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DEC.

685

8, I 893 J

E N G I N E E R I N G.

,.

whole of L ower Egypt. This requi~e~ an esc~pe basin


capable of taking at least ~000 milhon cubic metres
in forty days, and r eturnmg water enough to the
river, during the summer months, to fill th.e
channels which intersected the Delta. The cultivated area. of L ower Egypt was, in the flourishing
period of Cleopatra, nearly twice as great as at
present.
.
The results of Mr. Cope 'Vhitehouse's investigations we will refer to later ; they are to be r ead
at lenath
in our columns.* More r ecently, how
0
ever, a new light has been thrown on to t his subject
by Major R . H. Brown, R.E . ~ Ins~ector:General of
Irrigation, U pper Egypt,+ whiCh dttfers I~ some respects from those of his predecessors. MaJOr ~rown
is most fortunately situated for the prosecutwn of
an inquiry of this kind, since the Fayu!l1 .forx:ns part
of the country under his charge, and It Is his duty

THE FAY 1\I ""\ND L.L\I{E !(ERIS.


THE mystic-or, as some have said, the mythical
- Lake Mooris has been a constant source of attraction to those who take an inter est in unravelling
the fra()'mentary, and often tangled, records of
Egypt. b In connection with the quest for it during
the present century, two . names stand out
prominently- those of l\I. Lmant de Bellefonds,
Director-General of Public ' Yorks in Egypt in 1842,
and of Mr. Cope 'Vhitehouse. The former demonstrated to his own satisfaction , and his verdict was
almost universally accepted, that the classical
account was grossly exaggerated, and that the
ori()'inal of the inland sea, described by Herodotus
as being 450 miles in circumference and 300 ft. in
depth, was merely a pool of 65 square miles area,
f\nnually filled to a depth of some 6 ft. by the

The F ay\un is now a. cul~ivat.ed district, of the


shape of a leaf, situated In the Lib! an desert about
50 miles south of Cairo. It is ent~rely surr?unded
by desert, except for a narrow cult1 vate.d str1p, corresponding to the stalk of the leaf, whtch conn ects
it with t he Nile Valley at Lahun (see maps s~b
j oined one of which we reproduce from MaJOr
Browr;'s book by the kind permission of th~ pu~
lisher). No rain falls in the Fayi'tm, whiCh IS
watered by the Bahr Yusuf, a c~!lal of prob~bly
natural oriain which leaves the :NI le near Asswut
and flows f or' 250 miles along the margin of the
desert until it finally turns westward throu gh a
pass i~ the hills, and enters the Fayi'tm. The
lenath of the main branch, which ends at the
to;n of Medineh-el-Fayt'tm, is 24 kilometres (15
miles), and the highest p oint of its bed is 21 met~es
above sea level. At La.hun, where the canal quits
. I
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Nile flood, and then almost dried up by the summer
heat and the demands of the irrigation canals connected with it.
According to M. Linant, it was a reservoir intended
to supply the desert-girt province of the Fayi'tm
during the period of low Nile. It was obvious to the
great French engineer that, in the early centuries of
our era, the cultivated area of t his district had been
greatly extended. Out of about 400,000 acres only
250,000 now receive water, even during the inundation. In 1842 the Bahr Yusuf was almost dry for
a considerable period in each year. I smail P asha.,
however, cleaned the canal, improved the intake,
and provided for the annual dredging in that upper
reach, between Assiout and Deirut, which is the
feeder common to the I brahimiyeh as well as the
Bahr Yusuf. He thus assured a minimum daily
supply of 1, 000,000 cu hie met res, as against 250,000
formerly obtained, during May and June, exclusively from the drainage which welled up as
springs in the bed of the stream at various points
on its course in the Valley of the Nile. 1\1. Linant
quite ignored the fact that the ancient historians had
explicitly stated that L ake Mooris served to relieve
the inundation and to supply s ummer water to the

to be acquainted with its topography. Further, as


an eminent irrigation engineer, of great experience,
he is specially well fitted to form a judgment r egarding a work that was admittedly more or less
artificial, and was used as a regulator in the largest
irrigation system the world has ever seen. He
could not only command all the necessary facts as
to levels, areas, and the like, but he could also
form an authoritative opinion as to the conclusions
that could be safely drawn from those facts. The
r esearches and his deductions form a most interesting and closely-reasoned book, which will be r ead
with pleasure not only by Egyptologists and engineers, but also by t hose who take delight in seeing
how one science sheds illumination over the dark
places of others. The volume is profusely illustrated, and contains many capital r eproductions of
photographs taken by the authors.
* See ENGINEERING, vol. x l., page 241; vol. xliv., pages
259 to 283 ; vol. xl vi., pages 267 to 27'1 ; vol. 1., page 334 ;
and vol. lii., page 451.
t "The FaytLm and Lake M reris." By :Maj or R. H.
Brown, R .E., Inspector-General of Irr~gationt Upper
Egypt. With a Prefatory Note by Col. Str Colin

Scott-lVIoncrieff, K.C,M.G., C.S.I.


Stanford.

Loudon: Edward

the Nile Valley, the level of the country is about 26


metres above sea level (R.L. 26), while the town of
Medinet is R.L. 22.5, showing a difference of about
3~ met res. As Assiout is at a considerably higher
level than Lahun, there is a constant current, all
the year round, from the Nile into t h e Fayl'nn. The
inundation level of high Nile at Assiout may be
taken at R.L. 50, and in the I{osh eshah basin, in
which Lahun is situated, at R.L. 26. 70, although
in years of high N ile it rises to 27.8 metres. At
Lah un the canal passes through a bridge of t hree
openings, the floors of which are respectively at
R. L. 21.97, 21.97, and 20. 72. The maximum and
minimum water levels above the bridge are 27.8
and 22.5 metres. At the end of the Bahr Yusuf
at Medineh the water level is now kept constantly
at 21.7 to 21.8 metres. The bed of the canal is
generally between R.L. 17 and 19, except at one
point where it is R .L. 21, the bottom there b eing
r ock.
From Medineh the irrigation canals radiate
through the Fayum. The land h ere is at the 22.5
metres level, and for 8 kilometres (5 miles) slopes
away at 1 in 1400. For the next 4 kilometres the
slope is 1 in 666, and then 1 in 150 till the Birketel-Qurun (Lake of Horns) is reached. This is the
lowest point of the Fayum, and receives all its
drainage, the level of t h e lake varying according
as the inflow or the evaporation predominates. At
the beginning of 1892 the water surface level was
A3.3 metres below mean sea level, and the bed of
the lake 5 metres l ower at least. The lake is about
40 kilometres long and 5 kilometres broad. The
hills rise steeply from the other side of the lake.
Connected with the Fayu m is the Gharaq basin,
which is a small culti\ated area surrounded by
desert lands above the present limits of irrigation,
except at one point where there is a narrow depression at R.L. 16 metres. Through this the irri

686

E N G I N E E R I N G.

gation canals reach the basin. Near to the Gharaq


basin is the vVadi Raian, discovered by Mr. Cope
Whitehouse. It has an area about one-fourth of
that of the Fayum at contour lt. L. 25. It is bare
desert, its lowest level being 40 metres below sea
level ; it is surrounded entirely by hills above the
level of + 36, except at two gaps in the hills
separating it from the Gharaq basin, which have
their sills at R.L. 27 and 26 respectively. We will
put these levels in ta.bular form :

offered his own theory, which we may briefly state


as follows:
1. In B. c. 450 t h ere was a submerged Fayum,
used as a reservoir in the irrigation of all L ower
Egypt, with practically n o cultivated Fayum.
This was the M reris of Herodotus. It included
the Raiyan Depression.
2. The ancient buildings in the Fayftm are above
the l evel reached by this lake.
3. In n.c. 100 there was a protected higher cultivated plateau in the Fayum.
~Iett-es above
4. In A. D. 50 to 70, as Pliny said, the lako was
M ean Sea Level.
gr eatly reduced in area.
Country level at La.hun ..
...
.. .
26
Ordinary inundation level at L ahun ...
26.70
5. There is a sister depre~sion to the south, which,
Maximum inundation level at Lahun ...
27.8
at first joined to the Fayu m Lake, was, in A.D. 150,
L Ewel of canal bottom at Lahun
...
20.72
the Lake M reris of the Ptolemaic maps.
Minimum summer water level ...
...
22.5
In Mr. Cope Whitehouse's eyes it was this sister
Highest level of bed of Ba.hr Yusuf
depression, t he Raiyan basin, t hat alone gave these
between Lahun and Medineh
...
21
r esearches a practical value, since, being uncultivated
Water level at ~Iedineh .. .
.. .
...
21.7
Highest level of Nile deposit in Fay (\m
24.5
and uninhabited, it could be refilled without interCountry level at M edineh
. ..
...
22.5
ference with existing institutions. Obviously the
,
,, 5 miles north-west of
Fayf1m,
with
its
large
population
and
its
annual
Medineh ...
...
...
...
...
17.5
export of over one million sterling, could n ot be
Country level 7.G miles north-west of
submerged for the benefit of the rest of Egypt.
Medineh ...
...
...
...
...
10
W a.ter level of Birket-el-Qertln ...
. .. -43
Hence the idea has got abroad that the Raiya.n basin,
Level of pass from Fayftm to Gha.raq . . .
Hi
and that alone, was identified by Mr. Copo WhiteMinimum level in Gharaq
...
. .. about 0
house as the ancient Lake M reris, while in reality
Level of pass from Gharaq into R~iya.n
2G
h e pointed to that as the remaining portion of the
From these fig ures and from what has preceded lake, left after the Fayf1m had been reclaimed,
it will be understood that the country level falls except a.s regards the small portion occupied by the
from 25 metres abo,e mean sea level near L ahun Birket- el-Qerun.
to 22.5 metres at Medineh, with a slope varying
It was on May 16, 1881, that Mr. Cope Whitehouse
from 1 in 10,000 to 1 in 9333. At l\1edineh the first announced his belief that " the great r eservoir
slope quickens to 1 in 1400 towards the lake, till a of water in the Fayum was part of a judicious
l evel of 17.5 is attained, when it again becomes system of irrigation, nobly conceived and splendidly
steeper (1 in 6G6), until the level of 10 metres is executed, which, if r epaired, would enormously inreached. Then the country declines to the lake at crease the population of Egypt, and redeem a vast
1 in 150.
These varying declivities divide the extent of so-called desert." The feasibility of such a
Fayum into what has been spoken of as three flood escape and reservoir as M reris is no longer in
plateaux or sloping terraces of horseshoe form, dispute. "It is possible t o store up, during the
bounded by curved contour lines.
months of abundance." says Sir C. C. Scott\Vhen Linant de Bellefonds Pasha sought to Mon crieff, "water sufficient to enable the whole
l ocate the site of the ancient Lake M reris, he found Valley of the Nile, from Silsileh north ward, to
the r emains of a bank running near the edge of the enjoy the same benefits of perennial irrigation as
first plateau in places. He also found a masonry are now confined to the D elta, and to those tracts
More than
wall of very considerable size and length, and he watered by the Ibrahimiyeh Canal.
jumped to the conclusion that these form ed part of that, it is possible to increase the summer volume
a complete encircling dam which prevented the available in the canals of the D elta, and t o have a
water of the Bahr Yusuf penetrating further into surplus to devote to the two long branches of the
the Fayum. The dam inclosed a triangular area, river north of the Barrage, which would be a
with the base resting on the range of hills separat- valuable boon to towns on the banks, such as Kafring the Fayu m from the Nile Valley, and its apex Zayat, Dessuk, Zifta,' and 1\fansourah. The water
considerably beyond the present site of Medineh. can b Ahad. The m eans of storing it is n ot an imLinant Pasha fixed the depth of water in the sup- p ossible engineering feat. " The cost is estimated
posed lake at 9.60 metres, which would bring its at 8,000,000l. ("Nile Reservoirs, " 1891, page 4-).
In the brilliant and lucid pages of "England in
maximum water level at R.L. 30.6. H e d oes not
appear to have taken careful levels, if, indeed, any E gypt, " Mr. Milner asks, What is the probable
at all, as he speaks of a bank being 12 metres high return for a capital outlay whose interest charges
which, in reality, is less than 6 metres high. Major would be only 350, OOOl. a year 1 In the chapter
Brown has, however, determined many of the entitled " The Struggle for Water, " he shows that
levels, and he finds that the area cover ed by the sup- there is " a certain promise of 3, 000, OOOl. a year "
posed lake varies from R.L. 25 t o R .L. 12. The in L ower E gypt., in the immediate future, with a
north boundary of the area runs generally along further extension of 1,400,000 acres, bearing crops
the contour R L. 17 .5, 5 to 7 metres below the of 5l. per acre. In Upper Egypt ther e might be
high plateau. He points out that ~his vast r eser- 4:,000,000l. added t o the annual value of the produce.
voir, 13 metres deep along a part of 1ts bank, would F or fifty years he sees a. prospect of continuous
be a fearful menace to the. security of the dwellers d evelopment which would virtually double the
below, the more so as it would necessarily be present r esources of Egypt, reduce its mortality,
pierced with openings to supply the irrig-1tion and be a material addition to the wealth of England,
canals. He considers it incredible that in a land througlt "the external trade in which we are
where the danger of bursting banks was well interested to the extent of 50 per cent. " It may
understood, the collection of thriving towns in the be said that, as E gypt is not crush ed by a debt
Arsinoite N ome could have arisen in such a. perilous of 106,000, OOOl. and administrative expenses of
situation.
"The ancient Egyptians, who lived 5,000,000l. annually, this increase might be
before our era, must have had prodigious faith in capitalised at over 150,000, OOOl. The added intheir protecting deities-or in their Depar t ment of come of 3,000,000l. a year would be obtained at
Public Works-if they took up their abode behind once, but the larger sum r epresents an Egypt
Linant's bank." Further, the area, perimeter, and justifying the enthusiastic descriptions of ancient
depth of this lake d o not in the least correspond travellers, and wielding the political, social, and
with the figures given py Herodotus. * We have artistic power of which conclusive evidence is
not the space to follow Major Brown in his com- afforded by history, and the obj ects preserved in
plete refutation of the Linant theo.ry ; it is sufti- the British ~1useum.
Mr. Cope Whitehouse demonstrated, in 1882,
cient to Sl-Y that he not only proves It to be untenable but he also upsets nearly every statement of that the Fayum, which is a word, not a name, but,
supposed fact on which it w:as based. The. P~sha's like n Mooris, " means "the sea," was in the time
premises were nearly all Inaccurate, so It IS no of Herodotus a vast sheet of water, and that the
bank which Linant believed had been constructed
wonder that his conclusion was incorrect.
Some years before Major Bro wn's methodical to confine t he water on t he north and east, had, in
and scientific discussion of the Linant theory, Mr. reality, excluded it from the upper plateau. " The
Cope Whitehouse had. adduced so many reas~ns entire area was flooded, except the plateau occuagainst it, and had p01nted. out so many fal~aCies pied by the Labyrint h and the adjacent towns, and
in connection with it, that It had been practteally it was gradually redeemed and the fertile fields of
abandoned by Egyptologists. In place o f it he had the later Arsinoite Nome (or province) substituted
for the lake." Professor Mahaffy has recently
translated a number of d eeds relating to this pro* See ENc INKERING, vol. xl. , page 241.

[DEc. 8, I 893.
cess of reclamation, carried out chiefly for t he
immediate benefit of the soldiers of the Greek
kings, the Ptolemies, successors of Alexander.
The depth of the g reat inland sea, if not ''fifty
fathoms, ,, as Herodotus had said, was not far from
i t. ~'rom high Nile at El-Lahun ( + 26.5 metres)
to the surface of the Birket-el-Qeriin ( - 43.13
metres) is 224 ft. ; and the Greek traveller was
careful to say that when speaking in r ound
terms of BOO ft. he referred to the maximum
depth. A circumference is an uncertain measurement for an area of 800 square miles with an
irregular shore, and at least one bold promontory.
The E gyptian engineers in charge of the lake
informed the Greek traveller that it was ''the circumference of the circuit, " which, with many a
sinuosity, gave such a long coast-line. There was,
however, another topographical indication. It was
expressly stated that the major axis of the lake in
the fifth century B. c. was north and sou th, while
the Fayu m Basin has its grratest extension from
east to west. Thus Mr. Cope Whitehouse was
compelled t o assume that, in the d esert to the
south of the Fayu m, there was an extension of the
depressed area, communicating with the Nile
V alley through the Fayum, at some level below
+ 26, or whatever was the height of high Nile
2300 years ago. His conjecture proved to be
correct. The Raiyan depre~sion covers 250 square
miles, has a. maximum depth below high Nile of
about 250 ft., and has two narrow openings into
the Fayi'tm, partly blocked with sand drift at the
contour of 26 metres.
Further, we have in th e list of towns whose positions were fixed by the Alexandrian geographer,
Claudius Ptolemy, A.D . 150, the site of a town
yet further south, but described as in a district
near Lake Mreris. On the first map, published by
us, in 1885, there is a valley outlined and marked
'' hiLherto unexplored." It was surveyed with
great care, in 1886, by a Government expedit ion,
under Mr. Cope Whitehouse, and again in 1888,
under the supervision of Colonel Western, by Mr.
Lieurnur. Besides the text of Claudius Ptolemy,
there are maps in the beautiful manuscripts
attached to the text. on which a Lake M reris is
carefully d efined. This lake cannot be in any way
identified with the Fayum Basin.
It is this d epression, called the Raiyan Basin,
which appears to tally with g reat exactitude with
the facts given by Ptolemy, and which could now
be con verted, at relatively small cost, into an inland sea, fulfilling, in a measure, at least, the functions attributed to the ancient Mreris.
Having thus giV'en a sketch of the hypotheses as
to the location and purpose of Lake Mreris, put
forward respectively by Linant Pasha and Mr.
Cope Wbitehouse, we will n ow turn to Major
Brown's theory. Major Brown says : "I wish to
lay claim t o no originality in the views adopted "
(page 3). His arguments, however, demand and
deserve a patient examination, both on account
of the splendid advantages its author enjoys in
an inquiry of this kind from his official position, and from his great powers as an observer
and a logician. Stated briefly, Major Brown
accepts the theory that the Lake Mreris of
H erodotus was that part of the Fayum beyond
Linant's bank, that is, the greater part of the
t hree plateaux.
We will endeavour to summarise his arguments in favour of this view. On
the north or steep side of Lake Qurun there are
ruins of towns of undoubted antiquity, and as these
could have no water supply other than the lake,
it is reasonable to suppose t hat they were built on
its margin. Among these are the ruins of Dimay,
and an ancient temple, described by Dr. Schweinfurth, 7 or 8 kilometres (4:! to 5 miles) north of
Dimay. Dimay itself is 3 kilometres from the
nearest point of the present Lake Qurfm, and the
surface of its causeway or quay is R.L. 25.44.
The south end of the quay is 2.85 metres lower,
but some of its upper layers have disappeared.
Near the temple is the site of an old town, marked
by heaps of ancient pottery, and the level of these
mounds is R. L. 24. 58. If these towns were on the
marg in of th e lake, they favour the idea that its level
was somewhere about R .L. 23. At t he opposite
side of t he lake, at the part wher e the Nile floods
enter the Fayum, the highest Nile deposit is at
R.L. 26. At Hawarah it is at R.L. 24.50, and
along the ridge r eaching out towards M edineh R .L.
23.50. Probably, therefore, the water in the lake
r eached about R .L . 26.50 at the commencement of
the gorge, but the level of the lake itself rarely, if

DEc. 8, r 893.]
ever, exceeded R L . 25. An attempt is made to
deduce the lowest water level of the lake from the
present height of the river, and the known effects
of evaporation, and the point is fixed at R .L. 19.8.
The quantity of water r equired to fill it from low
to high water mark is 11,800 million cubic metres
or a daily a\'erage for ninety days of 131,111,11i
cubic metres. This can be obtained without affecting the irrigation of ~o w er Egypt, a.s it exists, ~or
eleven years out of s1xteen. The levels at wh1eh
the Nile deposits are found in the Fayftm, the discharges which might be drawn off from the Nile,
and the area of the Fayum Lake, are all in ao-ree0
ment with the supposition that the level of the la.ke
was yearly raised from about R. L. 20 to 25.
The formation of L9.ke Mooris is credited to
Amenemhat TII., about 2500 B.c. Before his time
the water must have flowed in and out without
regulation, leaving bare a considerable ar ea of land
covered with Nile deposit. The idea to r ecla im
the land, and also to defer the discharge of the lake
un til the river had fallen so low that the water
\Vould be beneficial, instead of being harmful
by unduly prolonging t he annual flood, was
one that would readily occur to such a skilful
and civilised people as the ancient Egyptians. To
build a bank and a r egulator, to bar the passage of
the Bahr Yusuf thr ough the hills, at some point
between Lahun and Hawarah, would not be diffi cult. By limiting the level of the lake to R. L.
22.50, all the area above that level, which is the
highest plateau in the Fay u m, would be left
uncover ed, and fitted for cultivation and habitation.
The area above R. L . 22. 5, at first reclaimed, would
have been about 10,000 acres, on which was built
the ancient city of Crocodilopolis and its suburbs.
At high water the city would be on the margin of
the lake, with all the ad vantage of water carriage
right up to its doors, but as the summer advanced
and the water was withdrawn to R .L. 20 or 19. 5, a
strip of muddy for eshore, gradually widening to
two kilometres breadth, would be interposed
between the city and the water. Even when this
was crossed embarkat ion would be difficult, owing
to t he shallowness of the water. This state of
things probably led to the construction of t he bank
from the high land east of Ed wah to Biahmu, and
thence it appears probable to Medineh. The bank
from Ed wah to Biahmu runs generally along contour R. L. 17. 50, and therefore would ha. ve been
formed in water. Such a bank, if joined from
Bbhmu to the high land at Crocodilopolis, would
have inclosed an area from which the lake water
would have been excluded, the other two sides of
the inclosure being formed by the natural ridge at
the end of which Crocodilopolis was built, and by
the high land connecting this ridge near Hawarahel .Magta with the commencement of the artificial
bank near Ed wah. This second r eclamation would
have added 7000 feddans to the 10,000 included in
the first reclamation.
The Edwah bank, however, does not stop at
B iahmu, but continues its .first alignment t o Kalabiin, past Saliin and Fidimin, to a point a little
to the north of Sinrf1 . Thence it curves r ound
t owards the south and crosses the Abuksah Railway. At this crossing are extensive remains of an
old town, and the r emains of several smaller towns
are to be found between the rail way and the
point in the bank north of Sinru, all on the line of
the bank. From this length of bank, other banks,
at different angles to the main bank, seem to have
existed ; some appeared to go towards Medineh ;
others to\vards Abuksah in the direction of Lake
Qur un. F ollowing the main bank a ravine is
crossed, and for 1000 metres the bank can be traced
due south. Then it is lost, and although Major
Brown souaht for it in all directions, he was unable
to discove; any traces of it. It is possible a side
lnnk was carried up the slope at rjght angles to
t he contours to Medineh, and if it were, 10,000
feddans would be added to the already inclosed
area, making it 27,000 feddans. Besides this
deep water would be found at the side of the bank.
Travellers from Crocodilopolis (Medineh) to
Memphis (Bedreshen) would follow the road along
the a.rtificii.l bank to Biahmu, where they would
take ship to t he n or th -east corner of the lake,
whence the desert r oute runs straight to Memphis.
This is the direct r oute followed t o-day, except that
the lake n o longer exists. Pliny was, therefore,
correct when he said that the lake lay between
the :rtfemphite and Arsino1te N omes. Major Brown
sums up the matter : "Thus we have a vast lake of
about 1600 million square metres of water surface,

E N G I N E E R I N G.
and an area of 27,000 feddans (acres) reclaimed
from it, with Crocodilopolis in the reclaimed area,
and the Hawarah pyramid and the Labyrinth on
the shores of t he lake at the point where the waters
entering the lake were controlled. This, I believe,
was the Lake Mooris of Herodotus, and of those
who con firmed his testimony."
The purpose of Lake Mceris was, undoubtedly,
to s upplement the waters of the Nile during the
summer season. Thus its benefits were felt in t he
Delta, while the dwellers on its margin got but little
from it in the fifth century B. c. , except fish and
cool breezes. On the other hand, it occupied a
great amount of land which would have been very
useful to them. This led to the reclamation of the
F ayum in t he Greek and R oman p~riod. It is easy
to see that ther e would be a strong local feeling in
its favour if the R aiyan depression was in u se,
while those that would naturally oppose any change
were at a considerable distance. As soon as the
level fdl so far that water could not be returned to
the Nile, the lake in the Fayftm lost, its usefulness
except as an escape and drainage basin. The
Birket Qerftn remains a fragment of the once extensive sheet of water, and still serves this purpose.
It evaporates annually 4, 728, 000, 000 cu hie metres.
It disposes of t he drainage of the Bahr Yusuf, as
the D ead Sea does for the J ordan.
~Iajor Brown is at variance with Mr. Cope
Whitehouse in r egard to the Wadi Raiyan, holding
that this has always been a dry depression, and
never part of the lake. H e quotes the passage of
Herodotus which is translated : " This lake lies
oblong north and south" (page 20), but describes
the body of water with its maj or axis east and
west. He r eproduces a Ptolemaic map with its
striking similarity with the Raiyan basin, but considers this a coincidence. He, however, perfectly
admits that it would be feasible to put it into connection with the Nile, and transform it into a most
efficient reser voir of Nile water for use in summer .
Probably Mr. Whitehouse will be quite content to
have his interpretation of ancient Egyptian history
criticised if he can gain Maj or Brown's support for
the project on which he has spent so much time.
His interest lies more in the future than the past ;
what he wants to do is to renew the benefits that
once flowed from Lake Mceris, and whether they
come from the original site, or from a neighbouring
one, does n ot greatly matter. I t was Mr. Cope
Whitehouse who discovered t he Wadi Raiyan in
its character as a possible reservoir, and pointed it
out to t he world, and this credit can never be
taken from him. Next February, we are informed,
an International Commission will be invited to
report on the subject of Nile storage, and then we
shall know whether modern engineering can improve on the wisdom of the ancients in this
matter.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOUTH


