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12 Chemistry Ch-2 Solutions

Chapter 2
Solutions
A homogenous mixture of 2 or more non—reacting components whose compositions can be
varied within certain limits.
Solute + Solvents = Solution

2 then binary, 3- tertiary, 4 → quarter nary

Classification on the basis of number of components: Binary-2 ,

tertiary—3 , Quartenary-4

Solute  trace amount
Solvent  excess amount
In binary solutions, the components present in small proportions is called solute &the one
present in excess is said to be solvent.

Classification on the basis of physical state of solute & solvent: Nature of Solute

Nature of Solvent

Nature of solution

Solid
liquid
Gas
Solid
Liquid
Gas

Gas
Gas
Gas
Liquids
Liquids
Liquids

І Gaseous solution
(solvent is gas)

Solid
liquids
Gas

Solid
Solid
Solid

ІІ Liquids solution
(solvent is in liquid state)
ІІІ Solid solution
(solvent is in solid state)

Concentration terms (after words)

© GenextStudents

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12 Chemistry Ch-2 Solutions

Amt. of solute dissolved in a specific ant. Of solvent at a particular temperature.
Example: 1. Dust particle in air or 𝐼2 vapous in air

2. (water vapour) humidity in air
3. (Mixture of 𝑁2 𝐻2 etc.)

Example: -

1. Salt in water
2. Mixture of miscible liquids, milk or ethanol in water or petroleum,
3. Soda, aerated drinks ( 𝐶𝑂2 + water)

Example: -

1. Alloys (Brass, Bronze)
2. Hg in sodium (sodium amalgum, Zn amalgum) , gases absorbed over metal surface.
3. Catalytical hydrogenation of unsaturated hydro carbons. ( hydrogen absorbed on Ni,
Pt, Pd)
Concentration Term

Qualitative

Concentration
(Solvent is in excess)

Quantitative

Dilute
(Solute is in trace amt)

Units for expressing the Concentration of Solution: 1. Mass%  It is defined as the number of parts by mass of 1 component per 100 parts
the mass of solution.
Mass of Component A =
© GenextStudents 𝑊𝐴 𝑊𝐴

+ 𝑊𝐵

× 100
2

𝑉𝐴 Volume % of A = × 100 𝑉𝐴 + 𝑉𝐵 And like this Volume % of B = 𝑉 𝑉𝐵 𝐴 + 𝑉𝐵 × 100 3. Molarity “M”: It is the number of moles of solute dissolved per liter of the solution. 𝑛𝑜𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 M = 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 (𝐿𝑖𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠) B  Solute A  solvent 𝑛𝐵 M = 𝑉 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑖𝑛 𝐿 = 𝑛𝐵 𝑉 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝐿 𝑚𝐵 (𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑖𝑛 𝑔𝑚𝑠) 𝑛𝐵 = 𝑀𝐵 (𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠) 𝑚𝐵 × 1000 Of solute 1000 𝑀 = 𝑀𝐵 × 𝑉 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑖𝑛 𝑀𝐿 (𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠/𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑟𝑒) 5.12 Chemistry Ch-2 Solutions 2. Molality (m): it is defined as number of moles of solute dissolved in 1 kg of solvent. 𝑚= 𝑛𝑜𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑚=𝑊 𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑘𝑔. Parts per million (ppm): The number of parts by mass or by volume of one component per million parts by mass or volume of the solution. 𝑛𝐵 𝑊𝐴 𝑖𝑛 𝑔𝑚𝑠 × 100 = 𝑊𝐵 𝑀𝐵 × 1000 𝑊𝐴 Out of molarity & molality which one is the better unit for expressing the concentration of the solution & why? © GenextStudents 3 . 𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝐴 Ppm = 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 × 106 Ppm = 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝐴 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 × 106 4. Volume%  It is defined as the number of parts by volume of 1 components per 100 parts of the volume of solution. 𝑛𝐵 𝐴 𝑖𝑛 𝑘𝑔 𝑜𝑟 = Units  mol / kg Q.

