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Lecture 7

WORM GEARS

worm

worm
wheel

Figure 7.1 Worm gears

For the module of a worm gear m we take the worm axial module equal to the
circumferential module of the wheel.
If the number of the worm starts is zwo, its pitch diameter is

d wo ms z wo

(7-1)

where ms is the circumferential module of the worm.


We know that
ms m tan

and tan

1
tan

After substituting these values in the formula (7-1) we obtain


d wo
Denoting for convenience

mzwo
tan

z wo
qwo we find
tan
d wo mqwo

(7-2)

where qwo is the number of modules in the pitch diameter of the worm.
Table 7-1 Formulae for Determining Geometrical Proportions of Worm and worm wheel

Diameter of worm pitch


cylinder and wheel pitch
circle
Diameter of base circle

Worm

Worm wheel

d wo mqwo

d w mzw

d wo m qwo 2

d w d w

Correction factor

A
0.5 qw z w
m

m
qwo zw 2
2
2 fom
Dew d w 2m f o
A

Centre distance
Diameter of addendum circle
Diameter of dedendum circle

Dewo qwo

Diwo d wo 2m f o co
m

Module

2A
qwo zw 2

d wo
m
z
tan w
qwo

Number of modules in the


pitch diameter of worm

qwo

Lead angle on pitch cylinder

Diw d w 2m f o co

The clearance factor is co = 0.2


Formulae for Determining the of Cut Portion of Worm L mm, Wheel Width B mm and Outside
Diameter of Wheel Dout w mm

Number of worm
starts zwo
1
2
3
4

L
L 11 0.06 zw m
L 12.5 0.09 zw m

B
B 0.75 Dewo

B 0.67 Dewo

Dout w
Dout w Dew 2m
Dout w Dew 1.5m

Dout w Dew m

7.1 Forces Acting in a Gear


The peripheral effort (gaya dorong) on the wheel equal to the axial effort on the
worm with torque on the wheel Mt is
Pw

2M t
Pawo ,
dw

(7-3)

The radial effort on the wheel and worm


Pr Pw tan

(7-4)

The axial effort on the wheel equals the peripheral effort on the worm; allowing
for the fact that the sliding along the teeth develops friction forces it will equal
Paw Pw tan Pwo

2 M wo
d wo

where is the angle of friction.

Figure 7.2 Forces Acting Schematic

The normal pressure at cos n cos and cos cos will be

Pn

7.2 Design Load

Pawo
Pw
2M t

(7-5)
cos cos n cos cos d w cos cos

(7-5)

The length of one line of contact will be in direct proportion to the pitch diameter
of the worm d wo and the angle of contact 2 o . If we remember that an increase in the
lead angle causes the length of the line of contact Lmin to increase in inverse proportion
to cos then, if the overlap factor is

and the factor of variations in the total length of

lines of contact is ' , we get

Lmin

dwo ' 2 o
cm

cos 360o

We can assume approximately 2 o 100o ; 1.8 ;

' 0.75 (because of

considerably greater range of variation in the total length of lines of contact than in a
helical gear); then

Pn
2 M t cos 360o
1.8M t

kg / cm
o
Lmin d w cos cos d wo '100
d wd wo

(7-6)

As in toothed gears an increase in the design load qd compared with the mean
load q is taken account of by introducing correction factors
qd qkc kd

1.8M t
kc k d
d w d wo

kg/cm

(7-7)

where kc is the load correction factor;


k d is the dynamic load factor.

The diagram of unit load will be limited by an inclined line and the maximum pressure
will be found from the formula
qmax qkc

(7-8)

whence it follows that


kc

qmax q q
q

1
q
q
q

We find the deflection f:


f

Pres l 3
0.93 m3 z w3
z
Pres
Pres w
48EI wo
48EI wo
'

Therefore, the load concentration factor can be found from the formula
z
kc 1 w

1 md

where: is the worm deformation factor.


md is the relation of average torque to the maximum torque

md

M T
M T

i i

Here Mi are torques acting upon wheel (including the torque Mt assumed as the design
torque);
Ti the continuity of action of the torque Mi in hours during the entire service life of
the gear
7.3 Design for Surface Strength
Since the radius of the worm thread curvature wo then w and, consequently,

d w sin
2 cos

After substituting the values from latter equation and qd from the formula (7-6)
in the equation qmax

qE

we get

sur

1.35
dw

MtE
kc kd sur
d wo

sur

1.35
d w / d wo

kg/cm2

(7-9)

or

Mt E
kc k d
3
d wo

Substituting here
iw
z
w ;
iwo qwo

2
3
d wo
m3qwo
; m

2A
qwo zw

(from table 7-1 At 0 )

we obtain
3

sur

0.5
z w / qwo 1

EM t kc kd sur
z w / qwo
A

kg/cm2

(7-10)

6
2
For a steel worm ( Ewo 2.15 10 kg / cm ) and bronze rim of the worm wheel (

Ewo 0.9 106 kg / cm 2 ) the reduced modulus of elasticity E 1.27 106 kg / cm 2 ; in

this case too the relations (7-9) and (7-10) will assume the form
sur

and

1500
zw / q

Mt
kc kd sur
d wo

kg/cm2

(7-11)

sur

540 z w / qwo 1
2

EM t kc kd sur kg/cm
zw / q
A

(7-12)

From the formula (7-12) we find the centre distance A (for design calculations of a
closed-type gear)
z

A w 1
qwo

540

z / q M t k c k d
sur
w wo

cm

(7-13)

The allowable stress should be taken from the following formula

sur 'sur kl

(7-14)

The value of 'sur is given in table.


The loaded factor kl is taken from the formula analogous to former formula with m 8
found experimentally
kl 8

107
N

(7-15)

The number of cycles N is calculated by the former formula and at a varying (stepped)
load Neq
N eq

60
Mt 4

M T n
4

i i

7.3 Design of Teeth for Bending

Fig 7-3 Worm thread cross section

(7-16)

CD lo Dewo qwo m 2m qwo 2


AB lc d wo
qwo m
qwo

qwo
2

1 cos

2 o
4

0.05qwo

where : lo = length of tooth root


lc = length of the line contact
2 o = angle of contact

Taking on an average qwo 10 we find


lo 10 2

1.2
lc
10

and
0 .5

Substituting the value qd from formula (7-7) in the formula b

qd x
where x is a
mn y 3

factor accounting for a decrease in the bending stress due to teeth inclination.

qd cos 2 1.5 1.9 cos

M t k c k d b
my cos 1.4 md wd wo y

kg/cm2

(7-17)

For design calculations of open-type gears of open-type gears we find from the
latter formula (neglecting the effect of the angle )
m 1.243

M t kc k d
z w qwo y b

ANY QUESTION?

cm

(7-18)