AFRICAN RAILWAYS.
(Concluded from page 657. )

As far as the South African colonies and adjacent


territories are concerned, private lines may said to
have proved a conspicuous failure, for a variety of
reasons, chief among which must be placed the
competition of Government lines and political considerations; but there are a few points in respect
to which Government rail ways are unavoidably
placed at a disadvantage as compared with their
private limited liability compeers-firstly, t he
way in which the necessary capital is r aised,
the former having to obtain the whole of the
money to build its railways by loans at fixed
rates of interest, and where these do not earn
an amount sufficient to cover this interest,
t he deficit has to be made good out of the pockets
of the taxpayers ; while the latter raise only
a relatively small proportion of the money, at
fixed rates of interest, in the form of debentures,
the remainder being raised as shares, bearing such
rates of intereet as the undertakings may earn.
Should the undertakings only earn enough to pay
the debenture interest, the shareholders are not
called upon to make good the deficiency. The
debenture-holders eit her take less interest, or, if
they think t he management is at fault, t hey take
over the undertaking and manage it themselves.
With Government rail ways, the capital may be said
to be raised entirely on debentures, and the taxpayers become the sharehold~rs of all: unlin~ited
liability company ; they contribute thetr credit to
the concern, and are bound to make ~ood all

deficiencies in the income of the undertaking, so


that the debenture- holders (i.e. , sub3cribers of the
loan) lose nothing under any circumstances short
of bankruptcy and r epudiat ion. This is evidently,
as far as the taxpayers are concerned, a far more
expensive and unsatisfactory way of attaining the
same result, even if the private undertaking be
comes the recipient of a. Government subvention.
In either case the working population reaps the
same direct benefit, viz., the benefit of the money
expended in wages during construction and working,
and the general public the same direct and indirect
advantages from the improved means of communication.
Secondly, management. Government railways
labour under di fficulties in this respect inherent
in all Government administrations, which exist
only in a modified form, if t hey are not \vholly
avoided, in private administrations. These are
over-cent ralisation of control, ancl small latitude
allowed to subord inates, want of elasticity in
dealing with the details of administration, and
lack of incentive off~red to individual capacity
and energy in their servants.
\Vith Government undertakings the tendency is inevitably
to reduce their servants to mere links in a
chain, or, in other words, to squeeze them all
through the fame mould, while the most successful
of private undertakings have distinctly owed their
su~cess to the utilising and fostering of individual
capacity and excellence, in despite of the claims of
routine seniority and red tape.
So that, although recognising that under the
peculiar circumstances of the case, without direct
Government intervention, the colonial railway
systems of South Africa would not have reached
their present condition of development so soon,
still it is a matter of question whether they have
not been an unreasonably heavy burden on the
shoulders of the colonists, and whether equally
advantageous r esults would not have been attaind
by confiding their d e~elopment to the action of tre
slower but less artificial effect of supply and
demand.
6. Th e Ox Wa gon 1:e?s11s L ocomoti-te Tnti?~..-This
question has constituted one of the chief impediments in the way of the speedy development of the
goods traffic, and to a large extent of the local passenger traffic, on rail ways in South Africa, and to
it also must be attributed, in a great mEasure,
the failure of private railway enterprise in
t.hat country. H ow is it that a method of transport
over bad and heavy roads, at an average speed of
two miles an hour, can have competed, and in
some measure advantageously, with another method
of transport o\er well-laid railP, averaging a speed
of 15 miles an hour ? To explain this it is neces
sa.ry to go back to times long anterior to rail ways,
or, indeed, to any method of transport whatever,
namely, to the time of the first settlement of
South Africa by the nati~e races. This being a
country of vast grass-covered plains under unvarying conditions of c)imate (temperature and rainfall)
for vast ages, must have been, when first settled by
the B ottentot and Kaffir races, just as suitable for
pasturage and as unsuitable for til1age as it is now.
To this is owing the esteem in which natives to
this day hold flocks and herds. Pastoral conditions invariably induce a nomad or wandering life,
which was one of the chief characteristics of the
native tribes previous to their corn pulsory location
in restricted areas by the white races. Partly
through unconscious mimicry of native tastes aiJd
ideas in these matters, partly by the influence of
the physical and social circumstances in which t~e
white setters were placed, those who first settled 1n
South Africa reverted, to a large extent, to pastoral
and n omad ideas and tastes long obsolete among
their own countrymen in their own country. This
has it is true, somewhat worn off again, owing to
the' aradual permanent settlement of the colonies.
but to this resuscitation of nomad and pastoral
habit.s and tastes is due the remarkable tenacity
with which enormous tracts of land a.re h eld by
individuals, without any apparent desire to cultivate
or occupy a tithe of the acreage they own. This
huge extent of property enables them to continually
shift their h andful of flocks and herds almost as
freely as in an unsettled country, and to move
about themselves with equal freedom. To these
tastes and habits is also due the constant trekking
into fresh territories, which has been a leading
feature of South African history. From this arises
the opinion h~ld by such a lar~e s~ction of the
~hite commumty as to the relative Importance of

[DEc. 8, I 893

E N G I N E E R I N G.

688

H.-P.

3000

COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION.

QUADRUPLE-EXPANSION ENGINE WORLD'S

E. P. ALLIS COiviPANY, MIL,VAUKEE, WISCONSIN, U. S. A.

CONSTRUCTED BY THE

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E N G I N E E R 1 N G.

6go

of livelihood of a lar ge section of the populationthe "kurveyors. " Hut it is at least questionable wheth e r it would n ot have been better, in the
inter ests of the whole population, to have prot ected
rail ways from this competition, as by so d oing
farming interests would have also b een protected,
and the remarkable en er gy displayed in competition
in the carrying trade would h ave been earlier forced
into deploying itself in beneficial competition wit h
the import trade in foodstuffd. The commercial
and m erca ntile population, strangely enough,
favoured for m an y years wagon transport against
rd.il way transport, partly b ecause of the force of
habit and prej udice::z, and partly because of certain
advantages ofi'~red by the former as against the
latter in respect to prompt settlement of claims for
damage to goods in transit.
The competition of the n kurveyor ,, in the goods
trd.flic between Port Elizl.beth and t he diamond fields
was perfectly amazing at t h e period of t h eir gr eatest
prosperity- 1882-3- as can be realised by looking at
Diagram No. 3 (see pd.ge 655 ante), where it would
appear that the midland r oute, which is the best
r oute from t h e coast to the fields for goods, carried
upwards of 80,000 tons less goods t han the Western
at their respective maxima, whereas actually m or e
t onnage has always f ollowed this r oute t han the
other, the explanation being t hat P ort Elizabethor rat her the districts at its back-were t h e headquartera of "kuneying," and the extra tonnage did
n ot go by rail way, b ut by wagon.
But n o w that the Government railways h ave
been so far extended t hat t h ey have reach ed their
obj ectives, a nd the full advantage of their saving
in time and cost h as been felt and r ealised, the
competition of the "kurveyor " is a thing of the past,
and the ox-team has been once and f or all in the
Cape and NataJ, r eleg::Lt ed to the more generally
beneficial work of the p lough, and of carrying fa rm
stuff t o t h e n earest station. But t he struggle, in
which the Governm ent enterprises h ave fi n ally
come off victoriuus, though at serious cost to t he
taxpayer, has been death to the two railway companies who in the Cape tried to inaugurate a n ew
period of rail way enterprise in privat e hands.
T~king the rail way sys t ems of South A frica as a.t
present constructed and proj ected, the further
question a r ises, What must be the object in view in
extending them 1 The two centres toward s which
the Cape systems on the one s:d e, and the Natal
and D elagoa Bay systems on the other, have
been extending so far, are the diamond fields in
the west, and the gold fields in the east. That
in the west was r each ed in 1886, and when the
lines now in progr ess ar e completed (probably this
year), that in th e east will also have been r eached ,
and the object of t h ese extensions accomplished .
But what then ? I s the U ltima Thule of railway
exten s ion gained, or ar e y e t other extensions to b e
expected, and, if so, in what directions ? The great
value of South Africa is its geographical po~ition
and its physical f eatures, in oth er words, its seab oard, its climate, an d its produ cts. It has served
in the p~st as the chief thor oughfare of communication b etween European civilisation and its manu factures on the on e hand, and African u ncivilisation
and wants on the oth er, and it has done so because
of its convenient, or comparatively convenient, harbours, a nd its excellent climate ; for h ere th~ highlands of the interior can be appr oach ed w1t h out
passing across the low tropical s wamp lands, so
d eadly to the human r~ce, a n d the fly belt, so ~eadly
to animals and of w h1ch such a large proporhon of
the east a~d west coasts of the African continent
consists. The interior of A frica teems with a vast
and varied population, capable of absorbing any
quantity of man u factu red pr?ducts, an~ who
can furnish in exchange a mulbt ude o~ p~1Ce~ess
r a w materials r eq uired elsewh er e b~ c1v1hsati~n.
The aim, therefore, of t h e South Afncan colonies
must always b e the development of the trade
routes from the coast to the interior. This doubtless h as never been wholly lost sight of, but n ow
that the chief mineral centres are reach ed, it
must become the leading question.
Steps have
already been happily t aken to s~r~e the chief trade
r oute to the interior t hrough Bnt ish Bechuana1and
and the Khama Protectorate, &c. , by the V rybnrg
exten io n and the pr ojected Mafeking Railway.
But these must n ot rest where they ar e ; t h e motto
o f rail way work for S outh Africa must al ways be
'' N orthwa rd ever " to grasp and develop the mag
nificent h eritage ~f th0 British race in .the Da.rk
Continent from the vantage-ground of t h eir colonies
in the south. But those colonies themselves must

n ot be n eglected, and the lon g d elayed cross lines


of communication, more or less parallel to the coast,
must be seriously undertaken. The Cape Central
Rail way was a first step t owards a line par allel to
the coast, furnishing communication directly east
and west, to develop the western province of the
Cape Colony proper by tapping its rich est and most
populous dtstricts, and by completing the strategical
n etwotk of railways r equired for d efensive purp oses (which should extend from Clanwilliam t o
Malmesbury, and As hton to U itenhage). Another
series of lines which are urgently wan ted are cross
lines uniting the three Cape systems half . way
between the b order lines and the coast, or, say,
from Beaufort West to Aberdeen Road, thence
through Pearston and Somerset East to Cookhouc:;e,
and t hence t hrough Bedford, Adelaide, F ort
Beaufort, and Alice, to King Willia mstown, and
from Blaney Junction across the Transkei to the
Natal b order, as well as an extension of the border
lines eastward and westward.
In Natal an exte nsion of t h e coast line in both directions to the
mzimkulo t o the west and across t h e Tugela on
the east, through Z ulula.nd to t h e Portuguese fron
tier, as well as cross lines from Pietermaritzburg
as a. centre both ways, are urgently called for. In
the n or t h-west corner, an extension of t he P ort
N olloth line, parallel to the Orange River, t o the
n eighbourhood of H opetown, would b e a great aid
to the development of the very backward districts
in that region, though hardly a paying enterprise.
These and oth er ex ten sion s in the colonies are
ha rdly likely under existing conditions to be undertaken by Governmen t directly, but it is to b e hoped
they will be indirectly, by guarantees or subsidies
to private enterprise, which may n ow prove m ore
lucky than it did in t h e past, as in this direction
the development of the colonies within t h eir
own b oundaries may be most r eadily assisted.
Thus vast fertile and salubrious teriitories may be
opened t o t he p r ofitable settlement of the s urplus
p opulation of Great Britain, which has h ithert o
sought an outlet in countries an d colonies affording
superior facilities for internal communication,
though often of inferior climate and with n o better
soil.
In conclusion, expression must be given t o the
th anks due to the Agent-Gener al for the Cape and
th e Emig ration Agent for Natal, and th e Librarian
of the Uolonial Office, for h aving kindly placed
their r espective Government records and publications at the disposal of the writer, without which
the above attempt at a h istory of railway development in South Africa would have been very scanty
and incomplete.

LITER.A'fURE.
The Elements of Graphic Statics: A Text-Book for Students
of E n[Jincering. By L . lVI. HoS KINS (pages viii. +191,
and fiv e plates). L ondon : Ma.cmillan, 18V2.

BY t h e t it le and preface this work is designed


only as an elemeutar y t ext-b ook for studen ts of
engineering, so its scope is limited to wh at may
be call ed statics of q uasi- rigid b odies, therefore not
requiring any use of t he elastic properties of
matter (thus excluding, for instan ce, fixed and
con tinuous beams) : the investigation s are further
confined to t hose which are likely to be useful to
t h e en gineer, thus excluding many beautiful deve
lopments interesting ch iefly to t h e math ematician.
Th e subject of strength of materials is also omitted,
being not con veniently treated by graphics.
\Vithin t he scope set forth t he work is simply
excellent of its kind, and is m ost interesting
read ing.
The book is divided into t hree parts. Part I.
(52 pages) deals with the graphic treatment of
elementary statics (of corn planar forces only). A
strikin g simplification is introduced by an extension of "Bow's system of n otation" (origin ally only
applied to framed structures) to the wh ole r ange
of gr aph ic statics . Hereby every force requires
two l ines to specify it completely : one (A - --B)
denoting its magnitude and dir ection only, a nd
one (

~t,

denoting its line of action in space.

A system of forces thus r equires two diagrams, viz.,


(1) a force diagran1 (AB, CD, &c. ), and.(2) a space
diagram (a b, c cl, e c.), the latter showmg merely
the position s of the forces. All problems of nonconcurr ent for ces r equire in gener al two polygons to
b e dr awn, viz., a force-p olygon and a funicular p olygon . The above n otation ie s uch that if 0 be a point

[DEc. 8, 1893.
from which r ays 0 A, 0 B, 0 C, &c., are d rawn to
the vertices of th~ force-polygon, then will o a ,
ob, o c, &c., denote the strings of the funicular,
whilst ab, b c, c cl, &c., a r e, as already stated, the
lines of action of t h e original for ces A B, B C,
CD, &c. The fertility and s uggestiveness of this
notation will now be seen ; it is helpful to
both geom eter and draughtsman, and t h e reciprocity of the f or ce and space diagrams is well
brought ou t by i t . It h as on e inconvenience in the
introdu ction into the space-diagr am of a gr eat
number of lett ers situate, n ot- as is usual in the
older geometry - at the ver tices, but about the
middles of the sides ; the fact b eing that the small
italics o, a, b, c, cc., denote r eally spaces in the
spacediagram bounded by the lines u a, ob, n c,
&c. , a b, b c, &c. : t h e n otation for points is thus
also clumsy ; thus a b c cl c denotes the intersection
of the lines Ct b, b c, c cl, d e, e a.
The identity of t h e various graphical and analytical conditions of equilibrium has been carefully
gon e into by t he author. Briefly, every problem of
complanar n on concurren t forces r equires on e for cepolygon and on e f unicular p olygon : the closing of
the for ce-polygon indicates no motion of t r anslation, and the closing of the funicular polygon indi
cates n o motion of r otation. Also, as in analytical
work, these conditions may be variously expr essed.
Part II. (91 pages) deals with stresses in ~im ple
structures : by " simple" is h ere meant solvable
by elementary s tatics (wit h out the t h eory of elasti
city). Under the h ead of " Framed S t ructures" it is
shown that most of the cases in practice can be
solved by using the for ce-polygon only, because there
are found to be only two unknown quantities (the
magnitudes of two forces) at each step ; but that in
a few cases, where ther e are found to be thr ee unkn own quan tities (magnitudes of three for ces) at
on e or more steps, e.g., in the well-known truss
here figured , the funicular polygon , or an equa-

tion of moments, musL also be used, and in gener al


sufficeg . This sort of case is explained at some length ,
and this is important, b ecause- from its comparative
infrequency probably- it was generally passed over
wh en t h e method of stress-diagrams first came into
use. A useful method is also given of how to deter
mine quickly the cases which arc r_e ally insolvable.
U nder t h e head of ' 'Moving Loads on Bridges,"
and in order to find t h e greatest s hearing force and
bending moment at all parts of th e girders under
different conditions of load, the artitice is largely
used of drawing a funicular polygon for a system
of loads of great length (much longer than the
bridge itself), and p laciug the beam in different
position s upon this p olygon, each s uch p osition
giving a maximum of shear or bending at some
particular section ; by t his artifice the large funicula r m entioned ser ves in great part for the special
funicular for each position of the shifted beam :
but even with this means the labour of drawing is
considerable, as a good d ea l of special work has
to be d one fo r each section ; and the network of
lines in the com pleted drawin g (of which, for the
sake of clearn ess, very fe w appear on the plates in
this b ook ) would n ecessarily be very intricate.
Indeed, this graphic method appears at it s worst in
this application to moving loads, and many would
prefer the older m ethod of formul re : and it must
be n oted in favour of formulre that, once constructed, they serve for all similar cases, whereas
the diagrams are u sually applicable t o their original
case only.
\ Ve think that it would be a n improvemen t to
t he usefulness of this work if tensions and compressions wer e distinguish ed by thin and thick lines
in all the frame-diagrams and str ess-diagrams
t hrough out Part II. \ Ve t hin k also that t he number of worked examples of str ess diagrams in this
Part II. is n ot enough for a b eginner (without the
aid of a good t eacher) ; t he shapes assumed by
them are often so strange that a b eginner is often
much puzzled a.s a new and unfamiliar diagram
gr ows under his hands.
From among the practical hints given the following are extracted as likely to be useful to English

eng1neers:
I. Wind Pres3u1c on a Slope (as on a Roof).
p,. =normal pressure in pounds per aqua.re foot of
eurfa.ce J. to wind.

D Ec. 8, 1893.]

E N G I N E E R I N G.

pa = normal pressure in pounds per square foot of alloys possessing some of the char acteristics of
surface at angle a to the wind.
chemical compounds. The author would apparently
2 sin a
r estrict the use of gold to t h ose cases in which its
Pa =
. ., P11
1 + sm- a
natural colour is but slightly al tered in ton e, and

[Quoted as Duchemin's formula, and said to agree well


with Langley's extensi ve experiments.]
IL W eight ?f R oof Truss (approx.)
' V = weight of a truss in pounds.
l = span in feet.
a = truss spacing in feet.
W = ! a l (1 + ..(0 l), for timber.
vV = ~ a l (1 + il) t), for wrought iron.
III. W eight of Bridyes (approx.)
10 = weight of bridge in pounds per foot run.
l =span in feet.
b =breadth in feet.
High way bridges ..
'W = 140 1-12 b +! bl - i l.
1v = 560 + 5.6l, for single
Rail way bridges
track.
(under 100ft. span)
w = 1070 + 1U.7l, for double
track.
[Nos. I I., III. are quoted from lVIerrima.n's "Roofs and
Bridges."]
Parb IlL (43 pages) deals with the g raphic determination of centroids ( i. c., centres of parallel forces,
and especially cenbres of gravity), m omen ts of
iner tia, and products of inertia ; and in all cases
(so as to keep to elementary treatment) t h e
poinbs of application of the parallel forces are sup posed complanar. Although this is developed with
much skill, t h e graphic method here labours under
the disadvan tage that ibis con veniently applicable
only to discrete (and not t o con tinuous) quan tities ;
whereas m ost of the q uantities (ar eas, masses,
weights) to be dealt with-even i n practical cases
- are continuous q uant.ities : in fact, the only cases
con veniently treated by graphics are t hose in
which the quantities dealt with can be divided
into partial areas, masses, weights, &c., of each
of which t he centroicls, moments of inertia, and
products of inertia have been already found by
some other process ; and even in this limited application the older (algebraic) m ethod seems to us
simpler.
The roathemat.ic:1l developments in this work are
so clear, and the application to structur es so well
explained, that we shall welcome any fur ther work
on this subj ect from the author.

simpler t han the true one, but the difference d oes


n ot r epresent five minutes in t he t ime r equired to
run it. The error in question is, as will be seen,
by no m eans n eglig ible, and as it apparently runs
through n early the whole of the b ook , it isJ perhaps,
unnecessary to cr iticise the volume further. There
ar e, h owever, a collection of tables at the end of
th e b ook which may occasionally prove us eful. '\Ye
should , m oreover, add that the publish er 's work has
been well d one, the printing and general get-up
of the book being excellent.

d epr ecates t he use of t he metal when it cann ot be


distinguished as gold. This is all righ t enough
when the precious metal is used as gold; n everth eless, the metal can be utilised in the production of
beautiful effects, as, for instance, when som e two
per cen t . of guld is added to copper for th e sake of
enabling it to assume a velvety blue patina. This
fact is mentioned, but its great s ignificance is n ot
--dwel t upon.
The Export M crchctnt Shippers, with their T radi71g Port~
The su bject-matter of t h e book i" divided into
and Class of Goods Supplied. 1893. L ondon : D ean
t hree parts, namely : Chemical M etal Colouring,
and Son, L imited, 160A, Fleet-stre~t, E. C.
Elect ro !\fetal Colouring, an d M echanical Metal This work, in valua ble to all engaged in the shipping
Colouring. U nder the first heading, the a uth or trade, although primarily a directory of the prindescribes the effect of various sol utions upon b rass cipal shipping firms in each of the ports of the
and copper articles ; the analyses of these latter , United Kingdom, with a r ecord of the goods th ey
however, he does n ot often gi,e. Experiments are customarily export, arranged alphabetically, by
d escri bed in which permanent gr een , brown, and towns and by goods, includes also much informablack films are produced, wh ich ar e very ser viceable tion a~ t o th e firms which make certain goods their
in ar t metal work, but the magnificent "lobster specialities, and to navigation. Ther e are g iven, for
r ed" seen in good Japanese work, is not m ention ed, instance, the rules and bye-laws f or the regulatio n
though possibly some of the solutions given, when o f th e Tham es navigation, for the carriage of exploapplied to suitable material, may yield it in ex- sives, and the Petroleum and 1\'l er chandise Marks
perienced hands.
Acts, with a list of Lloyd's agents and signal
The photographic sensiti veness of some of th e s tations, which latt er are said n ot to be fo und
films produced is interesting fr om a chemical point in any other work of a similar character. This is
of view.
th e 28th year of publication of the volume, but on
R ecipes are given for the proper treatment of t his occasion ther e has boen a rearrangem ent to facisurfaces of iron and of tin, for the production of litate Clsy r efer en ce.
" oxidised" sil ver, and of " ormolu" colour upon
gold. A brief epitome of the various methods of
BOOKS RECEIV ED.
coating one m etal by another by m eans of electr o- A n Elementary Treatise on Theoretical M echanics. By
d eposition, as well as the production of films of
ALEXANDELt Z I WET. P art II. : l n troduction to Dy
oxide by t he same m eans, forms the chapter on
namics ; Statics. London and New York : Macmillan
and Co. [ Price Ss. 6d.]
Electro Metal Colouring ; and under t he heading
of M echanical M etal Colouring is t o b e found a A Treatise on M oney, and Essays on M onetary Problems.
~Y .
SBIKLJ> N!CBOLSON, M.A. , D .Sc. Second
short d escription of t h e mauufacture of the bronzEd1t1on. L ondon: Adam a.nd Charles Black. [Ptice
i ng p :>wders, and t he m ethods by which t h ey can
7s. Gd.]
be applied to var ious articles.
Th e Royal Indian Engineering Cnlleoe, Cooper's H t'll.
Calendar f or 1893-94. London : ,V. H. Allen and Co
The last chapter of the book contains a few
Limited.
'
necessary hin ts fo r use in cases of accident to the
Railway Diary and Officials' Directorv. 1894. Lonworkmen , w ho too often have to employ poisonous T he
don : McCorquoda.le and Co. , Li mited. ~ [ Price l s.]
s ol utions.
The "P1actical Engineer" Pocket-Boo ~ and Diary f or
Ther e are but few press errors, and t he p rint in CY
1894. Edited by W. H FowLltR, M. Inst. Mech. E .
Metal Colouring and Bronzing. By AR'i'HUR H . H ronNS. is good. The bo~k is a useful add ition t'o tech u ic,J
Manchester : Tech nical Publishing Company Limited
[Price l a.]
'

London, 1892: 1\Iacmillan and Co. [Price 5..;.)