Mole fraction (x’): The ratio of number of molar of a components to the total number of moles of the components present in the solution. Molality. 𝑥𝐴 = 𝑛 𝑛𝐴 𝐴 +𝑛𝐵 𝑥𝐵 = 𝑛 𝑥𝐴 = 𝑛 𝑛𝐵 𝐴 +𝑛𝐵 𝑛𝐴 𝐴 +𝑛𝐵 ……𝑛𝑖 𝑥𝐴 + 𝑥𝐵 = 1 𝑥𝐴 +𝑥𝐵 + ⋯ … … + 𝑥𝑖 = 1 © GenextStudents 4 . as mass does not change with temperature. N= = = = 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑛𝑒𝑞 𝐵 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝐿 𝑉 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝐿 𝑚𝐵 𝐸𝐵 𝑚𝐵 𝑛𝑒𝑞 𝐵 = 𝑉 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑀𝐿 × 1000 × 1000 ( 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑖𝑛 𝑀𝐿) 𝑀𝐵/𝑛 1000 neq B = × 𝑉 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑀𝐿 𝑚𝐵 𝐸𝐵 𝑀𝐵 EB = 𝑛 (𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟) Units of equivalent / litre Valency factor  (1) For base (2) Redox  e. 6. Normality (N): Number of grams equivalent of a solute dissolved per litre of solution. ⇒ Molality is temperature independent.gained or lost (3) For Acid: 7. Molality is the better unit for the expressing the concentration because it depends on mass which does not vary with temperature while molarity depends on volume which can change with temperature.12 Chemistry Ch-2 Solutions Ans.

322g 𝐶2 𝐻6 𝑂2 = 12× 2 + 1 × 6 + 2 × 16 = 24 + 6 + 32 = 30 + 32 = 62 g. Calculate the molarity of a solution containing 5g of NaOH dissolved in 450 ml of solution. Strength: It is the amount of solute in gms present in 1 L of the solution. 1000 5 40 450 = 1�8 ÷ 450 × (1000) × 8 1000 450 = .94 © GenextStudents 5 .322 𝑥 = 4.12 Chemistry Ch-2 Solutions 8.278 mol / L Calculate the mole fraction of ethylene glycol ( 𝐶2 𝐻6 𝑂2) in a solution containing 20% of ethylene glycol by mass.44 .322 𝑥 = 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟+ .44+.322 𝐻2 𝑂 (Number of moles) = 80/18 = 4. Ans. . Unit (gram/ litre) Strength = molality × molecular mass Q. 𝐶𝐻2 − 𝑂𝐻 mole fraction = 𝐶𝐻2 − 𝑂𝐻 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑛𝑜𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑠 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑔𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 Number of moles = 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 = 20 / 62 = . Number of moles = 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 = 𝑔𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 1 M=8 ÷ 1 8 1 Q.322 = . Ans.

2. glucose etc (non—polar) are soluble in water in water. the mass of a gas dissolved in a given volume of liquid at constant temperature is directly proportional to the presence applied by gas on liquid surface. In phenol hydrogen bond is not to such an extent. Nature of gas in the solvent: - © GenextStudents 6 . the solubility increases with the rise in temperature. Nature of the solute & the solvent : A polar solute dissolves in polar solvent while a non polar solute dissolves in non polar solvent. Solubility of Gases in Liquids: Henry’s Law (m directly proportional p) In accordance to hennery’ law . Example: -KCl. Factor affecting solubility: 1. but for exothermic reactions the solubility increases with the rise in temperature.12 Chemistry Ch-2 Solutions SOLUBITY The amount of solute present in grams in 100g of solvent in a saturated solution. Factor Affecting Solubility of Gas in a Liquid: 1.𝑁𝑎2 𝐶𝑂3 𝐶𝑎𝐶𝑙2. Insoluble Liquids: Benzene &𝐻2 𝑂. 𝑜𝑖𝑙 𝑖𝑛 𝐻2 𝑂. due to the formation of hydrogen bonds with water. 3. Temperature: for endothermic reactions. 𝑁𝑎𝑁𝑂3 . Ex: NaOH. Exception: sugar. 𝐶𝑎𝐶𝑙2 (𝑠) + 𝐻2 𝑂 → 𝐶𝑎𝐶𝑙2 (𝑎𝑞) + ∆ (𝐸𝑥𝑜𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑖𝑐) Le—chatlier’s principle Solubility of Liquid in Liquids: 1. Completely miscible  alcohol in 𝐻2 𝑂. 2. Partially miscible  phenol in 𝐻2 𝑂/ ether in 𝐻2 𝑂. Solution can be aqueous or non—aqueous Solubility of solids in liquids.

