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SPM Chemistry Form 5 Terminology and Concepts: Carbon Compounds


1. Organic compounds carbon containing compounds with covalent bonds.
2. Inorganic compounds non-living things and usually do not contain carbon
but few carbon containing inorganic compounds such as CO 2, CaCO3 and
KCN.
3. Hydrocarbons organic compounds that contain hydrogen and carbon
atom only.
4. Non-hydrocarbons organic compounds that contain other elements
(oxygen, nitrogen, iodine, phosphorus)
5. Saturated hydrocarbons only single bonded (Carbon-Carbon)
hydrocarbons.
6. Unsaturated hydrocarbons at least one double / triple bonded (CarbonCarbon) hydrocarbons.
7. Complete combustion organic compounds burn completely which form
CO2 and H2O.
8. Example: C2H5OH (l) + O2 (g) > 2CO2 (g) + 3H2O (l)
9. Incomplete combustion organic compounds burn with limited supply of
O2 which form C (soot), CO, CO2 and H2O.
Homologous Series
Homologous series organic compounds with similar formulae and properties. It
have the physical properties that change gradually as the number of carbon
atoms in a molecule increases.
Carbon
Compounds
Alkane

General
Formula
CnH2n+2

Alkene

CnH2n

n = 2, 3,
4,

Alkynes

CnH2n-2

n = 2, 3,
4,

Arenes

CnH2n-6

n = 6, 7,
8,

Alcohol

CnH2n+1OH

Carboxylic Acids

CnH2n+1COOH

n = 1, 2,
3,
n = 0, 1, 2

Esters

CnH2n+1COOCmH2
m+1

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Functional group
n = 1, 2,
3,

n = 0, 1,
2,
m = 1, 2,
3,

Carbon-carbon single
bond
-CCCarbon-carbon double
bond
-C=CCarbon-carbon triple
bond
-C=C-C=Cdelocalised / free to
move around the ring
Hydroxyl group
- OH
Carboxyl group
- COOH
Carboxylate group
- COO -

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Sources of Hydrocarbon:
1.
Coal from the lush vegetation that grew in warm shallow coastal
swamps or dead plants slowly become rock. Mainly contains of hydrocarbon and
some sulphur and nitrogen. It is used to produce: fertiliser, nylon, explosives and
plastics.
2.
Natural gas from plants and animals and trapped between the layers
of impervious rocks (on top of petroleum). Mainly contains of methane gas and
other gas such as propane and butane. It is used for: cooking, vehicle and
generate electrical power.
3.
Petroleum from plants and animals and trapped between the layers of
impervious rocks. It is a complex mixture of alkanes, alkenes, aromatic
hydrocarbons and sulphur compound. These compounds can be separated by
using fractional distillation.
< 35C petroleum gas
35C 75C Petrol (gasoline)
75C 170C Naphtha
170C 230C Kerosene
230C 250C Diesel
250C 300C Lubricating oil
300C 350C Fuel oil
350C Bitumen
Quiz: How many known carbon compounds there are in the world now?
Estimated to be around 10 million carbon compounds known. However,
theoretically the number could be way larger. (Source: Wikipedia)

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SPM Chemistry Form 5 Terminology and Concepts: Carbon Compounds


(Part 2)
A) IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry ) is used to
nameorganic compound.
Organic compound is divided into three portions which is Prefix + Root + Suffix.
1. Prefix name of the branch or side chain.
General formula: CnH2n+1 Where n = 1, 2, 3, (n = number of carbon)
Formula
Branch or name of group
CH3 methyl
C2H5 ethyl
C3H7 propyl
C4H9 butyl
C5H11 pentyl
2. Alkyl group signifies that it is not part of the main chain.
3. Two or more types of branches are present, name them
in alphabetical order.
Number of side chain Prefix
2
Di3
Tri4
Tetra5
Penta6
Hexa4. More than one side chains are present, prefixes are used.
5. Root the parent hydrocarbon (denotes the longest carbon chain).
Number of carbon atoms Root name
1
meth2
eth3
prop4
but5
pent6
hex7
hept8
oct9
nan-

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10

dec The longest continuous (straight chain) carbon chain is selected.


