the Swan instead of the Goose. The Swan, threatened with death, burst forth into song and thus made himself known by his voice, and preserved his life by his melody.
134- The Swollen Fox A VERY HUNGRY FOX, seeing some bread and meat left by shepherds in the hollow of an oak, crept into the hole and made a hearty meal. When he ﬁnished, he was so full that he was not able to get out, and began to groan and lament his fate. Another Fox passing by heard his cries, and coming up, inquired the cause of his complaining. On learning what had happened, he said to him, “Ah, you will have to remain there, my friend, until you become such as you were when you crept in, and then you will easily get out.”
135- The Fox and the Woodcutter A FOX, running before the hounds, came across a Woodcutter felling an oak and begged him to show him a safe hiding-place. The Woodcutter advised him to take shelter in his own hut, so the Fox crept in and hid himself in a corner. The huntsman soon came up with his hounds and inquired of the Woodcutter if he had seen the Fox. He declared that he had not seen him, and yet pointed, all the time he was speaking, to the hut where the Fox lay hidden. The huntsman took no notice of the signs, but believing his word, hastened forward in the chase. As soon as they were well away, the Fox departed without taking any notice of the Wood-cutter: whereon he called to him and reproached him,
saying, “You ungrateful fel-low, you owe your life to me, and yet you leave me without a word of thanks.” The Fox replied, “Indeed, I should have thanked you fervently if your deeds had been as good as your words, and if your hands had not been traitors to your speech.” 136- The Birdcatcher, the Partridge, and the Cock A BIRDCATCHER was about to sit down to a dinner of herbs when a friend unexpectedly came in. The bird-trap was quite empty, as he had caught nothing, and he had to kill a pied Partridge, which he had tamed for a decoy. The bird entreated earnestly for his life: “What would you do without me when next you spread your nets? Who would chirp you to sleep, or call for you the covey of answering birds?’ The Birdcatcher spared his life, and determined to pick out a ﬁne young Cock just attaining to his comb. But the Cock expostulated in piteous tones from his perch: “If you kill me, who will announce to you the appearance of the dawn? Who will wake you to your daily tasks or tell you when it is time to visit the bird-trap in the morning?’ He replied, “What you say is true. You are a capital bird at telling the time of day. But my friend and I must have our dinners.” Necessity knows no law.
137- The Monkey and the Fishermen A MONKEY perched upon a lofty tree saw some Fishermen casting their nets into a river, and narrowly watched their proceedings. The Fishermen after a while gave up ﬁshing, and on going home to dinner left their nets upon the bank. The Monkey, who is the most imitative of animals, descended from the treetop and endeavored to do as they had done. Having handled the net, he threw it into the river, but became tangled in the meshes and drowned. With his last breath he said to himself, “I am rightly served; for what business had I who had never han-dled a net to try and catch ﬁsh?’
138- The Flea and the Wrestler A FLEA settled upon the bare foot of a Wrestler and bit him, causing the man to call loudly upon Hercules for help. When the Flea a second time hopped upon his foot, he groaned and said, “O Hercules! if you will not help me against a Flea, how can I hope for your assistance against greater antagonists?’
139- The Two Frogs TWO FROGS dwelt in the same pool. When the pool dried up under the sum-mer’s heat, they left it and set out together for another home. As they went along they chanced to pass a deep well, amply supplied with water, and when they saw it, one of the Frogs said to the other, “Let us descend and make our abode in this well: it will furnish us with
shelter and food.” The other replied with greater cau-tion, “But suppose the water should fail us. How can we get out again from so great a depth?’ Do nothing without a regard to the consequences. 140- The Cat and the Mice A CERTAIN HOUSE was overrun with Mice. A Cat, discovering this, made her way into it and began to catch and eat them one by one. Fearing for their lives, the Mice kept themselves close in their holes. The Cat was no longer able to get at them and perceived that she must tempt them forth by some device. For this purpose she jumped upon a peg, and suspending herself from it, pretended to be dead. One of the Mice, peeping stealthily out, saw her and said, “Ah, my good madam, even though you should turn into a mealbag, we will not come near you.”
141- The Lion, the Bear, and the Fox A LION and a Bear seized a Kid at the same moment, and fought ﬁercely for its possession. When they had fearfully lacerated each other and were faint from the long combat, they lay down exhausted with fatigue. A Fox, who had gone round them at a distance several times, saw them both stretched on the ground with the Kid lying untouched in the middle. He ran in between them, and seizing the Kid scampered off as fast as he could. The Lion and the Bear saw him, but not being able to get up, said, “Woe be to us, that we should have fought and belabored our-selves only to serve the turn of a Fox.” It sometimes happens that one man has all the toil, and another all the proﬁt.
142- The Doe and the Lion A DOE hard pressed by hunters sought refuge in a cave belonging to a Lion. The Lion concealed himself on seeing her approach, but when she was safe within the cave, sprang upon her and tore her to pieces. “Woe is me,” exclaimed the Doe, “who have escaped from man, only to throw myself into the mouth of a wild beast?’ In avoiding one evil, care must be taken not to fall into another.
143- The Farmer and the Fox A FARMER, who bore a grudge against a Fox for robbing his poultry yard, caught him at last, and being determined to take an ample revenge, tied some rope well soaked in oil to his tail, and set it on ﬁre. The Fox by a strange fatal-ity rushed to the ﬁelds of the Farmer who had captured him. It was the time of the wheat harvest; but the Farmer reaped nothing that year and returned home grieving sorely. 144- The Seagull and the Kite A SEAGULL having bolted down too large a ﬁsh, burst its deep gullet-bag and lay
down on the shore to die. A Kite saw him and exclaimed: “You richly deserve your fate; for a bird of the air has no business to seek its food from the sea.” Every man should be content to mind his own business.
145- The Philosopher, the Ants, and Mercury A PHILOSOPHER witnessed from the shore the shipwreck of a vessel, of which the crew and passengers were all drowned. He inveighed against the injustice of Providence, which would for the sake of one criminal perchance sailing in the ship allow so many innocent persons to perish. As he was indulging in these re-ﬂections, he found himself surrounded by a whole army of Ants, near whose nest he was standing. One of them climbed up and stung him, and he immediately trampled them all to death with his foot. Mercury presented himself, and strik-ing the Philosopher with his wand, said, “And are you indeed to make yourself a judge of the dealings of Providence, who hast thyself in a similar manner treated these poor Ants?’
146- The Mouse and the Bull A BULL was bitten by a Mouse and, angered by the wound, tried to capture him. But the Mouse reached his hole in safety. Though the Bull dug into the walls with his horns, he tired before he could rout out the Mouse, and crouching down, went to sleep outside the hole. The Mouse peeped out, crept furtively up his ﬂank, and again biting him, retreated to his hole. The Bull rising up, and not knowing what to do, was sadly perplexed. At which the Mouse said, “The great do not al-ways prevail. There are times when the small and lowly are the strongest to do mischief.”
147- The Lion and the Hare A LION came across a Hare, who was fast asleep. He was just in the act of seiz-ing her, when a ﬁne young Hart trotted by, and he left the Hare to follow him. The Hare, scared by the noise, awoke and scudded away. The Lion was unable after a long chase to catch the Hart, and returned to feed upon the Hare. On ﬁnding that the Hare also had run off, he said, “I am rightly served, for having let go of the food that I had in my hand for the chance of obtaining more.” 148- The Peasant and the Eagle A PEASANT found an Eagle captured in a trap, and much admiring the bird, set him free. The Eagle did not prove ungrateful to his deliverer, for seeing the Peasant sitting under a wall which was not safe, he ﬂew toward him and with his talons snatched a bundle from his head. When the Peasant rose in pursuit, the Eagle let the bundle fall again. Taking it up, the man returned to the same place, to ﬁnd that the wall under which
he had been sitting had fallen to pieces; and he marveled at the service rendered him by the Eagle.
149- The Image of Mercury and the Carpenter A VERY POOR MAN, a Carpenter by trade, had a wooden image of Mercury, before which he made offerings day by day, and begged the idol to make him rich, but in spite of his entreaties he became poorer and poorer. At last, being very angry, he took his image down from its pedestal and dashed it against the wall. When its head was knocked off, out came a stream of gold, which the Carpenter quickly picked up and said, “Well, I think thou art altogether contradictory and unreasonable; for when I paid you honor, I reaped no beneﬁts: but now that I maltreat you I am loaded with an abundance of riches.”
150- The Bull and the Goat A BULL, escaping from a Lion, hid in a cave which some shepherds had recently occupied. As soon as he entered, a He-Goat left in the cave sharply attacked him with his horns. The Bull quietly addressed him: “Butt away as much as you will. I have no fear of you, but of the Lion. Let that monster go away and I will soon let you know what is the respective strength of a Goat and a Bull.” It shows an evil disposition to take advantage of a friend in distress.
151- The Dancing Monkeys A PRINCE had some Monkeys trained to dance. Being naturally great mim-ics of men’s actions, they showed themselves most apt pupils, and when arrayed in their rich clothes and masks, they danced as well as any of the courtiers. The spectacle was often repeated with great applause, till on one occasion a courtier, bent on mischief, took from his pocket a handful of nuts and threw them upon the stage. The Monkeys at the sight of the nuts forgot their dancing and became (as indeed they were) Monkeys instead of actors. Pulling off their masks and tearing their robes, they fought with one another for the nuts. The dancing spectacle thus came to an end amidst the laughter and ridicule of the audience. 152- The Fox and the Leopard THE FOX and the Leopard disputed which was the more beautiful of the two. The Leopard exhibited one by one the various spots which decorated his skin. But the Fox, interrupting him, said, “And how much more beautiful than you am I, who am decorated, not in body, but in mind.”
153- The Monkeys and Their Mother THE MONKEY, it is said, has two young ones at each birth. The Mother fondles one and nurtures it with the greatest affection and care, but hates and neglects the other. It happened once that the young one which was caressed and loved was smothered by the too great affection of the Mother, while the despised one was nurtured and reared in spite of the neglect to which it was exposed. The best intentions will not always ensure success.
154- The Oaks and Jupiter THE OAKS presented a complaint to Jupiter, saying, “We bear for no purpose the burden of life, as of all the trees that grow we are the most continually in peril of the axe.” Jupiter made answer: “You have only to thank yourselves for the mis-fortunes to which you are exposed: for if you did not make such excellent pillars and posts, and prove yourselves so serviceable to the carpenters and the farmers, the axe would not so frequently be laid to your roots.”
155- The Hare and the Hound A HOUND started a Hare from his lair, but after a long run, gave up the chase. A goatherd seeing him stop, mocked him, saying “The little one is the best runner of the two.” The Hound replied, “You do not see the difference between us: I was only running for a dinner, but he for his life.”
156- The Traveler and Fortune A TRAVELER wearied from a long journey lay down, overcome with fatigue, on the very brink of a deep well. Just as he was about to fall into the water, Dame Fortune, it is said, appeared to him and waking him from his slumber thus ad-dressed him: “Good Sir, pray wake up: for if you fall into the well, the blame will be thrown on me, and I shall get an ill name among mortals; for I ﬁnd that men are sure to impute their calamities to me, however much by their own folly they have really brought them on themselves.” Everyone is more or less master of his own fate. 157- The Bald Knight A BALD KNIGHT, who wore a wig, went out to hunt. A sudden puff of wind blew off his hat and wig, at which a loud laugh rang forth from his companions. He pulled up his horse, and with great glee joined in the joke by saying, “What a marvel it is that hairs which are not mine should ﬂy from me, when they have forsaken even the man on whose head they grew.”
158- The Shepherd and the Dog A SHEPHERD penning his sheep in the fold for the night was about to shut up a wolf with them, when his Dog perceiving the wolf said, “Master, how can you expect the sheep to be safe if you admit a wolf into the fold?’
159- The Lamp A LAMP, soaked with too much oil and ﬂaring brightly, boasted that it gave more light than the sun. Then a sudden puff of wind arose, and the Lamp was immediately extinguished. Its owner lit it again, and said: “Boast no more, but henceforth be content to give thy light in silence. Know that not even the stars need to be relit”
160- The Lion, the Fox, and the Ass THE LION, the Fox and the Ass entered into an agreement to assist each other in the chase. Having secured a large booty, the Lion on their return from the forest asked the Ass to allot his due portion to each of the three partners in the treaty. The Ass carefully divided the spoil into three equal shares and modestly requested the two others to make the ﬁrst choice. The Lion, bursting out into a great rage, devoured the Ass. Then he requested the Fox to do him the favor to make a division. The Fox accumulated all that they had killed into one large heap and left to himself the smallest possible morsel. The Lion said, “Who has taught you, my very excellent fellow, the art of division? You are perfect to a fraction.” He replied, “I learned it from the Ass, by witnessing his fate.” Happy is the man who learns from the misfortunes of others.
161- The Bull, the Lioness, and the Wild-Boar Hunter A BULL ﬁnding a lion’s cub asleep gored him to death with his horns. The Lion-ess came up, and bitterly lamented the death of her whelp. A wild-boar Hunter, seeing her distress, stood at a distance and said to her, “Think how many men there are who have reason to lament the loss of their children, whose deaths have been caused by you.” 162- The Oak and the Woodcutters THE WOODCUTTER cut down a Mountain Oak and split it in pieces, making wedges of its own branches for dividing the trunk. The Oak said with a sigh, “I do not care about the blows of the axe aimed at my roots, but I do grieve at being torn in pieces by these wedges made from my own branches.” Misfortunes springing from ourselves are the hardest to bear.
163- The Hen and the Golden Eggs
A COTTAGER and his wife had a Hen that laid a golden egg every day. They supposed that the Hen must contain a great lump of gold in its inside, and in order to get the gold they killed it. Having done so, they found to their surprise that the Hen differed in no respect from their other hens. The foolish pair, thus hoping to become rich all at once, deprived themselves of the gain of which they were assured day by day.
164- The Ass and the Frogs AN ASS, carrying a load of wood, passed through a pond. As he was crossing through the water he lost his footing, stumbled and fell, and not being able to rise on account of his load, groaned heavily. Some Frogs frequenting the pool heard his lamentation, and said, “What would you do if you had to live here always as we do, when you make such a fuss about a mere fall into the water?” Men often bear little grievances with less courage than they do large misfortunes.
165- The Crow and the Raven A CROW was jealous of the Raven, because he was considered a bird of good omen and always attracted the attention of men, who noted by his ﬂight the good or evil course of future events. Seeing some travelers approaching, the Crow ﬂew up into a tree, and perching herself on one of the branches, cawed as loudly as she could. The travelers turned towards the sound and wondered what it foreboded, when one of them said to his companion, “Let us proceed on our journey, my friend, for it is only the caw of a crow, and her cry, you know, is no omen.” Those who assume a character which does not belong to them, only make themselves ridiculous.
166- The Trees and the Axe A MAN came into a forest and asked the Trees to provide him a handle for his axe. The Trees consented to his request and gave him a young ash-tree. No sooner had the man ﬁtted a new handle to his axe from it, than he began to use it and quickly felled with his strokes the noblest giants of the forest. An old oak, lament-ing when too late the destruction of his companions, said to a neighboring cedar, “The ﬁrst step has lost us all. If we had not given up the rights of the ash, we might yet have retained our own privileges and have stood for ages.”
167- The Crab and the Fox A CRAB, forsaking the seashore, chose a neighboring green meadow as its feed-ing ground. A Fox came across him, and being very hungry ate him up. Just as he was on the
point of being eaten, the Crab said, “I well deserve my fate, for what business had I on the land, when by my nature and habits I am only adapted for the sea?’ Contentment with our lot is an element of happiness.
168- The Woman and Her Hen A WOMAN possessed a Hen that gave her an egg every day. She often pondered how she might obtain two eggs daily instead of one, and at last, to gain her pur-pose, determined to give the Hen a double allowance of barley. From that day the Hen became fat and sleek, and never once laid another egg.
169- The Ass and the Old Shepherd A SHEPHERD, watching his Ass feeding in a meadow, was alarmed all of a sudden by the cries of the enemy. He appealed to the Ass to ﬂy with him, lest they should both be captured, but the animal lazily replied, “Why should I, pray? Do you think it likely the conqueror will place on me two sets of panniers?’ “No,” re-joined the Shepherd. “Then,” said the Ass, “as long as I carry the panniers, what matters it to me whom I serve?’ In a change of government the poor change noth-ing beyond the name of their master.
170- The Kites and the Swans THE KITES of olden times, as well as the Swans, had the privilege of song. But having heard the neigh of the horse, they were so enchanted with the sound, that they tried to imitate it; and, in trying to neigh, they forgot how to sing. The desire for imaginary beneﬁts often involves the loss of present blessings.
171- The Wolves and the Sheepdogs THE WOLVES thus addressed the Sheepdogs: “Why should you, who are like us in so many things, not be entirely of one mind with us, and live with us as brothers should? We differ from you in one point only. We live in freedom, but you bow down to and slave for men, who in return for your services ﬂog you with whips and put collars on your necks. They make you also guard their sheep, and while they eat the mutton throw only the bones to you. If you will be persuaded by us, you will give us the sheep, and we will enjoy them in common, till we all are surfeited.” The Dogs listened favorably to these proposals, and, entering the den of the Wolves, they were set upon and torn to pieces.
172- The Hares and the Foxes
THE HARES waged war with the Eagles, and called upon the Foxes to help them. They replied, “We would willingly have helped you, if we had not known who you were, and with whom you were ﬁghting.” Count the cost before you commit yourselves.
173- The Bowman and Lion A VERY SKILLFUL BOWMAN went to the mountains in search of game, but all the beasts of the forest ﬂed at his approach. The Lion alone challenged him to combat. The Bowman immediately shot out an arrow and said to the Lion: “I send thee my messenger, that from him thou mayest learn what I myself shall be when I assail thee.” The wounded Lion rushed away in great fear, and when a Fox who had seen it all happen told him to be of good courage and not to back off at the ﬁrst attack he replied: “You counsel me in vain; for if he sends so fearful a mes-senger, how shall I abide the attack of the man himself?’ Be on guard against men who can strike from a distance.
174- The Camel WHEN MAN ﬁrst saw the Camel, he was so frightened at his vast size that he ran away. After a time, perceiving the meekness and gentleness of the beast’s tem-per, he summoned courage enough to approach him. Soon afterwards, observing that he was an animal altogether deﬁcient in spirit, he assumed such boldness as to put a bridle in his mouth, and to let a child drive him. Use serves to overcome dread.
175- The Wasp and the Snake A WASP seated himself upon the head of a Snake and, striking him unceasingly with his stings, wounded him to death. The Snake, being in great torment and not knowing how to rid himself of his enemy, saw a wagon heavily laden with wood, and went and purposely placed his head under the wheels, saying, “At least my enemy and I shall perish together.” 176- The Dog and the Hare A HOUND having started a Hare on the hillside pursued her for some distance, at one time biting her with his teeth as if he would take her life, and at another fawning upon her, as if in play with another dog. The Hare said to him, “I wish you would act sincerely by me, and show yourself in your true colors. If you are a friend, why do you bite me so hard? If an enemy, why do you fawn on me?’ No one can be a friend if you know not whether to trust or distrust him.
177- The Bull and the Calf
A BULL was striving with all his might to squeeze himself through a narrow passage which led to his stall. A young Calf came up, and offered to go before and show him the way by which he could manage to pass. “Save yourself the trouble,” said the Bull; “I knew that way long before you were born.”
178- The Stag, the Wolf, and the Sheep A STAG asked a Sheep to lend him a measure of wheat, and said that the Wolf would be his surety. The Sheep, fearing some fraud was intended, excused her-self, saying, “The Wolf is accustomed to seize what he wants and to run off; and you, too, can quickly outstrip me in your rapid ﬂight. How then shall I be able to ﬁnd you, when the day of payment comes?’ Two blacks do not make one white.
179- The Peacock and the Crane A PEACOCK spreading its gorgeous tail mocked a Crane that passed by, ridicul-ing the ashen hue of its plumage and saying, “I am robed, like a king, in gold and purple and all the colors of the rainbow; while you have not a bit of color on your wings.” “True,” replied the Crane; “but I soar to the heights of heaven and lift up my voice to the stars, while you walk below, like a cock, among the birds of the dunghill.” Fine feathers don’t make ﬁne birds.
180- The Fox and the Hedgehog A FOX swimming across a rapid river was carried by the force of the current into a very deep ravine, where he lay for a long time very much bruised, sick, and unable to move. A swarm of hungry blood-sucking ﬂies settled upon him. A Hedgehog, passing by, saw his anguish and inquired if he should drive away the ﬂies that were tormenting him. “By no means,” replied the Fox; “pray do not mo-lest them.” “How is this?’ said the Hedgehog; “do you not want to be rid of them?’ “No,” returned the Fox, “for these ﬂies which you see are full of blood, and sting me but little, and if you rid me of these which are already satiated, others more hungry will come in their place, and will drink up all the blood I have left.”
181- The Eagle, the Cat, and the Wild Sow AN EAGLE made her nest at the top of a lofty oak; a Cat, having found a convenient hole, moved into the middle of the trunk; and a Wild Sow, with her young, took shelter in a hollow at its foot. The Cat cunningly resolved to destroy this chance-made colony. To carry out her design, she climbed to the nest of the Eagle, and said, “Destruction is
preparing for you, and for me too, unfortunately. The Wild Sow, whom you see daily digging up the earth, wishes to uproot the oak, so she may on its fall seize our families as food for her young.” Having thus frightened the Eagle out of her senses, she crept down to the cave of the Sow, and said, “Your children are in great danger; for as soon as you go out with your litter to ﬁnd food, the Eagle is prepared to pounce upon one of your little pigs.” Having instilled these fears into the Sow, she went and pretended to hide herself in the hollow of the tree. When night came she went forth with silent foot and obtained food for herself and her kittens, but feigning to be afraid, she kept a lookout all through the day. Meanwhile, the Eagle, full of fear of the Sow, sat still on the branches, and the Sow, terriﬁed by the Eagle, did not dare to go out from her cave. And thus they both, along with their families, perished from hunger, and afforded ample provision for the Cat and her kittens.
182- The Thief and the Innkeeper A THIEF hired a room in a tavern and stayed a while in the hope of stealing something which should enable him to pay his reckoning. When he had waited some days in vain, he saw the Innkeeper dressed in a new and handsome coat and sitting before his door. The Thief sat down beside him and talked with him. As the conversation began to ﬂag, the Thief yawned terribly and at the same time howled like a wolf. The Innkeeper said, “Why do you howl so fearfully?’ “I will tell you,” said the Thief, “but ﬁrst let me ask you to hold my clothes, or I shall tear them to pieces. I know not, sir, when I got this habit of yawning, nor whether these attacks of howling were inﬂicted on me as a judgment for my crimes, or for any other cause; but this I do know, that when I yawn for the third time, I actually turn into a wolf and attack men.” With this speech he commenced a second ﬁt of yawning and again howled like a wolf, as he had at ﬁrst. The Innkeeper. hearing his tale and believing what he said, became greatly alarmed and, rising from his seat, attempted to run away. The Thief laid hold of his coat and entreated him to stop, saying, “Pray wait, sir, and hold my clothes, or I shall tear them to pieces in my fury, when I turn into a wolf.” At the same moment he yawned the third time and set up a terrible howl. The Innkeeper, frightened lest he should be attacked, left his new coat in the Thief’s hand and ran as fast as he could into the inn for safety. The Thief made off with the coat and did not return again to the inn. Every tale is not to be believed.
