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Chapter 13 Contemporary Issues in Leadership

Inspirational Approaches to Leadership

_____ is a way to use language to manage meaning.
a. Framing
b. Influencing
c. Highlighting
d. Trust
e. Paralinguistics
(a; Easy; Framing; p. 412)

Who was the first scholar to discuss charismatic leadership?
a. Bernard Bass
b. Fred Fiedler
c. Max Weber
d. Robert House
e. None of the above
(c; Moderate; Charismatic Leadership: p. 413)

Who was the first researcher to consider charismatic leadership in terms of OB?
a. Bernard Bass
b. Fred Fiedler
c. Max Weber
d. Robert House
e. None of the above
(d; Moderate; Charismatic Leadership: p. 413)

Which of the following is not a characteristic of charismatic leaders?
a. They have a vision and the ability to articulate the vision.
b. They have behavior that is unconventional.
c. They are willing to take high personal risk.
d. They exhibit behaviors that are consistent with their followers’ behaviors.
e. All of the above are true.
(d; Challenging; Characteristic Of Charismatic Leaders; p. 413) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

The author of the text discusses CNN co-founder Ted Turner in order to _____.
a. illustrate the claim that introverted individuals can still demonstrate charisma
b. support the argument that charisma is a learned, rather than inherited, trait
c. demonstrate how media attention can influence the public’s perception of a leader
d. emphasize the importance of humility for effective leadership
e. provide an example of a bold and colorful charismatic leader
(e; Moderate; Charismatic Leadership; p. 414)

According to one of the authors, a person can learn to become more charismatic by displaying
all of the following characteristics except _____.
a. maintaining an optimistic view
b. creating a bond that inspires others to follow
c. communicating information only with a select group of close advisors
d. bringing out the potential in followers by tapping into their emotions
e. using a captivating and engaging tone of voice
(c; Easy; Charismatic Leadership; p. 414) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}
One of the authors suggests that very charismatic leaders are likely to _____.

Charismatic Leadership. Vision. 414) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 9. avoid media attention regarding their achievements e. p. Based on information given in the text. Charismatic Leadership. b. expressing nonverbal cues of courage e. if the vision has powerful imagery b. d. Moderate. encourage women protégés to seek leadership positions (a. if the vision is seen as unattainable e. pacing e. When is a vision likely to fail? a. 415) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 10. having a rigid posture c. Moderate. It links the present with a better future. It imprints on followers an overarching goal. invoke high performance among followers b. avoiding direct eye contact b. e. b. It is a formal articulation of a mission. focus organizational visions around present accomplishments c. Challenging. A business is succeeding due to several years of strong market leadership. c. It is a strategy for how to run a business. How Charismatic Leaders Influence on Followers. (d. p. Moderate. 416) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 10 . p. using imagery to induce emotion (a. if the vision is challenging c. A business is operating during a time of war. d. Nonverbal Characteristic Of Charismatic Leaders. if the vision reflects the uniqueness of the organization (d. A business is in the throes of a hostile takeover. What is a charismatic nonverbal characteristic that undergraduate business students were trained to evoke? a. which of the following most likely represents a situation where charismatic leadership is not needed? a. if the vision is for the future of the organization and its members d. A business is facing the introduction of a radically new product. engaging in conventional behavior to demonstrate leadership d. Moderate. Vision. p. p. What is a characteristic of a vision? a. Moderate. A business is in its infancy. 415) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 11. c. leaning away from subjects d. (e. sitting with feet up on the desk (d. 414) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 8. motivate followers to become more extroverted d. communicating high performance expectations b. e.a. p. It is short.or long-term. creating a mission statement c. What is a step in the process of influencing followers? a. 416) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 12.