liter ature, and sh ould be in the hands of every or H tlicaZ Gea1s ; a Practical Treatise. By A F OREMAN
T his book is intended to be a convenient record n amental m etal worker .
PA'.IT~RN.MAKER. Illustrated with JOO E ngravings and
of a g reat number of exper iments conducted with a.
Front1sp1ece. London: \Vhittaker and Co.
view to impr ove the prac ti ce of an art too lon u The Transition Curve F ield-Book. By CONWAY R .
neglected in t his country. That such experiment~
H OWAIH>, C.E. New York : John \Viley and Sons.
1891.
should be undertaken in connection with t he techKING S TON ELECTRIC LIG HTING
nical school of t he city which is the centre of the V\re must confess that we are unable t o see the
S TATION.
English ornamental m etal trade is m ost appro- objecb with which Mr. H oward's little field-book
TnE growing popula~'ity of the. electr ic light, and
priate, and furnishes anoth er answer to those has been published, as t he problem cf running in also th e pressure exercised by pn vat e enterprise on
critics, still t oo numerous, who depreciate t he a transition. cur ve can b e accomplish ed in all cases municipalities, are shown. by the fact that many
efforts which are being made to educate the workers th at practically occur, by such sin1ple arit hmetic small towns are now erect10g central stations for the
that a special field-book is not r eq uired.
Prac- ~upply o! electric energy. As an example of a. suitable
of this country in th eir r espective cr afts.
In the intr oductory chapter of the work the tically there a r e only two q uantities to be calcu- msta.llat10n for. places of moderate size, we illustrate,
author briefly reviews the q uestion of colour 'from lated- vi z , th e amount t he circular curve, which is on pages 692, 693, and 696, the station ~' hich is now
the physical standpoint, a nd r epeats th e plea to be connect ed to t he tangent by a transition cur ve on the poin t .of. completion at Kings ton-on Thames.
urged by man y au thorities, that the colour-trea~ is to be offset from that tangent, a nd the position of At present th1s IS a modest en t erpr ise, designed to
current t o five thousand 35watt incandescen t
ment of metals should always be of such a nat ure the BC poin t of the transition curve. If the curve is supply
lamps, and thirty-five 500-watt arc lamps. Provision
that the distinctive metallic character is in n o way to be set out with ordinates, th e cu bic parabola has, howev~r, ~een made in the d esig n for considerhidden or lost. The effect of metals one upon s hould be used, in which case a table of n atural able ex tens10ns m .the futur e when use, and possibly
anoth~r, ~hen alloye~, is briefly treated, a lth ough cos in es only is n eeded. If, on the other hand the decreased cost, will have caused the light to be rethere 1s evident appreciation of the production of the curve is to be set out by t h e theod oli te, the t ransitio n gard ed 1?ore generally as a. necessity.
Japanese artists. One would, ho wever, have ex- c~rve in w hich t he curvatu:e increases uniformly
The s~t~ ?f the electric light station is a. piece of
pected to see.more space devoted to experimen ts upon With the length of the curve, I S th e most convenient l~nd adJotmng t he Corporation sewage works, and
th~ productwn of colour films on vario us samples for use, a nd with it a good slide rule only is needed st~uated close to the South- \Y est ern Rail way and the
of l:IDPUre metals, as well as upon the solutions by and even this may b e d ispensed wit h, as the calcu~ River Thames. The nature of the soil is, on t he surwhiCh the films are produced. U ntil th e m etals lations req uired are simple. Mr. Howard's book face, gra~el,. 'Tith clay at a depth of about 12ft .
The btuldmgs were designed and erected und er the
and solutions which produce the colour-films are commences with a complete missta tement. He
studied side by side, the investiga tion will b e in- asserts that if a circular curve is to b e connected sup~rvision of Major Macaulay, t~c borough surveyor,
comple.te. The effect of even traces of impurity by a cubic parabola of cen t ral angle a, the two by ~les~rs. ~lien and ons, of Ktlburn. The general
~estgn
ts
s1~ple
~nd
substantial,
and
the
buildings
was ~omted ~ut as long ago as 1886, at on e of the curves t o h ave a common ts ngent and the same m~lude engmeers offices, stores, engine-room, and
~vemn~ meetm~s of the British Association, and it rate of curvature at their junction , the ofrset be boil~r - house, the offices being placed in front of the
lB poss1ble that 1n some of the occasional failur es of tween the c~rcularcurve and the main tangent is 1the engme-room . . The fo undations are of good cement
the author to obtain a good result, either t he pre- central ordmate of a segment of th e circular curve concrete, earned through the grav el to the clay and
sence or abs~nce of impurity m ay be the cause. subtending an angle of 2a. Expressed in symbols ' built up to within 6 ft. of the surface from ~hich
' le~el the walls ar e carried up. The' engine-room
The author h1mself explains that such failures are this amounts t o the s tate m ent that the offset
pr?bably due to. 3: want of knowledge of the m ost
(~tgs. 1 a~d .2, page 692~ is 40 ft. by 41 ft. by 23 ft.
= {' (1 - cos a),
htgh, an~ 1s h ghted by wmdows placed along one side,
fa, ourable conditions for the experiment as p er an~ ventilated by two louvres placed in t he r oof. The
f?rm~d by other. workers, and that a slight va.ria~otler-house, . 50 ft. by 41 ft. by 20 ft. hig h, is well
t~on ,}ll the. dens1ty or composition of th e "pick- wher eas the true value of t h e offset
h ghted by .wmdows placed at the side and also at the
hng . solutw n, or in its t emperature, has been
= R(Icos a - cos 3 a en~, and 1s large enough to accommodate both the
6
6
.
sufficient to conv~r t apparent failure into s uccess.
bo1ler s and the cond ensing plant ; a. cold well has been
, A ~h ~rt c~em1eal chapter follows, in which a
The
error
involved
increo.se~
with
a. Thus the sunk and conne?ted to. the ri ver by a. drain to supply
rc.mme 1s g1ven of the principal p rop ert ies of
th~ ~ ecessary ctrculatiDg water. The back of the
true
o~s~t
!or
a
t~an
sitio
n
curve
o
f
15
d
eg.
central
meta.ls and alloys. . Re~ere~ce is made to the probUildmgs, or the ends of both engine-room and boilerangle,
Jommg
a
cucular
curve
of
600ft.
radius,
is
bable st~te of combmat wn 1n which some of these
house, are closed by temporary walls or partiti0 n 8
6.815
ft.,
whereas,
according
to
Mr.
Howard's
rule
latter ext.st, and. the n.ative amalgam of silver and
made ~f c?rrugated iron and wood, to allow for easy
it
wo?ld
be
5.
437
ft.
,
an
error
of
about
20
per
cent:
extens10n lD th e future .
mercury Is m en twn ed In proof of the existence of
.As will be seen, Mr. Howard's formula is a little
The plant consists of seven steam dynamos, all of

1)

E N G I N E E R I N G.

(DEc. 8, 1893.

ELE CTRIC LIGHTING STATION; KINGSTON-UPON-THAMES.


nlR. A.

H. PREECE, ENGINEER.

~1ESSRS .

SIEniENS BROTHERS AND COniPANY, LIMITED, CONTRACTORS.

.Ftg. 1. Section A . 8
I

- -

.. ..
.........
'

....

.'
.'
....

----.. -----------.---

1. -- ...... -- .. - .. -- - - - - ------ -- __.

' I

I
I

'

I I

c'=:=-~-

--------1

It

'

...

I '

Fig.2

I '
' I

"~
~

.,
t I

t 1
....

...
.'---------- .. --- __. ,_-------_,
~-------------- -

L----r~~~----~--~~~~--~

'

'

---------------

\.----- ----------- --,

-----------------

..'

'

~ ------------ ----

@0

'I
I

75 B. HP

ngme & Altermxtor.

~------------------- -J

'
..,

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which are in position, the t otal power of 300 brake


horse-power being dh"ined as follows :
For incandescent lighting, three steam dynamos, each
comprising one of Belliss's self-lubricating compound
engines working a Siemens alternating current dynamo,
namely: Two 75 brake horse-power engines and alternating current dynamos running at 462 revolutions per
minute for an output of 24 am pores at 2100 volts. One
40 brake horse-power steam alternator giving an output of 12 amperes at 2100 volts and 580 revolutions per
minute.
For excit ing the alternators there are provided
two 25 brake horse-power self-lubricating compound
engines, working direct current dynamos giving au
output of 160 amperes at a pressure of 105 volts, the
speed of revolutions being 550 turns per minute.
For street lighting there are two 30 brake horsepower engines working continu~us-current _dynamos
giving, at a speed of 550 revoluttons per mmute, an
output of 20 amperes at 950 volt 3.
Figs. 3 and 4, on p age 693, show one of the alt ernatecurrent generators, supplied by Messrs. iemens Bros.
and Co. Limited, of 12, Queen Anne's-gate, Westminster,'who are the contractors for the machinery. His

,,;

the size designated by them as 20/3, and running at 462


revolutions gives an output of 24 amperes with a pressure of 2100 volts and a frequency of 77 per second.
As will be seen, t he armature rotates between two
sets of stationary fi eld magnets, so arranged that each
north pole faces a south pole, and also has a south
The magnet cores are
pole at either side of it.
bolted to two massive cast-iron r ings, which are
themselves fi xed to the bedplate, and are connected together by four stays.
In the narrow
space between the pole faces of t he magnets the
armature revolves. This contains t wenty flat coils,
wound on non-magnetic cores, and fixed to a central
spider keyed to the shaft. The connections between
the coils are so arranged that two parallel circuits of
ten coils each are formed, each giving t he required
electromotive force of 2100 volts. This armature has
practically no reaction on the strong field in which it
runs, so thu.t parallel working and regulation are both
quite easy. The insulation resistfl.nce of the armature
is 3 megohms after six hours' run, and the temperature of the coils, at the same time, is guaranteed not
to exceed that of the air by more than 60 deg. Fahr.
On an ~ctnal test the temperature rise was only 27 deg.

The 40 horse-power alternator is very similar to


that already described, except that it has sixt een
bobbins in t he armature, instead of twent y, and is
generally of smaller dimensions. Its output is 12
amperes at 2100 volts pressure.
One of the exciters, with its engine, is shown in
Fig. 7, on p age 693. It is one of iemens' direct
current shunt-wound dynamos. Below it (Figs. 8 and
9) is shown one of the arc-lighting machines. It is of
iemens 18/12 pattern, designed to give a current of
~0 amperes at a pressure of 950 Yolts, the speed being
555 revolutions per minute. There are t wo of these
machines, with ring armatures 1 in. in diameter
running in a field 12 in. wide. The arc lamps they
feed take 10 amperes each, and are of Siemens'
'' Band " type. Eleven of them are in hexagonal
lanterns, and 25 in globular lanterns. They will each
burn 1 hours with one pair of carbons. The engines
are by :Messrs. Belliss and Co., of Birmingham, of their
self-lubricating compound single-eccentric pattern,
with high and low-pressure cylinders placed side by
side, and working on cranks set at opposite angles.
The engines are double-acting, and though inclosed
the working parts are readily accessible. By simply

E N G I N E E R I N G.

DEc. 8, 1 893.]

ELECTRIC LIGHTING STATION;


~1 R.

A.

H. PREECE, ENGINEER ;

K I NGSTON-UPOJ\T-THAMES.

SIEMENS BROTHERS AND CO~lPANY, LIMITED, CONTRACTORH.

MESSRS.

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turning a handle a. la rge door at the back of the


engine may be opened, giving access to the interior
for inspection of bearings, &c., and in case of any
work being required t o be clone to the engine, by
simply slacking back a few nuts the whole front of
the engine can be removed. Both cylinders are fitted
with removable liners forming steam jackets. The
special features of the engine are the valve arrangement and the method of forced lubrication adopt ed.
Steam is supplied to both high and low pressure
cylinders by a. single Yalve, or rather two valves
superposed in the same cha.m her, and worked by the
same eccentric and rod . This reduces the number of
working parts to a minimum. The oth~r special
feature of the engine, which enables the high speed
to be attained wit hout trouble, is the system of
lubrication, the oil being supplied to the bearings
under pressure by a continuous system of oil
channels arranged in the interior of the various
journals. This has the effect of maintaining a film of
oil between the journal and the bearing, insuring, in

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addition to a most ample lubrication, great quietness


in running, combined with reduction of loss by journal
friction. Messrs. Belliss have had engines on this
principle at work for very prolonged periods of time
without perceptible wear. Not the least important
feature of the system is that the lubrication is essentially automatic in principle, so that the bearings
require practically no attention. The engine being
inclosed by a. casing prevents the lubricant being
thrown about ; at the same time, a.s the cranks do not
re,olve in the oil, the door in the casing can be opened
at any time for a. short period, if desired, without discomfort. Each of the engines is provided with a
steam separator drained by Royle's stea.m trap to
insure dry st eam. We illustrate one of the two exciter
engines on page 696. The disposition of the engines
and other plant is clearly indicated on the plan and
sectional eleYation of the station given on page 692.
The st ea.m pipes a.re, as now usual in central station
work, arranged on the ring system, with valves at
frequent intervals, so disposed as to limit as far as

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possible the effects of any failure of a portion of the


st eam pipe. The st eam and exhaust pipes are carried
overhead on columns as shown. It was a.t first intended to have placed these pipes in a trench below
the engine floor, but owing to the proximity to the
river, the presence of water in the foundations rendered a reconsideration of the levels necessary, and
the pipes were put overhead. A 5-ton traveller is in
position in the engine-room, and commands the whole
of the engine floor.
Steam is supplied by three horizontal multitubnlar
boilers (of which two are now in position) constructed by
Messrs. Bellies and Co., of Birmingham, under the rules
of the Roiler Insurance and Steam Power Company,
Limited, for a working steam pressure of 150 lb. per
square inch. Each boiler is 7 ft. 2 in. in diameter by
22 ft. 6 in. long over all, set in brickwork and furnished with a complete outfit of Hopkinson's mountings, including deadweight safety valve, high steam
and low-water val ve, asbestos-packed water gauges,
and water column, &c. In addition to the foregoing,

6g+
an isolating valve is attached immediately to each
boiler stop-valve. The feed is supplied by two horiz:>ntal \Vorthing ~on duplex pumps, the feed pipes being
in duplicate and arranged so that the feed may be taken
either from the hot well, cold well, or reserve water
t ank, and delivered either through the economiser or
direct to the boilers at w ill. A Green's economiser
of 128 pipes is situated in the main flue to the chimney,
and arranged so that the waste gases from the furnaces
may pass through the economiser or not at will. The
b oiler3 a.re fitted with Bennis's mechanical stokers,
the driving engine being in duplicate, and arranged
iu addition to actuate the scrapers of the econo
m1ser.
Messrs. Relliss have also supplied a compltte plant
for surface condensation, which occupies a position
alongside the boilers, but at a slightly lower level,
and consists of a horizontal surface condenser with a
t :>tal cooling surface of very approximately 1000 square
feet, w ith a double-acting vertical air-pumping engine
in combination. A K irkaldy 's evaporator for makeup feed is placed above the condenser, and the main
exhaust pipe is a rranged w ith suitable val ves, so t hat
the exhaust steam may pass either to the atmosphere
or the condenser at will. The cooling water is passed
through the condenser by a centrifugal circulating
pump driven by an inclosed single-cylinder engine,
and dra.wing its supply from a cold well in direct communication with the River Thames hard by, affording
an inexhaustible supply of condensing water.
M r. A. H. Preece, of V ictoria-street, \Vestminster,
is acting as consultin g engineer t o the Corporation
of Kingston, and under his su pervision the designs
were got out and the work done. He has laid down
th e following conditions of efficiency for the various
steam dynamos:
Larye Alternator:~, 75 Iiorse-Power.-Consumption of steam per kilowatt hour at full load, 30.2 lb.
condensing, and 36.8 lb. non-condensing; at half load,
33.2 lb. condensing, and 45.7 non -condensing.
~ mall Alternator.-~ . -Consumption of steam per
kil owatt hour at full load, 33.5 lb. condensing,
and 40.5 lb. non -condensing ; a t half load, 37.4 lb.
condensing, and 49. 9 lb. non -condensing.
A 1c Liyhtiny 1Jlachines.- -Consumption of steam at
full load , 3~. 2 lb. condensing, and 40.3 l b. noncondensing; at half load, 37.5 l b. condensing, and
49 lb. n on-condensing.
Having thus dealt with the generators, engines,
and boilers, we will now turn to the other features of
the installation. It is, as already stated, on the
alternate currant system. A low-tension network
of mg,ins is being laid down in the market-place t o
supply the business premises from a transforming
station, containing two transformers, one of 30 kilowatts and one of 15 kilowatts capacity. Ih the
County Buildings a 15-kilowatt transformer is also
placed. Consumers at a distance will have transf ormers on their premises. The high -tension mains
and feeders are of Siemens concent.ric H C N pattern,
having . 035 square inch of sectional area. These
mains are lel.d-coated ; over the lead they are served
with jute, then sheathed with iron, served again, and
"compounded. " Their ins ulation resistance is 2000
m egohms p er mile between the conductors, and 500
megohms to ear th. The arc light mains are insulated
with vulcanised rubber, then encased in lead, over which
is jute, iron armour, more jut e, aud "compound. "
The insula tion resistance is 600 megohms per mile,
and the cross-section of copper .0193 square inch. The
low t ension network mains are of the L C N type, very
similar t o the high tension mains, but not so strongly
insulated. The cross-section of copper is .l square
inch, and the resistance of the dielectric 1000 megobms
per mile between the conductors, and 500 megobms
to earth.
The station is worked rigorously on the parallel
system; it cannot b e worked in any other way, since
a.ll the feeders start from a single pair of omnibus
bars (Fig. 6, page 693). Referring t o the diagram of
connections it will be seen that the three alternators are ~onnected t o the omnibus bars by doublepole switches one pole going to the bar direct,
and the oth~r through a n ammeter.
S imilarly,
each pair of feed ers is provided with a switch. an_d
an ammeter which shows how much current 1t Js
t aking. There is also an ammeter intercalated in one
of the bars to show the total output at any moment.
There i s al~o a voltm eter, marked "bar voltmeter, ''
connected across the omnibus bars to show the potential
difference. One voltmeter serves for the three alternators, being plugged on to the ter~ina.!s of a ny one
at will. In th e diagram the connection 1s shown fror:n
the lef t -hand alternator only to the vol tmeter, but 1t
will be unders tood there is a similar connection from
ea ch of the othera the terminals of the three sets of
w ires being indic~ted at the voltmet er switch. These
wires a lso run (one only shown) t o the upper synchronising switch. The synchronising arrangements
are of the usual type. The transformer _used has t~o
primary coiJs and a single seco~dary, w1th ~ lamp m
the latter circuit. The connectiOn to the ngbt-band
primary is from the omnibus bars down to the

E N G I N E E R I N G.
lower synchronising switch, and through this up to
the transformer. The connection to the left primary
is from the upper synchronising switch. Let us
suppose now that the first and second alternators are
at work, a.nd it is desired to put the third in circuit.
The lower synchronising switch is closed, the upper
is placed in circuit with the particular machine, as is
also the voltmeter switch. The speed of the machine
is then gradually increased until the voltmeter
corresponds with the bar voltmeter, showing that
the alternat or is giving the required electromotive
for~e. It is then r e1dy to be p ut into the general circuit, if it is in phase or step with the other machines.
It is the office of the lamp or the synchronising transformer to show if this be so or not. If the currents in
the two prima.ry coils of this transformer be out of
phase, more or less, the lamp will give an unsteady
flickering light, and not until both currents come
exactly into unison will it burn regularly.
The
man, therefore, waits with his hand on the main doublepole switch and his eye on the lan1 p until the latter
gradually becomes steady, when immediately he turns
over the switch. After this the mutual influence of
the mach ines k eeps them in step.
There is a separate exciting circuit, which supplies
not only the alternators, but also the arc light
machines, and the exciters themselves, which are
shunt-wound. The leads from each exciter go t o a.
d ouble-p ole switch, one connection of which is t o a
lower exciter omnibus bar a, and the other through an
ammeter to an upper bar b. The bar a is connected to
one terminal of each field circuit, and the barb by a
number of Y switches to the other terminals. 'fhe
two outer Y switches serve the two exciters, the two
lower ones the arc lighters, and the remainder the
alternat ors. The right-hand terminal of each Y switch
is connected to the one main; the left-band terminal
to a resistance, the other end of which is connected to
the other main; the pivot terminal is connected to the
one end of t he shunt exciting coils, the other end of
which is connected to the latter main. Thus, when both
prongs of t he Y switch are on the right-hand block,
the exciting current passes directly from one main to
the other through the coils of the field magnets.
\Vhen the switch is in middle position th e resistance
is in parallel with the exciting coils; and when both
prongs are on the left-hand block, the exciting current
is interrupted, and the resistance is put in circuit with
the exciting coils. By the use of this switch for
breaking the exciting circuit, a ny damage from extra
current is avoided, as in the first movement the exciting current is reduced by the resistance being put
in parallel w ith it, while at the instant of break it is
in series, and therefore allows the extra current to
circulate harmlessly. In connection with each field
magnet is a rheostat, by which the strength of the
field can be adjusted without interfering with that
of any other machine.
The two arc-light machines work through doublepole switches on to a pair of bars from which two sets
of mains diverge, there being an ammeter to each
machine, and also to each pair of mains. There is also
a voltmeter to each machine.
The switchboard forms an exeedingly handsome
structure along one side of the engine-room. It is
made of polished slate, set in a polished wood frame.
There is a wide inclosed passage at the back through
which all the connections are led, and in which they
are comple tely out of sight. The entire installation
is of pleasing appearance, a nd shows throughout that
great pains have been taken not only to provide the
highest class of machinery, but also to arrange it with
a view to easy and economical working, and also to
ready extension in the fnture.

3000 HORSE-POWER QUADRUPLE EXPANSION ENGINE AT THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION.


THE main eng ine and central feature in the power
plant of the Columbian Ex position, ~nd one t hat _has
without doubt attracted the most umversal attent10n,
is the 3000 horse-power quadruple-expansion engine
built by the E . P . Allis Co mpany, Milwaukee, \Vis.,
U.S.A.
This engine is the one that was started by Preeident
Cleveland on :M ay 1, the opening day, and during the
Exposition it worked continuously as a part of the electrical power plant. It is a good example of the wellknown Reynolds-Corliss engine, designed by Mr.
Edwin Reynolds, of which so many are to be found in
all parts of the tates. The general arrangement of
the engine is shown by the illustrations on the twopage plate in our issue of November 24, and on page
648 antf', where Fig. 1 represents a side eleYation
giving the general outline, Fig. 2 a plan, Fig. 3 a side
elevation bhowing the arrangement of the valve gear
for the high -pressureand second intermediate cylinders,
Fig. 4 an end view showing the receivers below the
floor level and the independent air -pump a nd condenser. The eugine is described as a horizontal crosst andem quadruple-expansion condensing engine, with
cylinders of the following sizes :
Highpressure

[DEc. 8, I 893.
cylinder, 26 in. in diameter ; first intermediate, 40 in.
in diameter ; second intermediate, 60 in. in diameter ;
low pressure, 70 in. in diameter, the stroke being
6ft. throughout. The designed speed is 60 revolutions per minute, and the initial working pressure is
180 lb. per square inch. It worked at the Exposition with a pressure of 110 lb. per square inch, and
was, therefore, only working up t o 2000 horse-power.
In order to equalise as nearly as possible the two sides
of the engine, the h igh-pressure and second intermed iate cylinders are arranged tandem on the right,
and the first inter mediate and low-pressure cylinders
on the left-hand side, the steam crossing three times
between the two sides. Each side con~titutes a complete engine in itself, the two bein g coupled up w it h
cranks set at an angle of 90 deg. The larger cylinders
are in each case set against the guide f rames of the
bed. The ends of the guides are turned, a.nd fitted
into the cylinder covers to a depth of i in., and bolted
to them with twenty 11-in. studs. The back cylinders
are connected up with cast-iron distance pieces, the bolts
in the smaller end serving for the covers of the smaller
cylinders. The distan ~e pieces are open on all sides,
allowing ample spa.ce for packing the glands and making
any adjustment necessary. The low-pressure cylinder
is shown in detail by Figs. 5 to 10, and the others are
made on the same lines. The valve chests are cast in
one with the cylinders, clearance space being cut down
to a. minimum. As will be seen, both the cylinders and
covers are jacketed, live steam being taken from the
main steam pipe~ for high-pressur~ and first intermediate, and a reduced pressure for the second in termediate and lew-pressure cylinders, Cbapman reducing
valves being used for this purpose.
The liners are of hard close-grained cast iron, the
joints between the inner and outer casings being made
by copper rings (see Fig. 9), and held in place by the
covers abutting against them. A ll the cylinders are
carried on foo t brackets, which are fastened direct to
the foundations by four 2~-in. bolts to each foot.
The guide frames. (Figs. 16 and 17) are of cast iron,
bolted to the cylinder beads and bed frame, the cylinders being recessed, as before stated, to fit them and
to insure perfec t alignment. The guides are circular,
and the crossheads fitted t o them with adjustable castiron slippers top and bottom, 3 ft. long and 15~ in.
wide, the adjustment being taken up by 1 ~-in. studs
on the cylinder end, and by one guided laterally on the
inside edges. The crosshea.ds are of cast-iron, the
piston rods b eing screwed into them, and held in place
by lock nuts. The crosshead pin is of machine steel
9 in. in diameter, held in place by a nut and washer.
The bed and frames are of a massive box section, as
shown by Figs. 11, 12, and 13, each being held to t he
foundations by six 2~-in . Lolts. The main bearings
are 2 ft. 8 in. long by 19 in . in diameter, of ca.st iron
lined with Babbitt metal, fitted to the crankshaft
bearings. Some details of these are shown in Figs. 14
and 15. The Babbitt liners are well hammered, and
then machined and scraped to fit the shaft. The
bearings are in four pieces, and the adjustment for
wear is taken up by four 1!-in. set screws pressing on
the side blocks from the top ; the front block is also
adjusted by two 2i-in. act screws pressing on a
wrought-iron liner inserted between the frame and the
block. The blocks are kept in p osition on t he outside
by the d iscs, and on the inside by cast-iron plates
held on by set screws.
The cap is fitted over the
frame, the bolts being car ried down through the foundations. This a decidedly cheap and good form of
bearing; it is very efficient, and has ghen good results.
The frames, as before stat ed, are entirely independent
of one another, the main bearings being 10ft. 4 in.
apa.rt in the clear, or 13ft. centres.
The crankshaft is of wrought iron, 21 in. in diameter
at the centre, reduced to 19 in. in diameter at the
journals. The crank discs are of cast iron, designed to
as nearly as possible counterbalance, and are pressed on
by hydraulic pressure and securely keyed in place.
The cran kpins are of steel, 9 in. in diameter by 9 in.
long, forced into place by hydraulic pressure, and
riveted in. The t wo cranks are set at an angle of
90 deg. to one another, the flywheel being carried on
the centre of the shaft between the two.
The flywheel illustrated by Figs. 23 and 24 is 30 ft.
in diameter and 76 in. wide, the face being machined
to a crown of l.r in. The rim of the wheel is built up
in twelve sections. The join ts are at the centre of
the arms ; they are faced a.nd held together by internal
flanges, with eight 2!-in. through bolts at each joint.
As a furth er security, 1~-in. square links on either
side are let in flush and shrunk on. Each of tbe
twelve arms is of a hollow box section, machined at
the sides and held to the rim hy two 21-in. bolts.
They are fitted between the centre discs, and attached
to them by three 3-in. bolts driven tightly into reamed
holes, drilled after all the parts are in position. The
hub or centre is composed of two discs 7 ft. in diameter, keyed to the shaft by two 3!-in. steel k eys set at
an angle of 90 deg. to each other. The total weight of
the wheel is 136,000 lb., made up as follows : Rim,
88,000 lb. ; arms, 30,000 lb. ; hub, 18,000. The wheel
was put together in their new shop, turned on the face

FOUR-CYLINDER COMPOUN D CONSOLIDATION LOCOMOTI VE: WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION.