183- The Mule A MULE, frolicsome from lack of work and from too much corn, galloped about in a very extravagant manner, and said to himself: “My father surely was a high-mettled racer, and I am his own child in speed and spirit.” On the next day, being driven a long journey, and feeling very wearied, he exclaimed in a disconsolate tone: “I must have
made a mistake; my father, after all, could have been only an ass.”
184- The Hart and the Vine A HART, hard pressed in the chase, hid himself beneath the large leaves of a Vine. The huntsmen, in their haste, overshot the place of his concealment. Sup-posing all danger to have passed, the Hart began to nibble the tendrils of the Vine. One of the huntsmen, attracted by the rustling of the leaves, looked back, and seeing the Hart, shot an arrow from his bow and struck it. The Hart, at the point of death, groaned: “I am rightly served, for I should not have maltreated the Vine that saved me.”
185- The Serpent and the Eagle A SERPENT and an Eagle were struggling with each other in deadly conﬂict. The Serpent had the advantage, and was about to strangle the bird. A country-man saw them, and running up, loosed the coil of the Serpent and let the Eagle go free. The Serpent, irritated at the escape of his prey, injected his poison into the drinking horn of the countryman. The rustic, ignorant of his danger, was about to drink, when the Eagle struck his hand with his wing, and, seizing the drinking horn in his talons, carried it aloft.
186- The Crow and the Pitcher A CROW perishing with thirst saw a pitcher, and hoping to ﬁnd water, ﬂew to it with delight. When he reached it, he discovered to his grief that it contained so little water that he could not possibly get at it. He tried everything he could think of to reach the water, but all his efforts were in vain. At last he collected as many stones as he could carry and dropped them one by one with his beak into the pitcher, until he brought the water within his reach and thus saved his life. Necessity is the mother of invention. 187- The Two Frogs TWO FROGS were neighbors. One inhabited a deep pond, far removed from public view; the other lived in a gully containing little water, and traversed by a country road. The Frog that lived in the pond warned his friend to change his resi-dence and entreated him to come and live with him, saying that he would enjoy greater safety from danger and more abundant food. The other refused, saying that he felt it so very hard to leave a place to which he had become accustomed. A few days afterwards a heavy wagon passed through the gully and crushed him to death under its wheels. A willful man will have his way to his own hurt.
188- The Wolf and the Fox
AT ONE TIME a very large and strong Wolf was born among the wolves, who exceeded all his fellow-wolves in strength, size, and swiftness, so that they unani-mously decided to call him “Lion.” The Wolf, with a lack of sense proportioned to his enormous size, thought that they gave him this name in earnest, and, leaving his own race, consorted exclusively with the lions. An old sly Fox, seeing this, said, “May I never make myself so ridiculous as you do in your pride and self-con-ceit; for even though you have the size of a lion among wolves, in a herd of lions you are deﬁnitely a wolf.”
189- The Walnut-Tree A WALNUT TREE standing by the roadside bore an abundant crop of fruit. For the sake of the nuts, the passers-by broke its branches with stones and sticks. The WalnutTree piteously exclaimed, “O wretched me! that those whom I cheer with my fruit should repay me with these painful requitals!”
190- The Gnat and the Lion A GNAT came and said to a Lion, “I do not in the least fear you, nor are you stronger than I am. For in what does your strength consist? You can scratch with your claws and bite with your teeth an a woman in her quarrels. I repeat that I am altogether more powerful than you; and if you doubt it, let us ﬁght and see who will conquer.” The Gnat, having sounded his horn, fastened himself upon the Lion and stung him on the nostrils and the parts of the face devoid of hair. While trying to crush him, the Lion tore himself with his claws, until he punished him-self severely. The Gnat thus prevailed over the Lion, and, buzzing about in a song of triumph, ﬂew away. But shortly afterwards he became entangled in the meshes of a cobweb and was eaten by a spider. He greatly lamented his fate, saying, “Woe is me! that I, who can wage war successfully with the hugest beasts, should perish myself from this spider, the most inconsiderable of insects!” 191- The Monkey and the Dolphin A SAILOR, bound on a long voyage, took with him a Monkey to amuse him while on shipboard. As he sailed off the coast of Greece, a violent tempest arose in which the ship was wrecked and he, his Monkey, and all the crew were obliged to swim for their lives. A Dolphin saw the Monkey contending with the waves, and supposing him to be a man (whom he is always said to befriend), came and placed himself under him, to convey him on his back in safety to the shore. When the Dolphin arrived with his burden in sight of land not far from Athens, he asked the Monkey if he were an Athenian. The latter replied that he was, and that he was descended from one of the most noble families in that city. The Dolphin then inquired if he knew the Piraeus (the famous harbor of Athens). Supposing that a man was meant, the Monkey answered that he knew him very well and that he was an intimate friend. The Dolphin, indignant at these falsehoods, dipped the
Monkey under the water and drowned him.
192- The Jackdaw and the Doves A JACKDAW, seeing some Doves in a cote abundantly provided with food, painted himself white and joined them in order to share their plentiful mainte-nance. The Doves, as long as he was silent, supposed him to be one of themselves and admitted him to their cote. But when one day he forgot himself and began to chatter, they discovered his true character and drove him forth, pecking him with their beaks. Failing to obtain food among the Doves, he returned to the Jackdaws. They too, not recognizing him on account of his color. expelled him from living with them. So desiring two ends, he obtained neither.
193- The Horse and the Stag AT ONE TIME the Horse had the plain entirely to himself. Then a Stag intruded into his domain and shared his pasture. The Horse, desiring to revenge himself on the stranger, asked a man if he were willing to help him in punishing the Stag. The man replied that if the Horse would receive a bit in his mouth and agree to carry him, he would contrive effective weapons against the Stag. The Horse con-sented and allowed the man to mount him. From that hour he found that instead of obtaining revenge on the Stag, he had enslaved himself to the service of man.
194- The Kid and the Wolf A KID, returning without protection from the pasture, was pursued by a Wolf. Seeing he could not escape, he turned round, and said: “I know, friend Wolf, that I must be your prey, but before I die I would ask of you one favor you will play me a tune to which I may dance.” The Wolf complied, and while he was piping and the Kid was dancing, some hounds hearing the sound ran up and began chasing the Wolf. Turning to the Kid, he said, “It is just what I deserve; for I, who am only a butcher, should not have turned piper to please you.”
195- The Prophet A WIZARD, sitting in the marketplace, was telling the fortunes of the passers-by when a person ran up in great haste, and announced to him that the doors of his house had been broken open and that all his goods were being stolen. He sighed heavily and hastened away as fast as he could run. A neighbor saw him running and said, “Oh! you fellow there! you say you can foretell the fortunes of others; how is it you did not foresee your
196- The Fox and the Monkey A FOX and a Monkey were traveling together on the same road. As they jour-neyed, they passed through a cemetery full of monuments. “All these monuments which you see,” said the Monkey, “are erected in honor of my ancestors, who were in their day freedmen and citizens of great renown.” The Fox replied, “You have chosen a most appropriate subject for your falsehoods, as I am sure none of your ancestors will be able to contradict you.” A false tale often betrays itself.
197- The Thief and the Housedog A THIEF came in the night to break into a house. He brought with him several slices of meat in order to pacify the Housedog, so that he would not alarm his master by barking. As the Thief threw him the pieces of meat, the Dog said, “If you think to stop my mouth, you will be greatly mistaken. This sudden kindness at your hands will only make me more watchful, lest under these unexpected fa-vors to myself, you have some private ends to accomplish for your own beneﬁt, and for my master’s injury.”
198- The Man, the Horse, the Ox, and the Dog A HORSE, Ox, and Dog, driven to great straits by the cold, sought shelter and protection from Man. He received them kindly, lighted a ﬁre, and warmed them. He let the Horse make free with his oats, gave the Ox an abundance of hay, and fed the Dog with meat from his own table. Grateful for these favors, the animals determined to repay him to the best of their ability. For this purpose, they divided the term of his life between them, and each endowed one portion of it with the qualities which chieﬂy characterized himself. The Horse chose his earliest years and gave them his own attributes: hence every man is in his youth impetuous, headstrong, and obstinate in maintaining his own opinion. The Ox took under his patronage the next term of life, and therefore man in his middle age is fond of work, devoted to labor, and resolute to amass wealth and to husband his resources. The end of life was reserved for the Dog, wherefore the old man is often snappish, irritable, hard to please, and selﬁsh, tolerant only of his own house-hold, but averse to strangers and to all who do not administer to his comfort or to his necessities.
199- The Apes and the Two Travelers TWO MEN, one who always spoke the truth and the other who told nothing but lies, were traveling together and by chance came to the land of Apes. One of the Apes, who
had raised himself to be king, commanded them to be seized and brought before him, that he might know what was said of him among men. He ordered at the same time that all the Apes be arranged in a long row on his right hand and on his left, and that a throne be placed for him, as was the cus-tom among men. After these preparations he signiﬁed that the two men should be brought before him, and greeted them with this salutation: “What sort of a king do I seem to you to be, O strangers?’ The Lying Traveler replied, “You seem to me a most mighty king.” “And what is your estimate of those you see around me?’ “These,” he made answer, “are worthy companions of yourself, ﬁt at least to be ambassadors and leaders of armies.” The Ape and all his court, gratiﬁed with the lie, commanded that a handsome present be given to the ﬂatterer. On this the truthful Traveler thought to himself, “If so great a reward be given for a lie, with what gift may not I be rewarded, if, according to my custom, I tell the truth?’ The Ape quickly turned to him. “And pray how do I and these my friends around me seem to you?’ “Thou art,” he said, “a most excellent Ape, and all these thy com-panions after thy example are excellent Apes too.” The King of the Apes, enraged at hearing these truths, gave him over to the teeth and claws of his companions.
200- The Wolf and the Shepherd A WOLF followed a ﬂock of sheep for a long time and did not attempt to injure one of them. The Shepherd at ﬁrst stood on his guard against him, as against an enemy, and kept a strict watch over his movements. But when the Wolf, day after day, kept in the company of the sheep and did not make the slightest effort to seize them, the Shepherd began to look upon him as a guardian of his ﬂock rather than as a plotter of evil against it; and when occasion called him one day into the city, he left the sheep entirely in his charge. The Wolf, now that he had the oppor-tunity, fell upon the sheep, and destroyed the greater part of the ﬂock. When the Shepherd returned to ﬁnd his ﬂock destroyed, he exclaimed: “I have been rightly served; why did I trust my sheep to a Wolf?’
201- The Hares and the Lions THE HARES harangued the assembly, and argued that all should be equal. The Lions made this reply: “Your words, O Hares! are good; but they lack both claws and teeth such as we have.”
202- The Lark and Her Young Ones A LARK had made her nest in the early spring on the young green wheat. The brood had almost grown to their full strength and attained the use of their wings and the full plumage of their feathers, when the owner of the ﬁeld, looking over his ripe crop, said,
“The time has come when I must ask all my neighbors to help me with my harvest.” One of the young Larks heard his speech and related it to his mother, inquiring of her to what place they should move for safety. “There is no occasion to move yet, my son,” she replied; “the man who only sends to his friends to help him with his harvest is not really in earnest.” The owner of the ﬁeld came again a few days later and saw the wheat shedding the grain from excess of ripeness. He said, “I will come myself tomorrow with my laborers, and with as many reapers as I can hire, and will get in the harvest.” The Lark on hearing these words said to her brood, “It is time now to be off, my little ones, for the man is in earnest this time; he no longer trusts his friends, but will reap the ﬁeld himself.” Self-help is the best help.
203- The Fox and the Lion WHEN A FOX who had never yet seen a Lion, fell in with him by chance for the ﬁrst time in the forest, he was so frightened that he nearly died with fear. On meeting him for the second time, he was still much alarmed, but not to the same extent as at ﬁrst. On seeing him the third time, he so increased in boldness that he went up to him and commenced a familiar conversation with him. Acquaintance softens prejudices.
204- The Weasel and the Mice A WEASEL, inactive from age and inﬁrmities, was not able to catch mice as he once did. He therefore rolled himself in ﬂour and lay down in a dark corner. A Mouse, supposing him to be food, leaped upon him, and was instantly caught and squeezed to death. Another perished in a similar manner, and then a third, and still others after them. A very old Mouse, who had escaped many a trap and snare, observed from a safe distance the trick of his crafty foe and said, “Ah! you that lie there, may you prosper just in the same proportion as you are what you pretend to be!”
205- The Boy Bathing A BOY bathing in a river was in danger of being drowned. He called out to a passing traveler for help, but instead of holding out a helping hand, the man stood by unconcernedly, and scolded the boy for his imprudence. “Oh, sir!” cried the youth, “pray help me now and scold me afterwards.” Counsel without help is useless.
206- The Ass and the Wolf AN ASS feeding in a meadow saw a Wolf approaching to seize him, and im-mediately pretended to be lame. The Wolf, coming up, inquired the cause of his lameness. The Ass
replied that passing through a hedge he had trod with his foot upon a sharp thorn. He requested that the Wolf pull it out, lest when he ate him it should injure his throat. The Wolf consented and lifted up the foot, and was giving his whole mind to the discovery of the thorn, when the Ass, with his heels, kicked his teeth into his mouth and galloped away. The Wolf, being thus fearfully mauled, said, “I am rightly served, for why did I attempt the art of healing, when my father only taught me the trade of a butcher?’
207- The Seller of Images A CERTAIN MAN made a wooden image of Mercury and offered it for sale. When no one appeared willing to buy it, in order to attract purchasers, he cried out that he had the statue to sell of a benefactor who bestowed wealth and helped to heap up riches. One of the bystanders said to him, “My good fellow, why do you sell him, being such a one as you describe, when you may yourself enjoy the good things he has to give?’ “Why,” he replied, “I am in need of immediate help, and he is wont to give his good gifts very slowly.”
208- The Fox and the Grapes A FAMISHED FOX saw some clusters of ripe black grapes hanging from a trel-lised vine. She resorted to all her tricks to get at them, but wearied herself in vain, for she could not reach them. At last she turned away, hiding her disappointment and saying: “The Grapes are sour, and not ripe as I thought.” 209- The Man and His Wife A MAN had a Wife who made herself hated by all the members of his household. Wishing to ﬁnd out if she had the same effect on the persons in her father’s house, he made some excuse to send her home on a visit to her father. After a short time she returned, and when he inquired how she had got on and how the servants had treated her, she replied, “The herdsmen and shepherds cast on me looks of aversion.” He said, “O Wife, if you were disliked by those who go out early in the morning with their ﬂocks and return late in the evening, what must have been felt towards you by those with whom you passed the whole day!” Straws show how the wind blows.
210- The Peacock and Juno THE PEACOCK made complaint to Juno that, while the nightingale pleased every ear with his song, he himself no sooner opened his mouth than he became a laughingstock to all who heard him. The Goddess, to console him, said, “But you far excel in beauty and in size. The splendor of the emerald shines in your neck and you unfold a tail gorgeous with painted plumage.” “But for what purpose have I,” said the bird, “this dumb beauty
so long as I am surpassed in song?’ “The lot of each,” replied Juno, “has been assigned by the will of the Fates -- to thee, beauty; to the eagle, strength; to the nightingale, song; to the raven, favorable, and to the crow, unfavorable auguries. These are all contented with the endowments allotted to them.”
211- The Hawk and the Nightingale A NIGHTINGALE, sitting aloft upon an oak and singing according to his wont, was seen by a Hawk who, being in need of food, swooped down and seized him. The Nightingale, about to lose his life, earnestly begged the Hawk to let him go, saying that he was not big enough to satisfy the hunger of a Hawk who, if he wanted food, ought to pursue the larger birds. The Hawk, interrupting him, said: “I should indeed have lost my senses if I should let go food ready in my hand, for the sake of pursuing birds which are not yet even within sight.”
212- The Dog, the Cock, and the Fox A DOG and a Cock being great friends, agreed to travel together. At nightfall they took shelter in a thick wood. The Cock ﬂying up, perched himself on the branches of a tree, while the Dog found a bed beneath in the hollow trunk. When the morning dawned, the Cock, as usual, crowed very loudly several times. A Fox heard the sound, and wishing to make a breakfast on him, came and stood under the branches, saying how earnestly he desired to make the acquaintance of the owner of so magniﬁcent a voice. The Cock, suspecting his civilities, said: “Sir, I wish you would do me the favor of going around to the hollow trunk below me, and waking my porter, so that he may open the door and let you in.” When the Fox approached the tree, the Dog sprang out and caught him, and tore him to pieces.
213- The Wolf and the Goat A WOLF saw a Goat feeding at the summit of a steep precipice, where he had no chance of reaching her. He called to her and earnestly begged her to come lower down, lest she fall by some mishap; and he added that the meadows lay where he was standing, and that the herbage was most tender. She replied, “No, my friend, it is not for the pasture that you invite me, but for yourself, who are in want of food.”
214- The Lion and the Bull A LION, greatly desiring to capture a Bull, and yet afraid to attack him on ac-count of his great size, resorted to a trick to ensure his destruction. He approached the Bull and
said, “I have slain a ﬁne sheep, my friend; and if you will come home and partake of him with me, I shall be delighted to have your company.” The Lion said this in the hope that, as the Bull was in the act of reclining to eat, he might attack him to advantage, and make his meal on him. The Bull, on approaching the Lion’s den, saw the huge spits and giant caldrons, and no sign whatever of the sheep, and, without saying a word, quietly took his departure. The Lion inquired why he went off so abruptly without a word of salutation to his host, who had not given him any cause for offense. “I have reasons enough,” said the Bull. “I see no indication whatever of your having slaughtered a sheep, while I do see very plainly every preparation for your dining on a bull.”
215- The Goat and the Ass A MAN once kept a Goat and an Ass. The Goat, envying the Ass on account of his greater abundance of food, said, “How shamefully you are treated: at one time grinding in the mill, and at another carrying heavy burdens”; and he further advised him to pretend to be epileptic and fall into a ditch and so obtain rest. The Ass listened to his words, and falling into a ditch, was very much bruised. His master, sending for a leech, asked his advice. He bade him pour upon the wounds the lungs of a Goat. They at once killed the Goat, and so healed the Ass. 216- The Town Mouse and the Country Mouse A COUNTRY MOUSE invited a Town Mouse, an intimate friend, to pay him a visit and partake of his country fare. As they were on the bare plowlands, eating there wheatstocks and roots pulled up from the hedgerow, the Town Mouse said to his friend, “You live here the life of the ants, while in my house is the horn of plenty. I am surrounded by every luxury, and if you will come with me, as I wish you would, you shall have an ample share of my dainties.” The Country Mouse was easily persuaded, and returned to town with his friend. On his arrival, the Town Mouse placed before him bread, barley, beans, dried ﬁgs, honey, raisins, and, last of all, brought a dainty piece of cheese from a basket. The Country Mouse, be-ing much delighted at the sight of such good cheer, expressed his satisfaction in warm terms and lamented his own hard fate. Just as they were beginning to eat, someone opened the door, and they both ran off squeaking, as fast as they could, to a hole so narrow that two could only ﬁnd room in it by squeezing. They had scarcely begun their repast again when someone else entered to take something out of a cupboard, whereupon the two Mice, more frightened than before, ran away and hid themselves. At last the Country Mouse, almost famished, said to his friend: “Although you have prepared for me so dainty a feast, I must leave you to enjoy it by yourself. It is surrounded by too many dangers to please me. I prefer my bare plowlands and roots from the hedgerow, where I can live in safety, and without fear.”
217- The Wolf, the Fox, and the Ape A WOLF accused a Fox of theft, but the Fox entirely denied the charge. An Ape undertook to adjudge the matter between them. When each had fully stated his case the Ape announced this sentence: “I do not think you, Wolf, ever lost what you claim; and I do believe you, Fox, to have stolen what you so stoutly deny.” The dishonest, if they act honestly, get no credit.
218- The Fly and the Draught-Mule A FLY sat on the axle-tree of a chariot, and addressing the Draught-Mule said, “How slow you are! Why do you not go faster? See if I do not prick your neck with my sting.” The Draught-Mule replied, “I do not heed your threats; I only care for him who sits above you, and who quickens my pace with his whip, or holds me back with the reins. Away, therefore, with your insolence, for I know well when to go fast, and when to go slow.” 219- The Fishermen SOME FISHERMEN were out trawling their nets. Perceiving them to be very heavy, they danced about for joy and supposed that they had taken a large catch. When they had dragged the nets to the shore they found but few ﬁsh: the nets were full of sand and stones, and the men were beyond measure cast downso much at the disappointment which had befallen them, but because they had formed such very different expectations. One of their company, an old man, said, “Let us cease lamenting, my mates, for, as it seems to me, sorrow is always the twin sister of joy; and it was only to be looked for that we, who just now were over-rejoiced, should next have something to make us sad.”
220- The Lion and the Three Bulls THREE BULLS for a long time pastured together. A Lion lay in ambush in the hope of making them his prey, but was afraid to attack them while they kept together. Having at last by guileful speeches succeeded in separating them, he at-tacked them without fear as they fed alone, and feasted on them one by one at his own leisure. Union is strength.
221- The Fowler and the Viper A FOWLER, taking his bird-lime and his twigs, went out to catch birds. See-ing a thrush sitting upon a tree, he wished to take it, and ﬁtting his twigs to a proper length, watched intently, having his whole thoughts directed towards the sky. While thus looking upwards, he unknowingly trod upon a Viper asleep just before his feet. The Viper, turning about, stung him, and falling into a swoon, the man said to himself, “Woe is me! that while I purposed to hunt another, I am myself fallen unawares into the snares of death.”
222- The Horse and the Ass A HORSE, proud of his ﬁne trappings, met an Ass on the highway. The Ass, be-ing heavily laden, moved slowly out of the way. “Hardly,” said the Horse, “can I resist kicking you with my heels.” The Ass held his peace, and made only a silent appeal to the justice of the gods. Not long afterwards the Horse, having become broken-winded, was sent by his owner to the farm. The Ass, seeing him draw-ing a dungcart, thus derided him: “Where, O boaster, are now all thy gay trap-pings, thou who are thyself reduced to the condition you so lately treated with contempt?’ 223- The Fox and the Mask A FOX entered the house of an actor and, rummaging through all his proper-ties, came upon a Mask, an admirable imitation of a human head. He placed his paws on it and said, “What a beautiful head! Yet it is of no value, as it entirely lacks brains.”