yes-people (e. a. Transformational and Transactional Leaders. Moderate. Charisma appears to be most successful when the follower’s task has an ideological component or when the environment involves ________. a. a low degree of social networking or socialization (b. mentoring and self-leaders e. Leaders who have individual capability. 416) 14. unethical people e.13. great leaders b. team skills. questioning people c. managerial competence. (d. Easy. The type of leader who guides or motivates his or her followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements is known as a _____leader. 418) 19. actuarial (a. transformational d. a low degree of competition or individualism d. trusting people d. a. 418) 17. a lower-level manager e. con artists b. the two dominant contemporary theories of leadership focus predominantly on _____. acting and reacting leaders (a. p. a middle-level manager d. Charismatic Leaders and Self-Interest. Who would have the most difficult time defining visions for their followers and aligning them with the larger goals of the organization as a whole? a. a chief executive of a company b. the ability to stimulate others to high performance. According to the text. Easy. charismatic c. compelling and transformational leaders d. charismatic and transcendent leaders c. p. p. 417) 16. level-5 leaders c. The text implies that the type of leader likely to have the most profound effect on his or her 11 . Vision. Transactional Leaders. 417) 15. 418) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 18. a. and a blend of personal humility and professional will are called ________. Level-5 Leaders. p. Charismatic leaders who have completely blurred the boundary that separates their personal interests from their organization’s interests often surround themselves with what type of people? a. transactional b. superleaders d. transformational leaders (b. p. All leaders have equal difficulty. transactional leaders e. Moderate. p. Moderate. transformational and transactional leaders b. Charismatic Leadership. transcendent e. a high degree of satisfaction or performance b. a upper-level manager c. Moderate. a low degree of complacency or acceptance e. a high degree of stress and uncertainty c.

Challenging. p. 421) 24. none of the above (a. transformational c. is insufficient to “account for the transformational process”? a. 420) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 23. What is a characteristic of a transactional leader? a. p. 419) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 22. intellectual stimulation e. What is considered both the least passive and most effective of the leader behaviors? a. Who argues that transformational leadership is broader than charisma and that charisma. a. Full Range of Leadership Model. Transformational Leaders. individualized consideration leadership d. transactional (b. Robert House e. inspirational motivation d. contingent reward leadership b. complementary forms of leadership (e. p. subcomponents of situational leadership d. 419) 21. 418) 20. 421) 12 . p. management by exception (e. Fred Fiedler c. laissez-faire (b. Transactional Leader. a. Challenging. educational b. individualized consideration c. equivalent to charismatic leadership b. Challenging. Evaluation of Transformational Leadership.followers is the _____ leader. opposing approaches to accomplishing goals c. by itself. Bernard Bass b. idealized influence c. p. p. Transformational Leadership versus Charismatic Leadership. actuarial d. the building blocks of charismatic leadership e. laissez-faire leadership (b. individualized consideration d. inspirational motivation leadership e. Easy. transcendent e. idealized influence b. Transformational and Transactional Leaders. Challenging. idealized influence leadership c. a. The authors suggest that transactional and transformational leadership should be viewed as _____. contingent reward b. Moderate. Max Weber d. Contrary to the full range of leadership model. ________ is sometimes more effective than transformational leadership. inspirational motivation e.

423) {AACSB: Ethical Reasoning} 27. Humility c. Key Dimensions of Trust. p. address the ends of achieving goals (b. 424) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 29. 424) 13 . 424) 30. Integrity b. Valor d. According to the text. Key Dimensions of Trust. p. loyalty c. intelligent but often not highly motivated b. consistency d. Ethics and Leadership. The text suggests that which of the following is most likely to affect the building of trust within a relationship? a. what else must they also do? a.Authentic Leadership: Ethics and Trust Are the Foundation of Leadership 25. Moderate. p. Transformational leaders e. determination e. which of the following is not a dimension of trust? a. live up to higher ethical standards c. Key Dimensions of Trust. loyalty c. Trusted leaders (b. Machiavellian in their approach to achieving goals e. Moderate. competence (d. p. p. The text implies that authentic leaders are _____. p. punish a lack of integrity d. Challenging. a. Idealized influence leaders d. a. Machiavellianism (a. Since upper management sets an organization’s moral tone. 423) {AACSB: Ethical Reasoning} 28. Authentic Leaders. a. most likely to behave in an ethical manner (e. integrity b. _____ are considered to use their charisma in a socially constructive way to serve others. Ethics and Leadership. adaptability (a. Challenging. integrity b. more outgoing than non-authentic leaders d. negatively reinforce loyalty e. _____ refers to honesty and truthfulness. usually over-qualified for their positions c. Easy. 422) {AACSB: Ethical Reasoning} 26. consistency d. Ethical leaders c. Reliability e. set lower standards b. openness e. Contingent reward leaders b. Moderate.