CONSTRUCTED AT THE BROOKS LOCOMOTIVE WORKS,

DUNK IRK , NEW YORK,

U.S.A.

(F or N o#ice, ue Page 695.)


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E N G I N E E R I N G.

DEc. 8, I 893.]
and hub, after which it was taken apart and rebuilt on
the shaft.
The connecting-rods are shown in deta.il by Figs. 18
to 20. They are of wrought iron, 8 in. in diameter at
the middle, and 18 ft. long from centre to centre. The
crank end is square, to receive a strap end carrying the
brasses (Figa. 21 and 22), which are Hanged and Rabbitlined. The adjustment is made and the wear taken
up by a. neat and effective arrangement of taper gibs and
cotter, the former being round, the holes being easily
drilled. The space between is slotted out to receive
the cotter, which is fiat, the gib being flattened to suit.
The crosshead end is in one with the rod, it being
bored and slotted to receive the bra.sses (Fig. 21). The
adjustment is also made by a round taper cotter, the
end of the brass being arranged to receive this. The
hole through the rod is parallel, n.nd allows ample
clearance space for the adjusting cotter-piece as shown.

for the releasing gear are on the vacuum principle,


those for the low-pressure being 12 in. in diameter,
and for the high 11 in. ; they are carried from the foot
brackets of the cylinders.
The governor of the high-speed Porter type, is
mounted on the side of the guide frame; it is driven
by a. belt from the main shaft to a pulley 16 in. in
diameter and a pair of bevel gears of 22 teeth ! in.
pitch. The governing is accomplished by rods coupled
to the sleeve studs, which are carried through on each
side, and engage the T -levers actuating the valve cams
on each cylinder.
The condenser and air pump is of the independent
vertical form, and shown in detail in Figs. 26 and 27 ;
it has a. Corliss steam cylinder 16 in. in diameter
by 36 in. stroke, the air pump being 36 in. in diameter.
The cylinder is mounted on a. distance piece, bored

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This will at once be recognised as a departure from the


usual design.
The va.lve gear is dri \ren by eccen tries on the main shaft,
held in position by set screws. The sheave8 are made
of cast iron in two parts, fastened by pins and cotters.
The straps are also of cast iron ; the rods are flat, let
into them flush and held by bolts. The opposite ends
of the rods are attached to rocker arms carried on a
shaft from the base of the bedplate. To the other end
of each rocker is attached the wrist-plate rod. The
wrist-plate is of cast iron, fitted with steel studs held in
place by nuts. All rod joints are of hard bronze, which
are held in place and adjusted by taper s teel cotters.
The admission gear consists of a lever fitting over
the cam sleeve, carrying on its end a brass fork ed
hook fitted with steel edges, kept in position against
the cam by a back spring. The valve lever is
keyed on the outside; the shaft passing through is
held and supported by the cast-iron bonnets bolted to
t he cylinders. The r eleasing gear is operated by an
independent eccentric from the main shaft, by rods
connecting a rocker carried from the side of the bedframe. To this are attached two rods, each connecting
to two T -levera, carried by rocker arms on the same
shaft bolted to the guide frames. To the T -levers are
attached the rods for operating the catch pawls for the
steam valves.
The valve shafts are carried by cast-iron bonnets
the lever being keyed on the outside. The dashpot~

II II

L:.

:.l_ ___ .,.

---.

ON our two-page plate accompanying our issue this


week we commence the publication of drawings illus
trating a four-cylinder compound consolidation loco
motive constructed at the Brooks Locomotive Works
at Dunkirk, in New York State, to the order of the
Great Northern Railway of the United tates. This
locomotive is one of the large collection of the Brooke
locomotive~ shown in the Transportation Exhibit Building at the \Vorld's Columbian Exposition, of which
perspective views have already appeared in E NO I NEER
I NG. The locomotive now illustrated in detail is re
presented by Fig. 6 on the two-page plate at page
479. We give general drawings of the engine, with
details of boiler, grate, frames, and brakes, and hope
in a. subsequent issue to complete the details, so that
it may be desirable to defer a. full description. It will
be seen from Figs. l, 4, and 5 that the cylinders work
tandemwise, the high-pressure cylinders being 13 in .
and the low pressure 22 in., the stroke being 26 in.
The valves are of the Richardson balanced type. The
boiler is 63 in. in internal diameter, and there are 208
tubes, 11 ft. 7 in. long by 2i in. in diameter. The
firebox is 114 in. by 32 in., and the grate is of castiron rocking bars.

_.,.,..~

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FOUR - CYLINDER COMPOUND LOCOMO~


TIVE AT THE WORLD'S COLOMBIAN
EXPOSITION.

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It is so arranged that the passage of the steam


through them shall be slow, all condensed water being
taken off by steam traps.
The engines are connected so that eith~r side ca:n ~e
used separately as an independent engme. Th~ IS
done by inserting gate valves in th:e various feed p1pes.
The arrangement of the steam pipes and connectiOns
is clearly shown in the illustrations, and need not be
further referred to. The engine was used for driving
two 10,000-light Westinghouse incandescent dynamos,
running at a rated speed of 200 revolu tions, the a.rr~a
ture pulleys being 9 ft. in diameter. The peculiar
feature of the drive is shown by a sketch (Fig. 16). . A
7~-in. beJt drhes to the first dynamo, the second bemg
directly in line with this in the rear, and driven by .a
belt riding on the top of the first one. This method IS
not uncommon for small engines, but has never before
been applied on so large a scale. The results have
been very satisfactory, and not the slightest trouble has
been occasioned. The duty to which this engine was
applied wa.s a very trying one, as it was subjected to
great changes of load , the whole power being taken on
the two machines, the whole load being 1ikely to be
thrown off at any time, and to make it worse, the engine
is large for the work it had to do. This is unfortunate,
as it would have been interesting to engineers had
some economy test been made. The engine worked
well, and gave no trouble, and is justly worthy of the
attention it has so universally attracted.

SIXTY-FOOT LOCOMOTIVE TURNTABLE.


W E illustrate on page 697 a 60-ft. locomotive
turntable exhibited at the \Vorld's
'llbian Exposi
tion, Chicago, by the Detroit Bridge c..
on \Vorks,
Detroit. This turntable may be taken ~s a. good example of present American practice. The weight is
carried partly at the centre and partly by four wheels
running on a. circular track laid round the edge of the
pit. The body of the t able (Figs. 1 and 2) consists of
two riveted plate girders, 4 ft. 6 in. deep between
flanges at the centre, and 2 ft. 2f in. deep at the ends.
These girders are spaced at 5-ft. centres, and are firmly
braced t ogether at frequent intervals (Fig. 4). The
phot (Figs. ~' 6, _and 7) consists of a casting having
dowelled to 1t at Its lower end a. hard steel disc, the
lower face of which is convex and rests upon the
concave face of a second steel disc turned to correspond, and dowelled into a heavy casting bolted to a
masonry foundation below. The thrust of the pivot
is transferred to the table in the first place through a
forged pin 6 in. square, the ends of which rest in
heavy plates, connecting together the two cross~irders on eithe~ si~e of the phot. By placing packmg between th1s pm and the top of the pivot the
le~el ?f the ta~le can be adjusted, and a proper distnbutlOn of weight between the central piYot and the
end rollers secured. A 3-in. lapped hole is put
through the centre of both pivot and discs and
facilitates the handling of them. At each end ~f the
table ~he girders. are also connected to. a couple of
c~oss-g1rders, which are prolonged outside the main
girders, a nd have attached to them the journals fo r the
e~d roller axl~s (Figs. 2 and 3). These rollers (see
F 1g. 8) are slightly c?n.ed, but are without flanges,
~o t~at most of the guidmg o.f the t able durin g turnmg 1s done by the central pivot. They have a diameter of 30 in., and the width of tread is 4 in. The
material of which they are made is cast iron.

for a piston crosshea.d , through which are carried rods


set across to clear the shaft attached to the pump-rod
below. The crank shaft is carried in Babbitt-lined
cast-iron bearings set in the main frame. The condenser is of the cylindrical jet type, forming the base
of the main casting. The air-pump cylinder is centrally located in its lower part, which is annular in
shape, having a 22-in. exhaust opening on one side,
and the injection admission at right angles to it. The
pun1p plunger is fitted with six vulcanite valves, the
delivery having twelve of the same size. The pump is
single-acting, the cylinder being open at both ends.
This form of pump is very compact, neat, and effective,
and easily regulated to any condition under which
the engine may work.
The receivers are shown in position in Fig. 4. The
first takes the steam from the high-pressure cylinder. It is 36 in. in diameter by 10 in. 6 in. long.
The second is 54 in. in diameter by 10 in. 6 in. long
and the third 54 in. in diameter by 10ft. 6 in. long:
They are all of the same construction, containing a
large number of symmetrically arranged brass tubes.
They are not intended for superheating the steam, but
simply to prevent condensation of the exhaust steam
in its passage through the long connections. The ex~aust passin~ t?rough the t~b.es, and surrounded by
THE LARGEST DrA~!OND. -Thelargestdiamond eYer dis~
hve steam at bo1ler pressure, 1t 1s obvious that to some
extent in the third and fourth cylinders some super- ?Overed w~s recently unea.rthe~ in the J agersfontein mine
1~ the Afnca~ ~ree State. It 1s described as a. pure white
heating must take place.
d1a.mond, wetghmg no less than 971 carats.

[DEc. 8, 1893.

EN G I N E E RI N G.

6g6

STEAlVI DYNAMOS

KINGSTON

AT

ELECTRIC

LIGHTING STATION.

(For Description, see Pctge Gt)l.)

..

..

..
..' . .'
'

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Fiy. '7.

P'ifl.8.

THE LATE MR. BRYAN DONI{IN.


\\Trr much

regret to record the death, on th e 4th inst.,


of 1\lr. Bryan Donkin, one of the last remaining
members of t hat group of engineers, including John
Penn the elder, H. Ivlaudslay, John Hall, Isambard
Brunei, J. Hramah, and J . Farey, whose names
arc so intimately associated with the progress of
mechanical engineering during 1he early half of
th e present century. The late :Mr. Don kin, who
was the fifth son of J.lr. Bryan Donkin, F. R. . ,
the originator of the first practical continuous papermaking machine, was born in Bermondsey on April
29, 1809, and he was thus in his eighty-fifth year at
the time of his death. He was educated partly at a
school at Bromley and partly a.t other schools in the
neighbourhood of London, while he also studied a.t
Paris and at ran tes. At an early age he wa~ appren
t iced to his father a.t the \Yell-known works at Bermondsey, and he late.r too~ a:n active part. as the
assistant of his fat.her m desgn10g and supermtending the construction of paper-making, printing, and
other machinery.

In 1829 Mr. Donkin went to Fra.nce to superintend


the erection of paper-making and other machinery nea.r
Nautes, while later on he proceeded to
pain to
survey the River Ebro. He was also engaged on
some railway surveys in England. In 1835 he hecame
an Associate of the Inst itution of Civil Engineers,
while in 1840 he was elected member. At the time of
his death he was, we believe, by seniority the " fat her
of the Institntion. "
On his father's dea,th :Mr. Donkin became a pcl.rtner
in the Bermondsey works, first with his brothers John
and Thomas Donkiu and Mr. B. ,V, ]'arey, and afterwards with his nephews, 1\Ir. Bryan Donkin, Jun.,
and ~lr. E. B. Donkin. In lb58 he went to t.
Petersburg to undertake the erection of a large new
paper mill for the manufacture of H.ussian bank-note
and other ' tate paper , a contract for Lhe construction
of this mill having been given to his firm by the Russian
Government. The mill " as on a very large scale,
utilising some 2000 horse-power, and employing n.bout
2000 hands, and it was finished in l )62, .Mr. Donkin
witnessing its completion in company with the Russian
General \Y inburg.

~lr.

Don kiu retired from active b usiness about twehe


years ago, but he continued to live at Blackheath,
where he had resided for over forty years. He was,
however, frequently on the Continen t. ~1uch esteemed
for his genial disposition and straightforward character
by all who came in contact with him, in his business
career Mr. Donldn displayed great energy and tact.
He d esigned and patented many improvements in the
construction of paper machinery and steam engines,
and under his supervision u.nd that of his partners
t he Bermondsey work~ became greatly extended, and
they, moreover, became noted as one of the very few
establishments of the kind in which really scientific
investigations of the action of steam in the steam
engine have been systematically carried out. I t
is not too much to say that to ~Ir. Donkin's firm engineers of the present day are Yery greatly indebted for
data as to the means whereby economy can be secured
in the modern steam engine. 'V e are glad to know
that these investigations arc still being continueu.
J.Ir. Donkin was married to .M iss E. Day, of I sleworth, and had three children. Hi~ ftmeral will take
place to-day at Nunhead Cemetery.

E N G I N E E R I N G.

DEc. 8, r8g3.j

EXPOSITION.

COLUMBIAN

WORLD'S

SIXTY-FOOT LOCOY.rOTIVE TURNTABLE:

CONSTRUCTED BY THE DETROIT BRIDGE AND IRON 'VORKS, DETROIT.

(F01 Description, see Page 695.)


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To THE EDI1'0R oF ENGINRERING.


Sm -As the inventor of the well-known seamless gas
cylinders, of which so many thousands are now in use, I
trust you will allow me a little space in your nexb issue
for the purpose of reassuring the public as to the safety
of the high-pressure gas system if properly carried out.
It is now seven or eight years since I first introduced
my cylinders to Messrs. Brin's Oxygen Company,
L1mited, and the result has been beyond my most sanguine antici~ations. Naturally success with this speciality, as w1th others, has tempted competitors to offer
cheap articles made by modified processes for the evasion
of my patent.
Being so particularly interested in the subject, I made
it my business to be present at the inquest at Bradford. I
there saw the fragments of the exploded cylinder, which
I have no hesitation in d eclarin~ was not made by my
process, nor of the class of matenal I have always found
necessary. The parts of the broken cylinder appeared as
brittle as glass~ and the cylinder had been made evidently
by some irregular punching process of a vury high carbon
but common quality of steel. I believe the carbon was
as high as .5 per cent. Such steel, in auy case, has a very
limited ductility, but when cold drawn and unannealed it
contains within its own substance, irrespective of any gas
pressure, very severe and irregular strains.
The crlinders so crucially treated by Professor Goodman-vtz. , let fall 22ft., when fully charged with gas,
on to a heavy iron plate, and also burst at 3 tons per
square inch pressure-were made by my process, by the
manufacturers with whom I have been associated.
Anticipating the extreme danger to the public of the
use of inferior cylinders, I, some months ago, when I
found them being put on the market at prices we could
not look at, specially urged the Board of Trade to appoint
Government mspectors to examine, test, and approve all
cylinders, as is done by the German Government. I am
sorry to say at that time ~Ir. Mundella would not agree
to any arrangement being made. However, this matter
has since been taken up at my request by one of the
members of Parliament for this city, and I 9om in hopes
that action will now be taken.
I will now describe how cylinders, that are perfectly
reliable, are m&de.

,.

:I..

t
t
I

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I
I

The standard working pressure is 120 atmospheres or


about i ton per squar e inch. The German Goverment,
however, work my cylinders up to 160 atmospheres .
'! 'he only authorised makers of cylinders made by my
process as described, are the Endurance Seamless Tube
and Vial Company, Limited, and Samuel Walker, both
Birmingham firms.
Yours faith fully,
H OWARD L ANE.
Corporation-street, Birmingham, December 2, 1893.

- .,..

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.
.
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End Roller
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<o

THE GAS CYLINDER ACCIDENT AT


BRADFORD.

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In the first place, steel of the finest but mildest quality


is speni fied ; the carbon of this steel is .15 to . 2 per cenb.,
and must never exceed .25 per cent. The tensile strength
must not exceed 34 tons per square inch. Tho ex tension
(ductility) must be at least 27 per cent. on a length of 2 in.
before fracture, and the reduction of area. at point of fracture 40 per cent.
The steel is thoroughly worked by rolling and cross
rolling into plates of considerable thinness ; these plates
are then sheared into circles of suitable size. By hydraulic
pressure these circular plates are first made into " cups, "
and subsequently into short thick tubes with one end
closed; up to this point the steel is worked hot. The
final operations are conducted cold; after each operation
the metal is carefully annealed and then again drawn out
until a cylinder of the desired len~th, results. Ab a
certain stage of the operations the arttcle is subjected to a
bursting stress of 2 tons per square inch, to ascertain if
there are any bidden defects. Finally the cylinders are
annealed and tested to 1! tons per square inch, which
is well within the elastic limits of the material.
Cylinders m!\de in this way will stand any amount of
rough usage. They will bear destruction tests up to 3 tons
per square inch, in course of attaining which they become
considerably bulged or swelled, thus proving the ductility
of the metal.

THE STABILITY OF ARMOURCLADS.


To THE J~IHTOR 0~' ENGINEERING.
SIR,-Mr. J. J . O'Neill, in his criticism on "Stabilit;v
of Armourclads," in your issue of November 24, is evtdently unaware of the possibility of placing a reserve of
buoyancy and stability within the vessel that shall tend
to buoy up and keep the vessel on the surface of the water.
It is evident from the continual sinking of ships, even
with such a slight injury to the hull, renders the subject
one of immediate importance.
'l'he illustrations sent you last week show a system of
construction applicable not only to armourcla.ds and
battleships, but also to unarmoured ve sels, as giving a
positive internal reserve of buoyancy, shoulder, and
stability, to prevent sinking or capsizing.
If Mr. O'N eill will consider the question of a vessel's
buoyancy and stability with even one of her holds open to
the water, he will find that, in proportion to the amount
of vol ume of buoyancy destroyed, there is a corresponding
decrease or destruction of shoulder, and consequent loss
of stability. Athwartship bulkheads do not provide for
this loss of ~boulder or stability, and the water being
between any two bulkheads may be sufficient to render
the vessel unstable and liable to capsize. And we find
that invariably this is what happens; the vessel takes a.
lurch and rolls over.
What is wanted is a reserve of shoulder or stability at
the water line, in addition to a maintenance of buoyancy
or power of flotation. If this is not the ca.se, what is
it ? It is not sufficient to say that the vessel is bound to
sink or founder. But to find the cause and p rovide a
remedy.
Mr. O'N eill, in his first paragraph, points out the value
of inner skins, but this is not the only method of providing for any casualty to the vessel, and it would seem

6g8

[DEC. 8, I 893.

E N G I N E E R I N G.

that the p oint advanced a 3 t o the p ossession of double


bo~toms as being an overturning element is n ot controverted. It is also satisfact ory t o be assured that access
to compartments, without watertight doors, would be
duly appreciated.
If calculations are mad e as t Q the stability of a vessel
under the conditions of the holds becoming filled with
water, it mm~t reveal a great deficiency in this respect
under the conditions stated.
In the ca.'3e of the Victoria., it would seem that water
entered over all the d ecks in the vicinity of the damaged
put; the deck s were all "awash, " and with the trim and
stability altered the buoyancy of the fore p.1rt was destroyed, and 'With o1 1vUhou.t watertight doors the eame
result must have happened.
The solution of it is: Place a. re3er ve of buoyancy a.nd
stability within the vessel ; that will insure a m easure of,
and power t o, resist overturning or sinking.
How is it ascertained with such exact certainty that the
Victoria would nob have foundered with only eight-tenths
of a foot m etacentre. Even wi th a 5-ft. metacentric
h eight in th e initial s tate, this is qui ckly reduced under
the cond iti on of injury, the vessel sinks considerably
d eeper in the water, and nob only the Victoria, but all
vessels under the same conditions, would be unstable.
An arm ourclad should n ot ba a compromise of any kind,
but a distinct structure (different from other vessels), a.nd
of its own merits as a fighting power and efficiency to
resist so readily sinking, even with a greater injury that
may occur t o any or all of our armourclads.
In conclusion, will Mr. O'Neill state if be considers,
from a naval constructor's p oinb of view, that the points
he a.d vacates are essential and effectual to resist sinking
or overturning in the event of ramming, oolli ~tion , or
receiving injury from any cause?
I am, Sir, your very obedient servant,

proportion of parts is observed, " and I have yet to learn


that this is not generally true. I even went so far as to
give rules by which these proportions could be determined.
H is rema rk about a " standard drawing and set of
scales," however, seems to poinb t o his having wrongly
interpreted my words. Apparently be thinks I said
"provided the same prop ortion of parts is obser ved."
To such an assertion his remarks would undoubtedly
apply, but that is n ot what I said.
M essrs. Fell and J ames fear that u there will b e two
zones in the balls that will take all the wear. , That is

Ji'ig.1.

N. A.

L ondon , S.E. , December. 1893.

THE LATE MR. RECKENZAUN.


T o THE EDITOR 011' ENGINEEUING.
Sm,-Will you allow me a. space in the columns of your
journal-which has amongst itls readers so many of my
late husband's friends-to thank them for sending me,
in such numbers, letters of sympathy and condolence ?
Their number is far t oo great for me t o reply to them
individually, and I hope you will give roo this opportunity
of expressing to them my warmest thanks, and the gratification it is t o me to know how universally my h usband
w~s beloved and respect ed.
I am, Sir, faithfully yours,
E. R ECKENZAUN.
34, Hemberton -road , Stockwell, S."\V.,
November 27, 1893.

Fig.2J

Ulf

BALL BEARINGS FOR THRUST BLOCKS.