224- The Geese and the Cranes THE GEESE and the Cranes were feeding in the same meadow, when a bird-catcher came to ensnare them in his nets. The Cranes, being light of wing, ﬂed away at his approach; while the Geese, being slower of ﬂight and heavier in their bodies, were captured.
225- The Blind Man and the Whelp A BLIND MAN was accustomed to distinguishing different animals by touching them with his hands. The whelp of a Wolf was brought him, with a request that he would feel it, and say what it was. He felt it, and being in doubt, said: “I do not quite know whether it is the cub of a Fox, or the whelp of a Wolf, but this I know full well. It would not be safe to admit him to the sheepfold.” Evil tendencies are shown in early life.
226- The Dogs and the Fox SOME DOGS, ﬁnding the skin of a lion, began to tear it in pieces with their teeth. A Fox, seeing them, said, “If this lion were alive, you would soon ﬁnd out that his claws were stronger than your teeth.” It is easy to kick a man that is down.
227- The Cobbler Turned Doctor A COBBLER unable to make a living by his trade and made desperate by pov-erty, began to practice medicine in a town in which he was not known. He sold a drug, pretending that it was an antidote to all poisons, and obtained a great name for himself by long-winded puffs and advertisements. When the Cobbler happened to fall sick himself
of a serious illness, the Governor of the town de-termined to test his skill. For this purpose he called for a cup, and while ﬁlling it with water, pretended to mix poison with the Cobbler’s antidote, commanding him to drink it on the promise of a reward. The Cobbler, under the fear of death, confessed that he had no knowledge of medicine, and was only made famous by the stupid clamors of the crowd. The Governor then called a public assembly and addressed the citizens: “Of what folly have you been guilty? You have not hesi-tated to entrust your heads to a man, whom no one could employ to make even the shoes for their feet.” 228- The Wolf and the Horse A WOLF coming out of a ﬁeld of oats met a Horse and thus addressed him: “I would advise you to go into that ﬁeld. It is full of ﬁne oats, which I have left untouched for you, as you are a friend whom I would love to hear enjoying good eating.” The Horse replied, “If oats had been the food of wolves, you would never have indulged your ears at the cost of your belly.” Men of evil reputation, when they perform a good deed, fail to get credit for it.
229- The Brother and the Sister A FATHER had one son and one daughter, the former remarkable for his good looks, the latter for her extraordinary ugliness. While they were playing one day as children, they happened by chance to look together into a mirror that was placed on their mother’s chair. The boy congratulated himself on his good looks; the girl grew angry, and could not bear the self-praises of her Brother, interpreting all he said (and how could she do otherwise?) into reﬂection on herself. She ran off to her father. to be avenged on her Brother, and spitefully accused him of having, as a boy, made use of that which belonged only to girls. The father embraced them both, and bestowing his kisses and affection impartially on each, said, “I wish you both would look into the mirror every day: you, my son, that you may not spoil your beauty by evil conduct; and you, my daughter, that you may make up for your lack of beauty by your virtues.”
230- The Wasps, the Partridges, and the Farmer THE WASPS and the Partridges, overcome with thirst, came to a Farmer and be-sought him to give them some water to drink. They promised amply to repay him the favor which they asked. The Partridges declared that they would dig around his vines and make them produce ﬁner grapes. The Wasps said that they would keep guard and drive off thieves with their stings. But the Farmer interrupted them, saying: “I have already two oxen, who, without making any promises, do all these things. It is surely better for me to give the water to them than to you.”
231- The Crow and Mercury A CROW caught in a snare prayed to Apollo to release him, making a vow to of-fer some frankincense at his shrine. But when rescued from his danger, he forgot his promise. Shortly afterwards, again caught in a snare, he passed by Apollo and made the same promise to offer frankincense to Mercury. Mercury soon appeared and said to him, “O thou most base fellow? how can I believe thee, who hast dis-owned and wronged thy former patron?’ 232- The North Wind and the Sun THE NORTH WIND and the Sun disputed as to which was the most powerful, and agreed that he should be declared the victor who could ﬁrst strip a wayfar-ing man of his clothes. The North Wind ﬁrst tried his power and blew with all his might, but the keener his blasts, the closer the Traveler wrapped his cloak around him, until at last, resigning all hope of victory, the Wind called upon the Sun to see what he could do. The Sun suddenly shone out with all his warmth. The Traveler no sooner felt his genial rays than he took off one garment after another, and at last, fairly overcome with heat, undressed and bathed in a stream that lay in his path. Persuasion is better than Force.
233- The Two Men Who Were Enemies TWO MEN, deadly enemies to each other, were sailing in the same vessel. Determined to keep as far apart as possible, the one seated himself in the stem, and the other in the prow of the ship. A violent storm arose, and with the vessel in great danger of sinking, the one in the stern inquired of the pilot which of the two ends of the ship would go down ﬁrst. On his replying that he supposed it would be the prow, the Man said, “Death would not be grievous to me, if I could only see my Enemy die before me.”
234- The Gamecocks and the Partridge A MAN had two Gamecocks in his poultry-yard. One day by chance he found a tame Partridge for sale. He purchased it and brought it home to be reared with his Gamecocks. When the Partridge was put into the poultry-yard, they struck at it and followed it about, so that the Partridge became grievously troubled and supposed that he was thus evilly treated because he was a stranger. Not long af-terwards he saw the Cocks ﬁghting together and not separating before one had well beaten the other. He then said to himself, “I shall no longer distress myself at being struck at by these Gamecocks, when I see that they cannot even refrain from quarreling with each other.”
235- The Quack Frog A FROG once upon a time came forth from his home in the marsh and pro-claimed to
all the beasts that he was a learned physician, skilled in the use of drugs and able to heal all diseases. A Fox asked him, “How can you pretend to prescribe for others, when you are unable to heal your own lame gait and wrinkled skin?’ 236- The Lion, the Wolf, and the Fox A LION, growing old, lay sick in his cave. All the beasts came to visit their king, except the Fox. The Wolf therefore, thinking that he had a capital opportunity, ac-cused the Fox to the Lion of not paying any respect to him who had the rule over them all and of not coming to visit him. At that very moment the Fox came in and heard these last words of the Wolf. The Lion roaring out in a rage against him, the Fox sought an opportunity to defend himself and said, “And who of all those who have come to you have beneﬁted you so much as I, who have traveled from place to place in every direction, and have sought and learnt from the physicians the means of healing you?’ The Lion commanded him immediately to tell him the cure, when he replied, “You must ﬂay a wolf alive and wrap his skin yet warm around you.” The Wolf was at once taken and ﬂayed; whereon the Fox, turning to him, said with a smile, “You should have moved your master not to ill, but to good, will.”
237- The Dog’s House IN THE WINTERTIME, a Dog curled up in as small a space as possible on ac-count of the cold, determined to make himself a house. However when the sum-mer returned again, he lay asleep stretched at his full length and appeared to himself to be of a great size. Now he considered that it would be neither an easy nor a necessary work to make himself such a house as would accommodate him.
238- The Wolf and the Lion ROAMING BY the mountainside at sundown, a Wolf saw his own shadow become greatly extended and magniﬁed, and he said to himself, “Why should I, being of such an immense size and extending nearly an acre in length, be afraid of the Lion? Ought I not to be acknowledged as King of all the collected beasts?’ While he was indulging in these proud thoughts, a Lion fell upon him and killed him. He exclaimed with a too late repentance, “Wretched me! this overestimation of myself is the cause of my destruction.”
239- The Birds, the Beasts, and the Bat THE BIRDS waged war with the Beasts, and each were by turns the conquerors. A Bat, fearing the uncertain issues of the ﬁght, always fought on the side which he felt was the strongest. When peace was proclaimed, his deceitful conduct was apparent to both combatants. Therefore being condemned by each for his treach-ery, he was driven forth
from the light of day, and henceforth concealed himself in dark hiding-places, ﬂying always alone and at night. 240- The Spendthrift and the Swallow A YOUNG MAN, a great spendthrift, had run through all his patrimony and had but one good cloak left. One day he happened to see a Swallow, which had appeared before its season, skimming along a pool and twittering gaily. He sup-posed that summer had come, and went and sold his cloak. Not many days later, winter set in again with renewed frost and cold. When he found the unfortunate Swallow lifeless on the ground, he said, “Unhappy bird! what have you done? By thus appearing before the springtime you have not only killed yourself, but you have wrought my destruction also.”
241- The Fox and the Lion A FOX saw a Lion conﬁned in a cage, and standing near him, bitterly reviled him. The Lion said to the Fox, “It is not thou who revilest me; but this mischance which has befallen me.”
242- The Owl and the Birds AN OWL, in her wisdom, counseled the Birds that when the acorn ﬁrst began to sprout, to pull it all up out of the ground and not allow it to grow. She said acorns would produce mistletoe, from which an irremediable poison, the bird- lime, would be extracted and by which they would be captured. The Owl next ad-vised them to pluck up the seed of the ﬂax, which men had sown, as it was a plant which boded no good to them. And, lastly, the Owl, seeing an archer approach, predicted that this man, being on foot, would contrive darts armed with feathers which would ﬂy faster than the wings of the Birds themselves. The Birds gave no credence to these warning words, but considered the Owl to be beside herself and said that she was mad. But afterwards, ﬁnding her words were true, they won-dered at her knowledge and deemed her to be the wisest of birds. Hence it is that when she appears they look to her as knowing all things, while she no longer gives them advice, but in solitude laments their past folly.
243- The Trumpeter Taken Prisoner A TRUMPETER, bravely leading on the soldiers, was captured by the enemy. He cried out to his captors, “Pray spare me, and do not take my life without cause or without inquiry. I have not slain a single man of your troop. I have no arms, and carry nothing but this one brass trumpet.” “That is the very reason for which you should be put to death,” they said; “for, while you do not ﬁght yourself, your trumpet stirs all the others to battle.” 244- The Ass in the Lion’s Skin
AN ASS, having put on the Lion’s skin, roamed about in the forest and amused himself by frightening all the foolish animals he met in his wanderings. At last coming upon a Fox, he tried to frighten him also, but the Fox no sooner heard the sound of his voice than he exclaimed, “I might possibly have been frightened myself, if I had not heard your bray.”
245- The Sparrow and the Hare A HARE pounced upon by an eagle sobbed very much and uttered cries like a child. A Sparrow upbraided her and said, “Where now is thy remarkable swiftness of foot? Why were your feet so slow?” While the Sparrow was thus speaking, a hawk suddenly seized him and killed him. The Hare was comforted in her death, and expiring said, “Ah! you who so lately, when you supposed yourself safe, exulted over my calamity, have now reason to deplore a similar misfortune.”
246- The Flea and the Ox A FLEA thus questioned an Ox: “What ails you, that being so huge and strong, you submit to the wrongs you receive from men and slave for them day by day, while I, being so small a creature, mercilessly feed on their ﬂesh and drink their blood without stint?’ The Ox replied: “I do not wish to be ungrateful, for I am loved and well cared for by men, and they often pat my head and shoulders.” “Woe’s me!” said the ﬂea; “this very patting which you like, whenever it happens to me, brings with it my inevitable destruction.”
247- The Goods and the Ills ALL the Goods were once driven out by the Ills from that common share which they each had in the affairs of mankind; for the Ills by reason of their numbers had prevailed to possess the earth. The Goods wafted themselves to heaven and asked for a righteous vengeance on their persecutors. They entreated Jupiter that they might no longer be associated with the Ills, as they had nothing in common and could not live together, but were engaged in unceasing warfare; and that an indissoluble law might be laid down for their future protection. Jupiter granted their request and decreed that henceforth the Ills should visit the earth in com-pany with each other, but that the Goods should one by one enter the habitations of men. Hence it arises that Ills abound, for they come not one by one, but in troops, and by no means singly: while the Goods proceed from Jupiter, and are given, not alike to all, but singly, and separately; and one by one to those who are able to discern them. 248- The Dove and the Crow
A DOVE shut up in a cage was boasting of the large number of young ones which she had hatched. A Crow hearing her, said: “My good friend, cease from this unseasonable boasting. The larger the number of your family, the greater your cause of sorrow, in seeing them shut up in this prison-house.”
249- Mercury and the Workmen A WORKMAN, felling wood by the side of a river, let his axe drop -by accident into a deep pool. Being thus deprived of the means of his livelihood, he sat down on the bank and lamented his hard fate. Mercury appeared and demanded the cause of his tears. After he told him his misfortune, Mercury plunged into the stream, and, bringing up a golden axe, inquired if that were the one he had lost. On his saying that it was not his, Mercury disappeared beneath the water a sec-ond time, returned with a silver axe in his hand, and again asked the Workman if it were his. When the Workman said it was not, he dived into the pool for the third time and brought up the axe that had been lost. The Workman claimed it and expressed his joy at its recovery. Mercury, pleased with his honesty, gave him the golden and silver axes in addition to his own. The Workman, on his return to his house, related to his companions all that had happened. One of them at once resolved to try and secure the same good fortune for himself. He ran to the river and threw his axe on purpose into the pool at the same place, and sat down on the bank to weep. Mercury appeared to him just as he hoped he would; and having learned the cause of his grief, plunged into the stream and brought up a golden axe, inquiring if he had lost it. The Workman seized it greedily, and declared that truly it was the very same axe that he had lost. Mercury, displeased at his knavery, not only took away the golden axe, but refused to recover for him the axe he had thrown into the pool.
250- The Eagle and the Jackdaw AN EAGLE, ﬂying down from his perch on a lofty rock, seized upon a lamb and carried him aloft in his talons. A Jackdaw, who witnessed the capture of the lamb, was stirred with envy and determined to emulate the strength and ﬂight of the Eagle. He ﬂew around with a great whir of his wings and settled upon a large ram, with the intention of carrying him off, but his claws became entangled in the ram’s ﬂeece and he was not able to release himself, although he ﬂuttered with his feathers as much as he could. The shepherd, seeing what had happened, ran up and caught him. He at once clipped the Jackdaw’s wings, and taking him home at night, gave him to his children. On their saying, “Father, what kind of bird is it?’ he replied, “To my certain knowledge he is a Daw; but he would like you to think an Eagle.” 251- The Fox and the Crane A FOX invited a Crane to supper and provided nothing for his entertainment but some
soup made of pulse, which was poured out into a broad ﬂat stone dish. The soup fell out of the long bill of the Crane at every mouthful, and his vexation at not being able to eat afforded the Fox much amusement. The Crane, in his turn, asked the Fox to sup with him, and set before her a ﬂagon with a long narrow mouth, so that he could easily insert his neck and enjoy its contents at his leisure. The Fox, unable even to taste it, met with a ﬁtting requital, after the fashion of her own hospitality.
252- Jupiter, Neptune, Minerva, and Momus ACCORDING to an ancient legend, the ﬁrst man was made by Jupiter, the ﬁrst bull by Neptune, and the ﬁrst house by Minerva. On the completion of their la-bors, a dispute arose as to which had made the most perfect work. They agreed to appoint Momus as judge, and to abide by his decision. Momus, however, being very envious of the handicraft of each, found fault with all. He ﬁrst blamed the work of Neptune because he had not made the horns of the bull below his eyes, so he might better see where to strike. He then condemned the work of Jupiter, because he had not placed the heart of man on the outside, that everyone might read the thoughts of the evil disposed and take precautions against the intended mischief. And, lastly, he inveighed against Minerva because she had not contrived iron wheels in the foundation of her house, so its inhabitants might more easily remove if a neighbor proved unpleasant. Jupiter, indignant at such inveterate faultﬁnding, drove him from his ofﬁce of judge, and expelled him from the man-sions of Olympus.
253- The Eagle and the Fox AN EAGLE and a Fox formed an intimate friendship and decided to live near each other. The Eagle built her nest in the branches of a tall tree, while the Fox crept into the underwood and there produced her young. Not long after they had agreed upon this plan, the Eagle, being in want of provision for her young ones, swooped down while the Fox was out, seized upon one of the little cubs, and feasted herself and her brood. The Fox on her return, discovered what had happened, but was less grieved for the death of her young than for her inability to avenge them. A just retribution, however, quickly fell upon the Eagle. While hovering near an altar, on which some villagers were sacriﬁcing a goat, she sud-denly seized a piece of the ﬂesh, and carried it, along with a burning cinder, to her nest. A strong breeze soon fanned the spark into a ﬂame, and the eaglets, as yet unﬂedged and helpless, were roasted in their nest and dropped down dead at the bottom of the tree. There, in the sight of the Eagle, the Fox gobbled them up. 254- The Man and the Satyr A MAN and a Satyr once drank together in token of a bond of alliance being formed between them. One very cold wintry day, as they talked, the Man put his ﬁngers to his
mouth and blew on them. When the Satyr asked the reason for this, he told him that he did it to warm his hands because they were so cold. Later on in the day they sat down to eat, and the food prepared was quite scalding. The Man raised one of the dishes a little towards his mouth and blew in it. When the Satyr again inquired the reason, he said that he did it to cool the meat, which was too hot. “I can no longer consider you as a friend,” said the Satyr, “a fellow who with the same breath blows hot and cold.”
255- The Ass and His Purchaser A MAN wished to purchase an Ass, and agreed with its owner that he should try out the animal before he bought him. He took the Ass home and put him in the straw-yard with his other Asses, upon which the new animal left all the others and at once joined the one that was most idle and the greatest eater of them all. Seeing this, the man put a halter on him and led him back to his owner. On being asked how, in so short a time, he could have made a trial of him, he answered, “I do not need a trial; I know that he will be just the same as the one he chose for his companion.” A man is known by the company he keeps.
256- The Two Bags EVERY MAN, according to an ancient legend, is born into the world with two bags suspended from his neck all bag in front full of his neighbors’ faults, and a large bag behind ﬁlled with his own faults. Hence it is that men are quick to see the faults of others, and yet are often blind to their own failings.
257- The Stag at the Pool A STAG overpowered by heat came to a spring to drink. Seeing his own shadow reﬂected in the water, he greatly admired the size and variety of his horns, but felt angry with himself for having such slender and weak feet. While he was thus contemplating himself, a Lion appeared at the pool and crouched to spring upon him. The Stag immediately took to ﬂight, and exerting his utmost speed, as long as the plain was smooth and open kept himself easily at a safe distance from the Lion. But entering a wood he became entangled by his horns, and the Lion quick-ly came up to him and caught him. When too late, he thus reproached himself: “Woe is me! How I have deceived myself! These feet which would have saved me I despised, and I gloried in these antlers which have proved my destruction.” What is most truly valuable is often underrated. 258- The Jackdaw and the Fox A HALF-FAMISHED JACKDAW seated himself on a ﬁg-tree, which had pro-duced some fruit entirely out of season, and waited in the hope that the ﬁgs would ripen. A Fox
seeing him sitting so long and learning the reason of his doing so, said to him, “You are indeed, sir, sadly deceiving yourself; you are indulging a hope strong enough to cheat you, but which will never reward you with enjoy-ment.”
259- The Lark Burying Her Father THE LARK (according to an ancient legend) was created before the earth itself, and when her father died, as there was no earth, she could ﬁnd no place of burial for him. She let him lie uninterred for ﬁve days, and on the sixth day, not knowing what else to do, she buried him in her own head. Hence she obtained her crest, which is popularly said to be her father’s grave-hillock. Youth’s ﬁrst duty is reverence to parents.
260- The Gnat and the Bull A GNAT settled on the horn of a Bull, and sat there a long time. Just as he was about to ﬂy off, he made a buzzing noise, and inquired of the Bull if he would like him to go. The Bull replied, “I did not know you had come, and I shall not miss you when you go away.” Some men are of more consequence in their own eyes than in the eyes of their neighbors.
261- The Bitch and Her Whelps A BITCH, ready to whelp, earnestly begged a shepherd for a place where she might litter. When her request was granted, she besought permission to rear her puppies in the same spot. The shepherd again consented. But at last the Bitch, protected by the bodyguard of her Whelps, who had now grown up and were able to defend themselves, asserted her exclusive right to the place and would not permit the shepherd to approach.
262- The Dogs and the Hides SOME DOGS famished with hunger saw a number of cowhides steeping in a river. Not being able to reach them, they agreed to drink up the river, but it happened that they burst themselves with drinking long before they reached the hides. Attempt not impossibilities. 263- The Shepherd and the Sheep A SHEPHERD driving his Sheep to a wood, saw an oak of unusual size full of acorns, and spreading his cloak under the branches, he climbed up into the tree and shook them down. The Sheep eating the acorns inadvertently frayed and tore the cloak. When the Shepherd came down and saw what was done, he said, “O you most ungrateful creatures! You provide wool to make garments for all other men, but you destroy the clothes of him
who feeds you.”
264- The Grasshopper and the Owl AN OWL, accustomed to feed at night and to sleep during the day, was greatly disturbed by the noise of a Grasshopper and earnestly besought her to stop chirp-ing. The Grasshopper refused to desist, and chirped louder and louder the more the Owl entreated. When she saw that she could get no redress and that her words were despised, the Owl attacked the chatterer by a stratagem. “Since I cannot sleep,” she said, “on account of your song which, believe me, is sweet as the lyre of Apollo, I shall indulge myself in drinking some nectar which Pallas lately gave me. If you do not dislike it, come to me and we will drink it together.” The Grass-hopper, who was thirsty, and pleased with the praise of her voice, eagerly ﬂew up. The Owl came forth from her hollow, seized her, and put her to death.
265- The Monkey and the Camel THE BEASTS of the forest gave a splendid entertainment at which the Monkey stood up and danced. Having vastly delighted the assembly, he sat down amidst universal applause. The Camel, envious of the praises bestowed on the Monkey and desiring to divert to himself the favor of the guests, proposed to stand up in his turn and dance for their amusement. He moved about in so utterly ridiculous a manner that the Beasts, in a ﬁt of indignation, set upon him with clubs and drove him out of the assembly. It is absurd to ape our betters.
266- The Peasant and the Apple-Tree A PEASANT had in his garden an Apple-Tree which bore no fruit but only served as a harbor for the sparrows and grasshoppers. He resolved to cut it down, and taking his axe in his hand, made a bold stroke at its roots. The grasshoppers and sparrows entreated him not to cut down the tree that sheltered them, but to spare it, and they would sing to him and lighten his labors. He paid no attention to their request, but gave the tree a second and a third blow with his axe. When he reached the hollow of the tree, he found a hive full of honey. Having tasted the honeycomb, he threw down his axe, and looking on the tree as sacred, took great care of it. Self-interest alone moves some men. 267- The Two Soldiers and the Robber TWO SOLDIERS traveling together were set upon by a Robber. The one ﬂed away; the other stood his ground and defended himself with his stout right hand. The Robber being slain, the timid companion ran up and drew his sword, and then, throwing back his traveling cloak said, “I’ll at him, and I’ll take care he shall learn whom he has attacked.”
On this, he who had fought with the Robber made answer, “I only wish that you had helped me just now, even if it had been only with those words, for I should have been the more encouraged, believing them to be true; but now put up your sword in its sheath and hold your equally use-less tongue, till you can deceive others who do not know you. I, indeed, who have experienced with what speed you run away, know right well that no dependence can be placed on your valor.”