Will d. p. _____ is the dimension of trust that encompasses an individual’s technical and interpersonal knowledge and skills. Moderate. Aptitude (c. have subconsciously evaluated each of the five factors of trust d. and good judgment in handling situations make up the dimension of trust known as _____. a. are willing to be vulnerable to the leader’s actions c. Trust and trustworthiness affect a leader’s access to _____. uniformity b. competence d.31. Trust and Leadership: p. 424) 36. integrity e. Key Dimensions of Trust. 424) 35. Virtue (d. 424) 32. Openness e. Wisdom c. a. knowledge and cooperation e. all of the above (d. Optimism d. _____ is the dimension of trust that refers to the degree to which you can rely on a person to tell you the full truth. adaptation (b. Easy. a. consistency c. are concurring with all the values that the leader holds e. persuasion and control c. they _____. a. are making a gamble b. Key Dimensions of Trust. The characteristics of reliability. _____ is the willingness to protect and save face for another person. Integrity b. 424) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 14 . Trust and Leadership: p. Easy. p. 424) 33. all of the above (b. predictability. Consistency c. Moderate. p. Idealism b. When followers trust a leader. Moderate. p. Competence c. dedication and achievement b. Motivation e. Confidence b. Key Dimensions of Trust. Moderate. Key Dimensions of Trust. a. power and influence d. Loyalty d. Reliability e. 424) 34. a. Adaptation (b.

knowledge-based d. 426) 41. Moderate. 425) 39. virtue-based (c. (d. Identification-Based Trust. The most fragile relationships are contained in _____-based trust. The new manager-employee relationship is an example of _____ trust. b. p. Moderate. e. Deterrence-Based Trust. reward b. A family hires a nanny for their children based on positive references from several friends. 425) 38. deterrence c. Identification-Based Trust. d. p. identity-based e. a. which of the following types of trust involves the most minimal controls? a. reliance-based b. Knowledge-Based Trust. Moderate. c. identification-based e. Knowledge-based trust d. p. identification e. Moderate. Deterrence-based trust c. Attribute-based trust (d. supposition-based (b. knowledge d. reward-based b. Deterrence-Based Trust. 426) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 15 .37. Which of the following most likely exemplifies a relationship of identification-based trust? a. Identification-based trust e. A stranger assists another individual in repairing a flat tire and requests no compensation. A woman discovers that she has a great deal in common with an acquaintance who comes from a similar family background. p. identification-based e. supposition (b. 425) 40. According to the text. Two business partners have worked together for many years and rely on each other to make decisions on behalf of the business. p. reward-based b. deterrence-based c. Moderate. A boss rewards his employees for achieving company objectives ahead of schedule. a. p. virtue-based (d. Moderate. a. 426) 42. Most modern organizational relationships are rooted in _____ trust. dependence-based c. Reward-based trust b. a. knowledge-based d. deterrence-based c. knowledge-based d. Identification-Based Trust. The highest level of trust is exhibited in _____ trust.

dependence-based c. organizational e. fundamental b. protégé (a. p. a. counseling to help bolster self-confidence c. 427) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} Contemporary Leadership Roles 45. a. Which of the following is not a function of a mentor? a. a. outgoing personality. The basic principles of trust include all the following except _____. leader d. All of the above are basic principles of trust. mentor b. a. Easy. 427) 44. A self-leader is someone who _____. aggressiveness. According to the attribution theory of leadership. understands the motivations of his or her superiors b. Attribution Theory of Attribution. facilitator c. it is likely to be replaced with _____ trust. mistrust drives out trust b. lobbying for visible assignments b. understanding. Moderate. identity-based e. p. p. strong verbal skills. Moderate. contingency (b. virtue-based (c. learned leadership skills through independent study (b. attribution c. p. 428) 46. a. 430) Challenges to the Leadership Construct 48. 432) 49. coaching to help develop skills e. Basic Principles of Trust. A ____ is a senior employee who sponsors and supports a less experienced employee. has difficulty following the leadership of others e. growth often masks mistrust d. where higher-level trust has been largely destroyed because of broken promises. Functions of Mentors.43. reliance-based b. In the modern work world. p. no longer depends on formal leadership for direction and motivation c. knowledge-based d. (b. acting as a role model (c. Moderate. Moderate. Easy. relies on others to a great extent d. Self-Leadership. manager e. trust encourages unconventional behavior c. and industriousness. decline tests the highest levels of trust e. the key to being characterized as an “effective 16 . evaluating performance d. Mentor. Knowledge-Based Trust. p. 428) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 47. The _____ theory of leadership has shown that people characterize leaders as having such traits as intelligence. perception d.

