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IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement

Technology Conference
Ottawa, Canada, M a y 19-21, 1997

A Practical Set-up for a Standard Test Procedure


on Polyphase Induction Motors
P. Van Roy, B. Renier, K. Hameyer, R. Belmans
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, E.E. Dept., Div ESAT/ELEN
Kardinaal Mercierlaan 94, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium.
Phone ( + 132-16-32 10 20
Fax ( + 132 16-32 19 85
e-mail: ronnie.belmans@esat.kuleuven.ac.be
www.esat. kuleuven.ac.be/elen/elen.html

Abstract - The paper describes a practical set-up


for testing low voltage, polyphase induction motors.
The measured efficiency of an induction motor
depends on the method and the standard according
to which the measurements are performed. A short
description of different standards as IEEE 112 and
IEC 32 is given and the main discrepncies are
mentioned.
The measurement equipment for
electrical and mechanical quantities and the
employed data aquisition system are discussed.
Reference is made to industrial measurements.
Experimental results are discussed in detail.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Three phase, low voltage squirrel cage induction


motors are commenly used in industry. In the past,
they were mainly directly connected to the grid.
Nowadays, they are more and more, and especially
for new installations, converter-fed.
With the
increasing emphasis on energy conservation and the
growing energy prices, efficiency has become very
important. Both total efficiency and the efficiencies
of the different components of the drive system are
important.
In that way, it can be seen were
improvement is possible.
Efficiency values of induction motors given by the
manufacturer are measured or calculated according
to a certain standard. For induction machines, two
important standards are the IEEE standard 1 12-1991
and the IEC standard 34-2.
Several national
standards are harmonized with regard to one of
those above. In most of the European countries, the
standards are harmonized to IEC 34-2. Efficiency
values obtained from different testing standards can
differ by several percent as will be shown in the
measurement results.

The increasing attention to efficiency and the


number of efficiency tests according to one of the
appearing standards have forced the set-up of a
semi-automatic measuring system.
If the system has to be used in the laboratory as
well as in industry, the equipment must have as little
interference with the drive as possible. In order to
measure also the efficiency of other parts in the
drive, it is possible to handle other signals as e.g.
pressure and delivery in a pumping installation.

II. STANDARDS FOR EFFICIENCY MEASUREMENTS


The methods for efficiency measurements can
roughly be divided into t w o categories: direct and
indirect methods. The main difference between
them is that in the direct methods the torque has to
be assessed.
Two different standards are discussed: IEEE
standard 1 12 and IEC standard 34-2.

A. IEEE standard I 12-199 I


The IEEE 112-1191 consists of five basic
methods to determine the efficiency: A, B, C, E and
F.
In method A, the input and output power is
measured and the efficiency is directly obtained.
This method is only used for very small machines.
Method B is also a direct method, input and
output power are measured, but also a separation of
the losses is performed. The following losses can be
defined (s = slip, corrected t o specified
temperature):
Pstator:stator 12R loss corrected to the
specified temperature
0
Pf,+,:
friction and windage loss, as derived
from the no-load test

207

0-7803-3312-8/97/$5.0001997
IEEE

TABLE I

P:,,
core loss, as derived from the no-load
test, for the appropriate voltage
Protor:rotor 12R loss = (measured stator input
power - stator 12R loss - Core loss) . s
Pstray:stray-load loss

From the apparent total loss, the stator and rotor


12R loss, the core loss and the friction and windage
loss are subtracted t o obtain the stray-load loss in
that particular point. To reduce the influence of the
measuring error, a linear regression versus the torque
squared is made of the stray-load losses at different
loads.

There the additional stray-load losses are zero at


zero load, the values are corrected by:

A good measurement is defined if the correlation


coefficient of the linear regression is larger than 0.9.
Method B is recommended for the testing of
induction machines up t o 180 kW.
Method C is a back t o back machine test. The
total stray-load losses are also obtained via a
separation of losses for both motor and generator
operation. Proportional t o the rotor currents, the
stray-load losses are then divided between the motor
and generator.
Method E and method E l are indirect methods.
The output power is not measured. In method E the
stray-load losses are directly measured using the
reverse rotation test. In method E l , the stray-load
losses are set t o an assumed value. These values
are given in table I as a percentage of the rated
output power.
In method F and F1, the equivalent circuit of the
machine is elaborated. The stray-load losses are
again directly measured or in the case of F1 an
assumed value is used.
There exist also some additional methods as e.g.
the use of the equivalent circuit but calibrated at a
load point.
Motors with ratings larger then 180 kW can be
tested using methods B, C, E, E l , F or F1.