Identify the number of carbon.
6. Suffix functional group.
Homologous
Functional
Suffix
series
group
Alkane
-CC-ane
Alkene
-C=C-ene
Alcohol
OH
-ol
Carboxylic acid
COOH
-oic
Ester
COO
-oate
7. Example: 4-methylhept-2-ene.
8. Prefix + Root + Suffix
B) Family of Hydrocarbon Alkane
1. General formula: CnH2n+2
Where n = 1, 2, 3, (n = number of carbon)
2. Each carbon atom in alkanes is bonded to four other atoms by single
covalent bonds.
Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbon.
Name of alkane Molecular formula of
alkane
Methane
CH4
Ethane
C2 H 6
Propane
C3 H 8
Butane
C4H10
Pentane
C5H12
Hexane
C6H14
Heptane
C7H16
Octane
C8H18
Nonane
C9H20
Decane
C10H22
Molecular formula is a chemical formula that shows the actual number of
atoms of each type of elements
present in a molecule of the compound.
Example: molecular formula of butane is C4H24+2 = C4H10
Name
Condensed structural formula of alkane
Methane CH4
Ethane
CH3CH3
Propane CH3CH2CH3
Butane
CH3CH2CH2CH3
Pentane CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3
Hexane CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3
Heptane CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3
Octane
CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

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Nonane
Decane

CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3
CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

Structural formula is a chemical formula that shows the atoms of elements are
bonded(arrangement of atoms) together in a molecule by what types of bond.

3. Physical properties of alkanes


Name
Molecular RMM
Density( Physical state
formula
g cm-3) at 25C
Methane CH4
16
Gas
Ethane
C2 H 6
30
Gas
Propane C3H8
44
Gas
Butane
C4H10
58
Gas
Pentane C5H12
72
0.63
Liquid
Hexane C6H14
86
0.66
Liquid
Heptane C7H16
100
0.68
Liquid
Octane
C8H18
114
0.70
Liquid
Nonane C9H20
128
0.72
Liquid
Decane C10H22
142
0.73
Liquid
Alkanes with more than 17 carbon atoms are solid.
Solubility in water all members in alkanes are insoluble in water but
soluble in many organic solvent (benzene and ether).
Density of alkane the density of water is higher than density of alkane.
When going down the series, relative molecular mass of alkanes
is higher due to the higher force of attraction between molecules and
alkane molecules are packed closer together.
Electrical conductivity all members in alkanes do not conduct
electricity.
Alkanes are covalent compounds and do not contain freely moving ions.
Boiling and melting points all alkanes in general have low boiling
points and melting points.
Alkanes are held together by weak intermolecular forces.
4. Chemical properties of alkanes
Reactivity of alkanes
Alkanes are less reactive (saturated hydrocarbon).
Alkanes have strong carbon-carbon (C C) bonds and carbon-hydrogen (C
H) bonds.
All are single bonds which require a lot of energy to break.

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Alkanes do not react with chemicals such as oxidizing agents, reducing
agents, acids and alkalis.
Combustion of alkanes
Complete combustion of hydrocarbons
CxHy + (x + y/4) O2 > xCO2 + y/2 H2O
CH4 +
2O2 > CO2 + 2H2O
Incomplete combustion occurs when insufficient supply of oxygen
CH4 + O2 > C + H2O
2CH4 + 3O2 > 2CO + 4H2O
Substitution reaction of alkanes (Halogenation)
Substitution reaction is one atom (or a group of atoms) in a molecule
is replaced by another atom (or a group of atoms).
Substitution reaction of alkanes take place in ultraviolet light.
Example:
Alkanes react with bromine vapour (or chlorine) in the presence of UV
light.
CH4 + Cl2 > HCl + CH3Cl (Chloromethane)
CH3Cl + Cl2 > HCl + CH2Cl2 (Dichloromethane)
CH2Cl2 + Cl2 > HCl + CHCl3 (Trichloromethane)
CHCl3 + Cl2 > HCl + CCl4 (Tetrachloromethane)
The rate of reaction between bromine and alkanes is slower than the rate
of reaction between chlorine and alkanes.
SPM Chemistry Form 5 Terminology and Concepts: Carbon Compounds
(Part 3)
Family of Hydrocarbon Alkene
1. General formula: CnH2n
Where n = 2, 3, 4 (n = number of carbon)
2. Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons which contain one or more carboncarbon (C = C) double bonds in molecules.
3. The functional group in alkenes is carbon-carbon double (C = C) bond.
Name of alkene Molecular formula of
alkene
Ethene
C2 H 4
Propene
C3 H 6
Butene
C4 H 8
Pentene
C5H10
Hexene
C6H12
Heptene
C7H14
Octene
C8H16
Nonene
C9H18
Decene
C10H20
Molecular formula is a chemical formula that shows the actual number
of atoms of eachtype of elements present in a molecule of the compound.
Example: molecular formula of butene is C4H2x4 = C4H8
4. Physical properties of alkenes
Name
Molecularfor RMM Density( Physical state
mula
g cm-3) at 25C
Ethene C2H4
28
0.0011 Gas
Propene C3H6
42
0.0018 Gas