17 . rigid rules and procedures c. events e. p. Easy. p. attributes. All of the above can be substitutes for leadership. mentor relationships e. Neutralizers c. (True. 419) 56. 413) 54. Training Leaders. Easy. 433) 50. There is an increasing body of research that shows impressive correlations between transactional leadership and higher productivity. Charismatic Leadership. trust building c. p. 436) TRUE/FALSE Inspirational Approaches to Leadership 53. 421) 57. situational analysis d. Transformational leadership is built on top of transactional leadership. Substitutes b. Moderate. a. According to the text. Transformational and Transactional Leaders. 435) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} Finding and Creating Effective Leaders 52. The key properties of a vision seem to be inspirational possibilities that are value centered. vision creation b. (False. reality d. (True. a. appearance. cohesive work groups d. Substitutes for Neutralizers of Leadership. (d. Higher level leaders d. According to charismatic leadership theory. Neutralizers of Leadership. which of the following skills should be included in leadership training? a. Moderate. _____ make it impossible for leader behavior to make any difference to follower outcomes. p. Moderate. Transformational and Transactional Leaders. 434) 51. look. a. none of the above (d. and higher employee satisfaction. substance (a. Attribution Theory of Attribution. lower turnover rates. Organizational characteristics that can be substitutes for leadership include all of the following except _____. p. Deterrents e. Charismatic Leadership Theory. p.leader” is projecting the ____ of being a leader rather than focusing on _____. p. actual accomplishments b. p. Moderate. 414) 55. All of the above (b. Most researchers have concluded that charisma is an innate trait. explicit formalized goals b. Easy. facade. (False. image. overcoming challenges c. Easy. all of the above e. followers make attributions of heroic leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors.

and identification-based. and articulation. Trust and Leadership: p. 416) 58. p. 427) 70. Moderate. (True. 424) 63. p. A vision is likely to fail if it doesn’t offer a view of the future that is clearly and demonstrably better for the organization and its members. An individual who displays the characteristic of openness can be relied upon to provide the full truth. Deterrence-based trust will work only to the degree that punishment is possible. Trust. Honesty is absolutely essential to leadership. (True. trust is broken by inconsistent behavior. Challenging. Types of Trust. Deterrence-Based Trust. Deterrence-Based Trust. (True. 424) 61. 424) 62. consequences are clear. Moderate. Moderate. Vision. (True. p. 425) 66. and the punishment is actually imposed if the trust is violated. Knowledge-Based Trust. p. (False. p. Vision. information-based. actions. Easy. 425) 67. p. or decisions – act altruistically. Basic Principles of Trust. 416) Authentic Leadership: Ethics and Trust are the Foundation of Leadership 60. (False. Most new relationships begin on a basis of deterrence-based trust. (True. Key Dimensions of Trust. p. 426) 69. One of the basic principles of trust is that growth often masks mistrust. 424) 64. The two most important elements of the definition of trust are that it implies familiarity and risk. Trust. Easy. (True. (True. (False. p. Moderate. p. (False. Desirable visions transcend the times and circumstances and reflect the uniqueness of the organization. One of the basic principles of trust is that trust drives out mistrust. Moderate. Easy. Basic Principles of Trust. The three types of trust in organizational relationships are deterrence-based. Trust is a positive expectation that another will not – through words. Moderate. Moderate. 416) 59. p. (False. p. (False.realizable. with superior imagery. The phrase “positive expectation” in the authors’ definition of trust refers to the inherent risk in any trusting relationship. (True. 425) 68. 425) 65. At the knowledge-based level. p. 427) 18 . Trust. p. Easy. Easy. Easy. Vision.