3. because the dissolution process is exothermic since the gas contracts in volume &energy is released during this contracting. 2. Higher the value of 𝐾𝐻 of a gas lesser would be its solubility in a given solvent. © GenextStudents 7 . 𝐾𝐻  Henry’s Constant Partial pressure 𝒙 More fractions 1. As the temperature ↑.12 Chemistry Ch-2 Solutions Easily liquefiable gases like 𝑁𝐻3 . HCl. 𝐾𝐻 𝛼 1 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑏𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦 2. whereas non—polar gases like 𝐻2 . 𝑁2 . Dissolve in 𝐻2 𝑂𝑆𝑂2 very easily . 𝐾𝐻 ↑. 𝐶𝐻4 etc are insoluble in 𝐻2 𝑂 (polar) but soluble in non— polar organic solvents. Effect of Pressure: 𝑚∝𝑝 According to Henry → 𝑝𝑔 ∝ 𝑥𝑔 (Henery law (alternate)) Partial pressure of gas ∝ mollification of gas 𝑝𝑔 = 𝑘𝐻 𝑥𝑔 𝐾𝐻 = 𝑝𝑔 𝑥𝑔 = 𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝐺𝑎𝑠 𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑒 𝑓𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝐺𝑎𝑠. Because dissolution is exothermic. 𝑆𝑂2. 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑏𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦 ↓. Effect of temperature : Solubility of gas in liquid decreases with the rise in temperature.

Temperature ∝ vapour pressure. Soda water bottles are bottled under very high pressure. Nature of Liquid (I. Vapour pressure of Liquid –liquid Solutions: 𝑃𝑇 = 𝑃𝐴 + 𝑃𝐵 (Liquid—liquid) © GenextStudents 8 .𝑃 2.M. At high attitudes the partial pressure of 𝑂2 is less due to which its concentration in air is less. Vapour Pressure & Raoull’s Law: It is defined as the pressure exerted by the vapours in liquid at given temperature. Temperature ↑ . 𝐶𝑂2 escapes out with a fizz. 2. Factor Affecting Vapour pressure: 1 1. 𝐸. 3. Partial pressure of 𝑂2 in air is very high so in lungs it combines with Hb to form 𝐻𝑏𝑂2 (oxy hemoglobin) while in tissues 𝐻𝑏𝑂2 release 𝑂2. 𝐾.F) ∝ 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑢𝑟 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 Ether & alcohol Ether is more violate  dipole—dipole interaction ↑ vapour pressure. 𝑃 ↑ 𝑠. & to overcome the mountaineer carry oxygen cylinders in order to compensate the 𝑂2 dificiency. 1 Volatile ∝ 𝐵. ↑ 𝑒𝑠𝑐𝑎𝑝𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 ↑ 𝑉. 𝑙𝑢𝑛𝑔𝑠 𝐻𝑏 + 𝑂2 𝑡𝑖𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑒 𝐻𝑏𝑂2 4. 𝑚∝𝑝 𝑝 ↑ 𝐶𝑂2 ↑ 𝑚 ↑. since the partial pressure of 𝑂2 is less in the tissues.12 Chemistry Ch-2 Solutions Application of Henry’s Law: 1.