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Butene C4H8
56
0.0023 Gas
Pentene C5H10
70
0.6430 Liquid
Hexene C6H12
84
0.6750 Liquid
Heptene C7H14
98
0.6980 Liquid
Octene C8H16
112
0.7160 Liquid
Nonene C9H18
126
0.7310 Liquid
Decene C10H20
140
0.7430 Liquid
Solubility in water all members in alkenes are insoluble in water but
soluble in many organic solvent (benzene and ether).
Density of alkene the density of water is higher than density of alkene.
When going down the series, relative molecular mass of alkenes
is higher due to the higher force of attraction between molecules and
alkene molecules are packed closer together.
Electrical conductivity all members in alkenes do not conduct
electricity.
Alkenes are covalent compounds and do not contain freely moving ions.
Boiling and melting points all alkenes in general have low boiling
points and melting points. Alkenes are held together by weak attractive
forces between molecules (intermolecular forces) van der Waals force.
When going down the series, more energy is required to overcome the
attraction. Hence, the boiling and melting points increases.
5. Chemical properties of alkenes
Reactivity of alkenes
Alkenes are more reactive (unsaturated hydrocarbon).
Alkenes have carbon-carbon (C = C) double bonds which is more reactive
than carbon-carbon (C-C) single bonds. All the reaction occur at the double
bonds.
Combustion of alkenes
Complete combustion of hydrocarbons (alkenes)
CxHy + (x + y/4) O2 > xCO2 + y/2 H2O
C2 H 4 +
3O2 > 2CO2 + 2H2O
(Alkenes burn with sootier flames than alkanes. It is because
the percentage of carbon in alkene molecules is higher than alkane
molecules and alkenes burn plenty of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide
and water)
Incomplete combustion occurs when insufficient supply of oxygen
C2H4 + O2 > 2C + 2H2O
C2H4 + 2O2 > 2CO + 2H2O
(The flame in the incomplete combustion of alkenes is more smoky than
alkanes)
Polymerisation reaction of alkenes
Polymers are substances that many monomers are bonded together in a
repeating sequence.
Polymerisation is small alkene molecules (monomers) are joined
together to form a long chain (polymer).
nCH2 = CH2 > -(- CH2 CH2 -)-n
ethene (monomer)(unsaturated compound) > polyethene polymer
(saturated compound)
It must be carry out in high temperature and pressure.
Addition of hydrogen (Hydrogenation)
Addition reaction is atoms (or a group of atoms) are added to each carbon
atom of a carbon-carbon multiple bond to a single bond.

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C2H4 + H2 > C2H6 (catalyst: nickel and condition: 200C)