ASSUMED VALUES FOR THE STRAY-LOAD LOSSES A S A


PERCENTAGE OF THE RATED OUTPUT (IEEE)
Motor rated p o w e r

0.750 - 90 kW
91 - 375 kW
376 - 1800 kW
1800 kW and larger

Stray-load losses relative t o


the output p o w e r

1.8
1.5
1.2
0.9

Yo
Yo
%
%

B. IEC 34-2
The efficiency measurement of a polyphase
induction machine is performed determining the
overall losses of the induction machine. The overall
losses can be obtained from 'the summation of the
separated losses or from the measurement of the
overall losses. Overall loss measurements according
to IEC 34-2 can be made by:
0
braking test with torque measurement
calibrated machine test
mechanical back t o back test
0
electrical back t o back test
However, the method preferred by IEC 34-2 is the
determination of the separated losses. Regarding
stator and rotor conductor losses no corrections for
the temperature of the windings are made.
Very important is the amount of the stray-load
losses. These are assumed t o be 0.5 percent of the
rated input power for motors at rated load. They are
also assumed t o vary as the square of the stator
current. The assumed percentage value does not
depend on the motor rated power.
It is generally known that the amount of strayload losses can be several percent. This will also be
shown by measured results. The efficiency values in
the catalogues according t o IEC are thus
overestimated. When comparing the 0.5 % t o the
values of table I, the stray-load losses using the IEEE
standard are larger than those using the IEC. The
IEC efficiency is thus larger when compared t o the
IEEE value.

Ill. MEASUREMENT SET-UP


The measurement set-up is shown in Fig. 1 . The
following measuring tools are used:

208

1 , Current probes Fluke 801-1000s


2. Power Analyzer VOLTECH 3000A
3. Torque transducer Vibrometer TE11 1 1OOONm
4. Encoder with 60 pulses per rotation.

The major features of the Voltech Power Analyzer


3000A are:
Voltage range: 0.5 to 2000 V pk
current range: INT 0.05 to 200 A pk,
EXT 6.25 mV to 2.5 V pk
frequency range: DC and 0.1 Hz to 500 kHz
accuracy: 45 Hz - 450 Hz: 0.05%,
1 HZ - 500 kHz: 0.1 %
The Power Analyzer is connected to the
computer, using an IEEE 488.2 interface.
The
computer is equipped with a National Instruments
IEEE interface board of type AT-GPIBTTNT, which
allows a maximum data transfer rate of 1.5
Mbytes/s.
In order to make a direct measurement, the
mechanical output power has to be measured. This
means measuring the torque. In the laboratory a
standard high accuracy torque transducer is used,
with contact-less transmission of the torque signal.
The torque transducer and other measuring
devices for e.g. delivery and pressure in a pipeline,
give analog signals. To protect the computer against
possible overvoltages, an isolated amplifier is
developed, using an Analog Device AD202
component. This component guarantees a galvanic
separation between input and output. On the same
circuit board, jumpers and trimming resistances were
integrated, to allow a choice of amplification factors
and a precise setting of both amplification factor and
offset voltage.
To limit the possible effect of electromagnetic
noise originating in e.g. frequency converters, the
torque signal, which is a voltage signal, is
transformed to a current signal.

The rotational speed is measured with an encoder


which gives 60 pulses per rotation. The signal is
converted to an optical signal, again to reduce emc
problems. A PCB is developed to protect the AD
card from overvoltages in the absence of a signal, by
lowering the output voltage in this situation.
The actual AD conversion is integrated on the
National Instruments AT-MIO-16X data acquisition
board inside the computer. The main features of this
card are:

e
e
e
e

number of analog inputs: 8 in differential


mode, 16 in single-ended mode
sampling rate: 100 ksamples/sec
max. input voltage: +/- 35 V (powered on),
+/- 20 V (powered off)
input impedance: 1 GR in parallel with 50 pF
offset error (max.): +/- 1.22 mV
gain error (max): 0.0244 % of reading
dynamic - slew rate: 5.0 V/msec
bandwith: 650 kHz (gain = 1 )
number of counters - timers: 3 independent
16 bit counters/timers
input voltage: min. -0.7 V - max. 7 V

A LabVlEW program is developed which allows


measurements using either one or t w o power
analyzers, a counter and up to 5 analog inputs. For
the counter and the other analog inputs, offset and
scaling can be programmed. For the power analyzer,
a choice between t w o and three watt-meter method
is possible. Next to the Voltech power analyzer, a
Yokogawa 2533 power analyzer can be used. This
power analyzer uses the IEEE 488.1 standard. The
settings for the power analyzer can be programmed.
The program measures V, A and W in either
fundamental
mode or total mode. When measuring
,- motor r 3
load
the input to a PWM inverter, the PWM function of
the Voltech power analyzer can be used. This
guarantees the detection of the low frequency
components as well as the high frequency
components. From the torque and the speed, the
mechanical power is calculated. Measuements can
be made in individual points, or in a continuous
series of points. The time in betweerr successive
measurements
can be programmed. Depending on
/_....._______._.........________.
PM3000A .............................................
the number of signals to be measured, the minimum
IEEE 488.2 interface
time between measuements varies from 1.5 to 8
seconds. The program allows either a schematic
3-phase sinusoidal
display with immediate efficiency calculations, or a
supply
graphical display of 4 input signals. This allows the

,-

Fig.1. Experimental set-up.