To 'IHE EDITOR OF ENGINEERING.
RtR, - B efore this matter is allowed t o drop I should be
pleased if you could give m e spac~ to answer some of the
criticisms which have been passed upon the form of ball
b earings I recommended Mr. Ramage to try in my letter
of October 10. The chief objection which was found to it
was that it only bad two points of contact to each ball,
and, t o get over this objection, Mr. 'Vingfield and others
ha ve suggested a form of bearing in which the ball touches
ab four points. There is one objection t o th is form of
groove, h0~ev~r,. wbic~ is f~ta.l-:-viz. t~atl a perfe_ct
rolling mot10n ts unposstble wtth It. if tb be borne ID
mind that the point of contact under pressure becomes
an appreciable area, it will be s~en at once that one portion
of this area of contact must shde upon the other as the
balls rotate and therefore lubrication will be necessary,
and wear a~d heating will t ake place. To obtain true
rolling there ~hould be simp~y a co!Ding together and
going apart Without any rubbmg a ctton of the surfaces
whatever. T o obtain this the ball must roll between two
parallel surfaces. Bub parallel surfaces would leave the
balls free t o become displaced laterally. T o overco!lle
this the surfaces musb be made concave, hence the bearmg
such has I have sketch ed. In the majority of instances,
too there will be a certain amount of motion on the shaft
rel~tively to its bearing which it is most undesirable ~o
prevent, and this, with ~he angul.ar form of groove, wtll
be very detrimental. "\Vtth th e Circular form of groc;>ve
the only effee;t of this action will be to prevPntl the weart.ng
down of the t rack in such a manner as to allow the pomtJ
of contacb t o become a line, and to keep the track to a
radius somewhab great er than that. of the balls. The
a~cura.cy required in its manufacture IS also n~t so gre.at,
and th is W1l1 be an important matter Wit h marme
engine builders. So much for the theory. As to practice, 1Ylr. Carter seems to think that I am quite alot;te
in my belief in the circular groov~, but, tf h e wtll
examine the cycles shown a~ the Nat10nal Shc;>w, I have
no doubt that he will find that . t~ey are without ~x
ception fitted with bearings co? tammg all the e~.sen ttal
features of the baaring shown. m my sketch. I mcl~se
three sections of bicycle bearm~s taken fro!ll the prtce
l ists of well-known manufacturers, all of wht ch show the
circular.ball tr~c~. One of these (Fig. 1) i~ pa.rti_cu~arly
interestmg, as It ts made by M e3sr.s. ,V, ~own, L1m1~ed,
wh o have probably had more exp erience wttb ball bearmgs
than anyone else, and who for many years advoc~ted the
angular groove system, but have now cOil~pletely dlScar~ed
ib. (Fig. 2 shows the b earing of the ~dte Manufacturmg
Company. and Fig. 3 the ba ll steermg head of Messrs.
Perry a nd Co.)
Mr. C"rt er also attempts t o correct me. upo.n another
oinb, but h ere, a~ain, I fear the fault ts hts own. I
~ertainly stated that '' what answers upo? a small scale
mus~ also ans wer upon a. large scale, provtded the proper

Fig.!J

19G3,C

NOTES FROM CLEVELAND AND THE


NORTHERN COUNTIES.
MIDDLESBROUGH, Wednesday.
The Cleveland I ron T rade.-Y esterday there was a
considerably larger attendance on 'Change here than has
been seen for some time past, and the market was animated. M ore disposition to do business was noticeable,
a:od a fair num.ber of tr~ns.actions was recorded . QuotattOn s for all kmds of p1g 1ron advanced, forge qualities
which are scarce, not much being made j ust now, being
particularly strong. Early in the day sales were made ab
35s. 3d. for prompt f.o.b. delivery of N o. 3 g . m. b. Cleveland pig iron , but la ter on sellers asked rather more
and it was said that business was done at 35s. Gd:
Certainly at the close of the market few sellers
would listen to a nything below the la tter quotation.
There were some inquiries on forward a ccount, but very
little business was done for delivery ahead. No. 4
foundry was n ot easily obtained under 34s. 6d. , and one
or two firms asked 34s. 9d. G rey forge was about 34s.
H ematite pig iron was not in a very satisfactory state.
The demand was n ob so good as could be wished, but
producers spoke hopefully of the early future. About
43s. 3d. was generally mentioned for early d ~l ivery of
Nos. 1, 2, and 3 makers' east coast brands. Spanish ore
was unchanged in price. Middlesbrough warrants opened
a t 35s. 6d., and closed very fi rm at 35s. 9d. cash buyers,
with sellers at 36s. T o-day our market was steady,
with a fair business doing, and quotations for makers'
iron d id n ot alter. A'Iiddlesbrough warrants, however, fluctuated a little. After t ouching 35s. lld.,
they closed 35s. 8~d. cash buyers. On the whole, there is
a decidedly better feeling in trade circles, and several
people who took a most gloomy view of the state of affairs
a little whiJ e ago now regard prospects as fairly cheerful.
Of course the fact that the out pub of l>ig iron has bean
considerably reduced recently, and the m creased demand,
have made pig rather scarce, and producers opine that
quotations are not likely to reced e much, at a ll events for
a while. One of the b ematite blast furnaces at Sir
B ernard Samuelson and Co.'s N ewport works, which has
been damped down, is, we learn, about t o be re-started,
and will probably be in operation next week.
Cleveland Ironmaste1s' .Returns. -Considerable falling
off in the make of Cleveland pig iron is shown by the
ironmast ers' returns for last month, and an equal decrease
in the quantity st ored is shown. The t otal make of
Cleveland pig iron for November only amounted to
99,G99 t ons, which is 16,400 t ons less than the preceding
month. The make of other kinds, including hematite,
spiegel, and basic pig iron, reached within 2109 t ons of
the previous month, the quantity turned out being
111,717 ton!:t, making a t otal of all kinds of 211,416 tons,
or 18,509 t ons l ea~ than October. There were 81 furnaces in
blast and 62damped down, as against 95 and 93 respective1y
for the corresponding period of last year. M ak E'r s' stocks
a nd st ores amo~nted t o 71,640 t ons, as against 93,528 tons
for October, bemg a decrease of 21,888 tons. In publio
stores there were 92,759 tons, or a.n increase of 3300 tons,
leaving a t otal decrea.3e in st ocks of 18,421 tons, which is
about equal to the dscrease in make.
M anujactured I ron and Steel.- U nfortunately these two
important industries do not improve much. \Ve believe,
however, thab some bridge-building work and orders as
to steel plates and angles have recently been placed with
local firms, }:\ut quotations oontinue low, and it is said
that even less than the market rat es is accepted by some
fi rms. The following quotations are generally given :
Common iron bars 4l. 17s. 6d.; best bars, 5l. 7s. 6d.; iron
ship-plates, 4l. 15s.; st eel sh ip-plates, 5l. 2s. 6d. ; iron
ship-angles, 4l. 12s. 6d.; and st eel ship-angles, 4l. 15s.,
all less the usual 2! per cent!. discount for cash. Heavy
sections of st eel rails remain ab 3l. 12s. 6d. net at works.
T he F uel T rade.- There is a good demand for coal, for
though orders from the Midlands are now being fast
worked off, other s are being received from Scotland
for coal, for locomoti ves, and for st eam coal for factory
use. These orders, together with a steady demand from
abroad, have given continued stiffness to the market and
en~bled all th~ c~llieries to keep fully ab work, whilst
pr10es are mamtamed. On N ewcastlle Exchange best
N orthumbria.n st eam coal is 14s. 6d. to 15s. f. o.b . and
gas coal is very strong at 11s. to 12s. f.o.b. Shipments of the latter quality are very heavy. Coke is
still stiff. Here about 13s. is the general price for good
blast -furnace qualities deli \'ered on consumers' premises
over the fi rst quarter of n ext year.
A Y ear's Shipbuildin g on the Wear.-The returns of
the various shipbuilding firms on t he W ear are p ublished.
Tbe total output of the thirteen working yards amounts to
121,790 t ons, as compared with 190,755 t ons last year, or
a d ecrease of fi8, 965 tons. This is a snffioient falling off,
compared with the moderate output of 1892, to stamp the
year as a period of depression, and ib regist ers a low rate
of pr.oduction in ?Omparison with the larger figures of the
prev10us five or stx years.

what one would naturally ex pect t o happen, but it does


not take place in actual practice. If observed closely,
the balls will be found to turn over and over in such a.
manner that the wear is uniformly distributed over the ir
whole surface. '!'heir fear that a ball will not carry any
considerable load because it only bears upon two or four
points, I .think has already been shown to be fallacious.
Thankmg you for your space,
I remain, yours faithfully,
NO'r ES FROM SOUTH YORKSHIRE.
A. H. T YLER.
SHEFFIELD, W ednesday.
5, Crown court, Cheapside, L ondon, E.C. ,
A rmou1-P late Orde1.-M essrs. J ohn Brown and Co.,
No vember 28, 1893.
Limited, of the Atlas W orks, Sheffield, have received an
order from the Admiralty for the steel armour-plates required for the redoubtsof H.M.S. R enown, now building
THE L ATE M R. ALF'RED L oNGSDON: ERRATU:M.- In at P~mbroke.
our notice of the late Mr. Alfred L ongsdon which apSteel Trade witk Francc.-A meeting of the Sheffield
p eared on page 678 of our last number 7 it was stated
that Mr. L oogsdon had held the procuration of the fi rm Chamber of Commerce has been held during the week t o
of Krupp since 1856. This we are informed was an consider the position of those engaged in the export of
error, the procuration not having been granted until steel t o F rance. M anufacturers interest ed were specially
invited. Mr. Bateman, C.~1. G., of the Board of Trade,
March, 1R64,

D Ec. R, 1893.]

E N G I N E E R I N G.

serious decline in the import of iron ore into ~he qlyde to


~[onday,
Mr.
D.
J.
Winter
stated
than
be
had
consulted
attended. H e bad b een sent to Sheffield by Mr. Munreport for November. Since the miners' stnke ID EngW.
K
eeling,
C
1~
,
on
the
subject
of
a.
proposed
Mr.
G
della for the purpose of inquiring into the difficulties at
land, comm~ucing in A ugust, fo}lowed ~y the S~otoh
road
brid~e
OYer
tbe
Se~ern,
a
nd
that
that
gentlem.
a
n
ha?
present existing with regard to the export of st eel

to F rance.
He explained the exact posi tion of the
Customs regulations v.;ith r.egard t o the admission. of
etef'l into France, and d1scusston followed on the techmca.l
aspects of the matter. S everal gentlemen present engaged
in the trade gave information t o Mr. Ba.tema.n, who sub~e
quently inspected the manufacture of s~eel of the descriJ?
tions exported to F~an.ce, a~d .too~ var1ou~ s.ampl e~ of tb
with the view of assu~tmg htm m h1s negot1at10ns With the
French Government.
The H eavy T 1ades.- W ork is now becoming general in
con nection with the h eavy iron and steel trades. Blast
furn_ACeS are being Set tO WOrk aS faSt aS COal SUpplieS
come in. Pig iron is fi rm in price at from 42s. for forge
and 4ls. for foundry. Ord ers for manufactured irons are
chiefly bl.r for the home trade and Australia. ~ teel
houses ha ve good orders on th e books for marine and
railway material, and on every side there are signs of improvement.
J ohn Brown and Co. , L imited.-The directors have
resolved t o pay, on the 22nd inst., in addition to the
usual dividend on tbe preference shares, an interim
dividend of 7s. Gd. per share on the ordinary shares of the
company, less income tax.
Yorkshire Ptfiners' A ssociation and the llfiners' Conference. -A special circular has been issued by the Yorkshire Minera' A ssociation in view of the conference of the
Miners' Federation t o be held on Thursday at Birmingham. They ask for reports as to what pits have been
opened, and whether all the men are at work, with
particulars of the numbers still out of work, and those wh o
have started but will require lock -oub pay. The above
information is required in order that the conference mar.
be able to decide what the levy per member will be until
all get back to work. This week's levy is half-a-crown per
member.

NOTES FROM THE SOUTH-WEST.


Cardi ff.- The steam coal collieries have been worked
t o their full productive strength, and prices have
shown, if anything, a t end ency to advance. The best
descriptions have made 15s. t o 15s. 6d., while secondary
qualities have brougbb 143. 3d. t o 14s. 9d. per ton. The
demand for household coal has continued strong ; No. 3
Rhondda large has made 14s. 3d. t o 14s. Gd. per ton. The
manufactured iron and steel trades are still depressed,
and this has affected, t o some extent, the demand for
coke. Iron ore ba.s ruled quiet. Heavy section steel rails
have made 3l. 12s. to 3l. 153. , and lighb section ditto
4l. 103. to 4l. 123. Gd. per ton.
The "Antelope."- The boilers of the Antelope, torpedo
gunboat, at K eyha.m, were subjected to a close examination on Friday. M essrs. Yarrow and Co., the engineer
contractors, will employ their local staff in working overtime in order that the vessel may be completed for further
trials as soon as possible.
The "Bona1:entnre. "-1\{essrs. Ha.wthorne, L eslie, and
Co., engineer contractors for the Bonaventure, cruiser, at
Devonport, having had considerable trouble with the
safety valves of that vessel, have suggested to the L ords
of the Adm iralty that the difficulty might be overcome if
the lips of the valves are removed. Their lordships have
approved of the su~gestion. The safety valves of the
cruiser Ca.mbrian, at P embroke, will be treat ed in a similar
manner.
N ewlyn.-A new harbour ba.s been practically completed at Newlyn. The south arm is 700 fb. long, startmg from what was originally known as the Queen Rocks,
situated to the south of N ewlyn. It runs for 400 ft.
E.N.E., and t hen makes a slight deflection northward.
At its ex treme eastern end it has a lighthouse with a
revolving light. The wh ole is construct ed of cement concrete walls, filled with rubble. The width of this pier is
25ft., including the parapet. The north pier is 1400 ft.
long, and may be said t o start from the old bridge at
Tolcarne. It runs in a. S.S. E. directi on. Its greatest
breadth is 40 ft., and its least 12 ft. The 40-ft. width
extends for about half th e length of the pier, and it is
proposed to make the outer half equally wide by means
of wooden piers and staging. The area of the harbour is
40 acres. The entire work has cost 50,000l.
Porlland.-The L ords of the Admiral~y have entered
into a contract with M essrs. Hill and Sons, of Southamfton, for strengthening Portland Harbour. The work
wil consist of a. breakwater from the shore at the Nothe,
Weymouth, into deep water. It is also said to be the
intention of the Government to build pillars of masonry
at distances of some 600 or 800 yards apart.
Bighbridge L ocomotive W orks.- In consequence of an
improvemPnt in business on the S om erset and D orset
line, the workmen at the Higbbridge L ocomotive \Vorks,
who had been working short time since the beginning of
the coal look-out, ha. ve received notices to return to full
time.
The " Talbot. "-The tender of ~Iessra. Allen and Co.,
electrical engi neers, has been accepted for supplying
electric lighting machinery for the cruiser Talbot, to be
built at D evonport.
The " Sybille. "-A set of si x furnaces for the port after
boiler of tbe cruiser Sybille have arrived at Keybam from
the makers' works at Sheffield. The machinery contractors, Messrs. Ha.wthorne, Leslie, and Co., have a staff
of employes at Devonport, who wiJl at once comm ence
~be work of putting the furnaces in place. The vessel
1s expected to be ready for steam trials early next year.
A nother Severn Bridge. -At a meeting at Newnham on

advised htm that an estimate of 30,000l. for th e brtdge, 1f


it must be built at a height of 70 ft. above hi gh water,
could not be much reduced. The Severn Commissioners
were against a low-level bridge. ~t was re~ol ved to proceed in tb e mattPr, and an executt ve commtttee was ap
pointed to prepare a scheme for the consideration of the
Gloucester County Council.
B riton F err y.-Contraots baYe been let for new engines,
&c., for the Albion Steel \ Vorks Company.

NOTES FROM THE NORTH.


GLASGOW, W ednesday.
Glasgow P ig-Iron M arkct.-There was more firmness in
the pig-iron warrant market last Thursday forenoon, but
the business was light, reaching only to 5000 t ons of
Scotch iron, which sold at 43s. 5!d. t o 43s. G~d. cash per
ton. In the afternoon the market was a shade off, and
only some 4000 t ons of Scotch were deal t in. The cash
price a.t the last was ~d. per ton lower than in the forenoon. Cleveland iron was quoted 2d. p er ton lower for
cash, and bematite iron !d. per ton down. The settlement
prices at the close were-Scotch iron, 43s. 6d. per ton;
Cleveland, 35s. ; Cumberland and Middlesbrough hematite
iron, 45s. and 43.:3. 7~d. per ton respectively. Only Scotch
iron changed hands at Thursday's market. Business was
very quiet on F rida.y forenoon. Of Scotch iron 1500 tons
were dealt in, and of Cle veland 2000 t ons, the former
losing ld. per t on, and the latter making ~d. In the
afternoon the market was firm, Scotch closi ng ld. per ton
dea.rer for cash. About 5000 t ons were dealt in. Cleve
land changed hands to the ex tent of some 3000 or 4000
tons, and 1000 tons of bematite iron were also operated
in. The closing settlement prices were- Scotch iron
43s. 6d. p er ton; Cleveland, 35s. l!d.; Cumberland and
JY!iddlesbrough bematite iron, respectively, 45s. and
43s. 7~d. per ton. It was reported on Friday that only
15 blMt furnac12s throughout Scotland were then blowing,
30 having been damped down during the week, and 32
previously.
\Vith only 15 blowing, the make was
reduced to about 4000 tons, compared with 20,000 t ons
at this time last year. The market was strong 0n M onday forenoon, and some 8000 tons of pig iron were sold5000 tons of Scotch and 3000 tons of Cleveland. For the
former an advance of 2~d. per ton was gained, and Cleveland made a gain of 3d. per ton. In the afternoon th e
firmness was maintained, but the business done was still
limited to Scotch and Cleveland iron. Tbe settlement prices
at the close were-Scot ch iron, 43s. 7~d. per ton ; Cleveland, 35s. 6d.; Cumberland and Middlesbrough bema tite
iron, respecti vely, 45s. l!d. and 43s. 7~d. per ton. Tues
day's mark et was fairly activ e in the forenoon. Both
Scotch and Cleveland were firmer, the latter on the satisfactory returns for last month. About 8000 tons of
Scotch iron were sold, several lots of Cleveland, and one
or two of hematite iron. Scotch iron rose ~d. in price,
and Cleveland ld. p er ton. The markeb in the afternoon was firm, with a fair amount of business doing.
About 5000 t ons of Scotch iron were dealt in, and t he
cash price advanced ~ d. per ton at 43s. lOd. sellers.
One or two lots of Cleveland changed hands, and
the cash quotation, at 35s. lOd. sellers, showed a
gain of 3d. from the morning. A little more att ention was given to hematite iron, about 4000 tons
of which were operated in, and the cash quotation
marked a rise of !3d. p er ton ab 45s. 6d. sellers. At
the close of the market the settlement prices wereScotch iron, 43s. 9d. per ton; Cleveland, 35s. 9d.; Cumberland and Middlesbrough hematite iron, respecti vely,
453. 4id. and 4~s. 7! d. p er ton. The market was very
activ~ this forenoon, when the best all-round business
t ook place that there has been for some time back.
Scotch warrants were much in demand, and up to43s. 10~d.
per t on was paid. Cleveland was also in good demand at
35s. lOd. cash per t on. In the afternoon the market was
rather flat, and Scotch and Cleveland declined 2d. and
2~d. per ton respectively. The day 's transactions included
between 30,000 and 40,000 tons. The following are the
current quotations for several No. 1 special brands of
makers' iron : Gartsherrie and Calder, 52r:J. 6d. per ton;
Summerlee, 53s. 6d.; Coltness ann Langloani 56s. 6d.all the foregoing shipped at Glasgow; G engarnock
(shipped at Ardrossan ), 50a. 6d. ; S hotts (shtpped at L eith ),
53s. ; Carron (shipped at Grangemouth), 54s. 6d. per ton.
Last week's shipments of pig iron from all Scot ch p orts
amounted to 3G42 tons, against 5323 t ons in the corre
sponding week of last year. They included 100 tons for
Australia, 160 t ons for l!.,rance, 340 tons for Germany, 175
tons f<?r. Holland, 260 tons f~r S pain and P ortugal, smaller
quantities for other countnes, and 1945 t ons coastwise.
All the Lanarkshire blast furnaces have been damped
down or blown out, and the 15 that are blowing
include 13 in Ayrshire and 2 at Carron. The stock
of pig iron in Messrs. Connal and Co.'s public warrant
stores stood at 322,791 t ons yesterday afternoon, a.s compared with 325,763 tons yesterday week, thus showing a
decrease during the week amounting to 2972 tons.
Glasgow Copper Market.-There is no official record of
any businesR having been d one on 'Change since last
report. On Thur8day the ~rice offered by buyers was
42l. 13s. 9d. per ton cash, whtle sellers were holding ou t
for 2s. 6d. p er t on more. On the following day buyers
were 10s. per t on up ; then on Monday 43t. 16s. 9d. per
t()n was offered without business ree ulting; and buyerA
offered yesterday 43s. 13s. 9d., while sellers wanted
43s. 15s. per ton. A decline in price to the extent of
la. 3d. per t on was reported this forenoon, and in the
afternoon there was a further decline of 7s. 6d. per ton.
I mports of Spamish Iron Ore into Clyde.-There is another

m iners' strike and th e oonseq uent ID crease ID the prtce of


coal the damping down of blast furnaces has reduced ~he
con;umption of this ore to a very large extent. The Imports of Spanish ore during the past month were only
15,050 t ons, a decline to the ex tent of 14,284 ton s, or
nearly 50 per cent., and that, added to the decrease of
~2,926 tons for October, makes a decline of 47,211 ton~ on
the two months past. Over the eleven m onths there IS a
falling off to the extenb of 171,840 tons, or 33 per cent.
Tbe low imports in 1891 were the result of the l'rotracted
strike of bla.st-furnacemen. The returns speCially compiled are :
Eleven Months.
M onth.
V easels. T ons. V easels. T ons.
2G
36,746 305 430,190
...
1889

1890
... ... 10 15,!J08 302 4tl,G35
... 24 31,500 188 249,648
1891
29,334 327 514,886
...
... 21
1892
1893
... ... 10 15,050 214 343,04G
Clyde Shipbuilding T rade : Launches in Novembtr.Laat month's output from the Clyde shipbuilding yards
was comparatively light. There were seventeen vessels
launched of a total of 20 800 ton s, as against twenty-two
vessels aggregating 41,89G t ons in the preceding mon~h ;
but as compared with the output of the correspondt~g
month of last year there was an increase ~f ~03 tons, while
in November of 1891 th e output of new sbtppmg was 13,875
tons greater. Over the eleven months of the year there
was launched new shipping to the ex tent of 267,879 t ons
-a t otal which has been considerably exceeded in the
corresponding periods of some former years. In 1890, for
example, the output for the eleven f!'Onths rose to 3~5,502
tons, and i b was almost as great m the same pen od of
1892. Of the vessels launched last month, the largest was
the steamer Kanawba, of 4000 tons, which was built by
M essrs. A. Stephen and Son for the trade between LC?ndon and Newport, U .S. Other ten steamers were ID
eluded in the month's output, but they ranged between
850 t ons and 40 t ons. Of the sailing ships launched last
month, four were over 2000 tons each.
T he Glasgo"w Tramways: Report on M ot ive P ower. - Tbe
Glas~ow Corporation Tramway Committee, after recently
makmg an inspection, at Croydon, of a. Connelly oil and
a gas motor, each of 15 horse-power, report that it was
quite evident, from the difficulty experienced i n taking
a gradient, that they were not powerful enough for
regular tramway work such as th ey bad in Glasgow.
The oil motor really did the better work, but ought
to have considerable reserve power t o meet the
emergencies of street traffic in our changeable climate.
The smell from both oil and gas motors was offen si ve, especially to passengers riding on the roof of the
car. \Vhile, therefore, they could not say that the motors
came up to what they were led to expect of them, they
bad no doubt they were still capable of very great improvement. In their opinion the time bad not yet arrived
when they would feel justified in recommending the committee to negotiate for the adoption of Connelly motors
in Glasgow. When in Croydon tboy had also an opportunity of inspecting the Lubrig gas-motor car (mot or and
car combined), but, like the Connelly motor, it might be
said t o be still in the ex perimental stage.

...

THE J uLL CENTRIFUGA L BNow ExcAVATOR.-~!r. W.


A . Gibson , of the Otis Elevator Company, Limited,
4, Queen Vict oria-street London, E .C., requests us to
state that be is the English agent for the J ull snow plough
described in our last issue.
COLLI.'ION AT INVERKEI'TIING SOUTH J UNCTION.General Hutchinson 's report on the collision between an
express passenger train from Edinburgh to Dundee with
a goods train which occurred on October 3, ab Inverk~ithing South Junction, just north of the Forth Bridge,
on the North British Railway, reveals the old, old story
of a signalman accepting a second train before the first
was properly clear, and of the driver of an express running at ~ high rate of speed past a distant signal in the
expectat10n that the home would be taken off in time to
save an actual stop. \Vbile the above servants are
naturally .cens?~ed, one car;mot help asking whether the
dread of mqmr1es and gomg "on the carpet " ending
often enough in a fine, if n ot in something w~rse does
not sometimes lead to a breach of rules in order to
av?id delay to an i~portant competitive train such as
thts one was. Ha.pptly only on e passenger was inj ured.
R OYAL I NSTlTUTION.-The following are the lecture
arrangements before Easter: Professor Dewar six
l~ctures (adapt~d . to , a juvenile auditory) on ,: Air :
Gaseous and L1qmd; Professor Charles Stewart nine
lec~ures on "Locomotion a.nd ;Fixation in Plant; and
Ammals; the Rev. Canon Amger three lecture~:~ on
"The Life and Genius of Swift; " Mr. W . Martin C on way, three lectures on "The Past and Future of Mountain
Exploration; " P rofessor ~lax Muller, three lectures on
"The Vedanta. Philosophy; " Professor W. II. Cummings,
three lectures on "English Schools of Musical Composition " (with musical illustrations) ; the Right Hon . Lord
Rayleigh, six lectures on "Light, with Special R eference
to the 0 ptical Discoveries of Newton. " The Friday
e~ening m~etings_ will begin on January 19, wh en a
dtCJcourse ~~~~be _gtven by Profe~sor Dewar on "Scientific
U.ses of Ltqmd Nitr.ogen and Atr;" succeeding discourses
wt11 probably be gtven by Mr. A. P. Graves, Mr. T. J.
C~bden-Sandereon, Professor W. F. R. 'Vel don, Professor
Stlvanus P. Thompson, Professor John G. McKendrick
Dr. 'V. H. \Vbite, the Right Hon. L ord Rayleigh and
other gentlemen.
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8, I 893]

E N G I N E E R I N G.