Example: margarine (produce from hydrogenation of vegetable oils).
Addition of halogen (Halogenation)
Halogenation is the addition of halogens to alkenes (no catalyst of
ultraviolet light is needed).
Alkene + Halogen > Dihaloalkane
C2H4 + Br2 > C2H4Br2
In this reaction the brown colour of bromine decolourised (immediately) to
produce acolourless organic liquid.
Bromination is also used to identify an unsaturated (presence of a carboncarbon double bond) organic compound in a chemical test.
Addition of hydrogen halides
Hydrogen halides (HX) are hydrogen chlorine, hydrogen bromide,
hydrogen iodide and etc. This reaction takes place rapidly in room
temperature and without catalyst.
CnH2n + HX > CnH2n+1X
C2H4 + HBr > C2H5Br (Bromoethane)
(There are two products for additional of hydrogen halide to propene. The
products are 1-bromopropane and 2-bromopropane).
Addition of water (Hydration)
Alkenes do not react with water under ordinary condition. It can react with
a mixture of alkeneand steam pass over a catalyst (Phosphoric acid,
H3PO4). The product is an alcohol.
CnH2n + H2O > CnH2n+1OH
C2H4 + H2O > C2H5OH
Additional of acidified potassium manganate(VII), KMnO 4
CnH2n + [O] + H2O > CnH2n(OH)2
C2H4 + [O] + H2O > C2H5(OH)2
The purple colour of KMnO4 solution decolourised immediately to
produce colourlessorganic liquid. Also used to identify the presence of a
carbon-carbon double bond in a chemical test.

SPM Form 5 Terminology and Concepts: Carbon Compounds


1. Comparing (Similarities and Differences) Properties of Alkanes and
Alkenes
Physical

Alkanes

Alkenes

Physical state changes from gas to liquid

Same with alkanes.

Properties
Physical state

when going down the series.


Electrical

Do not conduct electricity at any state.

Same with alkanes.

Boiling points

Low boiling points and melting points

Same with alkanes.

and melting

(number of carbon atoms per molecule

points

increases).

Density

Low densities (number of carbon atom per Same with alkanes.

conductivity.

molecule increases).
Solubility in

Insoluble in water (soluble in organic

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Same with alkanes.

water

solvent)

Chemical

Alkanes

Alkenes

Properties

(Substitution reaction)

(Addition reaction)

Reactivity

Unreactive

Reactive

Combustion

Burn in air and produce yellow sooty

Burn in air and produce

flame.

yellow and sootier


flame compare to
alkanes.

Reaction with

No reaction.

Decolourise brown

bromine

bromine solution.

solution
Reaction with

No reaction.

Decolourise purple

acidified

acidified potassium

potassium

manganate(VII)

manganate(VII)

solution.

solution

2. Isomerism
Isomerism phenomenon that two or more molecules are found to have the same
molecular formula but different structural formulae.
Isomerism in alkanes
Molecular formula

Number of isomers Structure name

CH4

- (no isomer)

Methane

C2H6

- (no isomer)

Ethane

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C3H8

- (no isomer)

Propane

C4H10

Butane2-methylpropane

C5H12

Pentane2-methylbutane2,2dimethylpropane

Isomerism in alkenes
Molecular formula

Number of isomers Structure name

C2H4

- (no isomer)

Ethene

C3H6

- (no isomer)

Propene

C4H8

But-1-eneBut-2-ene2-methylpropene

C5H10

Pent-1-enePent-2-ene2-methylbut-1-ene
3-methylbut-1-ene
2-methylbut-2-ene

SPM Form 5 Terminology and Concepts: Carbon Compounds (Part 5)


Non-Hydrocarbon Alcohol
1. General formula: CnH2n + 1OH
Where n = 1, 2, 3 (n = number of carbon)
2. Alcohols are non-hydrocarbons which contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
atoms. 3. The functional group in alcohols is hydroxyl group, OH.
Name of alcohol
Molecular formula of
alcohol
Methanol
CH3OH
Ethanol
C2H5OH
Propanol / Propan-1- C3H7OH
ol
Butanol / Butan-1-ol C4H9OH
Pentanol / Pentan-1- C5H11OH
ol
Hexanol / Hexan-1-ol C6H13OH
Heptanol / Heptan-1- C7H15OH
ol
Octanol / Octan-1-ol C8H17OH
Nonanol / Nonan-1-ol C9H19OH
Decanol / Decan-1-ol C10H21OH