209

observation of e.g. input power during warming-up


of the motor.
Measurements can be made with the motor
directly connected to the grid. In such a case only
one power analyzer is necessary. When supplied by
a converter, using t w o power analyzers, it is possible
to measure the total efficiency, as well as the motor
and converter efficiency separately.

IV. MEASUREMENTS IN INDUSTRY


The equipment for measuring the electrical
quantities is the same as in the laboratory. The
torque however, is measured using strain gauge
technology. During a stand-still, strain gauges are
glued on the motor shaft and connected in a four
arm bridge. A transmitter, which is mounted to the
shaft provides the excitation voltage for the bridge
and measures the deflection of the bridge. The
signal is then frequency modulated (FM) and
transmitted to a standing antenna. The energy for
the rotating transmitter is provided via an inductive
coupling using the same antennas at the same
frequency as the carrier of the FM signal.
From the deflection of the bridge, the torque is
obtained according to 131.
1
Tshaft

=2EA

wp

(3)

where
c
L

G=-

2( 1 -k v)

wp = -nd

16

E A =--

UA

Experimental results on a standard 75 kW motor


will be discussed as example. Results from IEEE
standard efficiency calculation and IEC calculation
will be compared.
Motor data:
75kW
400V A
140A
50 Hz
0
990 r/min

PF=0.82
A. Stator resistance
The reference stator resistance a t an ambient
temperature of 27.8 OC was measured for all three
windings.
The average value was 34.40 m a .
During warming-up, the stator resistance is
measured every half hour, and compared to the
reference resistance. This allows the temperature
rise to be determined, using the temperature
coefficient a (7):

R T=
~ R ~ l ( +CL.@)
1

(7)

Stator resistance after warm-up was measured as


45.45 m a .
With a temperature coefficient of
0.003931 "C" for copper this leads to a temperature
rise of 91.6 "C. This is consistent with class F duty.

(4)

B. Start-up current

(5)
(6)

UB

The start-up current a t nominal voltage and noload was recorded with a digital Le Croy 9304
oscilloscope (Fig. 2). The maximum peak value was
1 166 A, yielding a relative start-up current of 5.9.
-

and

7-Jun-96

E : elasticity modulus
v : Poisson's coefficient of the steel
d : diameter of the shaft
k : strain coefficient of the gauges
UA: deflection of the bridge
UB : excitation voltage

9:09:42

F+qq-TTL]
. . . . . . . . .,..I...... ...IL... . . . . . . . . .

V . EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

In the laboratory machines up to 100 kW at 1500


r/min can be tested. The normal test procedure to
define the IEEE efficiency consists of no-load test,
resistance measurement and load test. Extra tests
can
include
start-up
current
measurement,
temperature rise test and locked-rotor test.

210

Fig.2. Start-up current.

.,,.I.,

..

C. Short-circuit test

F. IEC-method

This test was performed with locked rotor, and


gave the results as mentioned in table II.

D. No-load test
Voltage, current and power are measured with
disconnected load at various voltages. From the
curve of input power minus stator I ~ Rloss versus
voltage squared (Fig. 31, core loss and friction and
windage loss may be determined. Test results at
nominal voltage are given in table Ill.

The IEC norm 34.2 and 34.2A prescribes a strayload loss of 0.5 % of input power a t full load, and
proportional to the square of the relative current at
other loads. The stray-load loss can be higher than
this value.
The results with this method are given in table V.
It can be seen that the stray-load losses as
calculated are lower than those calculated according
to the IEEE standard. The calculated efficiency is
accordingly up to 1.3 % higher.
TABLE IV

E. Load test

EFFICIENCY MEASUREMENT FOLLOWING IEEE STANDARD

Load tests at 100 %, 75 %, 50 % and 25 % are


perfomed.
The results are given in table IV. The direct
efficiency value, calculated as shaft power versus
input power, is given, as well as the IEEE standard
efficiency.
It can be seen that in this case the IEEE-standard
efficiency value equals the direct value.
TABLE II
SHORT-CIRCUIT TEST.
U, [ V I
92.9