268- The Trees Under the Protection of the Gods THE GODS, according to an ancient legend, made choice of certain trees to be under their special protection. Jupiter chose the oak, Venus the myrtle, Apollo the laurel, Cybele the pine, and Hercules the poplar. Minerva, wondering why they had preferred trees not yielding fruit, inquired the reason for their choice. Jupiter replied, “It is lest we should seem to covet the honor for the fruit.” But said Minerva, “Let anyone say what he will the olive is more dear to me on ac-count of its fruit.” Then said Jupiter, “My daughter, you are rightly called wise; for unless what we do is useful, the glory of it is vain.”
269- The Mother and the Wolf A FAMISHED WOLF was prowling about in the morning in search of food. As he passed the door of a cottage built in the forest, he heard a Mother say to her child, “Be quiet, or I will throw you out of the window, and the Wolf shall eat you.” The Wolf sat all day waiting at the door. In the evening he heard the same woman fondling her child and saying: “You are quiet now, and if the Wolf should come, we will kill him.” The Wolf, hearing these words, went home, gasping with cold and hunger. When he reached his den, Mistress Wolf inquired of him why he returned wearied and supperless, so contrary to his wont. He replied: “Why, forsooth! I gave credence to the words of a woman!”
270- The Ass and the Horse AN ASS besought a Horse to spare him a small portion of his feed. “Yes,” said the Horse; “if any remains out of what I am now eating I will give it you for the sake of my own superior dignity, and if you will come when I reach my own stall in the evening, I will give you a little sack full of barley.” The Ass replied, “Thank you. But I can’t think that you, who refuse me a little matter now. will by and by confer on me a greater beneﬁt.”
271- Truth and the Traveler A WAYFARING MAN, traveling in the desert, met a woman standing alone and terribly dejected. He inquired of her, “Who art thou?” “My name is Truth,” she replied. “And for what cause,” he asked, “have you left the city to dwell alone here in the wilderness?” She made answer, “Because in former times, falsehood was with few, but is now with all men.”
272- The Manslayer A MAN committed a murder, and was pursued by the relations of the man whom he murdered. On his reaching the river Nile he saw a Lion on its bank and being fearfully afraid, climbed up a tree. He found a serpent in the upper branch-es of the tree, and again being greatly alarmed, he threw himself into the river, where a crocodile caught him and ate him. Thus the earth, the air, and the water alike refused shelter to a murderer.
273- The Lion and the Fox A FOX entered into partnership with a Lion on the pretense of becoming his servant. Each undertook his proper duty in accordance with his own nature and powers. The Fox discovered and pointed out the prey; the Lion sprang on it and seized it. The Fox soon became jealous of the Lion carrying off the Lion’s share, and said that he would no longer ﬁnd out the prey, but would capture it on his own account. The next day he attempted to snatch a lamb from the fold, but he himself fell prey to the huntsmen and hounds.
274- The Lion and the Eagle AN EAGLE stayed his ﬂight and entreated a Lion to make an alliance with him to their mutual advantage. The Lion replied, “I have no objection, but you must excuse me for requiring you to ﬁnd surety for your good faith, for how can I trust anyone as a friend who is able to ﬂy away from his bargain whenever he pleases?’ Try before you trust. 275- The Hen and the Swallow A HEN ﬁnding the eggs of a viper and carefully keeping them warm, nourished them into life. A Swallow, observing what she had done, said, “You silly creature! why have you hatched these vipers which, when they shall have grown, will inﬂict injury on all, beginning with yourself?’
276- The Buffoon and the Countryman A RICH NOBLEMAN once opened the theaters without charge to the people, and
gave a public notice that he would handsomely reward any person who in-vented a new amusement for the occasion. Various public performers contended for the prize. Among them came a Buffoon well known among the populace for his jokes, and said that he had a kind of entertainment which had never been brought out on any stage before. This report being spread about made a great stir, and the theater was crowded in every part. The Buffoon appeared alone upon the platform, without any apparatus or confederates, and the very sense of expecta-tion caused an intense silence. He suddenly bent his head towards his bosom and imitated the squeaking of a little pig so admirably with his voice that the audience declared he had a porker under his cloak, and demanded that it should be shaken out. When that was done and nothing was found, they cheered the actor, and loaded him with the loudest applause. A Countryman in the crowd, observing all that has passed, said, “So help me, Hercules, he shall not beat me at that trick!” and at once proclaimed that he would do the same thing on the next day, though in a much more natural way. On the morrow a still larger crowd assembled in the theater, but now partiality for their favorite actor very generally prevailed, and the audience came rather to ridicule the Countryman than to see the spectacle. Both of the performers appeared on the stage. The Buffoon grunted and squeaked away ﬁrst, and obtained, as on the preceding day, the applause and cheers of the spectators. Next the Countryman commenced, and pretending that he concealed a little pig beneath his clothes (which in truth he did, but not suspected by the audience ) contrived to take hold of and to pull his ear causing the pig to squeak. The Crowd, however, cried out with one consent that the Buffoon had given a far more exact imitation, and clamored for the Countryman to be kicked out of the theater. On this the rustic produced the little pig from his cloak and showed by the most positive proof the greatness of their mistake. “Look here,” he said, “this shows what sort of judges you are.”
277- The Crow and the Serpent A CROW in great want of food saw a Serpent asleep in a sunny nook, and ﬂying down, greedily seized him. The Serpent, turning about, bit the Crow with a mor-tal wound. In the agony of death, the bird exclaimed: “O unhappy me! who have found in that which I deemed a happy windfall the source of my destruction.” 278- The Hunter and the Horseman A CERTAIN HUNTER, having snared a hare, placed it upon his shoulders and set out homewards. On his way he met a man on horseback who begged the hare of him, under the pretense of purchasing it. However, when the Horseman got the hare, he rode off as fast as he could. The Hunter ran after him, as if he was sure of overtaking him, but the Horseman increased more and more the distance be-tween them. The Hunter, sorely against his will, called out to him and said, “Get along with you! for I will now make you a present of the hare.”
279- The King’s Son and the Painted Lion A KING, whose only son was fond of martial exercises, had a dream in which he was warned that his son would be killed by a lion. Afraid the dream should prove true, he built for his son a pleasant palace and adorned its walls for his amuse-ment with all kinds of life-sized animals, among which was the picture of a lion. When the young Prince saw this, his grief at being thus conﬁned burst out afresh, and, standing near the lion, he said: “O you most detestable of animals! through a lying dream of my father’s, which he saw in his sleep, I am shut up on your ac-count in this palace as if I had been a girl: what shall I now do to you?’ With these words he stretched out his hands toward a thorn-tree, meaning to cut a stick from its branches so that he might beat the lion. But one of the tree’s prickles pierced his ﬁnger and caused great pain and inﬂammation, so that the young Prince fell down in a fainting ﬁt. A violent fever suddenly set in, from which he died not many days later. We had better bear our troubles bravely than try to escape them.
280- The Cat and Venus A CAT fell in love with a handsome young man, and entreated Venus to change her into the form of a woman. Venus consented to her request and transformed her into a beautiful damsel, so that the youth saw her and loved her, and took her home as his bride. While the two were reclining in their chamber, Venus wish-ing to discover if the Cat in her change of shape had also altered her habits of life, let down a mouse in the middle of the room. The Cat, quite forgetting her present condition, started up from the couch and pursued the mouse, wishing to eat it. Venus was much disappointed and again caused her to return to her former shape. Nature exceeds nurture.
281- The She-Goats and Their Beards THE SHE-GOATS having obtained a beard by request to Jupiter, the He-Goats were sorely displeased and made complaint that the females equaled them in dignity. “Allow them,” said Jupiter, “to enjoy an empty honor and to assume the badge of your nobler sex, so long as they are not your equals in strength or cour-age.” It matters little if those who are inferior to us in merit should be like us in outside appearances.
282- The Camel and the Arab AN ARAB CAMEL-DRIVER, after completing the loading of his Camel, asked him which he would like best, to go up hill or down. The poor beast replied, not without a touch of reason: “Why do you ask me? Is it that the level way through the desert is closed?”
283- The Miller, His Son, and Their Ass A MILLER and his son were driving their Ass to a neighboring fair to sell him. They had not gone far when they met with a troop of women collected round a well, talking and laughing. “Look there,” cried one of them, “did you ever see such fellows, to be trudging along the road on foot when they might ride?’ The old man hearing this, quickly made his son mount the Ass, and continued to walk along merrily by his side. Presently they came up to a group of old men in earnest de-bate. “There,” said one of them, “it proves what I was a-saying. What respect is shown to old age in these days? Do you see that idle lad riding while his old father has to walk? Get down, you young scapegrace, and let the old man rest his weary limbs.” Upon this the old man made his son dismount, and got up himself. In this manner they had not proceeded far when they met a company of women and children: “Why, you lazy old fellow,” cried several tongues at once, “how can you ride upon the beast, while that poor little lad there can hardly keep pace by the side of you?’ The good-natured Miller immediately took up his son behind him. They had now almost reached the town. “Pray, honest friend,” said a citizen, “is that Ass your own?’ “Yes,” replied the old man. “O, one would not have thought so,” said the other, “by the way you load him. Why, you two fellows are better able to carry the poor beast than he you.” “Anything to please you,” said the old man; “we can but try.” So, alighting with his son, they tied the legs of the Ass together and with the help of a pole endeavored to carry him on their shoulders over a bridge near the entrance to the town. This entertaining sight brought the people in crowds to laugh at it, till the Ass, not liking the noise nor the strange handling that he was subject to, broke the cords that bound him and, tumbling off the pole, fell into the river. Upon this, the old man, vexed and ashamed, made the best of his way home again, convinced that by endeavoring to please everybody he had pleased nobody, and lost his Ass in the bargain. 284- The Crow and the Sheep A TROUBLESOME CROW seated herself on the back of a Sheep. The Sheep, much against his will, carried her backward and forward for a long time, and at last said, “If you had treated a dog in this way, you would have had your deserts from his sharp teeth.” To this the Crow replied, “I despise the weak and yield to the strong. I know whom I may bully and whom I must ﬂatter; and I thus prolong my life to a good old age.”
285- The Fox and the Bramble A FOX was mounting a hedge when he lost his footing and caught hold of a Bramble to save himself. Having pricked and grievously tom the soles of his feet, he accused the Bramble because, when he had ﬂed to her for assistance, she had used him worse than the hedge itself. The Bramble, interrupting him, said, “But you really must have been out of your senses to fasten yourself on me, who am myself always accustomed to fasten upon others.”
286- The Wolf and the Lion A WOLF, having stolen a lamb from a fold, was carrying him off to his lair. A Lion met him in the path, and seizing the lamb, took it from him. Standing at a safe distance, the Wolf exclaimed, “You have unrighteously taken that which was mine from me!” To which the Lion jeeringly replied, “It was righteously yours, eh? The gift of a friend?’
287- The Dog and the Oyster A DOG, used to eating eggs, saw an Oyster and, opening his mouth to its widest extent, swallowed it down with the utmost relish, supposing it to be an egg. Soon afterwards suffering great pain in his stomach, he said, “I deserve all this tor-ment, for my folly in thinking that everything round must be an egg.” They who act without sufﬁcient thought, will often fall into unsuspected danger.
288- The Ant and the Dove AN ANT went to the bank of a river to quench its thirst, and being carried away by the rush of the stream, was on the point of drowning. A Dove sitting on a tree overhanging the water plucked a leaf and let it fall into the stream close to her. The Ant climbed onto it and ﬂoated in safety to the bank. Shortly afterwards a birdcatcher came and stood under the tree, and laid his lime-twigs for the Dove, which sat in the branches. The Ant, perceiving his design, stung him in the foot. In pain the birdcatcher threw down the twigs, and the noise made the Dove take wing. 289- The Partridge and the Fowler A FOWLER caught a Partridge and was about to kill it. The Partridge earnestly begged him to spare his life, saying, “Pray, master, permit me to live and I will entice many Partridges to you in recompense for your mercy to me.” The Fowler replied, “I shall now with less scruple take your life, because you are willing to save it at the cost of betraying your friends and relations.”
290- The Flea and the Man A MAN, very much annoyed with a Flea, caught him at last, and said, “Who are you who dare to feed on my limbs, and to cost me so much trouble in catching you?’ The Flea replied, “O my dear sir, pray spare my life, and destroy me not, for I cannot possibly do you much harm.” The Man, laughing, replied, “Now you shall certainly die by mine own hands, for no evil, whether it be small or large, ought to be tolerated.”
291- The Thieves and the Cock
SOME THIEVES broke into a house and found nothing but a Cock, whom they stole, and got off as fast as they could. Upon arriving at home they prepared to kill the Cock, who thus pleaded for his life: “Pray spare me; I am very serviceable to men. I wake them up in the night to their work.” “That is the very reason why we must the more kill you,” they replied; “for when you wake your neighbors, you entirely put an end to our business.” The safeguards of virtue are hateful to those with evil intentions.
292- The Dog and the Cook A RICH MAN gave a great feast, to which he invited many friends and acquaint-ances. His Dog availed himself of the occasion to invite a stranger Dog, a friend of his, saying, “My master gives a feast, and there is always much food remaining; come and sup with me tonight.” The Dog thus invited went at the hour appointed, and seeing the preparations for so grand an entertainment, said in the joy of his heart, “How glad I am that I came! I do not often get such a chance as this. I will take care and eat enough to last me both today and tomorrow.” While he was con-gratulating himself and wagging his tail to convey his pleasure to his friend, the Cook saw him moving about among his dishes and, seizing him by his fore and hind paws, bundled him without ceremony out of the window. He fell with force upon the ground and limped away, howling dreadfully. His yelling soon attracted other street dogs, who came up to him and inquired how he had enjoyed his sup-per. He replied, “Why, to tell you the truth, I drank so much wine that I remember nothing. I do not know how I got out of the house.” 293- The Travelers and the Plane-Tree TWO TRAVELERS, worn out by the heat of the summer’s sun, laid themselves down at noon under the widespreading branches of a Plane-Tree. As they rested under its shade, one of the Travelers said to the other, “What a singularly use-less tree is the Plane! It bears no fruit, and is not of the least service to man.” The Plane-Tree, interrupting him, said, “You ungrateful fellows! Do you, while receiv-ing beneﬁts from me and resting under my shade, dare to describe me as useless, and unproﬁtable?’ Some men underrate their best blessings.
294- The Hares and the Frogs THE HARES, oppressed by their own exceeding timidity and weary of the per-petual alarm to which they were exposed, with one accord determined to put an end to themselves and their troubles by jumping from a lofty precipice into a deep lake below. As they scampered off in large numbers to carry out their resolve, the Frogs lying on the banks of the lake heard the noise of their feet and rushed hel-ter-skelter to the deep water for safety. On seeing the rapid disappearance of the Frogs, one of the Hares cried out to his companions: “Stay, my friends, do not do as you intended; for you now see that there
are creatures who are still more timid than ourselves.”
295- The Lion, Jupiter, and the Elephant THE LION wearied Jupiter with his frequent complaints. “It is true, O Jupiter!” he said, “that I am gigantic in strength, handsome in shape, and powerful in at-tack. I have jaws well provided with teeth, and feet furnished with claws, and I lord it over all the beasts of the forest, and what a disgrace it is, that being such as I am, I should be frightened by the crowing of a cock.” Jupiter replied, “Why do you blame me without a cause? I have given you all the attributes which I possess myself, and your courage never fails you except in this one instance.” On hearing this the Lion groaned and lamented very much and, reproaching himself with his cowardice, wished that he might die. As these thoughts passed through his mind, he met an Elephant and came close to hold a conversation with him. After a time he observed that the Elephant shook his ears very often, and he inquired what was the matter and why his ears moved with such a tremor every now and then. Just at that moment a Gnat settled on the head of the Elephant, and he re-plied, “Do you see that little buzzing insect? If it enters my ear, my fate is sealed. I should die presently.” The Lion said, “Well, since so huge a beast is afraid of a tiny gnat, I will no more complain, nor wish myself dead. I ﬁnd myself, even as I am, better off than the Elephant.” 296- The Lamb and the Wolf A WOLF pursued a Lamb, which ﬂed for refuge to a certain Temple. The Wolf called out to him and said, “The Priest will slay you in sacriﬁce, if he should catch you.” On which the Lamb replied, “It would be better for me to be sacriﬁced in the Temple than to be eaten by you.”
297- The Rich Man and the Tanner A RICH MAN lived near a Tanner, and not being able to bear the unpleasant smell of the tan-yard, he pressed his neighbor to go away. The Tanner put off his departure from time to time, saying that he would leave soon. But as he still continued to stay, as time went on, the rich man became accustomed to the smell, and feeling no manner of inconvenience, made no further complaints.
298- The Shipwrecked Man and the Sea A SHIPWRECKED MAN, having been cast upon a certain shore, slept after his buffetings with the deep. After a while he awoke, and looking upon the Sea, loaded it with reproaches. He argued that it enticed men with the calmness of its looks, but when it had induced them to plow its waters, it grew rough and destroyed them. The Sea,
assuming the form of a woman, replied to him: “Blame not me, my good sir, but the winds, for I am by my own nature as calm and ﬁrm even as this earth; but the winds suddenly falling on me create these waves, and lash me into fury.”
299- The Mules and the Robbers TWO MULES well-laden with packs were trudging along. One carried panniers ﬁlled with money, the other sacks weighted with grain. The Mule carrying the treasure walked with head erect, as if conscious of the value of his burden, and tossed up and down the clear-toned bells fastened to his neck. His companion fol-lowed with quiet and easy step. All of a sudden Robbers rushed upon them from their hiding-places, and in the scufﬂe with their owners, wounded with a sword the Mule carrying the treasure, which they greedily seized while taking no notice of the grain. The Mule which had been robbed and wounded bewailed his mis-fortunes. The other replied, “I am indeed glad that I was thought so little of, for I have lost nothing, nor am I hurt with any wound.” 300- The Viper and the File A VIPER, entering the workshop of a smith, sought from the tools the means of satisfying his hunger. He more particularly addressed himself to a File, and asked of him the favor of a meal. The File replied, “You must indeed be a simple-minded fellow if you expect to get anything from me, who am accustomed to take from everyone, and never to give anything in return.”
301- The Lion and the Shepherd A LION, roaming through a forest, trod upon a thorn. Soon afterward he came up to a Shepherd and fawned upon him, wagging his tail as if to say, “I am a sup-pliant, and seek your aid.” The Shepherd boldly examined the beast, discovered the thorn, and placing his paw upon his lap, pulled it out; thus relieved of his pain, the Lion returned into the forest. Some time after, the Shepherd, being im-prisoned on a false accusation, was condemned “to be cast to the Lions” as the punishment for his imputed crime. But when the Lion was released from his cage, he recognized the Shepherd as the man who healed him, and instead of attacking him, approached and placed his foot upon his lap. The King, as soon as he heard the tale, ordered the Lion to be set free again in the forest, and the Shepherd to be pardoned and restored to his friends.
302- The Camel and Jupiter THE CAMEL, when he saw the Bull adorned with horns, envied him and wished that he himself could obtain the same honors. He went to Jupiter, and besought him to give him horns. Jupiter, vexed at his request because he was not satisﬁed with his size and
strength of body, and desired yet more, not only refused to give him horns, but even deprived him of a portion of his ears.
303- The Panther and the Shepherds A PANTHER, by some mischance, fell into a pit. The Shepherds discovered him, and some threw sticks at him and pelted him with stones, while others, moved with compassion towards one about to die even though no one should hurt him, threw in some food to prolong his life. At night they returned home, not dream-ing of any danger, but supposing that on the morrow they would ﬁnd him dead. The Panther, however, when he had recruited his feeble strength, freed himself with a sudden bound from the pit, and hastened to his den with rapid steps. After a few days he came forth and slaughtered the cattle, and, killing the Shepherds who had attacked him, raged with angry fury. Then they who had spared his life, fearing for their safety, surrendered to him their ﬂocks and begged only for their lives. To them the Panther made this reply: “I remember alike those who sought my life with stones, and those who gave me food. Lay aside, therefore, your fears. I return as an enemy only to those who injured me.”
304- The Ass and the Charger AN ASS congratulated a Horse on being so ungrudgingly and carefully provided for, while he himself had scarcely enough to eat and not even that without hard work. But when war broke out, a heavily armed soldier mounted the Horse, and riding him to the charge, rushed into the very midst of the enemy. The Horse was wounded and fell dead on the battleﬁeld. Then the Ass, seeing all these things, changed his mind, and commiserated the Horse.
305- The Eagle and His Captor AN EAGLE was once captured by a man, who immediately clipped his wings and put him into his poultry-yard with the other birds, at which treatment the Ea-gle was weighed down with grief. Later, another neighbor purchased him and al-lowed his feathers to grow again. The Eagle took ﬂight, and pouncing upon a hare, brought it at once as an offering to his benefactor. A Fox, seeing this, exclaimed, “Do not cultivate the favor of this man, but of your former owner, lest he should again hunt for you and deprive you a second time of your wings.”
306- The Bald Man and the Fly A FLY bit the bare head of a Bald Man who, endeavoring to destroy it, gave himself a
heavy slap. Escaping, the Fly said mockingly, “You who have wished to revenge, even with death, the Prick of a tiny insect, see what you have done to yourself to add insult to injury?’ The Bald Man replied, “I can easily make peace with myself, because I know there was no intention to hurt. But you, an ill-fa-vored and contemptible insect who delights in sucking human blood, I wish that I could have killed you even if I had incurred a heavier penalty.”
307- The Olive-Tree and the Fig-Tree THE OLIVE-TREE ridiculed the Fig-Tree because, while she was green all the year round, the Fig-Tree changed its leaves with the seasons. A shower of snow fell upon them, and, ﬁnding the Olive full of foliage, it settled upon its branches and broke them down with its weight, at once despoiling it of its beauty and kill-ing the tree. But ﬁnding the Fig-Tree denuded of leaves, the snow fell through to the ground, and did not injure it at all. 308- The Eagle and the Kite AN EAGLE, overwhelmed with sorrow, sat upon the branches of a tree in com-pany with a Kite. “Why,” said the Kite, “do I see you with such a rueful look?’ “I seek,” she replied, “a mate suitable for me, and am not able to ﬁnd one.” “Take me,” returned the Kite, “I am much stronger than you are.” “Why, are you able to secure the means of living by your plunder?’ “Well, I have often caught and carried away an ostrich in my talons.” The Eagle, persuaded by these words, ac-cepted him as her mate. Shortly after the nuptials, the Eagle said, “Fly off and bring me back the ostrich you promised me.” The Kite, soaring aloft into the air, brought back the shabbiest possible mouse, stinking from the length of time it had lain about the ﬁelds. “Is this,” said the Eagle, “the faithful fulﬁllment of your promise to me?’ The Kite replied, “That I might attain your royal hand, there is nothing that I would not have promised, however much I knew that I must fail in the performance.”