4. Physical properties of alcohol


Name
Molecular Melting Boiling
formula
point
point

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Physical state
at 25C

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(C)
(C)
Methanol CH3OH
-97
65
Liquid
Ethanol C2H3OH
-117
78
Liquid
Propanol C3H5OH
-127
97
Liquid
Butanol C4H7OH
-90
118
Liquid
Pentanol C5H9OH
-79
138
Liquid
Solubility in water all members in alcohol are very soluble in water
(miscible with water).
Volatility all alcohols are highly volatile.
Colour and Smell alcohols are colourless liquid and have sharp smell.
Boiling and melting points all alcohols in general have low boiling
points (78C).
5. Chemical properties of alcohol
Combustion of alcohol Complete combustion of alcohol. C2H5OH + 3O2
> 2CO2 + 3H2O (Alcohol burns with clean blue flames. Alcohol burns plenty
of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water. This reaction releases a lot
of heat. Therefore, it is a clean fuel as it does not pollute the air.) Other
example: 2C3H7OH + 9O2 > 6CO2 + 8H2O
Oxidation of ethanol In the laboratory, two common oxidising
agents are used for the oxidation of ethanol which are acidified potassium
dichromate(VI) solution (orange to green) and acidified potassium
manganate(VII) solution (purple to colourless). C2H5OH + 2[O] >
CH3COOH + H2O Ethanol oxidised to ethanoic acid (a member of the
homologous series of carboxylic acids will be discussed in Part 6). Other
example: C3H7OH + 2[O] > C2H5COOH + H2O
Removal of water (Dehydration) Alcohol can change
to alkene by removal of water molecules (dehydration). It results in the
formation of a C=C double bond. CnH2n+1OH > CnH2n + H2O C2H5OH >
C2H4 + H2O Two methods are being used to carry out a dehydration in the
laboratory. a) Ethanol vapour is passed over a heated catalyst such
asaluminium oxide, unglazed porcelain chips, pumice stone or porous pot.
b) Ethanol is heated under reflux at 180C with excess concentrated
sulphuric acid, H2SO4. Other example: C3H7OH > C3H6 + H2O
6. Uses of Alcohol
Alcohol as a solvent (cosmetics, toiletries, thinners, varnishes, perfumes).
Alcohol as a fuel (fuel for racing car, clean fuel, alternative fuel).
Alcohol as a source of chemicals (polymer, explosives, vinegar, fiber).
Alcohol as a source of medical product (antiseptics for skin disinfection,
rubbing alcohol).
7. Misuse and Abuse
Depressant drug
Alcoholic drinks
Addictive drug

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SPM Form 5 Terminology and Concepts: Carbon Compounds


Non-Hydrocarbon Carboxylic Acids
1. General formula: CnH2n+1COOH
Where n = 0, 1, 2, 3 (n = number of carbon)
2. Carboxylic acids are non-hydrocarbons which contain carbon, hydrogen and
oxygen atoms.
3. The functional group in alcohols is carboxyl group, COOH.
Name of carboxylic Molecular formula of
acids
alcohol
Methanoic
HCOOH
acid(Formic acid)
Ethanoic acid(Acetic CH3COOH
acid)
Propanoic acid
C2H5COOH
Butanoic acid
C3H7COH
4. Physical properties of carboxylic acid
Name
Molecularform Boiling point
ula
(C)
Methanoic
HCOOH
101
acid(Formic
acid)
Ethanoic
CH3COOH
118
acid(Acetic acid)
Propanoic acid C2H5COOH
141
Butanoic acid
C3H7COH
164
Solubility in water generally in carboxylic acid (the less than four
carbon atoms) are very soluble in water and ionise partially to form weak .
Density of carboxylic acid density of carboxylic acid increases due to
the increases in thenumber of carbon atoms in a molecule.
Boiling points all carboxylic acid in general have relatively high boiling
points than the corresponding alkanes. This is due to the presence of
carboxyl group in carboxylic acid.
Smell carboxylic acid (< 10 carbon) are colourless and pungent smell.
Carboxylic acid (>10 carbons) are wax-like solids.
5. Preparation of carboxylic acid
Oxidation of an alcohol
The oxidation of ethanol is used to prepare ethanoic acid.
C2H5OH + 2[O] > CH3COOH + H2O
Carried out by refluxing* ethanol with an oxidising agent
[acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution orange colour turns to green
/
acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution purple colour turns to
colourless]

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* reflux = upright Liebig condense to prevent the loss of a volatile liquid
by vaporisation.