Isc [AI
144.2

P, [WI
6644

PF I 1
0.29

Load
U

I
Pin
PF
T
n

[%I

[VI
[Af
[Wl

[I
[Nml
Ir/min

25
402.6
69.0
22080
0.46
184.2
998

50
398.7
89.4
41280
0.67
363.2
996

75
404.4
116.9
61180
0.75
543.9
994

100
399.3
148
81220
0.79
724.5
991

1
37878
[WI
19249
56620
75189
Pout
0.004
0.006
0.009
[%I
0.002
slip
3402
4560
6031
[WI
2831
Ploss
[WI
324
544
932
1492
Pstator
1553
[WI
1609
1635
1562
Pcore
157
[WI
40
352
703
Protor
IWI
762
762
762
762
Pfr+w
385
879
[WI
94
1511
PSI
[YO]
87.2
91.8
92.6
92.6
Pin/Pout
linear regression on stray-load losses (IEEE-I 12):
A: 0.002903
correlation coefficient: 0.999
Psl.corr.
[W]
98
383
859
1524
PJoss.corr.
IWI
2835
3399
4540
6044
Poutsorr.
[Wl
19245
37881
56640
75176
Pout/Pnom
[YO]
25.7
50.5
75.5
100.2
Eff.
[%I
87.2
91.8
92.6
92.6

TABLE V
EFFICIENCY MEASUREMENT FOLLOWING IEC STANDARD
3000

Load
U
I
Pin
Pout
Pslsorr.
Ploss.corr
Pout.corr.
PoutIPnom
Eff.

2000

P,I 1.5I2R

VI
1000

0
[

40000

80000

120000

160000

Voltage squared [V2]


Fig.3. No-load characteristic.

21 1

25
402.6
69.0
22080
19249
88
2825
19255
25.7
87.2

50
398.7
89.4
41 280
37878
148
31 64
381 16
50.8
92.3

75
404.4
116.9
61 180
56620
253
3934
57246
76.3
93.6

100
399.3
148
81 220
751 89
406
4926
76294
101.7
93.9

121 "Rotating electrical Machines - Methods for

VI CONCLUSIONS

determining losses and efficiency of rotating


electrical machines from tests," IEC Std 342:1972.
Nurnberg, R.
Hanitsch, "Die Prufung
[31 W.
elektrischer Maschinen," Springer-Verlag, 1 987.
[41 "Handbook of electric motors", ed. by Richard
H. Engelmann, William H. Middendorf, Marcel
Dekker Inc, 1995.

It has been shown that the efficiency value of an


induction motor is not unequivocal, but depends on
the standards used. The European IEC gives almost
always an overestimate of the efficiency. According
to IEC, motors from different manufacturers have the
same efficiency, while in fact, there are differences,
that are determined by the stray-load losses. The
extend of these losses depends on the design of the
machine and the quality of the manufactoring
proces. The value is larger than the 0.5 percent of
IEC. All this leads to the conclusion that one should
work towards a worldwide uniform standard for the
testing of electrical machines.
Due to the constant improvement in the accuracy
of measurement equipment and especially of torque
transducers, the indirect method should whenever
possible be abandonned in favor of the direct method
as IEEE 112 - B.

[51 K. Hoffman,"Eine Einfuhrung in die Technik des


Messens
mit
Dehnungsmessstreichen, "
Hottinger Baldwin Messtechnik, Darmstadt

[61 R. K. Muller, "Mechanische Grossen elektrisch


gemessen,"Kontakt & Studium, Band 45, Messund Pruftechnik
[71 A.A. Jimoh, R.D. Findlay and M. Poloujadoff,
"Stray losses in induction machines: Part I,
Definition, Origin and Measurement," IEEE
Trans.on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol.
PAS-I04, No. 6,pp 1500-1505, June 1985.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors are grateful to the Belgian F.W.0.-V.
"Fonds
voor
Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek
Vlaanderen" for its financial support of this work and
the Belgian Ministry of Scientific Research for
granting the project IUAP No. P4/20 on Coupled
Problems in Electromagnetic Systems.

REFERENCES

181 N. E. Nilsson, " A comparison of ANSI and IEC


standards for power station polyphase induction
motors,"
IEEE
Transactions
on
Energy
Conversion, VOL 1 1 , No.
3, pp 500-507,
September 1996.
[91 Gerald G. Gray, Walter J. Martiny, " Efficiency
testing of medium induction motors, a comment
on IEEE Std 112-1991," IEEE Transactions on
Energy Conversion, VOL 1 1 , No. 3, pp 495499, September 1996.

[ll "IEEE Standard Test Procedure for Polyphase


Induction Motors and Generators," IEEE Std
1 12-199 1 , IEEE Power Engineering Society,
New York, NY.

212