701

which require authority for a compulso~ area,


NOTICE.
which includes the whole of the par~ah . of
AGENTS FOR "ENGINEERING."
The New Cunarders "CAMPANIA" and "LU- St. Mary Abbots. The Corporation of B~rnung
AUSTRIA, Vienna : Lehmann and Wentzel, K!irntnerstra.sse.
CANIA ;" and the WORLD'S COLUMBIAN ham-one of the most progressive in t he kingdom
CAPE TOWN : Oordon and Gotch.
EDINBURGn: J ohn Menzies a nd Co., ~2, llan.ove~-~treet.
- considered the matter some time ago, and rather
EXPOSITION
OF
1893.
FR~'iCB Paris : Boyveau and CheVlllet, L1 hrame Etra.ng~re, 22,
Rue dG la Banque; M. Em. Terquem, 81bia Boulevard H aussmann. The Publfaber begs to announce that a Reprint la than enter into what they believ~d wa~ more or
Also for Advert.isements, Agence Hava.s, 8, Place de la. Bourse. now ready of the Descriptive Matter and Illustra- less experimental, decid~d to permit a pnva.te co.nl(See below.)
t d Li d
pany to lay out works In a compulsory area whiCh
G&R.MANY Berlin : Messrs. A. Asher and Co. , 5, Un er en n en. tions contaiDed 1D the issue of ENGINEERING of
AprU 21st, comprising over 130 pages, with ntne includes the central part of the town. Th_e other
' Leipzig : F. A. Brookha.us.
Mulhouse: H . Stuckelberger.
two -page and four siDgle- page Plates, priDted cases of private companies being forme~ mclude
GLASGOW : William Love,
throughout on speolal Plate paper, bound iD oloth Shrewsbury, Guildford, Bedford, the . Colher Marr
I NDlA, Calcu tta: Tha.cker, Spink, an?- qo.
Bombay: Tha.cker and Co., Lim1ted.
gUt lettered. Price 6L Post free. 6s. 6d. The ordt district of Lancashire, and Oswestry In Salop.
ITALY: U. IIoepli, Mila n, and ~ny post office.
nary edition of the tuue of AprU 21at 18 out of priDt.
Abundant evidence, h owever, is afforded that
LJ\' ERPOOL : Mrs. Taylor, Landing Stage.
faith in coal gas is still very pronounced, for many
MANCUESTBR.: J ohn H eywood, 143, Dennsgate.
N~tw souTH wALKS, Sydney : Turner o.nd llenderson, 16 and 18,
NOTICE.
gas Bills are projected, although few of the~ ~re
H unter -street. Oordon and Ootch, Geoa-ge-street.
The attention of Readers and Advertisers is for new installations. Probably the most strikn~g
QUEENSLAND (SOUTH), Brisban~: Oordo~ and Ootoh.
(NoRTn), Townsville : T . W11lmet.t and Co.
drawn to the alteration iD the name of the feature is the fact that the Plymouth Company In
ROTTERDAM : II. A. Krnmer and Son.
Publisher.
their Bill propose to let gas engines and ~oto~s
SOUTn AUSTRALIA, Adelaide: W . C. Rigby.
Owing to the retirement of Mr. Charles Gilbert, just as at present; stoves, &c., can be hrred . 1n
UNlTBD STATES, New York : W. H . Wiley, 53, East ~Oth-~re~t.
communications for the Publishing Department nearly all large t owns, and it is ea~y to ~once1ve
Chicago : H . V. Ilolmes, 44, Lakes1de Buildmg ..
Vrcroau, MlfLBOURNB: 1\lelville, Mullen and Sla.de, 261/264, Collins- should now be addressed to Mr. c. B. JOBNSON,
a larae extension of the use of this satisfactory
street. Oordon a nd Got<:h, Limited, Queen-street.
Publisher and Manager.
powe~ in small factories, wher~ at present manual
NOTICE TO AMERICAN SUBSCRIBERS.
labour is utilised for want of capital. In ma~~ cases
We beg to announce that American Subscription~ to ENalNRBRING
NOTICES OF MEETINGS.
the Bill promoted is conse quen~ on the declSI?n of
may now be addressed eith~r direct to t h e publisher, MR. C. R.
TnR I NSTITUTION OF CI\'JL ENOll\RERS.-Ordinary meeting,
JouNSON, at the Offices of t has Journal, Nos. ~5 and 36, Bedford- Tuesd~y Decem ber 12, at 8 p.m . Paper to be read with a view t o public authorities to purchase pnvate wor.ks, as In the
street Strand, London, W.C., or to our a.ccredated Agents for the disoussi~n: "Cask-Making by Mach in ery ," by Mr. Lewis H . RlnUnited States Mr. W. II. WJLEY, 63, East lOth-street, New York, soroe Assoo. M. Inst. C. E.-St ud ents' visit, Friday , December 8, case of A bertillery, Bacup,.K.endal, Accr1!lgton, &c.,
and Mr. H . 'v. Holmes, 44, L akeside Building, Chicago. The a.t 2.30 p.m ., to inspecr t h e cask-making ruachin ery a.t Messrs. A. while in other ca~es eXIstmg compan1es absorb
prices of Subscription (payable in advance) for one _Year ar e. : For Ransome and Co.'s works, King-'s road, Chelsea. (Assem ble at the small contiauous concerns. Thus the Harrow Comthin (foreign) paper editio n~ ll. 1 ~s. Od . ; for t hick (ordmary) works. )-Stud en ts' m eet ing, F riday, Decem~e r 1 ~, a t 7.30 P ~~
pany desil: to purchase the Stanmore Company's
paper edition, 2l. Os. 6d., or 1f renuttcd to Agents. 9 dollars for Paper to be read : "Contin uous ..Automatl<' Ra1lway Brakes,
thin and 10 dollars for thic k.
by Mr. H . J . Orford, Stud. I os~. C.E. ~ir Douglas Oalton, undertaking, the Earby and Thornton Company
K.C. B., F.R.S., Assoc:. Inst. C.E., m t he c ha1r.
take the concern of the Mill Company, Limited,
ADVERTISEMENT S.
SoCIM'Y OP ARTs. -Jobnstreet, Adelphi, London, W.C. ArThe charge for advertisemen ts is three sh i!l~ngs fo~ t he first f<?ur rangements for the week ending December 1G, 1893. Monday, while the Croydon and Carshalton Companies
li nes or under , and eightpen ce for each n.dditaonal hoe. The h oe December 11 at 8 p.m.
Cantor Lectures: The Art of Book amalgamate.
In a large number of c~ses extena\'era.ges seven words. Paymen ~ must _n.cc<?mpa~y all orders for and Newspaper Illustration," by Mr. Hen ry Blackburn. -Wedn es- sions to works or area of supply are proJected, but
single advertisem ents, oth enVJse the1~ msert.aon cannot be da.\' December 13, at 8 p.m. Fifth ordinary meeting. "Carria(.!e~uaranteed . Tem1s for displayed ad,:e1tasements ?n ~he wrap~er wa.;. Pavem ents for Large Cities," by Mr. Le wis 11. Isaacs. S ir it is scarcely worth entering into details, more
and on the inside pa.ges mn.y be obtamed on. apphcataon. . Sen al Ben ja.min Ba.ker , K. C. M.G. , F.R.S., will preside.
especially
as
they
are
in
most
cases
given
with
suffiadvertisements will be inserted with all pro.ct1cable re~ ular1ty , but
cient limit to admit of extensive variation . .Amongst
absoluLe r egularity cannot be guaranteed.
the companies or corporations making additions
Advertisements Intended for t.Dsertion 1D the cur
rent week's tssue must be delivered not later tban
are those supplying Preston ; Hebden Bridg~ ;
6 p.m. on Thursday. In consequence of the necessity
Driffield ; New Quay, Cornwall ; Bolsover, ID
for going to press early with a portion of the edition.
alterations for standtng Advertisements should be
Derby ; Uttoxeter, in Stafford; Paignton, ChesterFRIDAY, DECEMBER 8, 1893.
received not later tban 1 p.m. on WeclDesday afterfield,
W
okingham,
Worthing,
and
Harrow
and
noon iD each week.
Stanmore. For Ambleside a new gas supply is
The sole Agents for Advertisements from the Con
projected by a company to be incorporated.
ttnent of Europe and the French Colonies are the
AGENCE BAV AS. 8, Place de la Bourse, Parts.
ENGINEERING SCHEMES IN
0 water schemes there are a large number, and
PARLIAMENT.
here also one finds seYeral instances of underSUBSCRIPTIONS, HOME AND FOREIGN.
IN last week's issue we dealt at some length with takings being taken over by corporations, as at
But it is
ENGINEERING oo.n he supplied, direct from the publisher, the rail way and tramway schemes to be brought N eath and Swindon, and in London.
post free for Twelve Months at t h e following rates, payable in next year before Parliament for authorisation, and hoped that the two first-named boards are nearer
advance:in this art icle we propose to refer to schemes the realisation of their desire than the London
For the United Kingdom ...... .. .. .... .. 1 9 2
which involve other branches of engineering- mari- County Council. They do not ask compulsory
, , all places abroad :time, electric, gas, water, &c. Of these there are powers, so that probably after all the Bill projected
Thin paper copies .... .... ...... 1 16 0
Thick
,
.............. 2 0 6
probably a larger number than in some previous may not mean 1nuch. According to statutory
All accounts are payable to "ENGINEERING," Limited. years, and, relatively speaking, they present more announcement, the Bill is '' to enable the Council
Cheques should be crossed "Union Bank, Ch a ri ng Caoss Baa.n ch."
points of importance than do the rail way Bills. (with a view to the future supply of water to
Post Office Orders payable a.t Bedford-street, Strand , W.C.
When for eign Subsrript ions are sent by Post Office Orders Of these latter 39 are projected, in addition to six London and the neighbourhood) t o purchase by
advice should be sent to the Publish er.
tramway schemes, while other Bills make the agreement, or take on lease, any lands, houses,
Foreign and Colontal Subscribers receiving total197, or 25 more than last year. There are and buildings or easements, and also any water
Incomplete Copies through News-Agents are requefJted to communicate the fact to the Publl.aher, 27 electric lighting Bills, in addition to provi- works, wells, waters, or rights to take, or convey,
together with the Agent's Name and Address.
sional orders, which would indicate an increasing or sell water, and any rights, powers, and pri'fileges
OfBce for Publlcation and Advertisements. NoL
popularity of this illuminant. Indeed, great progress of any company formed for obtaining or supplying
86 and 36, Bedford-street, Strand. London. W.C.
is being made in this respect, 46 local authorities water which they may think it desirable to purTRLEoRAPmo ADDRRBB- ENGINEERING, LONDON.
and 62 companies having already heen granted pro- chase or take on lease with the object aforesaid."
TELBPBONB N UMBBR-3663.
visional orders. The tendency seems to be for the Meanwhile some of the existing companies supply---ENGINEERING is r egistered for t ransmission abroad.
corporations of local boards to carry out the scheme, ing the metropolis seek powers for extension works.
READING CASES.-Reading cases for containing twenty-six and this year's list of electric lighting schemes The Southwark and Vauxhall Company intend to
number~ of E NGINERRING may be had of the publisher or of any includes sixteen corporations and twelve companies. construct a service reservoir near the junction of
n ews-agent. Price 6s. each .
Indeed, one finds very small towns courageously Homestall-road and Marmora-road at Lewisham,
grappling with the problem, including the burgh and another, having a superficial area of 1,533,800
CONTENTS.
of Monmouth, the district of Chipping Wycombe square feet, on the borders between Sunbury and
PAGE
PAGB
in Bucks, Harrow in Middleaex, and Leyton in Hampton parishes; while a subsiding reservoir of
The Fay(\m and Lake 1\fceris
Engineering Sch emes in
(lllu8trated) ............ 685
Parliament .. ... ..... .. .. 701 Essex. Amongst other corporations or local boards 1, 399,520 square feet area, with filter beds and engine'Ihe Development of South
The Weather of No,ember,
requiring powers for lighting are those of West house, is to be laid out in Hampton parish. There
African Railways ........ 687
1893 .. ...... .... .... .... 703
Literature . .. . ... .. . 690 The Smithfield Club Sbow 703 Hartlepool, Penrith, Chesterfield in Derbyshire, are several new lines of pipes projected in conBooks Received . . . . . . . . . . . 691 John
Tyndall, D. C. L .,
St. Helens, 'Vakefield, Barrow-in-Furness, Grimsby, nection with these reservoirs. The East London
Kiogston Electric Lighting
LL.D., F.R.S. .. .. ...... 704
Buxton, Yeadon, while the lighting of Plymouth is Company also mean to add to their storage capacity.
Station (lllmtrated.) .. . 691 " The l<' aatest Cruiser in the
3000 Horse - Power QuadWorld " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 705 the subject of competition between the existing gas A large resel'voir is to be constructed on the
ruple- Expansion Engine
Notes .. .. .............. .. 706 companies and the corporation. In one or two n orthern side of the River Lea at \Valthamstow,
at the World's Columbian
Notes from the United
Hxposition (IUmtrated) . 694
States ... .... .. . . . .. 707 cases large manufacturing companies apply for the another on the north-west of the Lea, partly
Four - Cylinder Compound
Miscellanea ...... . .. . .... 707 powers, probably with the view of ultimately dele- in Tottenham,
Walthamstow, and Hackney
Locomotive at the World's
Elliott's Smoke Annihilator
gating the work of distribution to the corporation parishes, and a third, to be known as Race Course
Columbian Exposition (ll
at the Mint, Birmingham
lmtrated) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 695
(Illustrated) .... . . . ..... 708 or a supply company. Thus Messrs. Crompton, Reservoir, in Walthamstow, while in connection
Sixty . Foot
Locomotive
Diagrams of Three Months'
Limited,
apply
for
power
to
light
Chelmsford
and
with these various new conduits are projected.
Turntable (Illustrated) . . 695
Fluctuations in Prices of
The Late Mr. Bry an Don kin 696
Metals . . ... ... ..... 709 Swansea, while another London firm propose deal- The West Middlesex Company wish to increase
Tbe Gas Cylinder Acoident
Indu3t rial Notes ...... 709 ing similarly with Aberdare in Glamorgan. The capital, as does the East Surrey Company, while
at Bradford ....... ... ... 697 The Railway Collision at
The Stability of Armourclads 697
Dalnasp idal .. . ..... ... 710 Camber well Vestry seck powers for lighting a large the Colne V alley and Central Middlesex Companies
The Late Mr. Reckenzaun . 698 The P h ysical Society . .. . 710 compulsory area round Camberwell and Peckham, promote a Bill for the transfer to the former comBall Bearings for Thrust
British Colonies at the
including Old Kent-road, while the Crystal Palace pany of the Harrow-on-the-Hill works of the
Blocks .................. 698
World's Columbian Ex
Notes from Cleveland and
position (Illu strated) . . . . 711 Company purpose extending their area, so that it may latter company, and the reservoir at Wembley Hill.
the Northern Counties .. 698 Some Practical Examples of
include part or the whole of Forest Hill, Gipsy-hill, The Thames Conservancy have introduced a Bill
Notes from South Yorkshire 698'
Blasting (I llustrated) . . . . 712
Westow-hil1, Dulwich, and Wood Park. Indeed, the with extensive provisions, primarily intended to
Notes from the South-West 699 "Engineering " Patent Re
Notea from the North . . 6991 cord (Illmtrated) .. ... 715 area proposed extends from the boundaries of the insure the purity of t he Thames water, and to con.
With a Two-Page Engraving of a FOURCYLINDER COM parish of Croydon to Camberwell, Lordship-lane, solidate and amend existing Bills.
POUND CONSOLIDATION LOCOMOTIVE AT TilE and Sydenham. The only other metropolitan
Coming now to the provinces, we find that no
WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION.
area affected is that of Kensington, the vestry of works of any magnitude are contemplated. The
11

ENGINEERING.

702

E N G I N E E R I N G.

[DEc. 8, 1893.

Newcastle and Gat eshead Water Company asks for the new d ock of the Swing B ridge-road, which at which block the way at the harbour, but there can
powers to make a reservoir in the townships of present crosses the site of the extension.
be no question that the scheme, if carried out.,
R ochester and Troughend, and Ramshope, and a
One of t he most important harbour undertakings would add appreciably to the attractions of the
conduit or line of pipes from this new reservoir of in the provinces is that of the Manchester Canal t own. An opposition scheme, long discussed and
Catcleugh to the line of pipes authorised by the Company, who desire to conRtruct at the seaward n ow brought before Parliament, is to bore a tunne
Act of 1889, and it is proposed t o abandon the side of the Eastham Locks a pier 600 yards long, through t he sandstone and lime of the promontory
making of that Catcleugh reservoir authorised in and t wo jett ies at the western end of th e W eston on which t he town is partly built, so as t o connect
1889, and p:u t of the line of pipes then legalised . . Marsh Lock at Runcorn, t he one extending sou th at the points of closest con tiguity the dr ives in the
The Consett Water W orks Company seek powers being 85 yards, and the other extending 130 yards two bays. This t unnel would be 2 furl ongs 5
to mak e a reservoir in the townships of E dmond- t o the north. Several shor t railways are also to be chains long, and as t he houses are abo ut 120 ft.
byers and Muggles wick by an embankment t o be made to connect with existing rail ways, one of above th e level, rising on either side at a steep
f?rmed across th e Endon Burn near t o t he junc- 5 furlongs 6 chains in length n ear the W alton grade, little difficulty would be experienced in
t10n of t he streams called the Pike Sike and Endon girder bridge, over t he Mersey, n ear Warrington, t he construction. The scheme. however, lacks
B~rn; another reservoir to be made in Muggles- and the other at Act on Grange, joining the Birken- all th e attract ion of the drive r ound the h eadland.
Wlck township by an embankment across th e F eldon head, Lancashire, and Cheshire Railway. The Bute The 'Vallasey Local Board propose embankm ents
Burn; and a third reservoir, also in Muggleswick, Docks Company have an important scheme. They totalling in length 1900 ft . along the foreshore of
formed by an embankment acro<)s t he Hisehope p urpose reclaiming an extensive part of the fore- t he Irish Sea at that t own, an d Great Meolse in
Burn. In addition, there are four catchwaters shore n ow known as the Cardiff Flats, and which Chester. The Mersey D ock Board promote a Bill
proposed ; a service tank in Tanfield township, and certainly adds little t o the meagre attractiveness of also on this subject, but t hey are concerned with
various conduits and lines of pipes. It is intended to the port and surroundings. This reclamation is to the financial and administration arrangements.
obtain powers to purchase 177 acres of land; to take, be secured by the construction of embankments The P oole Corporat ion intend t o construct groynes
use, and diver t the waters of the streams named, 4210 ft . long in all, while inside the embank ment a for the protection of the harbour, while Seaford
to enable the company to supply addit ional parish es. new dock 2570 ft.long by 850 ft . will be constructed, wish to have a promenade pier 200 yards long, and
The Cardiff Corporation intend to enlarge an exist- having connection with the existing R oath Dock, an en1bankment-, with all th e attractions of saloons,
ing reservoir in the valley of the River Taff F awr which it will adjoin. There will require to be a &c. Great Yarmouth, too, intend t o project from
by the formation of an embankmen t 110 yards slight diversion of the R iver Taff, and, of course, the esplanade a pier 500 yar ds long, Littlehampton
long across t he valley, inclosing 1107 ft . of the n ew railways will be laid t o the new dock wish a promenade pier 850 ft. long, while at Ryde
length of the valley. Sev eral r oad diversions are works. At the ad joining port of Swansea it the corporation intend to acquire, with leave of
n ecessi tated, while additional conduits t o Cardiff is proposed t o extend the Prince of \Vales Parliament, the pier built there, to extend the forewill be needed. The Southend Company purpose Dock 900 ft. in an easterly and 930 ft. in a shore embankment for a distance of 240ft. , and to
extending the area of supply and the construction n ortherly direction, affording an additional area of commute the charges on the railway companies for
of four new pumping stations, two in the parish of 4! acres. A short n ew canal is also projected in an annual sum. Tacked on to the Bill to authorise
Thundersley and the others at Eastwood. Lines of connection with the harbour, to connect the existing these pr oposals are many miscellaneous schemespipes will be laid from these to South en d-on-Sea. Tennant's Canal with that communicating with from the acquiring of a public park to regulating the
The Full wood L ocal B oard will, when powers are L amber t's copper works. The Milford Dock auth o- music of the German instr umentalist, and the moveg ranted, construct a reservoir of 9! acres area, and rities have a Bill, but it deals only with financial ments of the equally ubiquitous and merciless
divert some streams into it. The Barnsley Corpo- arrangements. An elaborate scheme is also pro- cyclist. At Bangor, Carnarvonshire, it is proposed
ration propose an extension of area of supply and moted in connection with P ort Talbot. A new by the corporation t o run out a pier over the bed
the acquiring of a pumping station at P enistone. company is to be incorporated, and in Aberavon and foreshore of the Menai Strait in a north-easterly
A private company seeks aut hority t o construct new p~rish extensi ve harbour works laid ou t. The direction from opposite the Garth Gardens. The
works by sinking wells at Langton, Long Bland- existing pier is t o be continued seaward for 330 approach will be 100 ft. long, and t he pier itself
ford, and the construction of reservoirs on an yards, and a breakwater constructed from th e 1550 ft. I t is also intend ed to acquire the Gar th
ad joining site, with the requisite pipes for supply. Aberavon Burrows, and extending for 530 yards F erry acr oss the straits, and t o enlarge and imThe Gloucester Corporation also propose to sink a towards the existin g pier. On t he south -east sid e prove the jetty. At Abergele, in Denbighshire, a
well in Ox:enhall parish, with t wo tunnels or drifts of the channel a new dock , 330 yards by 198 yards, pier is to be constructed, star ting close to the railto augment area of contribution, t o construct a is to be constructed, with an entrance lock 217 way, and stretching seawards in a north-easterly
reservoir 110ft . long by 50ft. wide, and several yards long from the River Avon. In connection direction for 300 yards.
Several corporation schemes involving engineerlines of pipes. The Aberdare Local B oard propose with these harbour works several branch railways
a gravitation supply, wit h an embankment and are to be formed. At the little port of P olperro, ing works are included. P owers are sought by the
reservoir situated on a stream k nown as the Nant on t he Cornwall coast, the breakwater is to be London County Council t o acquire the existing
Melyn, with aqueducts, conduits, and pipes to extended to the south-west for 63 ft. , and the markets- Coven t Garden, Smithfield, &c.- and to
and through the t own. The other extension pier on the eastern side of the har bour is to be construct new mark ets ; to p urchase compulsorily
works contemplated include additions at Tor- lengthen ed into th e deep water to t he extent of Lincoln's I nn -fields ; t o purchase some land of the
quay, Bishops Waltham, and W est Cheshire Corn- 50 ft. Of the other schemes, the West Riding City Cor poration on the Embankment for the use
pany, while at Tilehurst and P angbourne a new River Conser vancy wish more stringent powers for of the Metropolitan Fire Brigade ; to extend the
supply from wells is brought forward.
dealing with pollution of streams, &c. ; the Leicester time for the completion of the Blackwall Tunnel ;
Among harbour dock schemes th e most important and N orthampton Canal is to be transferred t o the t o preven t the int roduction into sewers of various
is t hat of the Surrey Commercial Dock Company, Grand Junction Canal Company, while more time matters prej udicial to health, and causing injury to
who promise an extensive addition ~o the are~ and is desi~ed t? carry out the Ne~th Harbour. wor ks, the sewers ; to make pr ovisions for imposing
quayage of their series of docks, w1th the v1~w of authonsed 1n the current se~wn of Parliament, penalt ies on persons who sweep, rake, or place soil,
facilitatina the entrance and exit of larger shtps t o and to purchase land for the Sheffi eld and South rubbish , mud, or other refuse into or on sewers and
and fron1 the inner docks. The docks, as is known, Yorkshire Navigat ion scheme. F inancial considera- gratings ; and to confer further powers respecting
are situated at R otherhithe, on a piece of land tions n ecessitate Bills in conn ection with the R och- the protection of gratings and gulleys communicating
with drains or sewers ; t o confer on the Council
.
which, owing t o the winding of the river, is almost dale Canal and _D artmouth Harbour.
insular. At t he northern bend there are several
There are q utte a number of schemes for addmg further powers for dealing with t he con veyance of
locks admittina to th e ser ies of docks and ponds ; to t he attractiveness of seaside resor ts, and it is explosives on ferries. The Manch ester and Liverwhile~ to the sguth th e only route is thro ugh two encouraging to note that. in many cases th es~ _are pool Corporations have also B ills for street improvelocks the one into t he South L ock and t he other promoted by the corporatwns or local author tbes, ments, &c. The Bury Corporation haYe a very
into t he Greenland Dock both situated in a more since it indicates a d ue appreciation of the ad van- extensive scheme of sewerage in hand , t he main
or less isolated position o~ t he south of the series. tages of en couraging visitors. At Scar borough, sewers extending for 11,940 yards, or six miles.
Moreover, the canal and dock locks are rath er on e of our most beautiful and popular . seaside By far the greatest quantity of the sewage is to be
small for the increasingly large vessels engaged in towns, pro_posals haye frequently been d1scus~ed deposited on land ad joining the t own and the
the trade. It is now proposed t o adapt the Green - for connectmg the d~1v e round the South Bay w1th River Irwell, and extending to 23 acres, and which
A small
land Dock so that it will also form a basin for the th e R oyal Albert Dnve around the crescent formed already belongs t o the corporation.
more direct passage t o the Thames of ships from by the N or~h B ay: Th ~y are separated by a pro- b ran ch of the sewers near t o t he R iver R oach
t he docks in the interior. F or this p urpose the montory wh1eh _qulCkly rtses from t he level o~ ~h e will discharge into t hat stream. Other powers
existing entrance lock, 209 ft . long, 42l ft. broad, town and term1?ates on a rugged headland rtsmg are included in th e Bill - for dealing with the
and wit h a depth of water of 18! ft . on the s ~ll, al~ost per pend1eularly from the sea shore to a registration of plum bers, public park~, and addiwill be superseded by a much larger en trance basm. hetght of 300ft. above th~ sea, and sur~oun ted by tional aqueducts in conn ection with water supply.
The river wall of the Greenland D ock will be re- the old castle yard. Tlu s promontory 1s of l!and- Nottingham Corporation wishes the city made into
moved a little inwards t o facilitate t he work. T~e ston e, a11d t he con~tant wash o! the surf from the one parish for all b ut eccle~iastical purposes, and
d k will be made n arrower but its length will German Ocean, w1th the assistance of frequent at t he same time desires moro latitude in reference
b~c more than doubled, or e~tended for 460 ft. storms? is crumbling it away at ~he rate of about 1 ft. to loans. Another scheme which may be referred
inland, wh ere it will join with the Canada D ock, per thn-te~n years or so, whtle great ~asses , fall to here is the South Staffordshire mines drainage,
the most inland and largest of the ser ies of docks. away dur1ng storms of . great seven ty.
The on which subject several Acts have been passed,
There will of course be a connecting lock . Tho ex- natural d uty of the t~wn Is, ther~fore, ~o p~otect constituting commissioners, board, &c. Tho comt ension inland of the Greenland Dock will intersect this. h eadland , a~d, 1ndeed, their dev1?e 1s to missioners carry out drainage by moneys borrowed
at ri ht an les t he G rand Surrey Canal, whi ch at conttnue th e magnificent Royal Albert Dnve r ou_n d on the security of mor tgages of the Tipton revenue
res! nt co~nects with the Russia Dock. This the headland, and ~hence o~ past th~ harbour, ":1th and proper ty, and t he securing of the repayment
fatter dock will be extended, and will have a large ~ts wharve~ ~n~ pters, and 1ts o_ld:ttme ~oat-_build of such moneys is by a. collateral cont ingent charo-e
lock oining it to the n or th wall of the n ew dock. 1ng yards, JOmlng on to the extstu~g dr1ve In nte o~ the fee simple and heritance of t he ungott~n
At t~e south side of the extended Greenlan~ Dock Sou th Bay. It would cost a cons1derable sum to m1nerals and plant of the Tip ton district which is
there will be a large lock connecting w1th the th?roughly protect. the hea?land and lay o~t t he to be d rained. F or this purpose it is n ow proS urre Canal. Several public roads will have t o be dnve t here, and thlS exp~nd1ture w.ould be shgh tly posed to constitute a board of assessmen t to assess
altere~, the most impor tant being a deviation r ound augmented by the n ecess1ty of b uymg up the yards and exact forcibly at law, and this board is to be

E N G I N E E R I N G.