309- The Ass and His Driver AN ASS, being driven along a high road, suddenly started off and bolted to the brink of a deep precipice. While he was in the act of throwing himself over, his owner seized him by the tail, endeavoring to pull him back. When the Ass per-sisted in his effort, the man let him go and said, “Conquer, but conquer to your cost.”
310- The Thrush and the Fowler A THRUSH was feeding on a myrtle-tree and did not move from it because its berries were so delicious. A Fowler observed her staying so long in one spot, and having well
bird-limed his reeds, caught her. The Thrush, being at the point of death, exclaimed, “O foolish creature that I am! For the sake of a little pleasant food I have deprived myself of my life.”
311- The Rose and the Amaranth AN AMARANTH planted in a garden near a Rose-Tree, thus addressed it: “What a lovely ﬂower is the Rose, a favorite alike with Gods and with men. I envy you your beauty and your perfume.” The Rose replied, “I indeed, dear Amaranth, ﬂourish but for a brief season! If no cruel hand pluck me from my stem, yet I must perish by an early doom. But thou art immortal and dost never fade, but bloomest for ever in renewed youth.” 312- The Frogs’ Complaint Against the Sun ONCE UPON A TIME, when the Sun announced his intention to take a wife, the Frogs lifted up their voices in clamor to the sky. Jupiter, disturbed by the noise of their croaking, inquired the cause of their complaint. One of them said, “The Sun, now while he is single, parches up the marsh, and compels us to die miser-ably in our arid homes. What will be our future condition if he should beget other suns?’
For Teens Stories from Panchatantra
The tales of Panchatantra, perhaps, are the oldest stories known in the literature of India. The dates of the Panchatantra are not known and these tales are usually attributed to Vishnu Sharma. Some believe that the fables of panchatantra are as old as Rig-veda. The popular story about the origin of Panchatantra goes like this: Once there was a king who has three son who are dull and without any wit or wisdom. Worried about the wellbeing of his sons the king approaches a wise brahmin called Vishnu Sharma and prays him to impart wisdom into his sons. Since the songs of the king are dimwits, he chooses to pass the wisdom in the form of interesting short stories. The stories narrated by Vishnu Sarma contains animals and birds and he makes them speak and behave like humans. Panchatantra tells about five ways that help the human being succeed in life. Pancha means five and tantra means ways (or strategies or principles). Addressed to the
king's children, the stories are primarily about statecraft and are popular throughout the world. The five strategies are: • • • • • Quarrel among friends (mitra-beda) Gaining friends (mitra labha) Of crows and owls Loss of gains Imprudence (mindless action)
( the actual panchtantra is a big one, I have put here whatever I could get.) Given below is a list of stories from the Panchatantra:
1. The story of the foolish lion and the clever rabbit 2. The story of the monkey and the crocodile 3. The story of the elephant and the sparrow 4. The Story of the Blue jackal 5. The greedy jackal 6. The heron and the crab 7. The crows and the serpent 8. The swan and the owl 9. The geese and the tortoise 10. The bird with two necks 11. The jackal and the drum 12. The heron, serpent and the mongoose 13. The mice and the elephants 14. The cat partridge and the hare 15. The gold giving serpent 16. The day dreaming priest 17. The mongoose and the farmer's wife 18. The sage's daughter 19. The moon lake 20. The fox reared by the lion 21. The brahmin's gift
The Foolish Lion and the Clever Rabbit
Once upon a time there lived a ferocious lion in the forest. It was a greedy lion and started killing animals in the forest indiscriminately. Seeing this, the animals gathered and decided to approach the lion with the offer of one animal of each species volunteering itself to be eaten by the lion everyday. So every day it was the turn of one of the animals and in the end came the rabbits' turn. The rabbits chose a old rabbit among them. The rabbit was wise and old. It took its own sweet time to go to the Lion. The Lion was getting impatient on not seeing any animal come by and swore to kill all animals the next day. The rabbit then strode along to the Lion by sunset. The Lion was angry at him. But the wise rabbit was calm and slowly told the Lion that it was not his fault. He told the Lion that a group of rabbits were coming to him for the day when on the way, an angry Lion attacked them all and ate all rabbits but himself. Somehow he escaped to reach safely, the rabbit said. He said that the other Lion was challenging the supremacy of his Lordship the Lion. The Lion was naturally very enraged and asked to be taken to the location of the other Lion. The wise rabbit agreed and led the Lion towards a deep well filled with water. Then he showed the Lion his reflection in the water of the well. The Lion was furious and started growling and naturally its image in the water, the other Lion, was also equally angry. Then the Lion jumped into the water at the other Lion to attack it, and so lost its life in the well. Thus the wise rabbit saved the forest and its inhabitants from the proud Lion.
Monkey and the Crocodile
Once upon a time there lived a monkey named Red-face on a tree by the side of the sea. The tree was an apple tree and the fruits it bore were sweet as nectar. Once a crocodile named Ugly-Mug swam ashore and Red-face threw apples at him and asked him to taste them. Ugly-Mug started coming everyday ashore and eat the fruits thrown by Red-face and soon they became good friends. Ugly-Mug used to take some fruits to his home to his wife. His wife was a greedy lady and asked him as to where he got the nectar filled apples. Ugly-Mug told about his friend the monkey. The lady was greedy and pleaded with her husband that she would like to eat the monkey's heart, as a person who gave such tasty fruits must have a heart filled with nectar. Ugly-Mug was angered and did not agree to deceiving his friend. But she then insisted on not eating anything till he brought her his friend's heart. Out of desperation, Ugly-mug started making plans for killing his friend. He came back to Red-face and entreated him with an invitation to his house for supper stating that his wife would be thrilled to have him home and also that she was very anxious to meet such a nice friend. Poor Red-face believed the story but was asking his friend as to how he could cross the sea to reach the house of the crocodile on the other side. Ugly-mug then offered to carry him on his back and the monkey agreed. In the middle of the sea, Ugly-mug took the crocodile deep into the ocean to kill the monkey. The monkey was frightened and asked the crocodile why he was doing this. Ugly-mug told him that his wife wanted to eat the monkey's heart filled with nectar. Red-face immediately asked it to take him back to the tree as he told him that he had left his other heart which was full of nectar back at the tree. The foolish crocodile then swam back to the tree and the terrified monkey jumped up the tree never to return. Upon being asked as to why she was not returning, the monkey answered to the crocodile that he had only one heart and he had been fooled and scolded his friend for misusing his friendship. The crocodile was ashamed at what happened and asked the monkey if he could make any amends. And he was also scared that his wife would not let him back in because he had returned without the monkey's heart. Just then he heard that a huge he-crocodile had occupied the house of his. The monkey advised him to fight the hecrocodile and drive him out of his home and gain his wife's confidence. His advice the crocodile followed and he was back happy with his wife.
Sparrow and the Elephant
Once upon a time there lived a sparrow with her husband on a tree. She had built a nice nest and laid her eggs in the nest. One morning, a wild elephant with spring fever feeling restive came to the tree in search of shade and in a rage broke the branch of the tree on which the nest was residing. Unluckily all the sparrow eggs were lost though both parents were saved. The she-sparrow was deep in lament. Seeing her lament, the woodpecker bird, a friend of hers offered her consolation that she would think of a way of killing the elephant. Then she went to her friend the gnat, who in turn went to the counselor frog for advice. The frog then devised a scheme for killing the elephant. He asked the gnat to buzz in the ears of the elephant, so that the elephant would be thrilled to listen to the music of the gnat and close its eyes. Then she asked the woodpecker to pluck his eyes. She herself would be on the edge of a pit and would croak misleading the elephant to think that it is a pond. The next day at noon the three carried out the plan and the elephant was killed when he fell flat into a pit after being blinded by the woodpecker when he closed his eyes in response to the gnat. So the revenge was taken with collective wit of all three animals.
The blue Jackal
Once upon a time there lived a jackal who strayed into a city in search of food. He was hungry and was being chased by a group of dogs. He accidentally entered the house of a dyer and fell into a vat of indigo(blue), and was stained blue from head to toe. When he escaped from the house back into the forest, all animals were surprised at his appearance and could not place its identity. Taking advantage of the situation, the jackal decided to play the situation to his advantage. He proclaimed that he was Fierce Owl, sent by the king of Gods, Indra, to earth to gaurd the forest. The gullible animals believed the jackal. The jackal then appointed the Lion as his Prime minister, tiger as his gaurdian of the bed chamber and the elephant was made the door keeper. He then drove all the jackals out of sight from the forest for fear of being recognized. The animals would hunt food and bring it to the self proclaimed king and the king would distribute the food to all equally just as a king would do. So he was leading a life of luxury. One day a herd of jackals were passing by howling to their glory. Unable to control his natural instinct, FierceOwl showed his natural voice and howled at the top of his voice. Hearing this howl, the animals realised that they had been fooled by a jackal and killed the jackal instantly.
The greedy Jackal
Once upon a time there lived a lazy jackal. Also in the hills there lived a hillman and a wild boar. Once when the hillman went to hunt, he saw the wold boar. He took a sharp aim with his arrow and stuck the boar. But the boar was only injured and it attacked the hillman and he died on the spot. But the boar also collapsed due to the injury and died. The jackal happened to pass the site of both the dead bodies, and the jackal decided to eat them slowly. But he was excessively greedy and first wanted to eat the bowstring, before the other bodies. As he tried to eat the bowstring which was tightly attached to the bow, it snapped and the end of the string pierced the roof of its mouth and it stuck a big injury to the jackal and the jackal died on the spot.
The heron and the crab
Once upon a time there lived a heron by the side of a pond. It was a lazy creature and once deivsed a plan to get a supply of fish without doing much work. So one day, he went to the side of the pond and put on a gloomy face without attempting to catch any fish. The pond was also inhabited by a carb, which was wise and often helped the fish in the pond. On seeing the gloomy heron, the crab asked her what the matter was. The heron said, "Alas! I am worried that the pond is going to be soon devoid of any fish, which are in turn my source of food. I overheard a group of fishermen talking about catching all the fish in this pond. But I know of a pond somewhat far away, where all the fish shall be safe. If the fish are interested, i can carry a few each day to the other pond where they will be safe." All the fish were eager to make use of the heron in reaching a safer destination. So everyday some of them volunteer to go with the heron. The heron took some fish each day in the beak, and on reaching a large rock used to eat all the fish up and leave the bones of the fish at the rock. So she was able to get a continuous supply of fish at no effort at all. In the end, the curiosity got the better of the crab, and one day it volunteered to go with the fish. When it had gone closer to the rock, it realized the foul play the heron had been playing on the poor fish. Enraged, it tightened its claws around the neck of the heron and snapped the head of the heron off. The heron this died a selfish death. The crab crept back to the pond and told all the fish about the lies the heron had been telling.
The crows and the serpent
Once upon a time there lived a crow couple, who had built a nest on the top of a tree. But unfortunately the tree was inhabited by a serpent at its bottom. So the serpent used to crawl up the tree and eat all the eggs that the lady crow used to lay. The crow couple were deeply grieved and when this happened time after time, then they decided that the serpent was to be get rid of by a plan. So the crow then approached his friend the jackal and asked for a plan. The jackal then told him to go and fetch a costly thing from the palace of the king and throw the thing in the burrow of the snake. The crow went to palace, and stole a necklace of the queen while she was bathing. The gaurds of the palace ran after it. The crow then dropped the necklace in the burrow of the snake beneath the tree. The gaurds on reaching the bottom of the tree, found the necklace gaurded by the serpent. Then they lynched the serpent and recovered the necklace. So the crow family was now happy that their eggs were safe now.
The Swan and the Owl
Once upon a time there lived a swan who used to spend time in various playful activites on a lake. Once an owl visited him in the forest and requested him to be friends, after praising the swan a lot. The swan agreed to be friends with him and they used to spend time near the lake a lot of days. But the owl soon got bored of the place and told the swan, "I am going back to my home in the Lotus wood, and if you ever want to visit me you can visit me there." The swan, after many days once decided to pay a visit to the owl in the Lotus wood. On reaching Lotus wood, it could not find the owl, which was hiding in the dark hole. The owl asked the swan to take rest till daylight was over and told him that he could come out only at night. The swan decided to take rest. It so happened that a group of merchants were passing by the next day early morning. The merchants chanted some hymns, and to that the owl replied with a hoot. Thinking that this was a bad omen, the merchants then decided to shoot the owl down. But in the meantime the owl had fled and taken refuge in a nearby hole near the shore of the lake. But the swan did not move. The arrow from the merchants came and hit the swan and it was killed.
The geese and the tortoise
Once upon a time there lived a pair of geese and a tortoise all three of whom were great friends. One day they faced a huge drought and the lake in which they lived was drying up. They decided to leave the lake and look for a new lake. But the tortoise could not fly. So the geese thought of a plan, where by the tortoise would have to hold a piece of stick by its mouth which would be carried by the two geese. The only condition was that the trotoise should not speak or it will fall from the stick to death. The tortoise agreed to be silent. But on seeing this strange arrangement , people on the way started laughing at the tortoise. Unable to control his anxiety, he spoke out "What are they laughing about?", and so fell to his death. If he had kept quiet he could have saved his own life.
The bird with two necks
Once upon a time there lived a special kind of bird which had two necks and shared a common stomach. One day, one of the heads found a jar of nectar, and on seeing this the other head also wanted to taste the nectar but the first neck refused to let it have it. Enraged, the other neck soon found a jar of poison and it consumed it. The poison reached the common stomach and both the necks perished.
The Jackal and the Drum
Once upon a time there lived a jackal in a forest. One day it was very hungry and it reached the king's battleground. It heard a loud noise suddenly and was frightened upon hearing the noise. He was frightened that something dangerous was happening to him. He reached a war-drum nearby and struck it with grass and it made noise. He mistook it be a huge animal with lots of food on the inside of it. With great difficulty it pierced the drum and reached inside. On reaching inside then it was disappointed to find it to be only wood and leather. With great difficulty it came out of the hole and backed off and crept away to safety laughing at her judgment.
The Heron, Serpent and the Mongoose
Once upon a time there lived a group of herons on a banyan tree. In the hollow trunk of the tree dwelt a black serpent who ate the young herons before they grew. Out of sorrow the heron, approached the crab. The crab heard of the serpent and then thought to itself, " The heron is also the natural enemy of our race. So i need a scheme to get rid of all of them". So he advised the heron to throw fish bits all the way from the house of the mongoose to the tree where it lived. The heron did as told and the mongoose following the trail of the fish came and ate the serpent and at the same time crept up the tree and ate all the herons too.
The mice and the elephants
Once upon a time there lived a group of mice under a tree peacefully. But once a group of elephants came that way and destroyed the homes of all the rats as a result of which many of them were crushed to death. Then the king of rats decided to approach the elephant chief and request him to guide his herd through another route. The elephant king agreed to this and took another route to the water. And so the lives of the rats were saved. One day a group of elephant-hunters came and trapped the group of elephants in huge nets. Then the elephant king suddenly remembered the king of the rats. He summoned one of the elephants of his herd which had not been trapped, to go and contact the king of rats. On listening to the elephant, the rat king took his entire group of mice and they cut open the nets which trapped the elephant herd. So the elephant herd was totally set free.
The cat, partridge and the hare
Once upon a time there lived a partridge under a tree. The partridge one day decided to go to the fields and indulge itself in the food there. But it did not return for many days as it found the fields a good source of food. In the meantime a hare came along one day and occupied the same dwelling which the patridge used to live in. The partridge however returned from the fields having grown plump from the food. It wanted to claim the dwelling for itself. A fight ensued and the hare was saying that the dwelling belonged to whoever occupied it. Then they both decided to contact a supposedly learned cat, on the shores of the Ganges who was supposed to be wise and old. So one day they both approached the cat with their problem. The cat, which was actually a hypocrite who earned his livelihood by posing as a priest, decided to take advantage of the occasion. On hearing the partridge and the hare from a distance, it said, "Sorry! I can't hear you from that far a distance because of old age. Dont worry I mean no harm to you. Come closer and both of you relate your stories." They were fooled into coming near and as soon as he could lay his hands on both of them he killed them both and had a meal.
The gold giving serpent
Once upon a time there lived a poor brahman. He used to work hard on the fields but all his efforts did not bear fruit. He one day found an anthill on his field and found a serpent there. Thinking that he had not paid respect to the guardian deity of his field, he procured milk and started feeding the anthill with milk from that day. One day he found a gold coin in the plate. So he used to get a gold coin everyday he fed the serpent with milk. Then one day he had to go to the town and asked his son to look after the serpent by feeding him the milk. The son was greedy and he thought, "This anthill must be full of gold coins". And he stuck the serpent. Unluckily the serpent did not die and it attacked the boy and he died.
The day dreaming priest
Once upon a time there lived a priest who was extremely lazy and poor at the same time. He did not want to do any hard work but used to dream of being rich one day. He got his food by begging for alms. One morning he got a pot of milk as part of the alms. He was extremely delighted and went home with the pot of milk. He boiled the milk, drank some of it and put the remaining milk in a pot. He added slight curds in the pot for converting the milk to curd. He then lay down to rest. He was extremely delighted at the pot of milk he found and started dreaming about the pot of curd while he lay asleep. He dreamt that if he could become rich somehow all his miseries would be gone. His thoughts turned to the pot of milk he had set to form curd. He dreamt on : "By morning the pot of milk would set, it would be converted to curd. I would churn the curd and make butter from it. I would heat the butter and make ghee out of it. I will go to that market and sell that ghee, and make some money. With that money i will buy a hen. The hen will lay may eggs which will hatch and there will be many more hens and cocks. These cocks and hen will in turn lay hundreds of eggs and I will soon have a poultry farm of my own." He kept on imagining. "I will sell all the hens of my poultry and buy some cows, and open a milk dairy. All the town people will buy milk from me. I will be very rich and soon I shall buy jewellery. The king will buy all the jewellery from me. I will be so rich that I will be able to marry an exceptionally beautiful girl from a rich family. Soon I will have a handsome son. If he does any mischief I will be very angry and to teach him a lesson, I will hit him with a big stick." During this dream, he involuntarily picked up the stick next to his bed and thinking that he was beating his son, raised the stick and hit the pot. The pot of milk broke and he awoke from his sleep. Only then did he realize he was daydreaming.
The mongoose and the farmer's wife
Once upon a time there lived a farmer and his wife. They had a new born son. The farmer's wife wanted to have a pet animal to protect the child which would also be a companion to the child. They debated and decided upon a mongoose. So they brought a mongoose and started rearing it. A couple of months later, one day the farmer and his wife wanted to go out of the house leaving the child at home. The farmer thought that the mongoose would take care of the child while they were away. So they left the mongoose and the child at home and went out. The farmer's wife returned earlier and on returning home found that the mouth of the mongoose was stained with blood and she immediately inferred that the mongoose had killed the child. In anger she threw a box on the mongoose and the mongoose was hurt badly. She then rushed inside to see what happened to the child. She was surprised to find a dead snake lying in the room. She could infer that that the mongoose had saved the child's life by killing the snake. Realising the mistake she went out of the room only to find the mongoose dead on the floor. She cried out load at her hasty action.
The Sage's daughter
Once upon a time there lived a sage on the banks of a river. He and his wife did not have any children. One day when the sage was praying in the middle of the river, an eagle happened to pass by and the eagle dropped a female mouse in the hands of the sage. The sage found the mouse in his hands on opening his eyes, and took it home to his wife. On reaching home, he talked to his wife about the mouse and they decided to convert the mouse into a young baby girl. The sage and his wife began to take care of the girl child and brought her up as their daughter. The child grew day by day to a beautiful maiden by the age of sixteen. At this age, the sage decided to find a match for the girl. He and his wife decided that the Sun God would be an ideal match for their girl. So the sage prayed for the Sun God to appear, and once the sun god appeared asked him to marry his daughter. But his daughter said, "Sorry! I cannot marry the sun god because he is very intense and I will be reduced to ashes in his heat and light.". The sage was displeased and asked the sun god to suggest a possible groom. The sun god suggested the name of the Lord of the clouds. For, the cloud can easily stop the rays of the sun. The sage then prayed for the lord of the clouds and once he appeared him took him to his daughter. The daughter once again decided not accept him as his groom. She said, " I do not want to marry a person as dark as him. Moreover, I am afraid of the thunder he produces". The sage was dejected once again and asked the lord of clouds for a suitable groom. The lord of clouds suggested, " Why don't you try the lord of wind, for he can easily blow me away". The sage then prayed for the lord of the wind. On the appearance of the wind-god, he took him to his daughter. His daughter rejected the groom saying that she cannot marry such a feeble person like the wind god who is always on the move. Dejected once again the sage asked the wind-god for a suggestion. The wind-god suggested the lord of the mountain which was rock solid and stopped the wind easily. So the sage then went to the mountain lord and requested him to marry his daughter. But the daughter once again rejected the mountain lord saying that he was too coldhearted for her to marry and requested the sage to find somebody softer. The mountain god then suggested a mouse to him, because the mouse is soft and yet can easily make holes in the mountain. This time the daughter was happy and agreed to marrying a he-mouse. So the sage said, "Look at what the destiny had to offer you. You started as a mouse, and were destined to marry a mouse in the end. So be it". He then converted her back to a she-mouse and got her married to a he-mouse.
The Moon lake
Once A large herd of elephants lived in a jungle. Their king was a huge, majestic
tusker. He looked after them with love and care. A severe drought hit the area. As there was no rain for a few years, all the rivers and tanks had dried up. Birds and animals died of thirst. The wild elephants suffered for want of water. Their king knew that if they did not get water soon, many of them would die of thirst. He had to find water as quickly as possible. He asked the elephants to go in different directions to look for water. One of them found a large lake full of water in another jungle far away. The king was happy. He ordered all the elephants to make their way to the lake. It was a beautiful lake. Close to it was a colony of rabbits. The elephants had to pass through this colony. Thousands of rabbits were trampled to death and thousands more were injured. The rabbits were in a panic. Their king called a meeting. "A herd of wild elephants is passing through our colony," he said. "They have already killed or injured thousands of us. We have to take urgent steps to prevent more deaths. I want all of you to think of a way to save our race." The rabbits thought and thought. How could they stop the elephants? One little rabbit stood up. "Your Majesty," he said, "if you will send me as your messenger to the king of the elephants, I may be able to find a solution." "By all means, go as my messenger and see what you can do." The little rabbit hurried out. He saw a group of elephants returning from the lake. Right in the middle was the king. To get near him was impossible. "I will be crushed to death,' thought the rabbit. So he climbed up a huge rock. "O, king of the elephants," he shouted, "hear me, please." The king heard his voice and turned towards him. "Well, who are you?" he asked. "I am a messenger," replied the rabbit. "A messenger? From whom?" "I am a messenger from the mighty Moon." "What is your business? Is there a message for me from the Moon?" "Yes, yes, your Majesty. But you must not be angry with me. Please remember that a messenger is never punished for what he has to say. He is only doing his duty." "Very well. Say what you have been sent to say. I shall not harm you." "Sir," said the little rabbit, "the Moon has this to say" " You, the king of the elephants, have brought your herd to my holy lake and soiled its waters. You have killed thousands of rabbits on your way to the lake. You know that rabbits are under my special protection. Everyone knows that the king of the rabbits lives with me. I ask you not to kill any more rabbits. Otherwise something terrible will happen to you and your herd." The king of the elephants was shocked. He looked at the little rabbit. "You are right," he said. "We may have killed many rabbits on our way to the lake. I shall see that you do not suffer anymore. I shall request the Moon to forgive me for my sins. Please tell me what I should do." "Come with me alone," replied the rabbit. "Come, I shall take you to the Moon." The little rabbit took the huge elephant to the lake. There they saw the Moon reflected in the still waters. "There, your Majesty, meet the Moon," said the little rabbit.
