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WORM GEARS

worm

worm

wheel

For the module of a worm gear m we take the worm axial module equal to the

circumferential module of the wheel.

If the number of the worm starts is zwo, its pitch diameter is

d wo ms z wo

(7-1)

We know that

ms m tan

and tan

1

tan

d wo

Denoting for convenience

mzwo

tan

z wo

qwo we find

tan

d wo mqwo

(7-2)

where qwo is the number of modules in the pitch diameter of the worm.

Table 7-1 Formulae for Determining Geometrical Proportions of Worm and worm wheel

cylinder and wheel pitch

circle

Diameter of base circle

Worm

Worm wheel

d wo mqwo

d w mzw

d wo m qwo 2

d w d w

Correction factor

A

0.5 qw z w

m

m

qwo zw 2

2

2 fom

Dew d w 2m f o

A

Centre distance

Diameter of addendum circle

Diameter of dedendum circle

Dewo qwo

Diwo d wo 2m f o co

m

Module

2A

qwo zw 2

d wo

m

z

tan w

qwo

pitch diameter of worm

qwo

Diw d w 2m f o co

Formulae for Determining the of Cut Portion of Worm L mm, Wheel Width B mm and Outside

Diameter of Wheel Dout w mm

Number of worm

starts zwo

1

2

3

4

L

L 11 0.06 zw m

L 12.5 0.09 zw m

B

B 0.75 Dewo

B 0.67 Dewo

Dout w

Dout w Dew 2m

Dout w Dew 1.5m

Dout w Dew m

The peripheral effort (gaya dorong) on the wheel equal to the axial effort on the

worm with torque on the wheel Mt is

Pw

2M t

Pawo ,

dw

(7-3)

Pr Pw tan

(7-4)

The axial effort on the wheel equals the peripheral effort on the worm; allowing

for the fact that the sliding along the teeth develops friction forces it will equal

Paw Pw tan Pwo

2 M wo

d wo

Pn

Pawo

Pw

2M t

(7-5)

cos cos n cos cos d w cos cos

(7-5)

The length of one line of contact will be in direct proportion to the pitch diameter

of the worm d wo and the angle of contact 2 o . If we remember that an increase in the

lead angle causes the length of the line of contact Lmin to increase in inverse proportion

to cos then, if the overlap factor is

Lmin

dwo ' 2 o

cm

cos 360o

considerably greater range of variation in the total length of lines of contact than in a

helical gear); then

Pn

2 M t cos 360o

1.8M t

kg / cm

o

Lmin d w cos cos d wo '100

d wd wo

(7-6)

As in toothed gears an increase in the design load qd compared with the mean

load q is taken account of by introducing correction factors

qd qkc kd

1.8M t

kc k d

d w d wo

kg/cm

(7-7)

k d is the dynamic load factor.

The diagram of unit load will be limited by an inclined line and the maximum pressure

will be found from the formula

qmax qkc

(7-8)

kc

qmax q q

q

1

q

q

q

f

Pres l 3

0.93 m3 z w3

z

Pres

Pres w

48EI wo

48EI wo

'

Therefore, the load concentration factor can be found from the formula

z

kc 1 w

1 md

md is the relation of average torque to the maximum torque

md

M T

M T

i i

Here Mi are torques acting upon wheel (including the torque Mt assumed as the design

torque);

Ti the continuity of action of the torque Mi in hours during the entire service life of

the gear

7.3 Design for Surface Strength

Since the radius of the worm thread curvature wo then w and, consequently,

d w sin

2 cos

After substituting the values from latter equation and qd from the formula (7-6)

in the equation qmax

qE

we get

sur

1.35

dw

MtE

kc kd sur

d wo

sur

1.35

d w / d wo

kg/cm2

(7-9)

or

Mt E

kc k d

3

d wo

Substituting here

iw

z

w ;

iwo qwo

2

3

d wo

m3qwo

; m

2A

qwo zw

we obtain

3

sur

0.5

z w / qwo 1

EM t kc kd sur

z w / qwo

A

kg/cm2

(7-10)

6

2

For a steel worm ( Ewo 2.15 10 kg / cm ) and bronze rim of the worm wheel (

this case too the relations (7-9) and (7-10) will assume the form

sur

and

1500

zw / q

Mt

kc kd sur

d wo

kg/cm2

(7-11)

sur

540 z w / qwo 1

2

EM t kc kd sur kg/cm

zw / q

A

(7-12)

From the formula (7-12) we find the centre distance A (for design calculations of a

closed-type gear)

z

A w 1

qwo

540

z / q M t k c k d

sur

w wo

cm

(7-13)

sur 'sur kl

(7-14)

The loaded factor kl is taken from the formula analogous to former formula with m 8

found experimentally

kl 8

107

N

(7-15)

The number of cycles N is calculated by the former formula and at a varying (stepped)

load Neq

N eq

60

Mt 4

M T n

4

i i

(7-16)

AB lc d wo

qwo m

qwo

qwo

2

1 cos

2 o

4

0.05qwo

lc = length of the line contact

2 o = angle of contact

lo 10 2

1.2

lc

10

and

0 .5

qd x

where x is a

mn y 3

factor accounting for a decrease in the bending stress due to teeth inclination.

M t k c k d b

my cos 1.4 md wd wo y

kg/cm2

(7-17)

For design calculations of open-type gears of open-type gears we find from the

latter formula (neglecting the effect of the angle )

m 1.243

M t kc k d

z w qwo y b

ANY QUESTION?

cm

(7-18)

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