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Centrifugal pump

Centrifugal

pumps are

sub-class

of

dynamic

axisymmetric

work-

absorbing turbomachinery.[1] Centrifugal pumps are used to transport fluids by the


conversion of rotational kinetic energy to the hydrodynamic energy of the fluid
flow. The rotational energy typically comes from an engine or electric motor. The
fluid enters the pump impeller along or near to the rotating axis and is accelerated
by the impeller, flowing radially outward into a diffuser or volute chamber
(casing), from where it exits.
Common uses include water, sewage, petroleum and petrochemical pumping. The
reverse function of the centrifugal pump is a water turbine converting potential
energy of water pressure into mechanical rotational energy.

History
According to Reti, the first machine that could be characterized as a centrifugal
pump was a mud lifting machine which appeared as early as 1475 in a treatise by
the Italian Renaissance engineer Francesco di Giorgio Martini.[2] True centrifugal
pumps were not developed until the late 17th century, when Denis Papin built one
using straight vanes. The curved vane was introduced by British inventor John
Appold in 1851.

How it works

Cutaway view of centrifugal pump

Inlet velocity triangles for radial discharge centrifugal pump impeller

Exit velocity triangles for radial inlet centrifugal pump impeller


General explanation: Like most pumps, a centrifugal pump converts mechanical
energy from a motor to energy of a moving fluid. A portion of the energy goes into
kinetic energy of the fluid. Fluid enters axially through eye of the casing,is caught

up in the impeller blades,and is whirled tangentially and radially outward until it


leaves through all circumferential parts of the impeller into the diffuser part of the
casing. The fluid gains both velocity and pressure while passing through the
impeller. The doughnut-shaped diffuser,or scroll,section of the casing decelerates
the flow and further increase the pressure.

Problems of centrifugal pumps


These are some difficulties faced in centrifugal pumps:[5]

Open Type Centrifugal Pump Impeller

Cavitationthe net positive suction head (NPSH) of the system is too low
for the selected pump

Wear of the impellercan be worsened by suspended solids

Corrosion inside the pump caused by the fluid properties

Overheating due to low flow

Leakage along rotating shaft

Lack of primecentrifugal pumps must be filled (with the fluid to be


pumped) in order to operate

Advantages

There are no drive seals, therefore the risk of leaks is completely eradicated.
This means that hazardous liquids can be pumped without spillages.

Less heat transfer from the motorthe pump chamber is separated from the
motor by an air gap; this provides athermal barrier.

Complete separation of the liquid means that liquid cannot seep into the
motor from the pump.

Reduced friction.
Magnetic coupling can be brokenif the load of the pump is too great. By
the magnetic coupling 'breaking', it means the pump does not overload and get
damaged.[7]

Eliminating the drive seals gets rid of leaks, friction loss, wear and noise. It
provides complete separation of fluid from the pump drive, and nearly 100%
transfer of motor power into pumping power.

Disadvantages

Liquids containing ferrous particles are problematic when a magnetic drive


pump is used. This is due to the particles collecting on the impeller magnet, and
over time causing the pump to stop working.

Some energy is lost in the coupling. This is primarily due to some magnetic
resistance.

If unexpectedly heavy loads occur it may cause the coupling to slip.