"Let me worship the divine Moon," said the elephant, and dipped his trunk into the water. At once the water was disturbed. The Moon seemed to move to and fro. The rabbit said, "Now the Moon is angrier than ever." "Why?' asked the king. "What have I done?" "You have touched the holy waters of the lake," replied the rabbit. The elephant bowed his head. "Please ask the Moon to forgive me. Never again will we touch the holy waters of this lake. Never again will we harm the rabbits whom the Moon loves so much." And the king and his herd went away. Soon there was rain and the elephants lived happily. It did not occur to them ever that a little rabbit had fooled them.
The Fox feared by the Lion
Once upon a time there was a lion and a lioness in a dense forest. The couple gave birth to two cubs in due course of time. The lion asked the lioness to stay at home and take care of the cubs. One day the lion could not hunt any animal but found a little fox on the way home. He took it home as a gift for the lioness. The lioness brought the fox kid with the same love as her own cubs. The three young animals grew and played together. One day the children saw an elephant. The lion cubs wanted to fight the elephant. But the fox kid was frightened and asked them to run away. So they ran away and went to the mother lioness. The lion cubs told the story to her. She laughed at the fox kid. At this the fox kid was offended and in a rage challenged the lioness as to why she called it a coward. The lioness replied, "What's wrong with eating an elephant? You feel like that only because you're not a lion kid. You are the child of a fox. Your breed never eats elephants. If you cannot be bold please leave us and go live with your tribe." The fox kid did not want to live there any longer and left for the forest.
The Brahmin's Gift
Once there lived a pious brahmin in a village. He used to perform religious rituals. On one occasion he was rewarded with a cow by a rich man for his service. The brahmin started to bring the cow to his home. On the way, three rogues saw the brahmin bringing the cow. They were lazy and wanted to cheat the brahmin so that they could take away the cow. They hatched a plan. The first person approached the brahmin and said, "Are you a washerman that you're pulling a donkey." The brahmin was annoyed at being mistaken for a washerman. He went on. A little later he was met by the second of the three. The second person asked him why being a brahmin he needed to pull a pig. Now the brahmin was confused but he went on. Some distance later he was met by the third person who asked him why he was pulling along a wild animal. Now the brahmin was totally confused and also afraid. He thought that it was a devil animal which took different forms. He ran away leaving the cow behind. The three tricksters laughed at the brahmin at having obtained the cow from the brahmin
For the ones who are a bit older like 15-16 years old.
1. Men are disturbed not by the things which happen, but by the opinions about the things: for example, death is nothing terrible, for if it were, it would have seemed so to Socrates; for the opinion about death, that it is terrible, is the terri-ble thing. When then we are impeded or disturbed or grieved, let us never blame others, but ourselves, that is, our opinions. It is the act of an ill-instructed man to blame others for his own bad condition; it is the act of one who has begun to be in-structed, to lay the blame on himself; and of one whose instruction is completed, neither to blame another, nor himself.
2. Be not elated at any advantage (excellence), which belongs to another. If a horse when he is elated should say, I am beautiful, one might endure it. But when you are elated, and say, I have a beautiful horse, you must know that you are elated at having a good horse. What then is your own? The use of appearances. Consequently when in the use of appearances you are conformable to nature, then be elated, for then you will be elated at something good which is your own.
3. Seek not that the things which happen should happen as you wish; but wish the things which happen to be as they are, and you will have a tranquil ﬂow of life. MY FAVORITES. 4. Disease is an impediment to the body, but not to the will, unless the will itself chooses. Lameness is an impediment to the leg, but not to the will. And add this reﬂection on the occasion of everything that happens; for you will ﬁnd it an impediment to something else, but not to yourself. 5. On the occasion of every accident (event) that befalls you, remember to turn to yourself and inquire what power you have for turning it to use. If you see a fair man or a fair woman, you will ﬁnd that the power to resist is temperance (conti-nence). If labor (pain) be presented to you, you will ﬁnd that it is endurance. If it be abusive words, you will ﬁnd it to be patience. And if you have been thus formed to the (proper) habit, the appearances will not carry you along with them. 6. Never say about anything, I have lost it, but say I have restored it. Is your child dead? It has been restored. Is your wife dead? She has been restored. Has your estate been taken from you? Has not then this also been restored? But he who has taken it from me is a bad man. But what is it to you, by whose hands the giver demanded it back? So long as he may allow you, take care of it as a thing which belongs to another, as travelers do with their inn. 7. If you intend to improve, throw away such thoughts as these: if I neglect my affairs, I shall not have the means of living: unless I chastise my slave, he will be bad. For it is
better to die of hunger and so be released from grief and fear than to live in abundance with perturbation; and it is better for your slave to be bad than for you to be unhappy. Begin then from little things. Is the oil spilled? Is a little wine stolen? Say on the occasion, at such price is sold freedom from per-turbation; at such price is sold tranquility, but nothing is got for nothing. And when you call your slave, consider that it is possible that he does not hear; and if he does hear, that he will do nothing which you wish. But matters are not so well with him, but altogether well with you, that it should be in his power for you to be not disturbed. 8. If you would improve, submit to be considered without sense and foolish with respect to externals. Wish to be considered to know nothing: and if you shall seem to some to be a person of importance, distrust yourself. For you should know that it is not easy both to keep your will in a condition conformable to na-ture and (to secure) external things: but if a man is careful about the one, it is an absolute necessity that he will neglect the other. 9. If you would have your children and your wife and your friends to live forev-er, you are silly; for you would have the things which are not in your power to be in your power, and the things which belong to others to be yours. So if you would have your slave to be free from faults, you are a fool; for you would have badness not to be badness, but something else. But if you wish not to fail in your desires, you are able to do that. Practice then this which you are able to do. He is the mas-ter of every man who has the power over the things, which another person wishes or does not wish, the power to confer them on him or to take them away. Whoever then wishes to be free, let him neither wish for anything nor avoid anything which depends on others: if he does not observe this rule, he must be a slave. 10. Remember that in life you ought to behave as at a banquet. Suppose that something is carried round and is opposite to you. Stretch out your hand and take a portion with decency. Suppose that it passes by you. Do not detain it. Suppose that it is not yet come to you. Do not send your desire forward to it, but wait till it is opposite to you. Do so with respect to children, so with respect to a wife, so with respect to magisterial ofﬁces, so with respect to wealth, and you will be some time a worthy partner of the banquets of the gods. But if you take none of the things which are set before you, and even despise them, then you will be not only a fellow-banqueter with the gods, but also a partner with them in power. 11. When you see a person weeping in sorrow either when a child goes abroad or when he is dead, or when the man has lost his property, take care that the appearance does not hurry you away with it, as if he were suffering in external things. But straightway make a distinction in your own mind, and be in readiness to say, it is not that which has happened that afﬂicts this man, for it does not af-ﬂict another, but it is the opinion about this thing which afﬂicts the man. So far as words then do not be unwilling to show him sympathy,
and even if it happens so, to lament with him. But take care that you do not lament internally also. 12. Remember that thou art an actor in a play of such a kind as the teacher (author) may choose; if short, of a short one; if long, of a long one: if he wishes you to act the part of a poor man, see that you act the part naturally; if the part of a lame man, of a magistrate, of a private person, (do the same). For this is your duty, to act well the part that is given to you; but to select the part, belongs to another. 13. When a raven has croaked inauspiciously, let not the appearance hurry you away with it; but straightway make a distinction in your mind and say, None of these things is signiﬁed to me, but either to my poor body, or to my small property, or to my reputation, or to my children or to my wife: but to me all signiﬁca-tions are auspicious if I choose. For whatever of these things results, it is in my power to derive beneﬁt from it. 14. You can be invincible, if you enter into no contest in which it is not in your power to conquer. Take care then when you observe a man honored before oth-ers or possessed of great power or highly esteemed for any reason, not to suppose him happy, and be not carried away by the appearance. For if the nature of the good is in our power, neither envy nor jealousy will have a place in us. But you yourself will not wish to be a general or senator or consul, but a free man: and there is only one way to this, to despise (care not for) the things which are not in our power. 15. Remember that it is not he who reviles you or strikes you, who insults you, but it is your opinion about these things as being insulting. When then a man ir-ritates you, you must know that it is your own opinion which has irritated you. Therefore especially try not to be carried away by the appearance. For if you once gain time and delay, you will more easily master yourself. 16. Let death and exile and every other thing which appears dreadful be daily before your eyes; but most of all death: and you will never think of anything mean nor will you desire anything extravagantly. 17. If you desire philosophy, prepare yourself from the beginning to be ridi-culed, to expect that many will sneer at you, and say, He has all at once returned to us as a philosopher; and whence does he get this supercilious look for us? Do you not show a supercilious look; but hold on to the things which seem to you best as one appointed by God to this station. And remember that if you abide in the same principles, these men who ﬁrst ridiculed will afterward admire you: but if you shall have been overpowered by them, you will bring on yourself double ridicule. 18. If it should ever happen to you to be turned to externals in order to please some person, you must know that you have lost your purpose in life. Be satisﬁed then in
everything with being a philosopher; and if you wish to seem also to any person to be a philosopher, appear so to yourself, and you will be able to do this. 19. Let not these thoughts afﬂict you, I shall live unhonored and be nobody nowhere. For if want of honor (atimia) is an evil, you cannot be in evil through the means (fault) of another any more than you can be involved in anything base. Is it then your business to obtain the rank of magistrate, or to be received at a banquet? By no means. How then can this be want of honor (dishonor)? And how will you be nobody nowhere, when you ought to be somebody in those things only which are in your power, in which indeed it is permitted to you to be a man of the greatest worth? But your friends will be without assistance! What do you mean by being without assistance? They will not receive money from you, nor will you make them Roman citizens. Who then told you that these are among the things which are in our power, and not in the power of others? And who can give to another what he has not himself? Acquire money then, your friends say, that we also may have something. If I can acquire money and also keep myself modest, and faithful and magnanimous, point out the way, and I will acquire it. But if you ask me to lose the things which are good and my own, in order that you may gain the things which are not good, see how unfair and silly you are. Besides, which would you rather have, money or a faithful and modest friend? For this end then rather help me to be such a man, and do not ask me to do this by which I shall lose that character. But my country, you say, as far as it depends on me, will be without my help. I ask again, what help do you mean? It will not have porticoes or baths through you. And what does this mean? For it is not furnished with shoes by means of a smith, nor with arms by means of a shoemaker. But it is enough if every man fully discharges the work that is his own: and if you provided it with another citizen faithful and modest, would you not be useful to it? Yes. Then you also cannot be useless to it. What place then, you say, shall I hold in the city? Whatever you can, if you maintain at the same time your ﬁdelity and modesty. But if when you wish to be useful to the state, you shall lose these qualities, what proﬁt could you be to it, if you were made shameless and faithless?
20. Has any man been preferred before you at a banquet, or in being saluted, or in being invited to a consultation? If these things are good, you ought to rejoice that he has obtained them: but if bad, be not grieved because you have not ob-tained them; and remember that you cannot, if you do not the same things in or-der to obtain what is not in our power, be considered worthy of the same (equal) things. For how can a man obtain an equal share with another when he does not visit a man’s doors as that other man does, when he does not attend him when he goes abroad, as the other man does; when he does not praise (ﬂatter) him as another does? You will be unjust then and insatiable, if you do not part with the price, in return for which those things are sold, and if you wish to obtain them for nothing. Well, what is the price of lettuces? An obolus perhaps. If then a man gives up the obolus, and receives the lettuces, and if you do not give up the obolus and do not obtain the lettuces do not suppose that you receive less than he who has got the lettuces; for as he has the lettuces, so you have the obolus which you did not give. In the
same way then in the other matter also you have not been in-vited to a man’s feast, for you did not give to the host the price at which the supper is sold; but he sells it for praise (ﬂattery), he sells it for personal attention. Give then the price, if it is for your interest, for which it is sold. But if you wish both not to give the price and to obtain the things, you are insatiable and silly. Have you nothing then in place of the supper? You have indeed, you have the not ﬂattering of him, whom you did not choose to ﬂatter; you have the not enduring of the man when he enters the room. 21. We may learn the wish (will) of nature from the things in which we do not differ from one another; for instance, when your neighbor’s slave has broken his cup, or anything else, we are ready to say forthwith, that it [is] one of the things which happen. You must know then that when your cup also is broken, you ought to think as you did when your neighbor’s cup was broken. Transfer this reﬂection to greater things also. Is another man’s child or wife dead? There is no one who would not say, this is an event incident to man. But when a man’s own child or wife is dead, forthwith he calls out, Wo to me, how wretched I am. But we ought to remember how we feel when we hear that it has happened to others. 22. As a mark is not set up for the purpose of missing the aim, so neither does the nature of evil exist in the world. 23. ny person was intending to put your body in the power of any man whom you fell in with on the way, you would be vexed: but that you put your un-derstanding in the power of any man whom you meet, so that if he should revile you, it is disturbed and troubled, are you not ashamed at this? 24. In every act observe the things which come ﬁrst, and those which follow it; and so proceed to the act. If you do not, at ﬁrst you will approach it with alac-rity, without having thought of the things which will follow; but afterward, when certain base (ugly) things have shown themselves, you will be ashamed. A man wishes to conquer at the Olympic games. I also wish indeed, for it is a ﬁne thing. But observe both the things which come ﬁrst, and the things which follow; and then begin the act. You must do everything according to rule, eat according to strict orders, abstain from delicacies, exercise yourself as you are bid at appointed times, in heat, in cold, you must not drink cold water, nor wine as you choose; in a word, you must deliver yourself up to the exercise master as you do to the phy-sician, and then proceed to the contest. And sometimes you will strain the hand, put the ankle out of joint, swallow much dust, sometimes be ﬂogged, and after all this be defeated. When you have considered all this, if you still choose, go to the contest: if you do not, you will behave like children, who at one time play as wres-tlers, another time as ﬂute players, again as gladiators, then as trumpeters, then as tragic actors: so you also will be at one time an athlete, at another a gladiator, then a rhetorician, then a philosopher, but with your whole soul you will be noth-ing at all; but like an ape you imitate everything that you see, and one thing after another pleases you. For you have not undertaken anything with consideration, nor have you surveyed it well; but carelessly and with cold desire. Thus some who have seen a
philosopher and having heard one speak, as Euphrates speaks,—and who can speak as he does?—they wish to be philosophers themselves also. My man, ﬁrst of all consider what kind of thing it is: and then examine your own na-ture, if you are able to sustain the character. Do you wish to be a pentathlete or a wrestler? Look at your arms, your thighs, examine your loins. For different men are formed by nature for different things. Do you think that if you do these things, you can eat in the same manner, drink in the same manner, and in the same man-ner loathe certain things? You must pass sleepless nights, endure toil, go away from your kinsmen, be despised by a slave, in every thing have the inferior part, in honor, in ofﬁce, in the courts of justice, in every little matter. Consider these things, if you would exchange for them, freedom from passions, liberty, tranquility. If not, take care that, like little children, you be not now a philosopher, then a servant of the publicani, then a rhetorician, then a procurator (manager) for Cæsar. These things are not consistent. You must be one man, either good or bad. You must either cultivate your own ruling faculty, or external things; you must either exercise your skill on internal things or on external things; that is you must either maintain the position of a philosopher or that of a common person. 25. Duties are universally measured by relations. Is a man a father? The pre-cept is to take care of him, to yield to him in all things, to submit when he is re-proachful, when he inﬂicts blows. But suppose that he is a bad father. Were you then by nature made akin to a good father? No; but to a father. Does a brother wrong you? Maintain then your own position toward him, and do not examine what he is doing, but what you must do that your will shall be conformable to nature. For another will not damage you, unless you choose: but you will be dam-aged then when you shall think that you are damaged. In this way then you will discover your duty from the relation of a neighbor, from that of a citizen, from that of a general, if you are accustomed to contemplate the relations. As to piety toward the Gods you must know that this is the chief thing, to have right opinions about them, to think that they exist, and that they administer the All well and justly; and you must ﬁx yourself in this principle (duty), to obey them, and yield to them in everything which happens, and voluntarily to follow it as being accomplished by the wisest intelligence. For if you do so, you will never either blame the Gods, nor will you accuse them of neglecting you. And it is not possible for this to be done in any other way than by withdrawing from the things which are not in our power, and by placing the good and the evil only in those things which are in our power. For if you think that any of the things which are not in our power is good or bad, it is absolutely necessary that, when you do not obtain what you wish, and when you fall into those things which you do not wish, you will ﬁnd fault and hate those who are the cause of them; for every animal is formed by nature to this, to ﬂy from and to turn from the things which appear harmful and the things which are the cause of the harm, but to follow and admire the things which are useful and the causes of the useful. It is impossible then for a person who thinks that
he is harmed to be delighted with that which he thinks to be the cause of the harm, as it is also impossible to be pleased with the harm itself. For this reason also a father is reviled by his son, when he gives no part to his son of the things which are considered to be good: and it was this which made Polyn-ices and Eteocles enemies, the opinion that royal power was a good. It is for this reason that the cultivator of the earth reviles the Gods, for this reason the sailor does, and the merchant, and for this reason those who lose their wives and their children. For where the useful (your interest) is, there also piety is. Consequently he who takes care to desire as he ought and to avoid as he ought, at the same time also cares after piety. But to make libations and to sacriﬁce and to offer ﬁrst fruits according to the custom of our fathers, purely and not meanly nor carelessly nor scantily nor above our ability, is a thing which belongs to all to do. 27. When you have recourse to divination, remember that you do not know how it will turn out, but that you are come to inquire from the diviner. But of what kind it is, you know when you come, if indeed you are a philosopher. For if it is any of the things which are not in our power, it is absolutely necessary that it must be neither good nor bad. Do not then bring to the diviner desire or aversion: if you do, you will approach him with fear. But having determined in your mind that everything which shall turn out (result) is indifferent, and does not concern you, and whatever it may be, for it will be in your power to use it well, and no man will hinder this, come then with conﬁdence to the Gods as your advisers. And then when any advice shall have been given, remember whom you have taken as advisers, and whom you will have neglected, if you do not obey them. And go to divination, as Socrates said that you ought, about those matters in which all the inquiry has reference to the result, and in which means are not given either by reason nor by any other art for knowing the thing which is the subject of the inquiry. Wherefor when we ought to share a friend’s danger or that of our country, you must not consult the diviner whether you ought to share it. For even if the diviner shall tell you that the signs of the victims are unlucky, it is plain that this is a token of death or mutilation of part of the body or of exile. But reason prevails that even with these risks we should share the dangers of our friend and of our country. Therefore attend to the greater diviner, the Pythian God, who ejected from the temple him who did not assist his friend when he was being murdered. 28. Immediately prescribe some character and some form to yourself, which you shall observe both when you are alone and when you meet with men. And let silence be the general rule, or let only what is necessary be said, and in few words. And rarely and when the occasion calls we shall say something; but about none of the common subjects, nor about gladiators, nor horse-races, nor about athletes, nor about eating or drinking, which are the usual subjects; and especially not about men, as blaming them or praising them, or comparing them. If then you are able, bring over by your conversation the conversation of your associates to that which is proper; but if you should happen to be conﬁned to the company of strangers, be silent.
Let not your laughter be much, nor on many occasions, nor excessive. Refuse altogether to take an oath, if it is possible: if it is not, refuse as far as you are able. Avoids banquets which are given by strangers and by ignorant persons. But if ever there is occasion to join in them, let your attention be carefully ﬁxed, that you slip not into the manners of the vulgar (the uninstructed). For you must know, that if your companion be impure, he also who keeps company with him must become impure, though he should happen to be pure. Take (apply) the things which relate to the body as far as the bare use, as food, drink, clothing, house, and slaves: but exclude everything which is for show or luxury. As to pleasure with women, abstain as far as you can before marriage: but if you do indulge in it, do it in the way which is conformable to custom. Do not however be disagreeable to those who indulge in these pleasures, or reprove them; and do not often boast that you do not indulge in them yourself. If a man has reported to you, that a certain person speaks ill of you, do not make any defense (answer) to what has been told you: but reply, The man did not know the rest of my faults, for he would not have mentioned these only. It is not necessary to go to the theaters often: but if there is ever a proper occasion for going, do not show yourself as being a partisan of any man except yourself, that is, desire only that to be done which is done, and for him only to gain the prize who gains the prize; for in this way you will meet with no hin-drance. But abstain entirely from shouts and laughter at any (thing or person), or violent emotions. And when your are come away, do not talk much about what has passed on the stage, except about that which may lead to your own improve-ment. For it is plain, if you do talk much that you admired the spectacle (more than you ought). Do not go to the hearing of certain persons’ recitations nor visit them read-ily. But if you do attend, observe gravity and sedateness, and also avoid making yourself disagreeable. When you are going to meet with any person, and particularly one of those who are considered to be in a superior condition, place before yourself what Soc-rates or Zeno would have done in such circumstances, and you will have no dif-ﬁculty in making a proper use of the occasion. When you are going to any of those who are in great power, place before yourself that you will not ﬁnd the man at home, that you will be excluded, that the door will not be opened to you, that the man will not care about you. And if with all this it is your duty to visit him, bear what happens, and never say to yourself that it was not worth the trouble. For this is silly, and marks the character of a man who is offended by externals. In company take care not to speak much and excessively about your own acts or dangers: for as it is pleasant to you to make mention of your dangers, it is not so pleasant to others to hear what has happened to you. Take care also not to provoke laughter; for this is a slippery way toward vulgar habits, and is also adapted to diminish the respect of your neighbors. It is a dangerous habit also to approach obscene talk. When then anything of this kind happens, if there is a good opportunity, rebuke the man who has proceeded to this talk: but if there is not an opportunity, by your silence at least, and blushing and
expression of dis-satisfaction by your countenance, show plainly that you are displeased at such talk. 29. If you have received the impression of any pleasure, guard yourself against being carried away by it; but let the thing wait for you, and allow yourself a certain delay on your own part. Then think of both times, of the time when you will enjoy the pleasure, and of the time after the enjoyment of the pleasure when you will repent and will reproach yourself. And set against these things how you will rejoice if you have abstained from the pleasure, and how you will commend yourself. But if it seem to you seasonable to undertake (do) the thing, take care that the charm of it, and the pleasure, and the attraction of it shall not conquer you: but set on the other side the consideration how much better it is to be conscious that you have gained this victory. 30 When you have decided that a thing ought to be done and are doing it, never avoid being seen doing it, though the many shall form an unfavorable opin-ion about it. For if it is not right to do it, avoid doing the thing; but if it is right, why are you afraid of those who shall ﬁnd fault wrongly? 31. As the proposition it is either day or it is night is of great importance for the disjunctive argument, but for the conjunctive is of no value, so in a sym-posium (entertainment) to select the larger share is of great value for the body, but for the maintenance of the social feeling is worth nothing. When then you are eating with another, remember to look not only to the value for the body of the things set before you, but also to the value of the behavior toward the host which ought to be observed. 32. If you have assumed a character above your strength, you have both acted in this matter in an unbecoming way, and you have neglected that which you might have fulﬁlled. 33. The measure of possession (property) is to every man the body, as the foot is of the shoe. If then you stand on this rule (the demands of the body), you will maintain the measure: but if you pass beyond it, you must then of necessity be hurried as it were down a precipice. As also in the matter of the shoe, if you go beyond the (necessities of the) foot, the shoe is gilded, then of a purple color, the embroidered: for there is no limit to that which has once passed the true measure. 34. It is a mark of a mean capacity to spend much time on the things which con-cern the body, such as much exercise, much eating, much drinking, much easing of the body, much copulation. But these things should be done as subordinate things: and let all your care be directed to the mind.