6. Chemical properties of carboxylic acid


Acid properties
Ethanoic acid is a weak monoprotic acid that ionises partially in water
(produce a low concentration of hydrogen ions).
CH3COOH <> CH3COO- + H+
Ethanoic acid turns moist blue litmus paper red.
Reaction with metals
Ethanoic acid reacts with reactive metals (copper and metals below it in
the reactivity series cannot react with ethanoic acid).
(K, Na, Mg, Al, Zn, Fe, Sn, Pb, Cu, Hg, Au)
2CH3COOH + Zn > Zn(CH3COO)2 + H2
In this reaction, a colourless solution (zinc ethanoate) is formed.
2CH3COOH + Mg > Mg(CH3COO)2 + H2
In this reaction, a colourless solution (magnesium ethanoate) is formed.
Reaction with bases
acid neutralises alkalis (sodium hydroxide).
CH3COOH + NaOH > CH3COONa + H2O
In this reaction, a salt (sodium ethanoate) and water are formed.
Reaction with carbonates
Ethanoic acid reacts with metal carbonates (calcium carbonate,
magnesium carbonate, zinc carbonate).
2CH3COOH + CaCO3 > Ca(CH3COO)2 + CO2 + H2O
In this reaction, a salt (calcium ethanoate), carbon dioxide and water are
formed.
Reaction with alcohols (Esterification)
Ethanoic acid reacts with alcohol (ethanol, propanol, butanol)
CH3CO-OH + H-OC4H9 > CH3COOC4H9 + H2O (Concentrated H2SO4 is a
catalyst)
In this reaction, an ester (colourless sweet-smelling liquid) (butyl
ethanoate) and water are formed.
7. Uses of Carboxylic Acid
Carboxylic acid (methanoic acid and ethanoic acid) is used to coagulate
latex.
Vinegar (dilute 4% of ethanoic acid) is used as preservative and
flavouring.
Ethanoic acid is used to make polyvinvyl acetate which is used to make
plastics and emulsion paints.
Benzoic acid is used as food preservative.
Butanoic acid is used to produce ester (artificial flavouring).

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SPM Form 5 Terminology and Concepts: Carbon Compounds (Part 7)


Non-Hydrocarbon Esters
1. General formula: CnH2n+1COOCmH2m+1
Where n = 0, 1, 2, 3 and m = 1, 2, 3 (n and m = number of carbon)
RCOOR where R and R represented the same or different alkyl groups.
2. Esters are non-hydrocarbons which contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
atoms.
3. The functional group in ester is carboxylate group, COO -.
CnH2n+1COOH + CmH2m+1OH > CnH2n+1COOCmH2m+1 + H2O
First part: taken from the alcohol (alkyl group)
Second part: taken from the carboxylic acid (-oic to -oate)
Name of ester
Molecular formula Prepared from
of ester
Ethyl methanoate
HCOOC2H5
Ethanol + Methanoic acid
Methyl ethanoate
CH3COOCH3
Methanol + Ethanoic acid
Propyl ethanoate
CH3COOC3H7
Propanol + Ethanoic acid
Ethyl propanoate
C2H5COOC2H5
Ethanol + Propanoic acid
4. Physical properties of ester
Name
Odour
3-metylbutyl
Banana
acetate
Ethyl butanoate
Pineapple
Octyl ethanoate
Orange
Isoamyl isovalerate Apple
Simple esters are colourless liquid and are found in fruits and flowers.
Esters have sweet pleasant smell.
Esters are covalent compounds.
Esters are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvent.
Esters are less dense than water.
Esters are neutral and cannot conduct electricity.
The higher and more complex esters have higher boiling points and less
volatile.
Natural sources:
Vegetable oils (palm oil) and liquids esters can be found in plants derived
from glycerol and fatty acids.
Fats are solid esters (milk fat) derived from glycerol and fatty acids.

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Waxes (beewax) are solid ester derived from long-chain fatty acids and
long-chain alcohols.