(False. Minorities and women are less likely to be chosen as protégés than are white males. Self-leaders are also called “superleaders. people are equally trainable. counseling. Easy. p. Moderate. (True. 432) {AACSB: Use of IT} Challenges to the Leadership Construct 79. 429) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} 74. (True. Self-Leadership. p. Functions of Mentors. Training in self-leadership is crucial for the success of boss-managed teams. Challenging. Easy. p. 430) 75. p. leadership success or failure is just a matter of being in the right or wrong place at a given time. Self-Leadership. Moderate. p. The mentoring role includes coaching. and able to exercise initiative without external constraints or regulations. (True. Leadership research has been directed almost exclusively to face-to-face and verbal situations. A protégé is a senior employee who sponsors and supports a less-experienced employee. 431) 76. (True. (True. (False. Moderate. 437) 19 . p.” (False. p. For the most part. (False. Protégé. Training Leaders. 432) Finding and Creating Effective Leaders 80. (True. 431) 78. Self-Leadership. Moderate. p. Challenges to the Leadership Construct. 428) 72. (False. capable. (False. Moderate. Easy. and sponsorship. The interview is the primary tool available for identifying and selecting strong leaders. Online Leadership. Online Leadership. p. 436) 82. Mentoring Relationships. Training Leaders. 436) 81. Easy. The underlying assumptions behind self-leadership are that people are responsible. Moderate. Easy. p. In many cases. Selecting Leaders. p. but it has the potential to undermine a great deal of what a leader has been able to achieve.Contemporary Leadership Roles 71. p. 428) 73. Online communication is unlikely to build or enhance and individual’s leadership effectiveness. There is evidence suggesting that behavioral training can increase an individual’s ability to exhibit charismatic leadership qualities. 431) 77.

Based on the information given in the passage. Alan is most likely a(n) _____ leader. Easy. transformation b. instilling pride b. transcendent e. promoting careful problem solving e. Moderate.SCENARIO-BASED QUESTIONS Application of Charisma and Transactional and Transformational Leaders You are an employee in a large organization. 418-419) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 86. p. reactional (c. 419) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 20 . transformational d. prides himself on his ability to help his subordinates understand their roles in achieving company goals. His approach encourages creative problem solving and the development of new ideas. emotion-based c. transactional b. trust c. He defines clear-cut steps for his subordinates to use in completing projects. The first of these mangers. transcendent e. John. a. That special leadership quality that people notice when they work with Alan may be termed _____. 419) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 87. p. 413) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 84. 419) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 85. treating each employee individually (c. emotion-based c. 83. Most of the workers believe that both leaders are well trained. emotion-based c. Transformational Leaders. transactional b. transactional b. a. Moderate. In his role as manager. reactional (c. charisma d. Alan most likely exhibits all of the following characteristics except _____. but Alan’s employees remark that Alan seems to have a special leadership quality that sets him apart from the other managers. using symbols to focus efforts c. a. transaction (c. The second manager. feels that his role should be to provide individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation. p. Based on the information given in the passage. John is most likely a(n) _____ leader. Transformational Leaders. Moderate. Alan. transcendent e. there are two senior managers. acting in his own best interests d. Transactional Leaders. In this organization. p. reactional (a. Charisma. transformational d. framing e. transformational d. Transformational Leaders. a. pp. Alan is most likely a(n) _____ leader. Moderate. Based on the information given in the passage. a. and rewards them for using proven strategies.

John is a more effective leader than Alan. practicing openness b. integrity b. competence c. Alan and John are not effective leaders. p. p. Moderate. because neither helps define the vision of the organization. Alan is a more effective leader than John. p. openness b. Easy. showing loyalty to your team members (d. 424) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 21 . 420) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} Application of What is Trust? You are the manager in charge of a work team. 424) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 91. loyalty e. p. speaking your feelings c. while Alan is more effective than John at achieving goals. c. demonstrating your competence d. Alan and John are equally effective as leaders. e.88. integrity d. because he encourages creativity in his employees. (b. keeping negative thoughts to yourself e. John is more effective than Alan at inspiring employees. consistency c. All of the following are ways you can build trust within the work team except _____. Key Dimensions of Trust. To build trust within your work team. because he encourages his employees to use proven methods. consistency d. Moderate. b. which of the following qualities should you focus on as the highest priority? a. Based on the information given in the chapter. because both employ transformational leadership styles. Key Dimensions of Trust. You wish to use the recent research that has identified the five dimensions that underlie the concept of trust as your model. Moderate. d. a. 89. Certain members of your team are unpredictable and unreliable. Transformational Leaders. your team most likely needs help with which dimension of trust? a. intelligence (c. loyalty e. 424) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 90. You realize that high performance teams are characterized by high mutual trust and it is your goal to make sure that your team has this high level of trust. Key Dimensions of Trust. accountability (c. The passage implies which of the following about the effectiveness of the two managers’ leadership styles? a.

