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You are on page 1of 4

August 1, 2006

1. How does the main service provided by the network layer differ from the main service provided

by the transport layer?

Solution: The transport layer provides communication between processes, while the network

layer provides communication between hosts.

2. True or False:

(a) Queuing at a router occurs only before the packet goes through the switching fabric.

(b) A single transport layer segment can be divided into multiple IP datagrams.

(c) Every virtual circuit (VC) connection has a single numerical identifier.

Solution: FTF

3. What does AS stand for and what is it? Of RIP, BGP and OSPF, which are intra-AS routing

protocols and which are inter-AS routing protocols?

Solution: AS stands for Autonomous System. An AS is a network under the control of a

single organization where certain network administration tasks can and must be performed

locally. RIP and OSPF are intra-AS routing protocols. BGP is an inter-AS routing protocol

(even though it has an iBGP and an eBGP part).

4. Briefly describe what Random Early Detection (RED) is.

Solution: A router can use RED to notify any senders that are using it that it is becoming

overwhelmed. It does this early, that is, before a lot of packets are lost due to buffer

overflow. Specifically, a router keeps track of its recent average queue length. If this average

queue length exceeds a certain threshold, the router will drop packets randomly. If this

threshold exceeds another, higher threshold, the router will drop every packet. Any senders

that are using TCP, for instance, will respond by adjusting their CongWin parameters to slow

down their sending rate.

5. Explain why a virtual circuit (VC) can give a bandwidth guarantee to the traffic between two

hosts and why a datagram network (under normal circumstances) cannot.

important to explain how this can lead to a bandwidth guarantee. Two of the essential reasons

are (i) there is a fixed path between the two hosts, so after the connection is established, we

will know the minimum transmission rate of any link in the path; and (ii) every router knows

how many connections it is involved in and can decide to reject new connection requests

if it already has too much traffic going through it. In contrast, packets travelling between

two hosts in a datagram network can take many different paths and routers have to handle

whatever traffic is directed towards them.

Longer Questions

1. Consider a router with 3 outgoing links (0,1,2) and the following forwarding table given by

ranges of 4-bit addresses:

Address range

00000011

01000111

10001011

11001111

Outgoing link

0

1

2

0

(a) (2 points) Represent this table in longest-prefix-matching form such that the longest

prefix has length 2 and there are 3 entries.

Solution:

Prefix Outgoing link

01

1

2

10

0

(b) (1 point) Can it be done with longest prefix 1?

Solution: No.

(c) (4 points) Now consider a router with k outgoing links and assume the addresses have

m bits where m > k. At this router, each link has at least one destination address that

gets forwarded onto it. Give a lower bound on the length of the longest prefix in the

forwarding table for this router. Explain why.

Solution: We need to construct a set of k binary strings (not necessarily all of the same

length) such that every string in the set can be extended to an m-bit string that is not

an extension of any of the other strings in the set. Certainly this can be done if we make

every string of length ` = dlog ke. In fact, ` is the smallest integer such that 2 ` k,

so if all the strings are of the same length, then that length must be at least `. What

if we use strings of different lengths? Can we get away with strings of length at most

` 1? This turns out to be equivalent to the question of how many leaves there can be

in a binary tree of depth ` 1 (why?). The answer is 2 `1 < k, so we do need at least

one string of length `. Full credit for this question required at least acknowledging the

possibility that the prefixes need not be of the same length.

(d) (4 points) Show one possible forwarding table for this router where the longest prefix is

as close as possible to the lower bound in part (c).

Solution: This router refers to the router in part (c); that is, a router with k outgoing

links, not 3 outgoing links. In most cases, 1 point was taken off for assuming k was a

specific number. Again, let ` = dlog ke. For any number 0 x < k, let hxi ` denote the

binary representation of that number with 0s added to the left to make it a string of

length `. Then we can use the following table:

Prefix

Outgoing link

h0i`

0

h1i`

1

.

.

.

hk 1i` k-1

2. This question is about the Distance Vector (DV) algorithm. Consider the following network,

where i and j are constants such that j > i > 1.

y

j

z

10(i+j)

Recall that each node stores its own distance vector and the distance vectors of its neighbors.

Assume that the initial phase of the algorithm is over and each node has three correct distance

vectors. That is, each node has the information

Dx

Dy

Dz

x

0

j

i+j

y

j

0

i

z

i+j

i

0

(a) (4 points) Suppose the cost of link (x, y), c(x, y), changes to 1. Describe what the

algorithm does: that is, what messages are passed and what vector updates are made.

How many messages does y send before every nodes information is correct?

Solution: x and y detect the change in c(x, y), so y updates D y using the new c(x, y)

and its old copy of Dx and Dz . Likewise, x updates its copy of Dx using c(x, y) and its

old copies of Dy and Dz . y sends Dy to x and z, and x sends Dx to y and z. When

y receives Dx from x, nothing changes in Dy . Likewise, when x receives Dy from y,

nothing changes in Dx . After z receives Dy , it updates Dz (nothing changes when z

3

receives Dx ). Finally, z sends Dz to x and y, but nothing changes. All in all, y sends

two messages.

(b) (6 points) Starting from the initial costs, assume that the cost of link (x, y) changes to

20(i + j). How many messages does y pass before every nodes information is correct?

Solution: To get more than 1 point, you had to recognize that this was an instance of

count to infinity or bad news travels slowly, and that the number of messages sent

by y would depend on i and j. When y registers the change in c(x, y), it updates D y (x)

to 2i + j (the path that goes from y to z and then takes the shortest path from z to

x). It then sends Dy to x and z. z updates Dz (x) to 3i + j (going through y and then

taking the shortest path from y to x) and sends D z to x and y. This continues until

Dy (x) gets to 10(i + j) + i. Dy (x) increases by 2i for every two messages sent by y (one

to z, one to x). Therefore, the total number of messages sent by y is 2 10(i+j)+ij

. You

2i

didnt have to get this exact expression to get full credit; just something close.

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