Raoull’s Law & V. 𝑥𝐴 → Mole frication 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑏𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑟𝑦. 𝑥𝐴 = 1 − 𝑥𝐵 𝑃𝐴0 ∗ 𝑥𝐴 + 𝑃𝐵 0 ∗ (1 − 𝑥𝐴 ) 𝑃𝑇 = 𝑃𝐴0 ∗ 𝑥𝐴 + 𝑃𝐵 0 − 𝑃𝐵 0 𝑥𝐴 𝑃𝐴0 𝑥𝐴 + 𝑃𝐵 0 − 𝑃𝐵 0 𝑥𝐴 𝑃𝐵 0 + 𝑥𝐴 (𝑃𝐴0 − 𝑃𝐵 0 ) 𝑃𝑇 = 𝑃𝐴0 (1 − 𝑥𝐴 ) + 𝑃𝐵 0 − 𝑥𝐵 𝑃𝑇 = 𝑃𝐴0 − 𝑃𝐴0 𝑥𝐵 + 𝑃𝐵 0 𝑥𝐵 𝑃𝑇 = 𝑃𝐴0 + 𝑥𝐵 (−𝑃𝐴 + 𝑃𝐵 0 ) © GenextStudents 9 .12 Chemistry Ch-2 Solutions Dalton’s law of partial pressure: It states that the total pressure exerted by a liquid is equal to the sum of partial pressure of 2 or more liquids constituting it. 𝑃𝐴 = 𝑃𝐴0 ∗ 𝑥𝐴 𝑃𝐵 = 𝑃𝐵 0 ∗ 𝑥𝐴 𝑃𝑇 = 𝑃𝐴 + 𝑃𝐵 = 𝑃𝐴0 ∗ 𝑥𝐴 + 𝑃𝐵 0 ∗ 𝑥𝐵 𝑥𝐴 + 𝑥𝐵 = 1 . 𝑃𝐴0 = 𝑃𝐴 Vapour pressure of components A ∗ Partial pressure of component A in its pure form. P of liquids –liquids solution: According to Raoull’s law vapour pressure of a particular component at a given temperature is equal to the product of vapour pressure of that component in its pure form and its mole frication. 𝑥𝐵 = 1 − 𝑥𝐴 So.

Bell jar Vapours Surface of liquid (water) Water (Pure solvent) Vapours Bell jar Sucrose solution Solution containing a non-volatile solute Here some surface is occupied by solute &vapous formed are only of solvent. © GenextStudents 10 . Like water > sucrose solution.12 Chemistry Ch-2 Solutions = 𝑃𝐴0 + 𝑥𝐵 (𝑃𝐵 0 − 𝑃𝐴0 ) Raoull’s law of solid-solid solution: Q. Discuss why the vapour pressure of the solvent containing a non –volatile solute is always less than of pure solvent.

𝑃𝐴 > 𝑃𝐴0 𝑥𝐴 . some of the surface is occupied by non-volatile solute particles . 𝑃𝐴 < 𝑃𝐴0 𝑥𝐴 . PA <𝑃𝐴0 A =solvent water B = Solute.12 Chemistry Ch-2 Solutions Ans.B A—A / B—B < A – B ∆𝐻 > 0 (endothermic) ∆𝐻 < 0 (exothermic) 11 .e. ∆𝐻𝑚𝑖𝑥 = 0 (neighter exothermic & endo thermic) © GenextStudents Non . 𝑃𝐵 < 𝑃𝐵 0 𝑥𝐵 0 𝑃𝑇 < 𝑃𝐴 + 𝑃𝐵 𝑃𝐵 > 𝑃𝐵 𝑥𝐴 .Ideal Solution +𝒗𝒆 deviation −𝒗𝒆 deviation 0 𝑃𝐴 ≠ 𝑃𝐴 𝑥𝐴 . B—B = A—B forces same magnitude 3. A—A / B—B > A .Of temperature & pressure. here (i) no ≢ solute So. Ideal Solution 1. Those solvents which obey Raoull’s law at all concentrations and temperature is said to be an ideal solvents where as those which do not do so are referred to as non-ideal solvents. 𝑃𝐴 = 𝑃𝐴0 𝑥𝐴 & 𝑝𝐵 = 𝑃𝐵 0 𝑥𝐵 & 𝑃𝑇 = 𝑃𝐴0 𝑥𝐴 + 𝑃𝐵 0 𝑥𝐵 2. Obey Raoull’s law. A-A. due to which the surface area for evaporation of the solvent particles decrease . This is because in case of a solution containing a non.volatile solute. 𝑃𝑇 = 𝑃𝐴 𝑃𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 𝑃𝐴0 . i. 𝑃𝑇 > 𝑃𝐴 + 𝑃𝐵 A—A / B—B ≠ A—B. So. thereby decreasing the concentration of the vapors formed & thus the vapour pressure ↓. 𝑥𝐴 Raoull’s Law for Ideal Solution: Ideal solution: which obey Raoutl’s law under all cond.