35. When any person treats you ill or speaks ill of you, remember that he does this or says this because he thinks that it is his duty. It is not possible then for him to follow that which seems right to you, but that which seems right to himself. Ac-cordingly if he is wrong in his opinion, he is the person who is hurt, for he is the person who has been deceived; for if a man shall suppose the true conjunction to be false, it is not the conjunction which is hindered, but the man who has been deceived about it. If you proceed then from these opinions, you will be mild in temper to him who reviles you: for say on each occasion, It seemed so to him. 36. Everything has two handles, the one by which it may be borne, the other by which it may not. If your brother acts unjustly, do not lay hold of the act by that handle wherein he acts unjustly, for this is the handle which cannot be borne; but lay hold of the other, that he is your brother, that he was nurtured with you, and you will lay hold of the thing by that handle by which it can be borne. 37. These reasons do not cohere: I am richer than you, therefore I am better than you; I am more eloquent than you, therefore I am better than you. On the contrary these rather cohere, I am richer than you, therefore my possessions are greater than yours: I am more eloquent than you, therefore my speech is superior to yours. But you are neither possession nor speech. 38. Does a man bathe quickly (early)? do not say that he bathes badly, but that he bathes quickly. Does a man drink much wine? do not say that he does this bad-ly, but say that he drinks much. For before you shall have determined the opinion, how do you know whether he is acting wrong? Thus it will not happen to you to comprehend some appearances which are capable of being comprehended, but to assent to others 39. On no occasion call yourself a philosopher, and do not speak much among the uninstructed about theorems (philosophical rules, precepts): but do that which follows from them. For example at a banquet do not say how a man ought to eat, but eat as you ought to eat. For remember that in this way Socrates also altogether avoided ostentation: persons used to come to him and ask to be recommended by him to philosophers, and he used to take them to philosophers: so easily did he submit to being overlooked. Accordingly if any conversation should arise among uninstructed persons about any theorem, generally be silent; for there is great danger that you will immediately vomit up what you have not digested. And when a man shall say to you, that you know nothing, and you are not vexed, then be sure that you have begun the work (of philosophy). For even sheep do not vomit up their grass and show to the shepherds how much they have eaten; but when they have internally digested the pasture, they produce externally wool and milk. Do you also show not your theorems to the uninstructed, but show the acts which come from their digestion.
40. When at a small cost you are supplied with everything for the body, do not be proud of this; nor, if you drink water, say on every occasion, I drink water. But consider ﬁrst how much more frugal the poor are than we, and how much more enduring of labor. And if you ever wish to exercise yourself in labor and endurance, do it for yourself, and not for others: do not embrace statues. But if you are ever very thirsty, take a draught of cold water, and spit it out, and tell no man. 41. The condition and characteristic of an uninstructed person is this: he never expects from himself proﬁt (advantage) nor harm, but from externals. The condition and characteristic of a philosopher is this: he expects all advantage and all harm from himself. The signs (marks) of one who is making progress are these: he censures no man, he praises no man, he blames no man, he accuses no man, he says nothing about himself as if he were somebody or knew something; when he is impeded at all or hindered, he blames himself: if a man praises him, he ridicules the praiser to himself: if a man censures him, he makes no defense: he goes about like weak persons, being careful not to move any of the things which are placed, before they are ﬁrmly ﬁxed: he removes all desire from himself, and he transfers aversion to those things only of the things within our power which are contrary to nature: he employs a moderate movement toward everything: whether he is considered foolish or ignorant, he cares not: and in a word he watches himself as if he were an enemy and lying in ambush. 42. Whatever things (rules) are proposed to you (for the conduct of life) abide by them, as if they were laws, as if you would be guilty of impiety if you transgressed any of them. And whatever any man shall say about you, do not attend to it: for this is no affair of yours. How long will you then still defer thinking yourself wor-thy of the best things, and in no matter transgressing the distinctive reason? Have you accepted the theorems (rules), which it was your duty to agree to, and have you agreed to them? what teacher then do you still expect that you defer to him the correction of yourself? You are no longer a youth, but already a full grown man. If then you are negligent and slothful, and are continually making procrastination after procrastination, and proposal (intention) after proposal, and ﬁxing day after day, after which you will attend to yourself, you will not know that you are not making improvement, by you will continue ignorant (uninstructed) both while you live and till you die. Immediately then think it right to live as a full-grown man, and one who is making prescience, and let every thing which appears to you to be the best be to you a law which must not be transgressed. And if anything laborious, or pleasant or glorious or inglorious be presented to you, remember that now is the contest, now are the Olympic Games, and they cannot be deferred; and that it depends on one defeat and one giving way that progress is either lost or maintained. Socrates in this way became perfect, on all things improving himself, attending to nothing except to reason. But you, though you are not yet Socrates, ought to live as one who wishes to be a Socrates.
Section V Fortune favours the Brave. There is a very thin line between Stupidity and Bravery. When the rich wage war its the poor who die. and... Never look down on anybody unless your helping him up. The more quiet you are, the more you will hear. A tree that falls, with no-one around to hear it, makes no sound. but it still falls. meaning that even when you don't know something happened, it still does. A fish rots from the head down' War doesn't spare the brave, but the cowardly" Which is Changing another person or changing yourself. harder?
If you fight with the Dragon for a long time then there are chances that you might become one. war doesn't determine who is right.....only who is left leading untrained men to war is like throwing them away" Live a good life. If there are gods and they are just, then they will not care how devout you have been, but will welcome you based on the virtues you have lived by. If there are gods, but unjust, then you should not want to worship them. If there are no gods, then you will be gone, but will have lived a noble life that will live on in the memories of your loved ones. growing old is mandatory, growing up is optional Ask dammit, you might get somewhere! The mightiest forest fires starts with one tiny spark
Ability Ability in itself is nothing when Anyone can sail a ship when the sea is calm. but by his ability to retain it. Control the winds by trimming your sails. Focus your efforts on honing your talents, and you will Limitations are but boundaries created inside our minds.
denied opportunity. Judge a person not by his ability to make money, be better prepared to face uncertainty. Ability The wind and the waves seem always to favor the best sailors. Those with true skill know how to make opportunities in any environment. Only time and effort bring proficiency. First attain skill; creativity comes later. Adaptability Clumsy birds have need of early flight. Those with less ability should work harder instead of making excuses. An old broom has its value. One should value previous contacts and avoid discarding old friends or people who have helped you before. Make the cap fit the head. Know where and when to make adjustments. Better to bend in the wind than to break. Adaptability When the wind is great, bow before it; when Any garment will fit one who is naked. One must adapt to circumstances, just as water A young branch takes all the bends one gives it. The young can adapt to change with great ease. Fashion is a tyrant who dictates the rain is heavy, yield to it. must take the shape of its container. never-ending changes. Admiration One whose breath is felt in heaven. Denotes a person of great consequence and importance.
The best form of flattery is to master the art of listening. No matter how tall the mountain, it cannot block out the sun. A common saying of parents who idolize their offspring and liken the child’s abilities to the sun. Adversity Adversity brings us into deep waters not to drown us, but to cleanse us. One who has never met adversity will not develop foresight. Unless there is opposing wind, a kite cannot rise. Opposition and adversity give us a chance to rise to new heights. Challenges are the most truthful and strictest of teachers. Adversity is a mirror that reveals one’s true self. Adversity teaches us life’s most valuable lessons. Jade is shaped to become a valuable tool. All great minds become valuable through the lessons of time and experience. Those who know the storm dread the calm before it. Do not give nuts to those who have no teeth. Give challenges to those who have the character to face them. Trials are blessings in disguise. Anger An expression referring to one who harbors resentment, represses Harsh words and poor reasoning never settle anything. To eat the wind and swallow bitterness. anger, and endures suffering.
To have one’s liver on fire. Anger is said to originate from the liver, so this expression is used when a person is extremely angry. To stir the fire and burn oneself. This means to bring trouble upon oneself through anger. Anger Do not create in anger what you lack in reason. and to others. Do not upset heaven and earth. An expression to calm someone who is creating a disturbance or If you control yourself in one moment of Anger is a luxury one cannot afford. It is wiser to vent anger than to contain it. In anger, a person becomes a danger to himself having an outburst of anger. anger, you will escape a hundred days of sorrow. Love, anger, and money betray themselves. Beauty That which is beautiful is not always good. But that which is good is always beautiful. One who seeks beauty with a pure heart True beauty is eternal and cannot be destroyed. finds what he is searching for. Caution An overturned cart ahead warns the one behind. A keen observer is the mark of a great student. Learn from those who have come before you. Be slow to promise but quick to perform. Better to be too skeptical than to be too trusting. Presumptions will bring nothing but trouble. The cautious seldom err. Don’t jump over a pit only to fall into a well. Best-Loved Chinese Proverbs
Uncertainty breeds caution. Be cautious when presented with promised windfalls that require little investment. A loan is like rice eaten. It is soon forgotten. It is cheaper to give a small sum than to lend a large amount. A wolf may lose its fangs, but not its inclinations. When fortune flirts, her smile is costly. Man’s memory can be altered when in a situation of urgent need. Make loans cautiously. Character no wealth or honor where character is missing. One who has character has courage. Fortunes may rise and fall and kingdoms may beauty becomes ugliness. There is no poverty where there is character, and tumble, but one’s character never changes. True change in a person is very rare. Where there is character, ugliness becomes beauty; where there is no character, Compromise One who would pick the roses must bear with the thorns. One learns compromise by accepting the good with the bad. Compromise is always a temporary achievement. When compromise turns into commitment, it becomes permanent. One who learns the value of compromise acquires wisdom. Conflict A common saying to denote bitter enemies who cannot coexist.
A long journey tests a horse; a long-drawn-out conflict tests a friendship. Settle a small conflict quickly and you will Those who are unable to live under the same sky. keep a hundred others at bay. Cooperation Strength + strength + strength = cooperation The Chinese word for “cooperation” is composed of the symbol for strength repeated three times. A heart radical is also present to symbolize the common A single tree cannot make a forest. A single beam cannot support a great house. Refusal to cooperate with evil is equal to cooperating with good. What is good for the hive is good for the bee. intention necessary to achieve synergy. Best-Loved Chinese Proverbs An expression that means everyone is in agreement. A cloth is not woven from a single thread. A bridge is not built from one piece of wood. Each person equals a grain of sand, but an army is like a block of gold. One sings, all follow. We cannot clap with only one hand. Courtesy Courtesy is the mark of a civilized person. Kindness is the best quality of the soul. Follow the good and learn their ways. Keeping company with the wicked is like living in a fish market: one becomes People adapt to their environment, for better or worse. Kind words can be brief and simple, yet
used to the foul odor. they echo in our memories forever. Courtesy It is difficult to forgive those who steal our time. The insolent are often the wounded. The courteous learn manners from those who have none. Crisis The Chinese word for “crisis” is the character for This means that a crisis brings both danger No sooner has one pushed a gourd under water than another pops up. A common saying that describes having one One who does not burn incense when all is well, An expression used to describe someone who calls on you only when in a crisis. danger in front of the character for opportunity. and opportunity. crisis after another. but clasps Buddha’s feet when in trouble. Criticism kindles, while a strong wind kills the fire. The one who snores the loudest will fall asleep first. One who criticizes is often oblivious to his own faults. One who blows fur to find the scar underneath. Used of a person who loves to find fault and will look in the most hidden places to uncover flaws. Those who need advice most will accept it least. Criticism must be used lightly. A gentle wind One who hears flattery, but not criticism, will go astray. Best-Loved Chinese Proverbs Only the wearer knows where the shoe pinches.
Some situations are not open for criticism. There are times when only those intimately involved know where to improve. Good advice is like bitter medicine. Opening a wound to treat it could create a new injury. Deception Beware of one with a honeyed tongue and A known enemy is dangerous, but a false friend is worse. A strange combination used to describe someone who presents an important front with no substance behind it. Do not increase the size of your face by beating your cheeks swollen. A proverb used to describe those who, trying to impress others, puff themselves up. a sword in the belly. Don’t be a tiger’s head with a snake’s tail. Best-Loved Chinese Proverbs If the top beam is crooked, all the rest will not be straight. A saying used to refer to corruption or bribery Deception is often not worth the price one pays. One becomes double-minded from suspicion and guilt. Deceptive people find it difficult to believe others. This means that the threat is frightening only from a distance; it is ineffective when viewed up close. He who digs a hole for another may fall in himself. Do not be outwardly a fierce bull but inwardly as timid as a mouse.
in government or large companies. A paper tiger cannot bear close scrutiny. Deception One who is as disappointing as an empty dumpling. This is used of someone who makes empty promises or fails to live up to expectations. Do not be caught with dye on the fingers. A warning to those who might be caught stealing or taking a bribe. Defeat Defeat is never a bitter brew until one agrees to swallow it. Defeat is never final unless we accept it. what one already possesses. A tiny leak will eventually sink a mighty ship. Defeat is often the result of a lack of foresight. Defeat teaches us life’s most valuable lessons. To be unhappy over what one lacks is to waste Avoid defeat and you will avoid success. An error the width of a hair can lead one a Small errors can lead to defeat. Focusing on the Details can keep one on course. A drowning person will not be troubled by a little rain. thousand miles astray. Diligence Do not hope to reach a destination without ever leaving the shore. Diligence and constancy of purpose achieve the impossible. A man of leisure will never taste the fruit of
success. sharpening your ax. To chop a tree quickly, spend twice the time Discretion One who is tripped by the foot can get up again. One who is tripped by the tongue may not. Think before you speak, and do not speak all that you think. Mastering discretion is greater than employing eloquence. Knowing when to speak is more important than Discretion is more precious than great learning. Be just to all, but trust not all. being an eloquent speaker. Silence as well as discretion can be bought. Silence condemns more effectively than loud accusations do. If the arm is broken, hide it in the sleeve. One should not display dirty linens in public. Nothing is as heavy as a secret. For the love of money, truth falls silent. To rise high, conceal ambition. Falsehood/Gossip Even the powerful ox has no defense against flies. An idle story can quickly become fact in the mouths of hundreds. Good deeds never leave home; bad ones echo for a thousand miles. the most discussion. When the tongue slips, it speaks the truth. One who mounts a tiger can never get off. Once you enter politics, it is difficult to exit. Unfortunately, our worst moments garner
Falsehood/Gossip it will collect. One of the prices of prosperity is the difficult words may not be true. Compliments are easier to give than criticism— ponder both. Hearing about something one hundred times is not worth seeing it once. Do not judge matters from a single occurrence. A tongue is the only instrument that grows sharper with constant use. as one tongue. The larger one’s roof, the more snow job of managing one’s reputation. True words may not be pleasant; pleasant Two hands should be twice as busy Best-Loved Chinese Proverbs Shovel the snow only from your own doorstep. Do not mind the frost forming Do not drag others into troubles that do not concern them. while lies travel on the wind. on your neighbor’s roof.
Do not lay a corpse at someone else’s door. Truth must take the straight road, Family/Home The state of the nation is reflected in the home. If each home is strong, so will the country be. parent for life. The Chinese believe that the responsibility of a teacher is the same as that of a parent. Govern a family as you would fry a small fish: Wherever one finds comfort can be called home. Once one is a teacher, one becomes a very, very carefully. Best-Loved Chinese Proverbs The lamb kneels to suckle. A saying about a precious offspring born to someone who is almost past childbearing age. the secret of success. Better a hundred foes outside the home than one enemy within. One generation plants the trees for the next generation to enjoy the shade.
A favorite expression describing filial piety, gratitude, and respect for one’s parents. A pearl from an old oyster. If one is in harmony with his family, he has found Fate Man can cure a multitude of illnesses, but not fate. What is fated to be yours will always return to you. Often one finds destiny just where one hides to avoid it. Extremes will meet. Everything will have a beginning and an end.
Best-Loved Chinese Proverbs Fate is influenced by good deeds. It is said that the good deeds of one generation can influence the fate of the next. If one in need is helped by a good Samaritan, another may observe, have paved your path so smooth.” A bridge never crossed is like a life never lived. Fate leads those who are willing but must push those who are not. “Your parents must have been very kind to others to
A person’s character will determine his destiny. Fire Fire does not produce fire. Eventually it reduces all to ashes. One should not overwork or burden himself. A great fire may follow a tiny spark. A simple idea can move a people. Do not set fire to the forest to drive out the wolves. Sometimes drastic measures, although effective, are not practical. Foresight Foresight One who refuses to look ahead will remain behind.
Bend one cubit, make eight cubits straight. Correcting a problem early prevents more down the road. Do not build what is permanent upon the sand. Be sure to have a firm foundation before wasting time, Weaving a net is better than praying for fish at the edge of the water.
effort, and money in any endeavor. Best-Loved Chinese Proverbs First resolve what must be done; solutions will then become evident. One must cut before filing, carve before polishing. Remember to dig the well long before you If one takes no thought about what is distant, he will find sorrow near at hand. until you see his replacement. Communicate early and often when working on a complicated project. get thirsty. Do not hasten to rejoice at someone’s departure To avoid misunderstanding, start small. Fortune Fortune What first appears as a calamity may later bring good fortune. Fortune may surprise you—do not be quick to quit a difficult situation. The tide must reach its lowest before it turns. Look to your enemy for a chance to succeed.
Observe your opponent and you will find new ways to succeed. Every day cannot be a feast of lanterns. Everyone will know both joy and sorrow. Fortune Fortune comes in many disguises. No one stays atop the wheel of fortune all the time. Because the wheel of fortune brings ups and downs to everyone in life, the hope is that it will slow for you to enjoy the good times and spin quickly during the challenges. Earth is to the dead what gold is to the living. The living and dead have different needs. This saying alludes to a reversal of fortune.
by a ghost. Money can buy almost anything. Great fortunes need luck; small ones depend on diligence. He who has no coin has no power. To have wealth enough to have your mill run Best-Loved Chinese Proverbs
Be as fortunate as one who rests on high pillows. A wish for someone to feel as fortunate as one who lives an elevated life of ease and luxury without any worries. When luck visits you, everyone will know where you live. Fortune has a fickle heart and a short memory. Frugality/Prosperity
Prosperity brings us friends; adversity One must be just before one is generous.
Frugality is the mother of prosperity. Economize now or suffer want later. Be frugal in prosperity, fear not in adversity. Store and save for that rainy day. drives them away. The wise make good use of prosperity. Best-Loved Chinese Proverbs The hand that gives is greater than the hand that takes. A miser is condemned to be forever in want.
Frugality makes one independent.
Hunger is a great teacher. Futility When the itch is inside the boot, scratching outside provides little consolation. This proverb expresses the futility of not being able to deal directly with a problem. of the sea. Don’t try to scoop the moon from the bottom Deal with problems directly, rather than from afar. Best-Loved Chinese Proverbs A Buddha made of mud crossing a river cannot protect himself. The Buddha symbolizes one who is powerful, but in a vulnerable situation he is powerless to take care of himself. Therefore, it is pointless to expect the Buddha to assist us under such conditions. Do not draw a snake and add feet to it. This expression is used to describe the point at which no improvements are needed. One does not light a candle to challenge the sun. overtake him. Know when you have been bested. Wherever there is iron, there is also rust. To see another’s dust but be unable to
Greed but no amount of gold will satisfy greed. Do not learn to desire what you do not deserve. Do not gather together like ants. Ants are likened to greedy thieves and signify those who benefit from the misery of others. Money can turn a lowly worm into a mighty dragon. Water quenches thirst and food sates our hunger, Best-Loved Chinese Proverbs Do not have eyes that are bigger than your stomach. This is a common saying from parents to children, admonishing those who take more food than they can eat. with our possessions. Greed feeds upon itself. of mind. One who marries for money must eventually earn it. There is no greater calamity than being consumed by greed.
Lust and greed have no limit. Our needs are few, but our wants increase Greed comes into one’s heart to steal peace Greed Fat fries and burns itself. This saying is used to describe greedy and powerful people who are usually the instruments of their own destruction. One who does not receive just wages will seek to pay himself.
Be the master of your money, not its slave. To buy a quarrel, lend money to a friend. Happiness Happiness A happy person is one not trapped by fame and fortune.
It is wealth enough to learn the meaning of contentment. Happy hearts are rich in so many ways. Happiness is when we finally become what we have always wished to be.
With happiness comes wisdom into the heart. To live well is better than to be rich. Harmony/Contentment Solitude is enjoyed only when one is at peace with oneself. One who has a guilty conscience finds it hard to When you drink of the spring be thankful for the source. Know where your blessings come from and do not Those who seek harmony know how to find it. really poor if he can afford to laugh. enjoy his own company. forget to give thanks to those who helped you. Laughter is the music of one’s soul. One is never Harmony/Contentment a life by what we give. It is better to like what you have than to have what you like. He who loves music learns to soothe his own sorrows. We earn a living by what we do, but we make Heart
This saying means to use something with caution or handle with extreme care. This is used to describe a very cautious person— a perfectionist.
This means to empathize with others. To use with a small heart. To have a thin heart. To treat others with a thick heart. This refers to someone who is careless or clumsy. To care for the heart. Heart Do not waste your heart. A strong statement in Chinese culture; refers to an evil person. Sorrowing hearts are always unsettled. Forgiveness is an act of the heart. word for “act” or “compliance” above the symbol for the heart. Put your heart at rest. Calm yourself and quiet your worries. There is no cure for hidden grief. To waste your heart is to waste your time.