5. Uses of Esters
Preparation of cosmetics and perfumes (esters are volatile and have sweet
smell).
Synthetic esters used as food additives (artificial flavour).
Natural esters serves as storage reserve of energy in living things.
In plant, wax (esters) helps to prevent dehydration and attack of
microorganisms.
Esters used as solvents for glue and varnishes.
Esters used to make plastics softer.
Esters used to produce polyester (threads and synthetics fabrics)
Esters used to produce soap and detergents.

SPM Form 5 Terminology and Concepts: Carbon Compounds (Part 8 )


Non-Hydrocarbon Fats
1. Fatrs are non-hydrocarbons which contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
atoms.
2. Fats (lipids / triglycerides) are belonging to the group in ester.
3. Natural esters are formed from glycerol and fatty acids.
Name of fat Molecular formula of ester
Types of
fatty acids
Lauric acid* CH3(CH2)10COOH
Saturated
Palmitic acid* CH3(CH2)14COOH
Saturated
Stearic acid* CH3(CH2)16COOH
Saturated
Oleic oxide ** CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH
Unsaturate
d
Linoleic
CH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7COO Unsaturate
acid***
H
d
Linolenic
CH3CH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH( Unsaturate
acid***
CH2)7COOH
d
* Saturated: C-C single bonds
** Unsaturated (monounsaturated): C=C double bonds
*** Unsaturated (polyunsaturated): C=C double bonds
4. Animal fats have higher percentage of saturated fatty acids than unsaturated
fatty acids.
5. Plant oils have higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acids than saturated
fatty acids.
6. Physical properties of fats
Saturated
Unsaturated
Types of fatty acids
C-C single bonds C=C double bonds
Bonding
single
double
Melting point
higher
lower
Sources
animals
plants

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Pakar Minda Tuition Center

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Cholesterol
high
low
State at room
solid
liquid
temperature
Fats (animal) in general are solids at room temperature and acted as:
thermal insulator
protective cushion to protect the vital organ
provide energy and stored in body
carry Vitamin A, D, E, K (insoluble in water)
Example: butter, fish oil (liquid in room temperature)
Fats (plant) are called oils. Oils are liquids at room temperature.
Example: olive oil, peanut oil, palm oil and bran oil
7. Chemical properties of fats
Unsaturated fats can be converted into saturated fats
by hydrogenation (additional reaction) in 200C and 4 atm in the presence
of nickel catalyst.
Example: production of margarine from sunflower oil of palm oil.
8. Effect of fats
Fatty food produce high energy but high consumption of fatty food will results:
obesity
raise the level of cholesterol
deposition will cause block the flow of blood which lead to stroke and heart
attack.
9. Palm oil
It is extracted from fresh oil palm fruits.
Palm oil extracted from the pulp of the fruits.
Steps in extraction of palm oil:
1. sterilising (oil palm fruit)
2. stripping
3. digestion (crushing the husk and fruit and separate the oil by heating)
4. squeezed out the oil
5. extraction (separate the oil from water)
6. purification the oil (palm oil is treated with phosphoric acid and then
steam is passed through to separate the acid)
7. vacuum
Palm kernel oil extracted from the kernel or seed.
Steps in extraction of palm oil:
1. sterilising (oil palm fruit)
2. stripping
3. crushing the husk and fruit
4. extracting kernel oil
5. purification (purify the oil from kernel)
Goodness in palm oil:
higher proportion of unsaturated fats.
easy to digest and absorb.
rich in vitamin A (carotenoid)
rich in vitamin E (tocophenols and tocotrienols)
resist oxidation in high temperature.