B 𝑝𝑇 > 𝑝𝐴 + 𝑝𝐵. 2. chloroform& 3. 3. A – A / B – B > A – B. ∆𝑉𝑚𝑖𝑥 = 0( 𝑉𝑓 = 𝑉𝑖 ) ∆𝑉𝑚𝑖𝑥 > 0 (𝑉𝑓 > 𝑉𝑖 ) ∆𝑉 < (𝑉𝐹 < 𝑉𝑖 ) Example: Example: Example: 1. benzene toluene 1. 2. Acetone & aniline. 5. Chloroform 4. Water & HN𝑂3 6. 6. For – 𝑣𝑒 → • 𝐶𝐻3 − 𝐶 − 𝐶𝐻3 O + 𝐻 − 𝐶 − 𝐶𝑙3. For +𝑣𝑒 deviations 𝑝𝐴 > 𝑝𝐴0 ∙ 𝑥𝐵 A > 𝐶2 𝐻5 𝑂𝐻. Acetone & ethanol. Ethanol & cyclo benzene. 4. Acetone & 4. A—A/ B—B < A—B Graphical representations of Raoull’s law for Ideal solution Vapour pressure 𝑃𝑇 = 𝑃𝐴 + 𝑃𝐵 𝑃𝐴0 𝑃𝐴 = 𝑃𝐴0 ∙ 𝑥𝐴 𝑃𝐵 = 𝑃𝐵0 ∙ 𝑥𝐵 𝑥𝐴 = 1 𝑥𝐵 = 0 © GenextStudents 𝑃𝐵0 Mole fraction A-A/B-B> A-B 𝑥𝐴 = 0 𝑥𝐵 = 1 12 . Chloroform & 1. Chloroform &𝐶𝐶𝐿4 . Ethanol & water 5. Acetone & benzene. iodide di sulphide) 3. n-hexane & n-heptane hexane.12 Chemistry Ch-2 Solutions 4. ethyl bromide & ethyl 2. Bromo & iodo benzene. Water &HCl. Acetone &𝐶𝑆2 (carbon diethyl ether.

𝐹 𝑷 = 𝑷𝑨 + 𝑷𝑩 Vapour pressure 𝑷𝑨 𝑷𝑻 = 𝑷𝑨 + 𝑷𝑩 𝟎 𝑷𝑩 𝑷𝑩 𝑷𝑨 𝒙𝑨 = 𝟏 𝒙𝑩 = 𝟎 Pure component © GenextStudents 𝑷𝑩𝟎 Mole fraction A-A / B-B < A-B V.𝑀.𝑉𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑢𝑟.12 Chemistry Ch-2 Solutions For +𝒗𝒆 deviation: - Vapour pressure 𝑷 = 𝑷𝑨 + 𝑷𝑩 Vapour pressure 𝑷𝑩𝟎 𝑷𝑨𝟎 𝑷𝑨 𝑷𝑩 1 For – 𝒗𝒆 deviation: . decreases 𝑷𝑨 𝒙𝑨 = 𝟎 𝒙𝑩 = 𝟏 13 .P. 𝑃 ∝ 𝐼.