expertise-based trust (a. It includes selecting and highlighting one or more aspects of a subject while excluding others. identification-based trust e. Whenever you are gone. In this role you are responsible for managing a broad range of employees. pp. but only transferred into your department a year ago. 425) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 94. identification-based trust b. Identification-Based Trust. Knowledge-Based Trust. (Easy. You did not know Jack before. deterrence-based trust d. 92. She is your senior employee and you frequently rely on her judgment. Challenging. reward-based trust c. 412-413) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 22 . and your experience working with him during this year has shown that he is capable and efficient. is new to the company. Challenging. knowledge-based trust c. expertise-based trust (c. Susan. identification-based trust d. but is still unsure of herself in her new role.Application of Trust: The Three Types of Trust You are a veteran manager in your organization. p. One employee. Framing is especially important to an aspect of leadership ignored in the traditional theories of leadership: the ability of the leader to inspire others to act beyond their immediate self-interest. expertise-based trust (c. deterrence-based trust c. reward-based trust d. What type of trust relationship does Julia most likely have with you? a. Julia has been in your department for eight years. reward-based trust b. Jack has been with the company for ten years. 425) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 93. but you have been pleased with his performance. p. p. deterrence-based trust e. Challenging. you put Julia in charge and you are happy that you don’t have to worry about how things will be handled in your absence. It is a way for leaders to influence how others see and understand events. 426) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} SHORT DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 95. knowledge-based trust b. knowledge-based trust e. Why is framing relevant to leadership? Framing is a way of communicating to shape meaning. Framing. Deterrence-Based Trust. She has been working hard. What type of trust relationship does Jack most likely have with you? a. What type of trust relationship does Susan most likely have with you? a.

429) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 98. p. Today’s online leaders must be highly skilled at communicating through words without the benefit of nonverbal cues. It’s also important that the protégé feel that he has input into the relationship. The mentorprotégé relationship gives the mentor unfiltered access to the attitudes and feelings of lower-ranking employees. and managers whose telecommuting employees are linked to the office by a computer and modem. most experts now believe that individuals can be trained to exhibit charismatic behaviors and can thus enjoy the benefits that accompany being labeled “a charismatic leader. Studies of identical twins have found that they score similarly on charismatic leadership measures. Charismatic leaders are likely to be extraverted. What is the difference between transactional leadership and transformational leadership? Transactional leaders guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. They must also use structure. Transformational leadership is built on top of transactional leadership – it produces levels of follower effort and performance that go beyond what would occur with a transactional approach alone. Additionally. Although a small minority thinks that charisma cannot be learned. so if a program is to be successful. Why would a leader want to be a mentor? Mentoring relationships provide personal benefits to mentors themselves. (Easy.96. even if they were raised in different households and had never met. 431-432) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} {AACSB: Use of IT} MEDIUM LENGTH DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 99. tone. online communication requires leaders to enhance their interpretive skills. 413-414) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 23 . Protégés can be an excellent source of early warning signals that identify potential problems. it’s critical that mentors be on board and see the relationship as beneficial to themselves and the protégé. Are charismatic leaders born or made? Charismatic leaders are born with their qualities. too. selfconfident. so they can successfully “read between the lines” of messages. people can actually learn how to be charismatic leaders. pp. Online Leadership. Mentoring. Transformational and Transactional Leaders. Examples include managers who regularly use e-mail to communicate with their staff. 418) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 97. and style to convey their messages effectively. (Easy. (Moderate. Transformational leaders inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization. How has online communication changed the skill requirements of today’s business leaders? Today’s managers and their employees are increasingly being linked by networks rather than geographical proximity. Research suggests that mentor commitment to a program is key to its effectiveness. Finally. if it’s something he fees is foisted on him.” Just because we inherit certain tendencies doesn’t mean that we can’t learn to change. p. Research suggests that personality is also related to charismatic leadership. and achievement oriented. Charismatic Leadership. pp. (Easy. he’ll just go through the motions. managers overseeing virtual projects or teams.