Ms Tay Khim Sim

Pakar Minda Tuition Center

17

SPM Form 5 Terminology and Concepts: Carbon Compounds (Part 9


Final)
Polymers
1. Polymer many small units (monomers) joining together to formed large
molecule.
2. Polymer can be classified into two groups:
synthetic polymers / man-made polymers (polythene; PVC polyvinyl
chloride; artificial silk; and polypropene)
natural polymers (natural rubber; starch; cellulose; and proteins)
3. Natural polymer: Carbohydrates (polysaccharides) (starch, glycogen and
cellulose)
General formula: Cx(H2O)y with the ratio of H:O = 2:1
Carbohydrates have cyclic structure.
Monomer: glucose (C6H12H6)
Reaction to form polymer: condensation reaction (- H2O)
4. Natural polymer: Protein (polypeptide)
Protein consists of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen (some have
sulphur, phosphorus and other elements)
Monomer: amino acids
Amino acids have two functional group which are carboxyl group (-COOH)
and amino group (-NH2)
Reaction to form polymer: condensation reaction (- H2O)
5. Natural polymer: Natural rubber
Extracted from the latex of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) which the tree
originates from Brazil.
A molecule of rubber contains 5000 isoprene units.
Monomer: isoprene, C5H8 or 2-methylbuta-1,3-diene.
Reaction to form polymer: additional polymerisation (one of the double
bond in isoprene becomes single bond)
6. Structure of rubber molecule

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Latex is colloid (35% rubber particles and 65% water).
Rubber particle contains rubber molecules which are wrapped by a layer
of negatively-charged protein membrane. Same charge of rubber
molecules repels each other. This prevent rubber from coagulate.
7. Coagulation process of latex
The process for the coagulation of latex is summarised as:
1. Acid (H+) can neutralise the negatively-charged protein membrane.
Example of acid: formic acid, methanoic acid, suphuric acid and
hydrochloric acid.
2. The rubber molecules will collide after the protein membrane is broken.
3. Rubber molecules (polymers) are set free
4. Rubber molecules combine with one another (coagulation).
8. Natural coagulation process of latex
For the natural coagulation of latex:
1. Latex is exposed to air without adding acid (duration overnight).
2. Coagulation process occurs in slower pace due to the bacteria
(microorganism) action which produce acid)
9. Prevent coagulation process of latex
The following are latex coagulation prevention method:
1. Alkaline / Basic solution is added to the latex. Example: ammonia (NH 3).
2. Positively-charged hydrogen ion / H+ produced by bacteria can be
neutralised by negatively-charged hydroxide ion / OH - from ammonia
solution.

10. Properties of natural rubber


elastic
cannot withstand heat (become sticky and soft above 50C; decompose
above 200C; hard and brittle cooled)
easily oxidised (present of C=C)
insoluble in water (due to the long hydrocarbon chains)
soluble in organic solvent (propanone, benzene, petrol etc.)
11. Vulcanisation of rubber
Vulcanisation process of hardening rubber and increases rubber elasticity by
heating it withsulphur or sulphur compounds.
Methods:
heating natural rubber with sulphur at 140C using zinc oxide as catalyst
or
dipping natural rubber in a solution of disulphur dichloride (S2Cl2)
in methylbenzene.
12. Properties of vulcanisation of rubber
The sulphur atoms are added to double bonds in the natural rubber
molecules to formdisulphide linkages (-C-S-S-C-) / sulphur crosslinks between the long polymer chains. Therefore, vulcanised rubber
is more elastics and stronger.
This increases the molecular size and the intermolecular forces of
attraction between rubber molecules. Therefore, vulcanised rubber is more
resistant to heat (does not become soft and sticky when hot).
This also reduces the number of carbon-carbon double bonds in rubber
molecules. Therefore, vulcanised rubber is more resistant to oxygen,
ozone, sunlight and other chemicals.
13. Comparison between the properties of vulcanised rubber and
unvulcanised rubber
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Pakar Minda Tuition Center

19
Properties
Double
bonds
Melting point

Vulcanised rubber
Decreases (formation of
sulphur cross-links)
High (presence of
sulphur)
Elasticity
More elastic (sulphur
cross-links prevents the
polymer chain or rubber
from slipping past.
Strength and Strong and hard
hardness
(depends on degree of
vulcanisation)
Resistant to
heat
Oxidation

Resistant to heat
Resistant to oxidation
(reduction of number of
double bonds per rubber
molecule)

Unvulcanised rubber
More number of double
bonds
Low
Less elastics

Weak and soft (polymer


chain of rubber will
break when rubber is
over stretched.
Poor resistant to heat
Easily oxidised by
oxygen, UV light
(presence of many
double bonds per
rubber molecules)

14. R & D of rubber


RRIM Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia
MRB Malaysian Rubber Board
Rubber Technology Centre
Various local higher institutions of learning

Ms Tay Khim Sim

Pakar Minda Tuition Center