P. 3. 𝑃𝐵 = 𝑃𝐵 0 Colligative properties of solution: 1. 𝑥𝐵 = 1 . Osmotic pressure Colligative properties are those properties which depend upon the number of solute particles in a definite amount of solvent and are independent of all other physical & chemical properties of the solute. Relative lowering of vapour pressure 2. 𝑃𝐵 = 𝑃𝐵 0 𝑃𝐵 = 0 Structure line (ІІІ) 𝑃𝑇 = 𝑃𝐴 + 𝑃𝐵 𝑃𝑇 = 𝑃𝐴0 𝑥𝐴 + 𝑃𝐵 0 . 𝑋𝐴 © GenextStudents 14 . 𝑥𝐵 = 0 . 𝑥𝐵 When 𝑋𝐵 = 1 . 1. 𝑃𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑃𝐴0 . Depression in freezing point 4. Elevation in B. 𝑠𝑜 𝑛𝑜𝑡 𝑡𝑎𝑘𝑒𝑛 𝑖𝑛 𝑎𝑐𝑐𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 . Relative lowering of vapour Pressure : 𝑃𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑃𝐴 [𝑃𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑃𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡 ]total pressure of solvent 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑏 ′ 𝑖𝑠 𝑛𝑜𝑛 − 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑙𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 . 𝑥𝐴 = 0 When 𝑋𝐴 = 0 (liquid A absent) Structure line (ІІ) (Pure liquid B. 𝑥𝐴 = 𝑃𝐴0 . 𝑃𝐵 = 𝑂 𝑃𝐵 = 𝑃𝐵 0 𝑥𝐵 . 𝑥𝐵 = 0) Liquid B absent.12 Chemistry Ch-2 Solutions Structure line (І) (Pure liquid A) when 𝑥𝐴 = 1 𝑃𝐴 = 𝑃𝐴0 . 𝑃𝐴 = 𝑃𝐴0 .

Elevation in B. Pure Solvent ∆𝑇𝑏 Solution Temperature © GenextStudents 𝑇𝑏 0 𝑇𝑏 15 . 𝑥𝐴 = 1 − 𝑥𝐵 𝑃𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑃𝐴0 (1 − 𝑋𝐵 ) 𝑥𝐵 = 1−𝑃𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝐴0 𝑥𝐵 → Mole frication of solute where𝑃𝐴0 − 𝑃𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑜𝑓 𝑉𝑃 𝑃𝐴0 𝑃𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝐴0 𝑥𝐵 = 𝑛 𝑤𝐴 𝑀𝐴 𝑛𝐵 𝑚 .P. P.: BP (Pure solvent & BP of solution) V.P.12 Chemistry Ch-2 Solutions 𝑥𝐴 + 𝑥𝐵 = 1 . 𝑤𝐵 + 𝑀𝐵 If solvent is dilute then we can neglect nB<<<nA 𝑥𝐵 = 𝑤𝐵 𝑀𝐵 𝑤𝐴 𝑀𝐴 𝑥𝐵 = 𝑃𝐴0 − 𝑀𝐵 = 𝑤𝐵 = 𝑀𝐵 𝑃𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝐴0 𝑤𝐵×𝑀𝐴 𝑤𝐴� × = 𝑀𝐴 𝑤𝐴 𝑤𝐵 𝑀𝐵 𝑃𝐴0 −𝑃𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 � 𝑃𝐴0 × 𝑀𝐴 𝑤𝐴 2.𝑛 = 𝑀 𝐴 +𝑛𝐵 𝑤𝐵 = 𝑀𝐵 Relative lowering of V.

P (elevation ) of 0. P of solvent & pure solvent. A solution containing 12.01 © GenextStudents 175×.P of pure solvent Tb = boiling point of solvent M = molality ∆𝑇𝑏 ∝ 𝑚 ∆𝑇𝑏 = 𝑘𝑏𝑚 Kb = molal elevation constant / molalebullscopic constant.52 × . 𝑇𝑏 0 = B. 𝑇𝑏 > 𝑇𝑏 0 ∆𝑇𝑏 = 𝑇𝑏 − 𝑇𝑏 0 When ∆𝑇 = difference in B.70 K.5×1000×100 . Rb = molal elevation constant in the elevation or rise in boiling point for a molal solution (m=1) 𝑛𝑜𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 m = 𝑊𝐴 𝑖𝑛 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑠 𝑤𝐵 𝑛𝐵 = 𝑀𝐵 𝑤𝐵 m = 𝑀𝐵 × MB = 1000 1000 ∆𝑇𝑏 = 𝑘𝑏𝑚 ∆𝑇𝑏 = × 𝑤𝐴 𝑘𝑏×𝑤𝐵×1000 𝑚𝐵×𝑤𝐴 𝑘𝑏 ×𝑤𝐵 ×1000 𝑊𝐴 × ∆𝑇𝑏 Q. calculate MB where Kb water 0. Ans.70 16 .52 ×12. MB = .12 Chemistry Ch-2 Solutions ∆𝑇𝑏 = 𝑇𝑏 − 𝑇𝑏 0 As 𝑃𝐴0 > 𝑃𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡 .5g of a non – electrolytic in 175 g of 𝐻2 𝑂 gave B.52 K kg/mol.