DEc. 8, 1893.]

elected by the commissioners or mortgagees. A


scheme is also proposed for the purification of the
River Brent and its tributaries. The only other
work which need be referred to is the construction
of a bridge over t he River Conway at Ta.lycafn, in
Denbighshire, to supersede a ferry which gives
communication between several parishes with unpronounceable names and the L ondon and North'Vestern Railway station close to the river.

THE \VEATHER OF NOVEMBER, 1 93.


"OF all the months of the year, " says Christopher
N or tih, "November in our climate, whether iu
t own or country, boars the worst character. It is
almost universally thought to be a sour, s ultry,
sullen, savage, dim, dull, dark, disconsolate
month.'' It is the parting with autumn and
''bringing up winter to fulfil the year.,
"Now frosts a.nd shortening days portend
The aged year is near its end. 11

"November chill blaws loud with angry sough ;''


but the monih is not wholly given up to chills, some
genial sunny weather may occur. Its scanty sunshine is soft, for the air is always misty, or a.pproxima.ting to that condition, so that blue sky is inclined to grey. "The vapours wreathe their burden
t o the ground. , Sunny days, by their rarity and
unexpectedness, are worlih much more than sunshine in summ er t o the generality of people. "The
pale descending year, yet pleasing sliill. ,, At this
time of the year it is to be expected that beautiful
mild days must fade away into frosty evenings. In
fair weather the morning air is sharp, but the hoar
frost vanishes under the s unshine.
"The lengthen'd night elapsed, the morning shines
~ erene, in all her dewy beauty bright,
U nfolding fair the last autumnal day ;
And now th e mounting sun dispels the fogs ;
The rigid boar frost melts before his beam ;
And bung on every spray, on every blade
Of grass, the myriad dewdrops twinkle round.,

These are some characteristics of N ovember, but it


is always more or less wrathful with tempests, and
frequ ently obnoxious with fogs, though it is not
worse than some other months in this respect.
November, 1893, was fairly typical, slightly
milder, less wet, and brighter than the normal
conditions ; but the sudden changes of temperature and cold penetrating winds have been n1ost
unfavourable for the weak and ailing. The mean
pressure and temperature of the atmosphere at
extreme positions of t he British Islands, to which
the I sle of Man is central, were as follows :
Mean
Pressure.

Positions.

in.
above 0.13
.,
.09
"
. 23
,
.06
,,
.14

lD

North
South

29.90
30.03
30.11
29.93
30.02

West

EB.St

Central

D ffereo
'
D 1'fference T Mean
ce
from Normal. ! e~~=~a- from Normal
deg.
41
48
46
H
46

deg.
below 1
above 1
11
1
nil
above 2

The distribution of rain in frequ ency and quantity may be r oughly inferred from the following
results :
R:liny

Places.

Days.

Amount.

10.

Sumburg b
Scilly .
Vat entia
Yarmouth

..
.

23
13
17
23

6.27
1.34
190
3.05

Ifrom
Difference
Normal.

10.

more 1.1 t
less 2.38
11
3. 52
)I
0.01

The daily general directions of t he winds over


these islands give a resultant from N. W. by N.
which is more northerly than the normal r esultant:
'V. by N. Atmospherical pressure was greater in
t he west and soulih than in the north and east, conformably with the resultant wind. Rainfall exceeded the average in the north, just attained it in
the easli, and was notably deficient in the west
and south. Only in the n orth was the temperature less than the normal. The highest
temperature, 63 deg., was reported at L oughborough on the 3rd; t he lowest, 19 deg., at the
same place on the 5th. The mean temperature at
8 A. M., Greenwich time, for the entire area of the
United Kingdom, at sea level, was 48 deg. on the
3rd, 39.5 deg. on the 8th, 45.5 deg. on the 11th,
42 deg. on the 13th, 47 deg. on the 17th, 37.5 deg.
on the 19th, 42 deg. on the 22nd, 38 deg. on the 23td
47 deg. on the 25th, 42 deg. on the 27th, 50 deg:
on the 28th, 43.5 deg. on the 30th. Thus not

only was temperature very variable, but the month


ended warmer than it began, notwithstanding the
sun's progress southward. At 8 A.l\I. on the 1st,
while the temperature at Valentia was 54 deg., at
Dungeness it was only 32 deg.; on the 2nd, .Jersey
58 deg., Wick 36 deg.; on the 5lih, Scilly 54 deg.,
L '> ughborough 22 deg., Parsonstown 25 deg.; on
the 6th, Jersey 57 deg., Pa.rsonstown 27 deg.; on
the 7th, Jersey 46 deg. , Pa.rsonstown 24 deg.; on
the 27th, Belmullet 49 deg. , L ondon 28 de g. Atmospherical pressure was least on the 17th, 28. Gin.;
g reatest on the 21st, 30.65 in. Aurora was seen
in norlih Scotland on Lhe 1st. The north-easterly
wind, which almost_constantly prevailed from the
4th to 16th, was exceptionally dry and keen on the
9th. The mildest days, the 3rd. 25th, 28th, and
29th, had the wind from \V.S. ,V., fresh t o strong.
On the 17th, 1. 5 in. of rain was measured at
Stornoway, 1.22 in. at Aberdeen; on the 18th,
1. 75 in. at ' umburgh Head ; on the 29lih,
1.12 in. at Storno way. Snow fell on several
days in various parts, but not to an inconvenient
amount. F og seldom occurred. The weather
notations indicate fine days to have varied between
six in the west and one in the north ; overcast
days between 25 in the n orth and 12 in the central
district.
The weather was trying and unhealthy, alternately aridly cold and moistly warm. The snow
was a surprise on the 17th and 18th, with the
heavy rain, driving sleet, and bitterly cold north
wind of the disastrous tempest. The mornina of
the 18th showed a thick layer of snow on bthe
ground, crisply frozen in places, but it all disappeared the next day. This cyclonic storm made its
appearance at 6 P .M. , 16tih, off Cape Clear, barometer 28.8; at 8 A.M., 17th, its centre, 28.6, was
at Edinburgh; at 6 P.M., 28.6, off Nairn; at 8 A. M.,
18th, 29. 0, off t he coast of Durham; at 6 P . M. , 29.1,
at Brussels.
"With ships the sea was sprinkled far and wide;''

hence the maritime losses and casualliies were enormous, and about 350 lives were lost near our
shores, whilst the Continent suffered also. The
violence, frequ ency, and duration of the squalls
formed a pe~uliar feature of this tempest. The air
w~s dar~ with .snow, an Arctic blast driving it
wlldly,
the wmd and snow in angry conflict ,
''the sky and. 'air ve~ed and dim., The greate~t
pressure of wmd r egistered at the Greenwich Observatory during this tempest was 19 lb. on the
square foot, and tho greatest velocity has been
stated at about 100 miles an hour at London Kew '
and Oxford.
Du~ing the ~ve weeks ending December 2, the
durat10~ of bng.ht sunshine, estimated in percentage of ItS possible amount, was for the united
Kingdom 25, north Ireland 32, south-west England
31, south Ireland and West Scotland 29, east
England 27, sout h England and the Channel I sles
26, north -east England 25, central England 24,
north-west England 22, east Scotland 21, north
Scotland 12.

THE SMITHFIELD CLUB SHOW.


TnE Smit hfield Clu? has an unusually large and
successful show of animals at the Agricultural Hall
this year, and the display of engines and implements is on an equally important scale. This
winter gathering of buyers and sellers of implements comes very opportunely to break the long
interval between the agricultural shows of one year
and those of the next, and to enable farmers who
have not been able to come to a decision as to the
relative merits of different appliances, to take one
more look .at them before giving their orders.
:r'he novelties, such as they are, are displayed
In the summer, and their merits explained and
extolled ; at this time commercial considerations
prevail, and makers' efforts are directed solely to
filling their order books. From what we h eard at
the Show, this end is being attained in a satisfactory
manner ; at least n one of those we consulted
grumbled seriously at the s tate of business and
many spoke quite hopefully.
The conditi~n of
trade, howev~r, d o~s n ot c~me.within t he legitimate
sphere of thts article, whtch Is concerned with the
progress of engineering science as demonstrated by
the annual gathering at the Smithfield Club and as
this progress is exceedingly small, the arti~le may
be corres pondingly brief.
Oil engines are shown by Messrs. 'V8yman and
Hitchcock, Limited, of Guildford ; by Messrs.
R. H ornsby and Sons, Limited, Grantham ; by

Messrs. R obey and Co., Lincoln ; by the Britannia


Company, Colchester, and by the Campbell Gas
Engine Company, Halifax. The most interesting
feature is the determined attempt that is being
made by the first two firms to popularise the
portable oil engine. Messrs. Hornsby have had
one at work some months in their district, as a
t ravelling threshing engine, and have done a large
amount of work with it. It meets with great ap
preciation from the farmers, since t he labour of
Messrs.
fetching water is practically abolished.
Weyman's engine bears a card stating that it
received the "highest award at Chicago." In
steam engines Messrs. Marsha.ll, Son, and
Co., Limited, of Gainsborough, show, for the
first t ime in the Agricultural Hall, the type
of engine which we illustrate on the next page.
The cylinder is 10 in. in diameter by 24 in. stroke.
Steam is admitted by double beat valves contained
in a casing on the top of the cylinder. These valves
are actuated by Proell's two-valve releasing gear,
and the speed is controlled by a Proell governor,
placed as shown in our engraving. This governor is
fitted with an arrangement by means of which the
speed of the engine can be varied about 10 per
cent. The exhaust valves are of the Corliss type,
and situated underneath the cylinder. These
valves are worked by a separate eccentric, so that
the compression can be nicely adjusted without in
any way interfering with the performance of the
steam admission valves. The bedplate is of the
trunk type, with planed cross-head guides. The
cra:nkshaft pe~estal has four brasses, two being
adJustable hor1zontally. The crankshaft is of steel,
fitt~d with ~ ca~t-iron disc and steel crankpin.
This latter 1s oiled by a. central crankpin lubricator fed from a drop sight feed lubricator
attached to the handrail pillar. The flywheel is
massive, and the interior of the rim is fitted with a
toothe~ ring o.f gear, and a neat barring ratchet and
lever 1s provided, by means of which the engine
can be barred r ound when r equired. This enaine
0
is .designed to run at a piston speed of 500 ft. per
min.ute .. M~ssrs. Marshal~ a;e making these
engines In sizes up to 22 In. 1n diameter in the
single-cylinder engines, and to 18 in. and 32 in. in
diameter by 36 in. s~roke in the coupled and
tandem compound engines, both condensing and
high-pressure.
_Messrs. Ruston, Procter, and Co., Limited, of
Lin?oln, sh?w a ne'Y pattern Ghorse-power traction
engine, wh1eh exhibits the chief features of their
practice. The brackets for c~rrying the bearings
and other parts are securely nveted to the boiler
and then planed on the upper surfaces to rende;
the connecti~n both easy and accurate. Messrs.
Ransomes, S1m.s, and .J effer~es, .Limited, Ipswich,
hav~ a lar~e dtspla!, m wh1eh lB a well-designed
vertical b01ler , having a large amount of heating
sur~ace .. The gases rise up curved tubes which
dehver Into a smokebox at the side they then
pass across the boiler by a second set of tubes and
find their way in to the uptake.
'
Messrs. John Fowler and Co., Limited Leeds
make a. good sho'Y, including a tractio~ en gin~
fitted .with the ~pnn~s on the principle described
by us 1n connect10n With the Chester Show *
. The Roral Agricultural Society's trials of sheaf
bmders this autumn have attracted attention to this
cla~s of machine, and several makers show modied
designs. _Messrs. Horn~by, who won the first prize
at the tnals, call speCial attention to their new
~heaf separat?r. This consists of dependent rockIng arms, which, at the ~oment that the binding
arm comes forward, move In the opposite direction
~e~t the loo.s6 corn, and hold it back till the sheaf
Is ti~d and discharg~d. Th~ judges spoke in terms
of htgh commendatwn of th1s device. The machine
shown was arranged t o be used either with an open
ba?k or .a closed back, the back being capable of
bemg qll:1ekly removed when the length of the crop
renders Its absence desirable.
Messrs. Samuelson and Co., Limited, of Banbur
h~ve partly. remodelled th.eir s.heaf-binding reape~:
Wit~ the v1ew of ren~eri?g It .more simple and
efficient. An automatic ttghtenina appliance has
be~n 3:dded to the driving chain, :nd the knotter
wh1eh IS on the Appleby principle has been recon~
structed. At the adjoining stand Messrs. Harris
McGregor, and ~o ., Li~ited, of Leigh, Lancashi~~,
show a .sheaf binder In which the principal ne~
feature I~ a balanced r eel. The balancing is effe ted
by a spring contained within the hollow fram~n g,
*See ENGINEERING, vol. lv., page 86G.

(DEC. 8, I 89 3

E N G I N E E R I N G.

HORIZONTAL ENGINE WITH PROELL VALVE GEAR AT THE SMITHFIELD SHOW.


CON. 'TRUOTED BY l\IE ~ RS.

and is so efficient that the attendant can raise and


lower the reel almost without effort.
Messrs. Ra.nsomes, Sims, and ,J efferies, Limited,
show a new variety of their " one-way chilled
plough." This is a balance plough provided with
share and breast at each end. It can be tipped in
a moment without disconnecting the horses, and
will plough a field completely without leaving the
odd places usually required for turning the plough
at each end of its traverse. Messrs. Watson and
Haig, of Andover, Hants, also show a modified
plough, in which the head can be raised and lowered
by means of a plate having an inclined slot working over a stud in the head. By moving this plate,
by the aid of a rod within reach of the ploughman,
the dApth of ploughing can be instantly altered.
It only remains to add that the hall contains a
maonificent display of agricultural machinery, and
that for beauty of design, quality of material, and
accuracy of workmanship, it has never been surpassed on any previous occasion. We have only
to recall the names of Messrs. Aveling and P orter,
Messrs. Chas. Burrell and Sons, Messrs. .John
F owler and Co., Messrs. J. and F. Howard,
Messrs. J. and H. McLaren, Messrs. E. R. and
F. Turner, in addition to those 've have already
mentioned, and to many others, to show that it
contains many specimens of the engineering skill
which has won for English agricultural machinery
the foremost place in tho world.

JOHN TYNDALL, D.O.L., LL.D., F.R.S.


F oR some months the articles in this journal on
the R oyal Institution have been mainly summaries
of the scientific work of the distinguished man who
has just passed away.
For many years Dr. Tyndall had suffered from
sleeplessness, complicated latterly with dyspepsia
and rheumatism. In hia early days at the Royal Institution he continually complained of being unable
to sleep. In 1857 Faraday recommended him to distract his mind from philosophy by books or games
which required little or no thought, but yet could
command the attention. On one occasion he carried
him off from the laboratory to his own room, and
after tea, with Mrs. Faraday and her niece, engaged
Dr. Tyndall at bagatelle for an hour or two ; a game
of which Mr. Faraday was himself very fond. The
next morning Tyndall wrote, '' I slept six hours last
n;ght-t'i-ve la /;(lyalfllet' Later on Dr. Tyndall overcame his enemy by prolonged active exertion. Hence

l\IARSHALL, SONS,

AND 00.,

LIMITED, ENGINEER~ ,

his Alpine mountaineering and love of exercise in


fresh air. Of late his bodily strength had gradually
failed him, though otherwise his health appeared
fairly good, but early on Monday morning last he
fell into a comatose state ; about midday he revived
sufficiently for a few moments to be able t o recognise those about his bedside, but soon became again
insensible, and passed away peacefully without regaining consciousness at 6.30 P .l\I.
The early part of Dr. Tyndall's life has been so
recently given in these columns that it will not be
needful here to do more than give the more prominent facts. He was born, on August 21, 1820,
of poor but reputable parents at Leighlin Bridge,
Carlow, Ireland. He was educated by his father,
a true-blue Presbyterian, and a bitter opponent of
the Roman Catholic priesthood.
Tyndall's bent was early towards philosophic
studies ; as a lad he could figure in his mind's eye
a complicated geometrical problem, and work it
through without the aid of pen and paper. After
leaving school, his first work was on the Ordnance
Survey of Ireland ; afterwards he was employed
in laying out some of the English rail ways. Next
we find him engaged as a teacher at Queenwood
College, Hampshire. From t hence he, with Mr.
Frankland, one of his colleaguP.s at Queenwood,
went to the U niversity of Marburg, and worked in
the laboratories of Bunsen, Gerling, and Knoblauch.
In 1851 Tyndall was at Berlin , engaged with Magnus
on those researches on magne-crystallic action
which formed also his opening work at the Royal
Institution, where he was elected Professor of
Natural Philosophy in 1853.
Slaty cleavage, an important investigation, in
which he demonstrated that in all plastic substances
cleavage planes are formed at right angles to the
direction of pressure, led to his papers on glaciers.
lie made frequent visits to Switzerland in 1856
and subsequent years, and finally built a beautiful
chftlet on the Bel
lp. overlooking the letsch
glacier, to which he repaired every summer.
His scientific work is marked by extreme thoroughness. He would not leave a subject till he had so
thoroughly exposed every detail of the work in
hand as to leave literally nothing for the man who
came after him. In fact, his original researches
would have become almost wearisome to his audiences had they not been relieved by the introduction of bright experiments and digressions into
other matters.
Tyndall, Huxley, and Darwin were the three

GAINSBOROUGH.

scientific men who most loudly asserted the theory


of evolution. In 1874 Dr. Tyndall was president of
the British Association, and delivered the exposition of the Darwinian theory which has since become
famous as t he " Belfast Address. " At this day it
is difficult to r ealise the heartburnings and bitter
controversy to which this speech gave rise. Perhaps
it was the manner and mode of putting the subject
forward which created opposition, rather than the
matter of the address itself. To the charge of
being a '' material atheist, " Dr. Tyndall replied
thus:
In connection with the charge of atheism, I
would make one r emark. Christian men are proved
by their writings to have their hours of weakness
and of doubt, as well as their hours of strength and
of conviction, and men like myself share, in their
own way, these variations of mood and tense.
Were the r eligious views of many of my assailants
the only alternative ones, I do not know how
strong the doctrine [which he was charged with
holding] of 'material atheism ' upon my allegiance
might be. But, as it is, I have n oticed, during
years of self-observation, that it is n ot in hours of
clearness and vigour that this doctrine commends
itself to my mind; that in the presence of stronoer
and healthier thought it ever dissohes and disappears, as offering no solution of the mystery in
which we dwell, and of which we form a part.,
Probably Dr. Tyndall's early beliefs were not so
much SAAken as he and the world thought they
were. Dr. Tyndall was married at Westminster
Ab.bey, and it is. within the knowlPdge of the
wnter that he studied the marriage service beforehand; and it was remarked by persons who were
present that Dr. Tyndall emphatically repeated the
whole of the r esponses. !(nowing, as he does, the
character of the mau, the writer can vouch for it
that he would not have repeated those words unless
he, at the time, at all events, assented to them.
Furthermore, the writer has been informed on
credible authori~y that Dr. Tyndall was sponsor for
several of the chtldren of one of his in timate friends.
Tyndall had an infinite capacity for ta.kina
t~ou ble. A lecture t.o last ono h our would occupy
htmself and two assistants weeks in thinkina out
and rehearsing. 1'he mere putting the appa;atus
on the lecture table, and performing each experiment
in sitt~, (this was always done, no matter how easy
to perform the experiment might be), generally
engaged the Professor from 5 o'clock in the afternoon before the lecture day till 11 P. 'L, or even
4

'

DEc. 8, 1893. J
past midnight, and again from 9 A.~r. till within a
short time before the audience assembled. Hence
the simple experiments seldom failed; his impor tant
ones, we may say, never. Showy or brilliant demonstrations h e cared very little for. Will t he experiment elucidate the theory ? was his first cruestion.
Can it be seen 1 was his second. Will it be understood 1 was the third. His audience was always in his
confidence ; it was never taken by surprise by some
unlooked-for d enouement. Yet with all this care
and foresight he ever dreaded his entry into the
lecture-room. He once told the writer, with h is
foot on the entra nce step, '' I never go through
that door but in fear and trembling." This feeling
lasted but a few secon ds ; a few hesitating words led
the way to his first demonstration, a nd after that
h e treated his hearers as if they were his helpers,
looking for and getting t h eir sympathy without a
thought of criticism.
I t was not that the ma tter was always new ; the
'text-books of the time , wherein students could find
the main scientific truths, were fairly up t o date,
but Dr. 'ryndall's ex periments had the twofold
charm of novelty and of being presented in log ical
sequence. People who seldom or nev~r reasoned
found themselves caught in a tra in of inductive
experiment, eagerly looking for the logical res ult,
and oftentimes, t o their great delight, predicting
t h e conclusion befor e the lecturer had r eached it.
\Vhen this was the case Dr. 'ryndall was at his
happiest, and his a udience, a s enthusiastic a s himself, would hail with rapturous applause th e
movement of a spot of light or the dancing of a
straw, because they alike f elt that by these movements some hitherto mysterious workin g of one of
the forces of nature was shown and could be
understood.
The ostimation in which Dr. Tyndall's talent as
a lecturer was held can hardly be better emphasised
t.han by the following quotation from a resolution
passed at a meeting of the members of t he R oyal
Institution , M arch 3, 1873, on his re turn from th e
United States :
" Resolved, That the warmest congratulations of the
members of the R oyal Institution be offered t o their
Professor of Natural Philosophy upon his arrival in E ngland from the U nited States of America, in which, upon
the invitatiCi>n of the moRt eminent scientific men of
America, be has recent ly been delivering a series of
lectures unexampled for the interest they created in that
country, and the large and distinguished audiences who
have been attracted to them.
"The members of the R oyal Institution rejoice that the
people of America. have shared in the advantages of Professor Tyndall's teaching and illustrations of those scienoes
which have been so greatly advanced by the labours of his
J>redecesso~s, a~d by his own, in the laboratories of the
Royal Inst1tut10n.
"They receive and welcome him, on his return to what
they are proud to be able to designate as his own scientific
home, with satisfaction and delight, and wi:~h him longcontinued health and prosperity. "
Most of Dr. Tyndall's lectures h e afterwards
expanded or condensed into books, many of which
form text-books of the subjects treated -for
example, "Sound, " " Heat as a M ode of Motion,"
"Light, " "Notes on E lectricity." His "Fragments of Science " h ave high literary as well as
scientific merit.
His researches on radiant heat had the foremost
place in his h eart. These were embodied in the
two theories he h eld in highest estimation- the
wave theory of Young, and the mechanical theory
of heat of Joule. With t h ese two theories he
believed man to be able, given time and opportunity, to fathom the universe and make clear to the
understanding the working of the forces of nature
in itR r emotest parts.
Beginning with "Sound," he p opularised t he
wave theory, leading the minds of his hearers from
the perception of material visible waves to the no
less acute perception of the vibration s making
themselves known as h eat, light, and electricity.
Joule's mechanical theory of heat, w hieh might
have remained for years as the philosophic pet
of a few profound thinkers, he so demonstrated
by experiment and expatiated on by inference
and example, that he has made it the common
possession of the schoolboy at his desk, and the
mechanic at his bench. The gain to mechanical
science must have been imntense.
Time would fail to go over the whole of Tyndall's
work; it will be found at some length in back
numbers of ENGINEERING, and in articles on the
Royal Institution yet to come. They comprise
papers on ''Radiation, " ''Sound, " ''Light, " ''Fog, "
"Dust and Disease:' "Germ Theory," "Floating