To have a black heart. “Forgiveness” is written in Chinese with the Conceal your sorrow and you will find no remedy. Best-Loved Chinese Proverbs as a horse and an ape. are in conflict and pulling in separate directions. A calm heart adjusts to many changes. A generous heart knows no bounds. Gratitude is an act of a good heart. Music cheers the heart and warms the disposition. A compassionate person will speak through thoughtful acts rather than just saying the right things to impress others. Good heart, good reward. A just heart has its own rewards. Wishes of mind and heart are as hard to control This means that one’s mental and emotional wishes To accommodate all things, enlarge your heart. A kind person’s mouth is found in the heart. Heart The worst prison is one made of the heart. One who cannot or will not permit oneself to
and a happy heart. Flowers are known by the fruit they bear. One who follows nature will never lose his way. love is one’s own jailer. We can find no wealth above a healthy body Honor Honor A noble ancestry cannot guarantee a noble When a leopard dies, he leaves his coat. When a man dies, he leaves his name. An honorable person is a majority of one.
character. Your legacy will live forever. A clear conscience is the greatest armor. Virtue travels uphill, vice travels downhill. Life and shame are never equal to death and glory. Best-Loved Chinese Proverbs Shed the bones, change the face.
A man must despise himself before others will. Great eloquence cannot change
wrong into right. He who must pursue glory may sacrifice honor. To be reborn and start anew. To lose the glow of one’s face. To suddenly lose one’s reputation or credibility. Horses Be on a horse when you go in search of a better one. An admonition that one should be cautious when trading up in life. It is always easier to replace something new while you still have the old as a backup. He wants to buy the best horse: one that does not eat grass. This proverb describes someone who is too calculating, unrealistic, and never satisfied. This person wants something for nothing or wishes for something that does not exist, like a horse that does not eat grass.
The old horse will know the way. Best-Loved Chinese Proverbs A clever horse needs only one touch of the whip. Someone who is intelligent and astute needs only one little hint to understand the situation. Rein in the horse at the edge of the cliff. Pull oneself back at the last moment and stop before plunging over the precipice.
Do not doctor a dead horse as if it were alive. Humility More demands on oneself and few demands on The superior man does not think himself so. His humility is what sets him apart. A polite response that reflects humility when someone to minimize the importance of the service by saying that it was so inconsequential that it could not even pass between the teeth. others will keep resentment at bay. It’s something not worth hanging on the teeth. thanks you for a favor. This proverb uses exaggeration Best-Loved Chinese Proverbs He who speaks without modesty will not keep his promises. Little persons try to be perfect, while great ones do not know they are great. A burnt tongue becomes shy of hot soup. Mistakes make one timid. Indecision The wise make their own decisions. The ignorant follow public opinion.
Indecisiveness breeds confusion. Do not have each foot on a different boat. Choose a direction and do not look back. One whose heart is not content cannot make good decisions. Reticence builds a fortress in the mind. One who is unsure or fearful puts up mental barriers.
Best-Loved Chinese Proverbs positive action or a decision. Indecision hinders luck and fortune. To draw the bow but not release the arrow. To make threats without following through with Inspiration Inspiration Cowards have dreams; brave men have visions.
Old lessons read with a new perspective can bring about new interpretations. Do not skim the surface like the dragonfly The dragonfly merely glides over a pond. Search for deep meaning. One’s merits should not be a hindrance
to one’s progress. Review past lessons to discover anew. kisses the water. Inspiration The darker the night, the brighter the stars. Learning is like the horizon: there is no limit.
This expression is used to describe one is who able to comprehend the key to the situation, the crux of the A goal without a deadline is only a wish. A dream with a deadline becomes a goal. Ideas enlarge the mind and never allow it to go back to its original dimension. With experience, we will gain full knowledge. Inspiration will follow. To feel the catch of the lock. matter, or the most important point in a discussion. Knowledge Knowledge one cannot be robbed. An education can never be stolen. Common sense goes further than much learning. Despise learning and make everyone pay for your ignorance.
Ignorance or illiteracy is an expense that society as By filling one’s head instead of one’s pocket, a whole must bear. Best-Loved Chinese Proverbs If you are planning for a decade, plant trees. If you are planning for a lifetime, educate people. One who does not like to read is equal to one who cannot read. A night without moon or stars is like an ignorant mind. More powerful than any army is an idea whose time has arrived. A frequent path will become a road. Wheat stalks heavy with grain learn how to bow their heads. Matured stalks symbolize learned and humble persons who acknowledge that they do not know everything, while empty-headed young stalks without grain stand upright in their arrogance and ignorance. If you are planning for a year, plant rice. Knowledge one who knows himself is considered enlightened. from success.
Advice given at the right time is better than gold given at the wrong time. One who has traveled the road knows where the holes are deep. Curiosity always finds knowledge. times. It takes a hundred years to train a person. A trained person is very valuable. Although learning never stops, a person who has more experience is ahead of others. One who knows others is considered clever, but We gain more knowledge from failures than To make steel pure, one must refine a hundred Only through consistent practice can one become a master. Leadership A great general need not blow his own trumpet. One who is fit to sit facing the south. Only a ruler or leader was considered worthy enough to sit facing south, which is the most favorable direction. One looks up at a worthy person as one looks up to a mountain.
Do not intimidate. Empower.
Leadership If there is a strong general there will be no weak soldiers. A good leader will know how to assess, train, and use people to their full potential. One who is able to pull a strand of silk from a tangled mass. A person who is able to restore order to a complicated mess. One who is wise in strategy carries an army in his mind.
is as wrong as to fall short. When the emperor makes a mistake, all the Without oars, a boat drifts. One should not abuse authority. To go beyond people suffer. Best-Loved Chinese Proverbs It does not matter if the cat is black or white, so long as it catches mice. This saying—meaning that the end justifies the means—is attributed to Deng Xiaoping, who used it to respond to criticism of his leadership. Maintain soldiers a thousand days, use them for the moment.
Great leadership is as much about preparation as it is about action. One who has conquered himself is worthy of leadership. To be able to act swiftly, one must plan well in advance. “Try” is a word of courage, but “can” is a word of power. Livelihood Livelihood Do not become a monk or a nun so late in life. A proverb that dissuades people from changing their professions or doing things that they have not been Do not be a frog sitting at the bottom of a well. Do not limit yourself to a narrow perspective. rug of needles. trained for. To be as uncomfortable as sitting on a To be in an unbearable situation, filled with anxiety. Livelihood Having to watch the eyebrows and countenance This means that one is in a servile position and must wait upon another or be at the Better to learn one thing well than to know ten
environment. One who may be easy to serve yet difficult to please. This describes a person who is always unhappy but never forthright, and one who is of another. mercy of a superior. superficially. To earn a living, a man must depend on his difficult to work for. Best-Loved Chinese Proverbs check the face. This is an old saying that states that before leaving But when you return home, to know the state of the see if he or she is in a happy or unhappy mood. Exit the door, check the weather; enter the door, home, you should look outside to check the weather. house you must look inside at the occupant’s face to Longevity Longevity Live healthy! Live happy! Live long! May you live as long as the southern mountain and enjoy happiness as bountiful as the eastern sea. The traditional Chinese wish for longevity is always combined with
happiness because a long life without happiness is a burden. When the root is firm the branches flourish. The leaves of the tree are many, but the root is one. A good foundation guarantees success and longevity. Longevity Carve in stone the good things you Even the weakest ink lasts longer than the The young and the bold favor speed, while The young often lack the patience and care of the old and wise. Good health is one blessing that cannot be bought. Write in the sand the bad things done to you. want to remember. strongest memory. the old and the experienced move slowly. Love Love Love as rare as twin lotuses on a single stalk. A symbolic analogy of a happy and devoted couple. A couple who spends one happy day together is blessed with a hundred days of affection. forgotten is not dead.
Great love makes us capable of great courage.
To love is to remember. One who is not No journey is ever long with good company. Best-Loved Chinese Proverbs Love shows affection as naturally as a sunflower faces the sun. Love for a person must extend to the crows on his roof. their faults and imperfections. Love does not observe the passing of time. A common wish for couples to grow old together in love and respect. It is better to lose a wager than to lose a good friend. Everyone can hear your song, but only those who love you will hear your sigh. One’s love for others must include acceptance of Grow together with gray hair. Love Love will come together over a silver river on a bridge of magpies. celebrate the famous love story of a farm boy who fell in love with a
beautiful weaver from heaven. The distance meant that they could the lovers to travel and meet. No matter how impossible, true love In China, July is a day to celebrate love. On this day, the Chinese meet only once a year. Every year, helpful magpies built a path for always finds a way. Misfortune Misfortune conquers timid souls, while great minds subdue setbacks. The poor are those without talents; the weak are those without aspirations. The tiles are broken and the ice is melted. A saying denoting that fame is dead and the glory is gone. Refers to someone who has the misfortune of being born to a hardworking life like the busy post-horse that is always on the road. To be born under the post-horse star. Misfortune Blessings come but one at a time, but misfortune visits in multiples.
One does not drink poison to quench a thirst. jumping from the frying pan into the fire.
Illness can empty any purse. To sit on a cold bench; to have a cold stove. To be in a job or position without prospects. To be destructive and impractical during difficult times—equal to In the land of hope, there is no winter. Moderation
If one eats less, one will taste more. A small bite savored will produce more enjoyment. bite each meal. Pleasure cannot be pursued to its limit, for For peace to prevail, all truth cannot be expressed all the time. To live long and well, employ moderation. To extend your life by a year, take one fewer pleasure could also be a fountain of sorrow. Morality Morality It is better to be completely ignorant than to be ill taught. Bad habits are difficult to correct. One cannot straighten a crooked branch. One who is a slave to his senses cannot rein his will into submission.
Morality Sending charcoal in the snow is better than adding flowers to a brocade. This means that friends who flatter us when we are doing well are adding flowers to an already in our hour of need. intricate and well-decorated fabric. True friends will bring “charcoal in the snow,” or give us assistance Virtue never lives alone. It always finds good company. Necessity Experience is a comb that we receive just when we are going bald. This expression is used when we are most impatient because it feels as if the solution always comes at the very last moment.
Necessity brings strength and perseverance. Necessity forces us to make poor bargains. Judge not one who tries and fails, but one The most timid soul is made bold by necessity. who fails to try. Neighbors
Anyone can buy a good house, but good neighbors are priceless.
Better good neighbors that are near than A little help is worth more than a load of A fallen tree will lean on its neighbor. relatives far away. sympathy. Nepotism
A common reference to nepotism: it is as natural They are all badgers from the same mound. This refers to a clan or group of people who all think and may even look alike. They tend to view outsiders with suspicion because they are not from the If a family lives in harmony, all affairs will prosper. Your ten fingers will always curl inward. as one’s fingers bending toward the palm. same family. Obstinacy The obstinate person does not possess opinions: they possess him. Ivy must cling to the wall; porridge will stick to the pot.
When a centipede dies on the wall, it does not fall down. This refers to laws that are no longer useful, institutions that have outlived their need, or stubborn bureaucrats who cling to power. Best-Loved Chinese Proverbs Do not look at others with the eyes of a dog. This proverb, often used to chide those who talk down to people, should be used with caution. It is an insult to compare someone to a dog, and one should not make rude comments to a person of low rank. Opportunity Opportunity One who gains mastery will create his own opportunities. An optimist sees an opportunity in every calamity; a pessimist sees a calamity Look upon adversity as opportunity in disguise. Life can never give security; it can only promise in every opportunity. opportunity. Opportunity is like catching the sun’s rays.
Patience Patience Patience is a tree with bitter roots that bears sweet fruit. Patience is wisdom in waiting. Do not pull the seedlings to help them This advises patience and warns against unnecessary meddling.
Inspiration comes from patience and perspiration. grow faster. Order moves slowly, but surely; disorder is always in a hurry. Patience A bird cannot fly until its feathers are fully grown. Have patience. Do not attempt to do something Fools who are in a hurry drink with chopsticks. Impatience can bring illogical decisions. In a struggle between strength and patience, patience will win. The best advice is often found on our pillows. Patience is a virtue one must carry when traveling.
until you are ready. Peace/Good Wishes One who is happiest finds peace and harmony at home. The seasons will return; all things are renewed. Difficulties will pass and all will be well again. Peace comes only when reason rules. There are many paths to the top of the mountain. Once there, you will find that the view is the same. A guilty conscience is the enemy within. He who knows the truth can die content.
Peace/Good Wishes Laws are useless when men are pure and are unenforceable when men are corrupt. May a happy star always light your path. May it always be spring with you. In China, spring is a time of joy and celebration. The gift of supportive comments can be a great comfort through difficult times. The individual is the only one who can rescue his
own spirit. A kind word is worth a cold winter. Perseverance Perseverance Even the tallest tower started from the ground. Gems are polished by rubbing, just as men are made brilliant by trials. Perseverance is the water that wears away the stone. truthful one. Experience is not a kind teacher, but it is always a Best-Loved Chinese Proverbs do not give up. This is a strong statement for the Chinese. It is the equivalent of saying that a person is determined to take something to completion.
Better to light a candle than to curse the darkness. Man can live on hope. No other animal can. small stones. Either do not begin or, having begun, To abandon something halfway is to fail completely.
Victory belongs to the most persevering. To move a big mountain, begin by removing the Poverty Poverty without complaint is hard, just as wealth fame. Poverty teaches value; greed breeds discontent. Those who thirst will drink in silence. People who have tasted poverty will protect their livelihood.
with arrogance is easy. Wealth and obscurity cannot equal poverty and One who is discontent is already poor. Best-Loved Chinese Proverbs One who does not know when he has enough is poor indeed. This means to live from hand to mouth and to have discontented man, though rich, is sad. One who can promise nothing is a poor person. Good character is a source of wealth. One who cannot be trusted is not rich. To burn one day’s gathering of firewood on the same day.
nothing left over. The contented man, though poor, is happy. The Prejudice If the wind blows from one direction, a tree will grow inclined. A twisted or bent tree is a symbol of prejudice because it receives wind from only one side, just like a person who subscribes to a single point of view and is unable to understand the position of others. Prejudice springs from ignorance. What a child learns in the cradle he will take with him to the grave. A child will behave as he has been taught. Tolerance is one of the first lessons to be learned. Pride Pride is often used to cover a weakness. Do not have your eyes growing on your forehead. Used to refer to people who are proud and often pretend not to see others because they think these others are beneath them. admired by the light of the moon. A proverb that makes fun of a person who has an inflated image of himself. Pride and prejudice are brothers.
One’s shadow grows larger than life when Profit Profit of greater value.
Profit is always directly related to risk. Great profit may come from humble circumstances. Do not profit from the misfortune of others. To lose a sheep but gain an ox. To lose something of lesser value and gain something To lose a halberd but gain a lance. To lose and gain something of equal value. Profit If there are no clouds, there will be no rain. Success does not come without hardship. One must lose a worm to catch a fish. Responsibility Responsibility is the price of leadership. Food and fodder must precede troops and horses. putting the horse before the cart.
One servant cannot serve two masters. Leadership must come from one person. An employee cannot report to two bosses and have a clear direction. Promises offered in a storm are forgotten in the calm. This means that on top of responsibility, one must do things in the proper order. This is the equivalent of Responsibility It is often the busiest person who has time to spare. One who promises too much will find it difficult to make good his words. There is no one to sweep a common hall. When responsibilities are not clear, the work will go undone. Sincerity Sincerity Eloquence provides persuasion, but truth
Better a red face than a black heart. Honest persons blush when embarrassed, while ruthless liars don’t. One who has the best of intentions will blush. in Chinese culture. A black heart has a core of evil. brings sincerity.
To tell only half the truth is to give life to a new lie. The thoughtful never need words to show sincerity. To be described as one who has a black heart is a strong statement No one has yet found any substitute for honesty. Strategy Strategy
Beat the grass to frighten the snakes. Do not make a rule only to fall foul of it. Every portal is an entry as well as an exit. Sit atop the mountain and watch the tigers fight. This saying refers to one who watches two opponents contend with In war, there can never be too much deception. To flush out the enemy or to drive out the competition. This means to be trapped by one’s own device. each other, hoping that both will be eliminated. Best-Loved Chinese Proverbs Know your limitations: seek shelter while you can. one hundred, study yourself and your opponent well. Evaluate the strengths and weakness of yourself A fish not caught by a hook may be caught by a net.
The creative strategist seeks out alternatives. A strategy that advocates great patience combined with quick decisiveness.
To conquer one hundred times out of and your competitor. Only then can you choose the right strategy. Wait long, strike fast! Do not hit the fly that lands on the tiger’s head. Warns against having good intentions but bad timing. Strategy Whenever the water rises, the boat will rise, too. This is commonly used in Chinese politics. It describes people who join the right party or associate themselves with powerful politicians so that they can ride on their coattails. The foolish wander while the wise travel. Always act with the destination in mind. Do not remain in the open when the enemy is concealed. If there is a wave there must be a wind. This means to understand the consequences of one’s action—cause and effect. Best-Loved Chinese Proverbs
Three simple shoemakers equal one brilliant strategist. A famous saying attributed to the early third-century strategist and statesman Zhuge Liang, comparing the combined intelligence of three ordinary people to that of one of the greatest Chinese generals and strategists. This means that one should combine all resources
Borrow the east wind! This is a reference to an important battle in the war classic “Romance of the Three Kingdoms.” A general had only one chance to storm a fortress and all his ships had to depend on the east wind to make the surprise attack successful. Use every step as your base. A cautious strategy that relies on advancement through small achievements. no matter how insignificant they may appear. To leap far, take a long run. Strategy If one man guards a narrow pass, ten thousand cannot get through. A strategically placed barrier can achieve the impossible. If you want to buy anything, ask three merchants. This is a Chinese business principle that one must always compare offers. This practice prevents a Of the thirty-six stratagems, “running away”
is the best one. The “Thirty-six Stratagems” is a renowned Chinese the wisest of them all. When one is prepared, difficulties do not come. It is a common perception that when one is ready for all contingencies, they seldom arise. business from becoming vulnerable to one supplier. treatise on the art of war. It is often said that the last one, which recommends running away, is probably Best-Loved Chinese Proverbs Do not lift a rock only to drop it on your own foot. Do not make changes just for the sake of change. Things could get worse. Monkeys must disperse once their tree falls. bond or leader and they will disperse. your troops. A Confucian saying that advises against being Sacrifice or punish the less important as a warning or message to the real culprit. Occupy the higher ground to attain dominance. A strong vantage point in combat has the most power because it offers the most information. To get rid of a group of people, remove their common To force the untrained into battle is to waste unprepared or squandering one’s resources.
Kill the chicken to frighten the monkey. Strategy The best tacticians are never impulsive; the best leaders are never arrogant. Spectators often have a better view than the protagonists do. People who are too close to their problems may not see the whole picture as impartial observers do. Do not attempt to fix with a single bite. A usual retort to someone who gives a simplistic solution to a complex problem without understanding all the implications. When the snipe and the clam fight, the fisherman benefits. A famous story tells of a bird whose bill was caught in a pinching clam. The observing fisherman saw the scuffle and was able to catch both. This teaches the lesson that an observer can gain from the quarreling of others. Success Success strengthen the weak by weakening the strong. Ingenuity lights the path to success.
Success as unstoppable as the path through split bamboo.
Although bamboo is strong, once it has been split, the break will be complete. This proverb refers to a winning streak that cannot be stopped. True success comes from within. Do not hope to To climb a ladder you must start at the bottom. Best-Loved Chinese Proverbs Red so intense that it becomes purple. Dress well and you will open all doors. This refers to a life-changing moment in one’s career or reputation. In an instant, a person can go from an unknown to a star. Superiority Superiority There are three marks of a superior person: being virtuous, he is free from anxiety; being wise, he is free from perplexity; being brave, The mighty tree must catch the wind. The tree in this proverb refers to rich, powerful, or or unwanted publicity because of their high profile. One who oppresses others is always a coward. The foolish will confuse power with greatness. he is free from fear. famous persons who suffer controversy, lawsuits, Suspicion
If you are standing upright, do not be concerned if your shadow is crooked. Suspicion will chase the wind and clutch at shadows. A suspicious heart cannot find peace. of a snake. This means that, when frightened and suspicious, we see the reflection of an enemy or something sinister in ordinary things. To the fearful, the reflection of a bow is that Talent One who wastes talent throws away his blessings. Concealed talents benefit no one. Just as incense emits no fragrance until it is burned, talent is not recognized until it is used. the hands of the one who sails it. A poor workman should not blame his tools. Water can either float or sink a boat. Its fate is in Talent comes from within and is undeniable when shown. Thought Great thoughts can become great deeds. A saying attributed to Buddha that our minds shape the world we live in.
Learning without thought is opportunity lost. With our thoughts we must build our world. To be a good student, one must be present in both mind and body. Trust All good relationships are rooted in trust.
Promises offered in a storm are forgotten in the calm. When there is trust, no proof is necessary. To be trusted is to be loved. Trust is to depend on someone through thick and thin. Victory Victory Fight only when you can win; move away when you cannot.
A common saying that means to make great progress in a short period of time. Greatness comes only when fame does not outshine truth. Success and fortune will follow the brave. Avoiding conflict is also a victory.
To travel a thousand miles in one day. Wealth Wealth when used, grows. What is scarce is valued, what is plentiful is not. One courts misfortune by flaunting wealth. Remember that there is always someone who will trade places with a successful person when There is no wealth above a healthy body and a happy heart. Wealth, when used, is depleted. Learning, given the opportunity. Wealth If a man has no enemies, fortune has ignored him. One who starts out to seek contentment finds great wealth. Wisdom Wisdom In a crisis, people grow wisdom. Intelligence is endowed, but wisdom is learned.
One who knows the most will speak the last. not be wise. One who is wise enough to secure the good of others has secured his own. Wisdom is attained by learning when to hold one’s tongue. Wise men may be learned. Learned men may Best-Loved Chinese Proverbs One word to the wise is sufficient. A wise person knows when to play the fool.
Discretion is the trusted friend of wisdom. A wise head must possess a closed mouth. It takes a tree ten years to mature; it takes a man one hundred years to form. Maturity and wisdom take a lifetime to achieve. Learn as if life is one continuous lesson. also look back. It is easy to blame our memory when our judgment is at fault. We grow old fast. We grow wise slowly. Youth can look only forward, but age can
Wisdom A silent fool can pass for a wise man. The wise know when to remain silent and when to make their point known. Silence is the trusted friend of wisdom. Worry of the mind cannot.
Do not fret when the birds of worry fly over your head; but when they stop to build nests, this you must prevent. The body’s pain can be controlled, but that Worry never thwarted destiny. Doubt can be more cruel than reality.
After reading this much about character, I hope you would understand the importance and value of character, and in case you think character does not work in real life, and only frauds, dishonesty works to make rich in real life, just see any reality show, dishonesty/politicians etc work short time, but the ones with character win, always. Everytime…. And don’t’ forget to write to me.