Depression in freezing Point: Liquid State Pure Solvent B D Solid State Solution E V. Thus at lower temperature the solid & liquid `state of the solution would have same vapour pressure due to which there is a depression in its freezing point. P. This is because a solvent containing a non –volatile solute will have lower vapour pressure than that of pure solvent. ∆𝑇𝐹 = 𝑇𝑓0 − 𝑇𝑓 ∆𝑇𝑓 = depression in freezing point. C A ∆𝑻𝒇 𝑻𝒇 𝑻𝒇𝟎 Temperature Freezing Point: It is the point / temperature at which both the solid & liquid states of a substances co— exist at equation and have same vapour pressure.12 Chemistry Ch-2 Solutions =.0000 3. The freezing point of a solution containing a non—volatile solute is lower than that of pure solvent.0052 × 104 = 52. 𝑇𝑓0 = freezing point of pure solvent 𝑇𝑓 = freezing point of solution © GenextStudents 17 .

∆𝑇𝑓 = 𝑘𝑓𝑚 𝑛𝐵 𝑚 = 𝑤𝐴 × 1000 𝑤𝐵 1000 ⇒ 𝑀𝐵 × 𝑀𝐵 = Q.86 K kg/mol .7 100 = . freeze at 272. For solvent  273 – 272.79 g of water .𝑃.86×.187 MB = 1.1 = 63.187 K.12 Chemistry Ch-2 Solutions ∆𝑇𝑓 ∝ 𝑚 ∆𝑇𝑓 = 𝑘𝑓𝑚 Kf = molal depression constant molal cryoscopy constant.67×1000 .813 ×21. Ans. Solution of an organic compound containing 0.𝑀 Solvent particles high solvent concentration �⎯⎯� low solvent concentration Dilute  concentration Low solvent concentration  high solvent concentration © GenextStudents 18 . Calculate the molar mass of the organic compound.4 Osmotic Pressure : Two phenomena’s Diffusion Osmosis 𝑡𝑜 Diffusion  high concentration → low concentration Osmosis 𝑆.6g of it dissolved in 21.31 ×5. 𝑊𝐴 𝑘𝑓 × 𝑤𝐵 ×1000 ∆𝑇𝑓×𝑊𝐴 𝑤𝐵 𝑇𝑓 = 𝑘𝑓 × 𝑀𝐵 × 1000 𝑤𝐴 A n aq. 𝑘𝑓 = 1.

P.M) Through containing water Rise in level 𝑆𝑢𝑔𝑎𝑟 𝑆𝑜𝑙 𝑛 𝑆𝑢𝑔𝑎𝑟 𝑆𝑜𝑙 𝑛 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 © GenextStudents S.12 Chemistry Ch-2 Solutions The spontaneous movement of the solvent molecules either from pure solvent into solution or form a dilute solution to a concentration solution through a semi – permeable membrane ( membrane allowing the passage of only the solvent particles & not the solute particles. M 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 19 . SPM Egg Low Egg Hypo tonic high solvent concentration Water Swells endosmosis Hyper tonic 𝑵𝒂 𝑪𝒍 Shrink exosmosis Less hypotonic  less concentration of solution More hypertonic  more concentration of solvent After some time concentration becomes equal & the solvent is termed as isotonic (concentration consumed) Using preachment paper (S.P.

