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Osmosis Lab Report

I.

Introduction

Diffusion is the random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to one of
lower concentration. Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules from an area of high
concentration to one of low concentration through a selectively permeable membrane. In this
experiment, we will be looking at the osmosis of cells within a potato, which allows water to
pass through its membrane, but not sucrose. The objective of this experiment is to discover how
a change in solvent concentration affects the net magnitude and direction of water through a
selectively permeable membrane.
II.

Hypothesis

Potato Core Method: If the sucrose concentration of a solution is increased then there will be an
increase of water diffusing out of the potato cells within the solution.
Dialysis Tubing Method: If the sucrose concentration of a solution within a dialysis tube
surrounded by water is increased then there will be an increase of water diffusing into the
dialysis tubing.
III.

Materials:

The materials required for the two methods are as follows. In the Potato Core method a potato, a
potato core cutter, 5 beakers, 500 mL of water, 500 mL of sucrose, and a sharpie. In the Dialysis
Tubing method 5 30-cm piece of 2.5cm dialysis tubing, 5 pipettes, 5 water filled beakers, and 5
prepared solutions with varying sucrose concentration: one with 0M, one with .25M, one with .
50M, one with .75M, and one with 1M concentration.
IV.

Procedures:

In the Potato Core method, start by cutting out 5 potato cores using the potato core cutter,
then measure and record the mass in grams of each core. Next fill up one of the beakers with 200
mL of water and 0 mL of sucrose, creating a 0M sucrose solution, one with 150 mL of water and
50 mL of sucrose, creating a 0.25M sucrose solution, one with 100mL of water and 100 mL of
sucrose, creating a 0.50M sucrose solution, one with 50mL of water and 150 mL of sucrose,
creating a 0.75M sucrose solution, and one with 0mL of water and 200mL of sucrose, creating a
1M sucrose solution. Then place each core into one of the beakers, taking care to label each
beaker with its sucrose concentration and the weight of the potato core in it, in order to avoid
confusion. After approximately 48 hours, remove the potato cores from the beakers and take the
final mass of each core. Record the measurements and change in mass.

In the Dialysis Tubing method, obtain five 30-cm piece of 2.5cm dialysis tubing that has been
soaking in water and tie off one end of the tubing to form a bag. Then, using a pipette, fill each
of the dialysis bags with one of the sucrose solutions prepared. make sure each bag receives a
different solution concentration. Record the mass of the bags and then put each one in a separate
water-filled beaker. After approximately 48 hours, remove the bags from the beakers and take the
final mass. Record the measurements and change in mass.
Zucchini Method: N/A

V.

Data:

Sucrose
Concentration
(M)

Initial Mass of
Potato (g)

Final Mass of
Potato (g)

Change in Mass
(g)

Percent Change
in Mass

2.15

2.74

+.59

+27.4

.25

1.8

1.72

-.08

-4.44

.5

2.0

1.61

-.39

-19.5

.75

1.93

1.21

-.72

-37.3

1.93

1.4

-.53

-27.46

Sucrose
Concentration
(M)

Initial Mass of
tubing (g)

Final Mass of
tubing (g)

Change in Mass
(g)

Percent Change
in Mass

9.51

10.2

+.69

7.3

.25

10.2

14.53

+4.33

42.45

.50

5.05

9.26

+4.21

83.36

.75

7.53

14.32

+6.79

90.01

8.87

16.35

+7.48

84.3

Sucrose Concentration (M)

% Change in Sucrose Concentration

20

0.2

10

0.4

-3

0.6

-17

0.8

-25

-30

VI.

Conclusion

The purpose of this experiment was to determine how changes in solvent concentration affect the
direction and magnitude of the diffusion of water. In the potato core method, as the concentration
of sucrose increased in the beaker solution the percent change in mass lowered, because the
water in the potato core moved through the membrane to the area of lower water concentration.
In the dialysis Tubing method, as the concentration of sucrose increased within the dialysis bag
the percent change in mass increased, because the water within the beaker diffused into the bag
of lower water concentration. The Zucchini method behaved identical to the potato core method,
where the percent change in mass decreased as the sucrose concentration in the beaker increased,
because as the concentration rose to that above the concentration within the zucchini the water
within the zucchini diffused to the lower water concentration(remember that higher sucrose
concentration means lower water concentration). In all three methods, water diffused towards the
area of higher sucrose concentration. As the concentration of sucrose rose, either inside the
membrane or outside the membrane, so did the magnitude of the water that diffused towards it.
VII.

Questions
1. Explain the relationship between the change in mass and the molarity of sucrose

within the dialysis bags.


The percent change in mass and the molarity of the sucrose within the dialysis bag are directly
proportionate, because as the concentration of sucrose in the bag increases more water is needed
to diffuse into to the bag, so that the concentration gradient both inside and outside the bag
become close to equal.

2. Predict what would happen to the mass of each bag in this experiment if all the
bags were placed in a 0.4M sucrose solution instead of distilled water. Explain your
response.
The masses of the bags that had a sucrose concentration of 0M and 0.25M would decrease,
because water would diffuse out of the higher water concentrated bags into the lower water
concentrated solution(remember that higher sucrose concentration means lower water
concentration). The masses of the bags that had a sucrose concentration of 0.5M, 0.75M, and 1M
would decrease, because water would diffuse out of the lower water concentrated bags into the
higher water concentrated solution.
3. Why did you calculate the percent change in mass rather than simply using the
change in mass?
Because the percent change in mass creates a standard for all the masses out of a hundred, so that
the change can be compared regardless of the cores initial mass. For example, a core with initial
mass 10g would lose twice as much water as a core with mass 5g in the same solution
concentration, but the percent change would be the same.
4. A dialysis bag is filled with distilled water and then placed in a sucrose solution.
The bags initial mass is 20g, and its final mass is 18g. Calculate the percent change of
mass, showing your calculations in the space below.
Percent Change of mass= (change in mass)/(initial mass)X100 ;
change in mass of mass= (final mass)-(initial mass)
Percent Change of mass= [(final mass)-(initial mass)]/(initial mass)X100
Percent Change of mass= [(18-20)/20]X100
Percent Change of mass= (-2/20)X100

Percent Change of mass= -10


7.

b) What is the molar concentration of solutes within the zucchini cells?

The molar concentration is the x-axis intercept, because it is the point where there is no net gain
or loss due to osmosis, meaning that the concentration inside and outside are equal.