Compare and contrast the three kinds of trust in organizational relationships. There are three types of trust in organizational relationships: deterrence-based. One violation or inconsistency can destroy the relationship. consistency. realizable. pp. bringing this energy and commitment to the workplace. 425-427) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 24 . Page 415) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 101. What are the key dimensions that underlie the concept of trust? The key dimensions that underlie the concept of trust are integrity. Properly articulated. trust is based on the behavioral predictability that comes from a history of interaction. b) Competence encompasses an individual’s technical and interpersonal knowledge and skills. Key Dimensions of Trust. loyalty. and offer a new order that can produce organizational distinction. This is called identification-based trust. p. or the degree to which a person can be counted on to provide the full truth. A vision is likely to fail if it doesn’t offer a view of the future that is clearly and demonstrably better for the organization and its members. Visions should be able to create possibilities that are inspirational. which recognizes and draws on traditions. a) Integrity refers to honesty and truthfulness. and good judgment in handling situations. It allows one party to act as an agent for the other and substitute for that person in interpersonal transactions.100. and connects to actions that people can take to realize change. This form of trust is based on fear of reprisal if the trust is violated. Vision taps people’s emotions and energy. predictability. Trust exists because the parties understand each other’s intentions and appreciate the other’s wants and desires. unique. how does vision differ from other forms of direction setting? What are the key properties of a vision? A vision has clear and compelling imagery that offers an innovative way to improve. 424) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 102. a) The most fragile relationships are contained in deterrence-based trust. The key properties of a vision seem to be inspirational possibilities that are value centered. (Moderate. and identification-based. (Moderate. with superior imagery and articulation. Most new relationships begin on a base of deterrence. c) Consistency relates to an individual’s reliability. c) The highest level of trust is achieved when there is an emotional connection between the parties. a vision creates the enthusiasm that people have for sporting events and other leisure-time activities. knowledge-based. According to the text. It exists when you have adequate information about someone to understand them well enough to be able to accurately predict their likely behavior. Types of Trust. Vision. b) Most organizational relationships are rooted in knowledge-based trust. competence. That is. and openness. e) The final dimension of trust is openness. (Challenging. d) Loyalty is the willingness to protect and save face for another person.

Next. A vision is a long-term strategy for how to attain a goal or goals. through words and actions.COMPREHENSIVE ESSAYS 103. the leader then communicates high performance expectations and expresses confidence that followers can attain them. the charismatic leader engages in emotion-inducing and often unconventional behavior to demonstrate courage and convictions about the vision. Once a vision and vision statement are established. This enhances follower self-esteem and self-confidence. How Charismatic Leaders Influence on Followers. (Challenging. p. a new set of values and. by his or her behavior. There is an emotional contagion in charismatic leadership whereby followers “catch” the emotions their leader is conveying. Finally. 415) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 25 . Explain the four-step process that charismatic leaders use to influence followers. Charismatic leaders may use vision statements to “imprint” on followers an overarching goal and purpose. sets an example for followers to imitate. the leader conveys. A vision is incomplete unless it has an accompanying vision statement. The four-step process begins by the leader articulating an appealing vision. A vision statement is a formal articulation of an organization’s vision or mission. The vision provides a sense of continuity for followers by linking the present with a better future for the organization.

And charismatic college professors enjoy higher course evaluations. or when they fear for their lives. Charismatic Leadership. It also appears that organizations with charismatic CEOs are more profitable. But visions typically apply to entire organizations or major divisions. They tend to be created by top executives.104. Finally. charismatic leadership may affect some followers more than others. High Performance. Charisma therefore probably has more direct relevance to explaining the success and failures of chief executives than of lower-level managers. However. when they are under stress. for example. In addition to ideology and uncertainty. when charismatic leaders surface. Explain the correlations between charismatic leadership and high performance and satisfaction among followers. it’s more difficult to utilize the person’s charismatic leadership qualities in lower-level management jobs. religion. another situational factor limiting charisma appears to be level in the organization. Remember that the creation of a vision is a key component of charisma. because they like and respect their leader. it’s likely to be in politics. This may explain why. pp. If an individual lacks self-esteem and questions his self-worth. that is. Lower-level managers can create visions to lead their units. Charisma appears to be most successful when the follower’s task has an ideological component or when the environment involves a high degree of stress and uncertainty. (Challenging. There is an increasing body of research that shows impressive correlations between charismatic leadership and high performance and satisfaction among followers. or when a business firm is in its infancy or facing a life-threatening crisis. its effectiveness may depend on the situation. People working for charismatic leaders are motivated to exert extra work effort and. express greater satisfaction. wartime. More generally. some peoples’ personalities are especially susceptible to charismatic leadership. 417-418) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 26 . So even though an individual may have an inspiring personality. there is a growing body of evidence indicating that charisma may not always be generalizable. Research suggests.18 Consider self-esteem. he is more likely to absorb a leader’s direction rather than establish his own way of leading or thinking. that people are especially receptive to charismatic leadership when they sense a crisis. It’s just harder to define such visions and align them with the larger goals of the organization as a whole. and Satisfaction.