12 Chemistry Ch-2 Solutions Osmotic pressure: Ext.M is termed as osmotic pressure (𝜋) Reverse Osmosis (RO): If external pressure ↑ then the osmotic pressure is applied on the solution side. the solvent will start flowing from the solution into the pure solvent . The Ext. (the process of osmoses is reverse osmosis and its important application is desalination of sea water. pressure osmotic pressure is stopped. pressure that has to be applied on the solution side to prevent the osmosis of the solute into it. Pressure SPM Piston Solution Solvent 2 Compartments As per osmosis. Vant Hoff Low: 𝜋 𝛼 𝐶𝑇 𝜋 = 𝐶𝑅𝑇 C → concentration in moles / L 𝜋 →Osmotic pressure © GenextStudents 20 . through a S.P. the movement should be form solvent  solution but due to ext.

The molar masses of solute cal.𝑃 i= 𝑛𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝐶. 𝑅𝑇 𝜋.𝑃 NaCl → 𝑁𝑎 + + 𝐶𝑙 − Like 𝐶𝐻3 𝐶𝑂𝑂𝐻has mass 60 But actual it has 120 as it exists as dimetrs.𝑉 𝑅𝑇 𝑤𝐵 . The relation between the normal & the observed molar mass was given by Vant Hoff in terms of Vant Hoff factor I which is./𝐴𝑏𝑛𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑏𝑠𝑒𝑟𝑣𝑒𝑑 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝐶. 𝜋= 𝑛𝐵 𝑣 As – C= 𝑅𝑇 𝑛𝐵 𝑉 𝑤𝐵 And nB = 𝑀𝐵 𝜋 = MB = 𝑤𝐵 𝑀𝐵.𝑉 Abnormal Molar Mass: Happens due to association or dissociation of solution into ions. On the basis of 4 collagative properties have difference values as compared to their normal molar mass (actual) and are called abnormal or observed molar mass which may be greater than the normal molar mass (in case of solute undergoing association) or may be less than the normal molar mass ( in case of solute undergoing dissociation ). 𝑛𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙 𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 Vant Hoff factor 𝑖 = 𝑜𝑏𝑠.12 Chemistry Ch-2 Solutions 𝑅 → Gas constant 𝑇 → temperature in K. H O 𝐶𝐻3 © GenextStudents O C O O H O C 𝐶𝐻3 21 .

. 𝑖 > 1. ∴Mobs > M normal 3. 𝑖 < 1.12 Chemistry Ch-2 Solutions Value of ′𝒊′ 1. ∴ 𝑀𝑜𝑏𝑠< M normal Example:  𝐾4 [𝐹𝑒(𝐶𝑁)6 ] → 4𝐾 + + [𝐹𝑒(𝐶𝑁)]4− 𝑖=5 𝐵𝑎𝐶𝑙2 → 𝐵𝑎+2 + 2𝐶𝑙 − 𝑖=3 Reaction between ′𝑖′ & efficiency extent of dissociation or association for electrolytes 𝛼= number of moles of electrolytes. for electrolyte undergoing association . for a non –electrolyte ∴ Mobs = M normal 2. 𝑖 = 1. = 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑛𝑜𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑙𝑦𝑡𝑒 For Dissociation: Let the number of moles of ions formed be n α where n is the number opt ions &α is the degree of dissociation & let the number of moles of electrolyte left under associated be (1—𝛼) © GenextStudents 22 . for electrolyte undergoing dissociation. 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑎𝑡𝑒/𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑑𝑒𝑔𝑟𝑒𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 & 𝑎𝑠𝑠.

12 Chemistry Ch-2 Solutions NaCl→ 𝑁𝑎 + + 𝐶𝑙 − 1 𝑡=0 𝑡 = 𝑡(1 − 𝛼) 𝑖= 0 0 𝛼 𝛼 1−𝛼+𝑛𝛼 1 𝑛𝛼 𝑖 − 1 = α (n—1) 𝑖 − 1 = α (n—1) α = 𝑖−1 𝑛−1 For association: 𝑛(A) t =0 1 t=t 𝑖= 1—α ⇌ (A) n 0 α/n 1−𝛼+𝛼/𝑛 α = © GenextStudents 1 𝑖−1 1 −1 𝑛 23 .