E N G I N E E R I N G.
Matters of the Air in relat ion to Putrefaction and
Infection, " ere.
. The general acceptance of the germ theory of
dlSease, and the virtual triumph of the antiseptic
system of surgery, in this country is due to the
masterly manner in which Mr. Tyndall brought
the views of Pasteur and his fellow-labourers
before the public.
Professor 'fyndall wa.s married on February 20,
1876, in Westminster Abbey, to L ouisa Charlotte, daughter of Lord Claud Hamilton. At the
annual meeting of the members of the Royal Institution on May 1 following, a silver salver,
together with the sum of three hundred guineas,
was presented to Dr. Tyndall by the chairman.
Dr. Tyndall' s gifts from time to time to the Fund
for Lh e Promotion of Scientific Research amounted
in t he aggregate to 140l. In addition to this, he
liberally contributed t o the cost of his own r esearches, and presented to the Institution t h e
splendid and extensive apparatus employed by him
in his lectures on ligh t in America.
The profits of the American lectures were appropriated by Dr. Tyndall to the establishment of a
fund to assist the scientific studies of young
Americans in Europe.
Tyndall was now at his best. He took part in the
introduction of t he electric light. He was gas examiner to th e Board of Trade, examiner in physics
at South Kensington, scientific adviser to the
Brethren of the Trinity House. But unhappily his
p owers soon began to fail. The sleeplessness which
he had so long and b ravely combated, again returned, a nd. this time was to be the victor. In vain
he sought rest and quietude f or his over -taxed
brain . Switizerland and perfect repose seemed for
a time t o do h im good, but as soon as he r eturned to t h e busy haunts of men, sleep
forsook him. He found the directorship of the
R oyal Institution had become, instead of a
pleasure , a trouble t o him. IIe was also much
troubled by losing his assistan t, Mr. John Cottrell,
whose integrity, ability, and devotion to him he
had fre<1uently mentioned in his books and papers
wi th warm commendation.
His last lecture at the Royal Institution was
delivered on J~nuary 22, 1886, on "Thomas
Y oung. "
Shortly after this he was granted a
y ear's h oliday by t h e managers.
Before t h e year had expired, at th e April meeting of t h e members of the Royal Institut ion, t h e
managers r eported that at their meeting on March 7
the following letter from Dr. Tyndall was read :
''Hind Head, Haslemere,
''March G, 1887.
"MY DEAR Sm FnEDERICK BRAMWELL,-The year's
ho1iday so graciously and considerately granted me by
the managers will come to an end next month, and in
therefore behoves me to state, without further delay, for
the information of the managers, bow matters stand with
me.
"A brief conversation with my friend Sir Frederick
Pollock , and my own reflections thereupon, have convinced me that, mstead of making a statement myself at
the board meeting on Monday, it will be more expedient
to embody what I have to say m a letter to you.
"For more than a third of a century it has been my
privilege to enjoy the unfailing sympathy and encouragement of the managers and members of the Royal Institu~
tion. It is now my duty to return to their hands the
trust which they first committed to me in the spring of
1853. 1 have come to this resolution on account of the
need I feel of thorough rest, and of freedom froru engagements as to lecturing, the non-fulfilment of which would
be detrimental to the Institution, and a cause of sore
distress to myself.
"Worries connected with building, and other worries
inimical to quietude of brain, have for the last few years
troubled me much. These are now, for the most part,
things of the past, so th&t the freedom I seek will, I doubt
not, soon restore me to ~ood health.
" I returned from Sw1tzerland so refreshed and .invi~o
rated that I hoped to be able to cope succe.c;sfully w1th
all the duties then before me. I had assured myself of
the friendly aid of Mr. Crookes, and bad even arranged
to go to Paris to purchase some instruments necessary for
my contemplated work. To the end of the year my
health contmued strong. Then came a long-continued
spell of withering easterly winds, which chilled me, dried
me up, and brought on an attack of sleeplessness, intense
wbile it lasted, but which, happily, has in great parb dis
appeared with its cause.
Of my ultimate and complete recovery I entertain little
doubt. Still it would be obviously unfair to the meru hers,
as it would be intolerable to myself, to allow the fortunes
of our great Institution to depend in any degree upon such
caprices of health. Ib is therefore my desire to make room
for a succeseor whose years and vigour will place him
beyond all changes and chances of this kind.
''Of the feelings called forth by my separation from
the Royal Institution, I have said nothmg. But the
managers will understand that my silence in this respect
is due nob to the absence of such feelings, but only to the

conviction that on the present occasion the less said about


them the better.
'' Believe me, most faithfully yours,
" JOHN TYNDALL."
Dr. Tyndall altogether declined to receive any
pension or pecuniary testimonial in recognition of
his services to the Royal Institution, intimating
that in parting from his lon g connection with it he
d esired only to carry with him the friendly recollec tion and good will of the members.
The managers, therefore, determined that some
marked r ecognition of a permanent character should
be given of the gr eat value of Dr. Tyndall's labours.
They proposed to Dr. Tyndall that h e should sit
for his bust (in marble), to be placed in the Institution, in perpetual memory of his r elations with it.
This desire was never carried out. But it was
r ecommended by the managers, and unanimously
agreed to by the members, that in order to h onour
the name of Dr. Tyndall in connection with the Institution, one of the courses of lectures delivered
annually should be called the " Tyndall L ectures."
On Monday, May 0, 1857, John Tyndall, Es<l.,
D.C.L., LL.D. , F.R.S., was elected Honorary Professor of Natural Philosophy.
After his retirement Dr. Tyndall re-edited many
of his works, and wrote papers for the Fo,rtnightly
R eview, &c., which he published in 1892 as "New
Fragments of Science. " The most noteworthy are
"Personal Recollections of Thomas Carlyle" (1890),
"About Common \Vater, " " The Origin and Prevention of Phthisis, " and ''Life in the Alps."
He was impulsive, warm-hearted, warm tempered,
generous to a fault, charitable in the widest and
narrowest sense of the word (fe w knew of his gifts to
the poor, a nd none their extent or number ), a hater
of untruthfulness or meanness of any kind. At times
he was brusque and rough in manner, but if h e
thought feelin gs were hurt, a courtly charm diffused
itself into his words and gestures which at once
disarmed r esen tment. He was loved, and much
loved, by all those who were brought into continued
association with him.

"THE FASTEST CRUISER IN THE


WORLD."
U nited States naval authorities have every
reason to be proud of the results of the trials of the
new commerce-destroyer Columbia, the details of
which are now to hand ; but as to whether the
vessel has proved h erself to be unrivalled in the
world is doubtful. The vessel was taken over the
Government measured distance in Cape M ay, off
B oston, and was run once in a southerly and once
in a n ortherly direction, the mean speed working
out at 22.81 knots. Before entering into the
details of the trial it may be interesting to describe
some of the leading features of the vessel. She is
of the protective d eck type, the length being 412 ft.,
b eam 58 ft. 2 in., a nd her displacement at 24 ft.
draught is 7475 tons.
She is, therefore, much
longer than any of the cruisers in the British
Navy, although in displacem en t many of our
cruisers - notably t h ose of t he Edgar class equal t h e Columbia. The protective d eck varies
in thickness from 4 in. to 2! in.
But the
most interesting feature of t his vessel is h er machinery, and the fact that triple screws have b een
utilised. The triple screw seoms to b e growing in
favour in the United States, and the president of
Messrs. Cramp's Shipbuilding Company, in speaking at the inaugural m eeting of the American Naval
Architects' Institute the other day, gave it as his
conviction that tho maximum p ower which could
b e efficiently contributed through a single shaft
was 12,000 indicated h or ae power, and that, therefore, when 24,000 indicated h orse-power was r equired, t riple scr ews must be adopted. There are
many instances of shafts contributing more than
12,000 indicated horse-power in the case of Atlantic and oth er steamships, and it would probably
be an interesting inquiry to ascertain if in their case
the slip was greater than in vessels where Mr.
Cramp's ideal condition obtained. Certainly marine
constructors in this country are not yet convinced
that t he triple-screw arrangement will give more
efficient r esults than does the twin-screw arrangement. The point was incidentally considered at
the Maritime Congress r ecently held in London, il
when Professor Biles introduced the question in
a paper on '' Ocean Steamships. " He said that
as far as one can judge from the results of actual
vessels, as compared with the results deduced from
T HE

* See ENGINEERING, page 106 ante.

E N G I N E E R I N G.
model experiments, it would appear that no highspee.d ocean passenger steamer with two screws has
attamed as high an efficiency. as t~e best single
sc~ews. In the three-screw sh1ps whtch have been
tr1ed- amongst the number are the French cruiser
Dupuy de L ome, the German cruiser Kaiserin
~ugusta, and two .Italian boa~s -no greater effictency has been attatned than with the twin screw.
On the other hand, Dr. White, the Chief Constructor ~t ~he Ad~iralty? although he spok e with
character1~t1c .cautwn, sa1d that the question had
bee!l studied 1n the Government service, and comparing .the closest . data, they had arrived at the
concluswn that tw1n screws h eld t heir own with
the single. ~crew: in the matter of efficiency. Thus
do author1t1es differ ; and it seems quite probable
t~erefore, that with the t riple screw greater effi.~
Clency may yet ~e got, but as yet there are no reliable data. In thts connection it is interestina to note
that from the d~ta to hand the slip of th~ screws
of the Columbia at the speed given was 19-:\- per
cent. The screws of the Columbia differ in t heir
arran~eme~t from those adopted in several correspondtng 1nstances. The side screws are spread
from f?rward t o aft ; t hat is to say, the shafts run
a.t a sl~ght ~~gle to the centre longitudinal plane of
the shtp, g1v1ng r oom for the screws to work in solid
water and avoid the friction of the hull. They are
also placed as far forward of the centre screw as
possible. The centre screw is placed lower down
and inclined downwards from forward t o aft.
'
. Th" thr~e sets of engines are of the ordinary
1':lverted t~Iple-co~pound _type, two being placed
stde by side as 1n a tw1n-screw ship while t he
centre-screw engine is in an after co~partment.
The cylinders are 42 in., 59 in., and 92 in. in diameter respectively, the stroke being 42 in. They
are carried in front on cast-steel columns braced
fore and aft by stays, with the usual fra~ina at
back. The intermediate and low-pressure cylinders
are steam-jacketed. All main valves are of the
piston type, and the reversing gear is of the bar
link type. The pistons are of cast s teel and
conical ; the connecting-rods are 7 ft. from centre
of crosshead to centre of crankpin, and weigh, with
brasses and caps, 6500 lb. each. The crankpins are
17 in. in diameter and 21 in. long, while the shafting is 16 in. in diameter, with a 6-in. core. The
screw propellers are of bronze, the pitch being
21 ft. 6 in. The centre screw is 14ft. in diameter,
and the side screws 15ft. It therefore follows that
these blades project beyond th~ run of t he ship,
and must, therefore, be a constant source of danger
with vessels passing at close q uarters. This, indeed, is one of the serious objections to t he adoption of the twin screw in merchant vessels. There
are eight double-ended boilers, wit h 64 furnaces.
They have a diameter of 15 ft. 6 in., and a length
of 18 ft. They are constructed of 1!-in. shell plates
-three to the length. They are worked under
forced draught on t he closed stokehold system,
having a capacity of 20,000 cubic feet of air per
minute.
The trial t ook place on N ovemher 18, when the
vessel ran once in each direction over the Navy
measured distance of 43.97 nautical miles off
B oston. At intervals of 7 or 8 miles along the
rou te ships were moored as buoys, and naturally
the speed between the buoys was taken. The time
between each buoy is given on an adjoining Table,
and it will be noted that between t he seventh and
eighth buoy-ships the speed r eached 25 knots; but
Commodore Melville, Chief of the U nited States
Naval Engineering D epar tment, who designed the
engines, is inclined to t he belief that t he buoy-ship
must have d rifted and shortened t he distance, which
would consequently affect t he mean speed, not only
for that period, but probably for t he whole run.
The r evolutions of the engines over this short distance did not show any appreciable differ ence from
the mean. As indicated in the 1'able, t he speed out
was 22.92 knots, and h ome 22.7 knots, but if we
assume that the vessel only ran between t he Dolphin
and the Fortune both out and home, we find that the
distance is 36.23 nautical miles, and that the time
out was 1 hour 36 minutes 49 seconds, and home
1 hour 37 minutes 32 seconds, so that the speed
for the distance, which is apparently assumed
as absolutely correct, was, on the outward r un,
22.46 k nots and on the h omeward r un 22. :n knots,
the mean b~ing 22.38 knots. But it is very probable, looking at t h e figures, that t he F ortune
and Vesuvius station vessels moved t owards each
other, so that the distan ce in the one case would
be shortened, while in the other it would probably

[DEc. 8, I 893.

be lengthened, which partly accounts for the reduced


s_peed: But it is said that the boilers primed a
httle 1n the centre of the t riala, so that 22! knots
seems to be about a fair rate of speed. The mean
steam press~re was 158 lb., the port engine made
1.36i revolutwns, the starboard engine 134 revolut1?ns, and the centre engine 132 revolutions per
m1nute, and the power developed is 0ai ven as 21 500
indicated horse-power.
'
T rial R u n of U.S. Crttiser "Colttmbia."-The Run N orth.
Station Vessels.

Distance in
Nautical
Miles.

E lapsed
Time.

Speed in
Knots.

m. s.

Dolphin
..
..
..
o.00
lrwana
..
..
..
2.37
6 18
22.66
Kearsa.rge ..
..
..
6. 66
18 4
22. 11
Leyd en
..
..
..
6.66
17 18
23. 10
Fern ..
.
..
..
6. 4
18 16
23.55
Narkeeta
..
..
..
6. 4
17 16
22.22
For tune
..
..
..
7. 74
21 36
21.53
Vesuvius
..
..
..
7.74
18 18
26.31
Elapsed time, 1 hour 55 minutes 7 seconds to cover a distance of
43.97 miles, giving an a verage ot 22.92 knots fo r one-balf the
course.

T he R un South.
Vesuvius
.. I
0.00

Fortune
7.74
18 45

24 77
Narkeeta
7. 74

22 0
21. 11

Fern
6.4
17 45
2 1.64

Leyden
6.4
16 11

23. 77
Kearsarge
6.66
22.96
17 24

Ir wana
6.66

22.71
17 53

Dolphin
2.:11

6 17
22.70

Elapsed time, 1 hour 56 minutes 17 seconds to cover a distance


of 43. 97 miles, g iving an average ot 22. 7 knots. Run nor th, 22.92
knots. Run south, 22.70 knots. A''erage for both runs, 22.8 1
knots.

As to whether she is unrivaJ.led on the sea, it is


a moot point. Speed t rials are more or less
illusory. The Columbia did all she was able, and
that under the best conditions, so that t here is room
for doubt whether or uot she could maintain the
same speed at sea for any length of time. In the
British Navy steam trials are directed towards
ascertaining the power, and the vagaries of t he log
used afford surprising results when comparison is
~ade with vessels of corresponding design developIng the same or greater power. The British cruiser
Blenheim, which is 37 ft . shorter, but of 6ft. 10 in.
greater beam, and displaces 9000 instead of 7475
tons, developed on forced draught trial 21,400 indicated horse-power, the revolutions of t he twin
engines averaging 105 .3. The Admiralty have
deduced from progressive trials on the measured
mile at Stokes Bay the relation between the revolutions of the screw and the speed of t he vessel
and on t his basis it was found that the Blenhei~
was capable of maintaining 23 knots, assuming that the slip of the screw was the same
as in the natural draught trials.
The exact
data were given in a letter by Dr. White, published in a recent volume of ENGINEERING (vol. lv. ,
page 285). It seems, therefore, that the Blenheim
might prove a very capable competitor against the
Columbia, not withstanding h er greater di5lplacement due to heavier protective deck- 6 in. t hick
tapering to 3 in., and to her installation of guns.
The comparison is as follows : Blenheim, two 22ton breechloaders, ten 6-in. quick-firin g, sixteen
3-pounder q uick -firing, and seven machine guns,
besides six torpedo-launching tubes. Columbia,
one 8-in. breechloader, two n-in., eight 4-in.'
twelve 6-pounder, and eight !-pounder q uickfiring guns, and four machine g uns, besides
five torpedo-launching tubes. As to coal endurance, the Blenheim carries 1500 t ons and t he
Columbia 750 tons, although it is said 2000 tons
may be stored. The 1500 tons is equal to a radius
of 15, 000 nautical miles at 10 knots speed. The
cost of the Blenheim was 425, 5Dll. ,. and of t he
Columbia545,000l., towhich must be added 70,000l.
as bonus for excess of speed.

N 0 T ES.
THE MANCHESTER SHIP CANAL.
THE first passage of the Manchester Ship Canal
from end to end was accomplished yesterday, t he
directors of t he company having gone over the
canal in the ferry steamer Snowdrop, a boat over
40 ft. beam. They arrived from Liverpool at, the
P omona Dock, Manchester, at 3 P.M . , after an inspection of all the lock gates, swing bridges, and
the Barton aqueduct. The hydraulic machinery
worked admirably in every case, and no difficulty
in navigation was encountered at any point of the
canal.
We heartily congratulate Mr. Leader

Williams upon the successful completion of his long


and arduous work.
THE DIVING DRESS.
It is well known that prior to Mr. Siebe- who, in
1~29, was the first to introduce a r eally practical
d~vin~ dress, with provision for the supply of fresh
au-1nventors had been at work upon the subject as
far ~ack as the beginning of .the eighteenth century.
But 1t now appears that the 1dea is very much older
than that, and goes back to the fifteenth century. M.
Bertholet, in pursuing his researches in the history
of ~xplosives, has brought to light an ancient manus?r1pt, by an anonymous author, in the R oyal
hbrary at Munich, to which he assigns a date of
about 1430, and which contains a number of coloured
figure~ relating principally to artillery and war
material. M. B er t holet has reproduced a selection
of these drawings in .A11nales cle Ohim.ie et cle
P_hvsique, and among . them t hree relating to a
d1v1ng dress. Ther e 1s no description , but the
first and second drawings show the dress and the
boots, while the t hird represents t he diver fully
equipped at t he bottom of the water. The dress
(o! leather !) is provided with glass eye-pieces, and
with a respiratory tube leading above the surface of
t he water, where it has two orifices, but n o means is
shown for supplying a current of air. M. Bertholet
cons~ders that the ~gures of the manuscript are too
prectse to be constdered mere projects, and contends that they r epresent machines actually made .
A PROJECTED WORLD's E xHIBITION AT BERLIN.
Th_e rapidly growing capital of the German
~mp1re has for several years been anxious to join
In the race between t he other great cities of the
world for a Gr eat Exhibition, more especially after
the success which attended the last Paris Exhibiti?n i~ 1889, and of what Germany is capable in t his
dl.l'ectwn was proved at t he r ecen t Columbian Exposition at Chicago. In t he year 1879 there was
held at Berlin a local industrial exhibition which
was fai!ly representative, and gave sati;factory
economiCal results. The committee of that exhibition, which somehow is still in existence, proposed
to again hold a local exhibition -on a much larger
scale, of course- and offered t he surplus from the
previous exhibition to wards a new one. There
seemed, however, to be a feeling for a larae
0
national German exhibition in preference t o a
merely local one. The German societies for the
promotion of art industry are very much in favour
of t he latter plan, and have formed a union for the
purpose of bringing about a large collective exhibition , and it has even been suggested that a larae
special buil~ing shou~d be erected. That part ~f
the plan whiCh compnses t he special Berlin exhibition also I?eets wit h considerable suppor t, and over
2500 entrtes have already been r eceived, so that the
figures of 1879 have already been considerably
exceeded. The financial aspect of the affair is also
promising, for the guarantee fund has now reached
a sum of 3, 000,000 marks, or 150, OOOl., and it is
thought t hat the exhibition can now be r ealised
without any State aid.
WESTERN UNION TELEGRA.PH COMPANY.
The business of t his great undertaking continues
t o exhibit a steady expansion. In 1892-3 the number of miles of poles and cables owned by t he com
pany was 189,936, as compared with 189,576 miles
m 1891-2 and 187, 191 miles in 1890-1. The number
of miles of wire owned by t he company in 1892-3
was 769,201, as compar ed with 739,105 miles in
1891-2 and 715,591 miles in 1890-1. The number
of oftices owned by the company in 1892-3 was
21,078, as compared with 20,700 in 1891-2 and
20,098 in 1890-1. The number of messages forwarded by the company in 1892-3 was 66,591,858,
as compared wit h 62,687,298 in 1891-2 and
59, 148,343 in 1890-1. The revenue acquired in
1892-3 was 24,978,443 dols., as compared with
23,706,404 dols. in 1891-2 a.nd 23,034,326 dols. in
1890-1. The net profit realised in 1892-3 was
7,496,037 dols., as compared with 7,398,545 dols. in
1891-2 and 6,505,587 dols. in 1890-1. In 1869-70 the
company owned 54, 109 miles of poles and cables,
112,191 miles of wire, and 3972 offices, while it forwarded 9,157,646 messages, earned 7 ,138, 737 dols.,
and r ealised a net profit of 2,227, 965 dols. I t will be
seen that while the business of t he company has
enormously increased since 1879-80, the net profits
have not expanded in anything like an equal ratio.
Thus considerably more than twice as many telgrams were forwarded in 1892-3 as were despatched in 1879-80, while the revenue acquired in
1892-3 was nearly twice as large as compared with

DEc. 8, I 893.]
1879-80. The advance in the net profit was, h owe ver, only from 5,833,937 dol~. in 1879-80 to
7,496,037 dols. in 1892-3. In other words, while
near~y half the r evenue acquired in 1879-80 was
profit, the corresponding proportion in 1892- 3 had
sunk to less than one-third. This was attributable,
no doubt, to the pressure in one form or another of
the competition, or the tendency to competition,
which is so marked a feature in American life. The
Western U nion Telegraph Company was ch a rtered
April 4, 1856. In the first instance, it was a corn
parati vely small concern ; but the policy of the
director s has been t o continually expand the undertaking by buying up other telegraphic e nt erprises.
At the commencement of 1881, the company's
stock had grown to 80,000,000 d ols. By November,
1887, it had b een carried to 86,200,000 dols.; and
in October, 1892, it was finally increased to
100,000,000 dols., at which it at present stands.
THE NEW :AMERIUAN ATL J.NTI C LINERS.

I t is well known that it is the ambition of the


American shipbuilders to beat the new Cunard
steamers Campania and Lucania, and at present
they have two vessels in course of construction for
the American Line, which it is hoped will be ready
for launching in the spring and on service in the
autumn of next year. It is, moreover, in contemplation t o utilise the experience in d esigning, constructing, and running these vessels in two other
ships which Mr. Charles H. Cramp, the president
of the famous American firm, says '' will n ot
shrink from any comparison or competition. ''
While n ot offering any prediction as t o the probable
r esult of the two vessels now building, he has
given, in a paper read before the Society of Naval
Architects and Marine Engineers in America, some
details o f the vessels, which would indicate that
the effort to compete with the high-speed Atlantic
liners of to-day is more decided than was at one
time supposed. The vessels are scarcely as large
as the Campania and Lucania, but they exceed in size the New York, Paris, Teutonic, and
l\1ajestic. Their length on the load water line is
536 ft., and over all 554 ft. , while the extreme
breadth is 63 H., and the m oulded depth 42 ft.
I t will be noticed that the Messrs. Cramp prefer
the great beam of the Paris to the narrow beam of
the Harland and \Volff model, for the proportion
of length to breadth is 8.5 to 1, while in the Paris
it is 8. 37, in the Cc1.mpania 9. 23, and in the
T e utonic 9.82. The gross r egiste red tonnage is
11, 000 tons, rather m ore than the T e utonic and
P a ris. The new vessels will carry 320 first-class,
200 second-class, and 900 steerage passengers. The
vessels will be driven by twin screws, actuated by
qu1druple-expansion engines w orking four cranks.
The steam pressure will be 200 lb. to the square
inch, and the p ower to be developed is 20,000
indicated horse-power. It is hoped, therefore,
that the vessels will come next- if 1hey do not, indeed, excel-the Cunard vessels. This latter, h owever, seems doubtful. The details we have given,
it may be stated, are from a paper read at the
inaug ural session of the new Naval Architects'
Society, the vitality of which indicates the earnestness with which the marine industry is being pursued in Ame rica, for already the membership totals
435. The president is Mr. Griscom, the chief of
the new American Line, and one of the most energetic steamship owners in the States. To him,
indeed, is largely due the revival of the effort to
found an American Atlantic Line.

E N G I N E E R l N G.
over the Canadian Pacific from Vancouver to
M ont real. With such resources at hand, engineers
are naturally loth to abandon its use, and hence
for bridges of large span a ''combination"
system has been developed, in which al1 the tension
members are of iron and steel, whilst tim her is used
for the struts. A great saving is thus effected. One
of the l ongest spans yet attempted on this system
is the cantilever bridge over the North U mpq ua
River, near Roseburgh, Oregon, which was described in a paper read before the American Society
of Civil Engineers by Mr. Ottewell, the engineer
for the structure. The shore arms of the cantilevers in this instance are each 147ft. long, and the
river arm~ 105ft. The suspended portion is 80 ft.
long, so that the main opening has a total width of
290ft. The bridge was e rected by building out,
temporary members being fi tted where neceesary
for this purpose. In A11stralia, a similarity of conditions appears to be leading t o the adoption of a similar system of bridge construction. The native ironbark timber, though hard and difficult to work,
is extremely strong and du'fable, and, being
abundant, can be got cheaply. All ironwork, on
the other hand, must be imported, since as yet
no rolling mills have been erected in these
colonies.
The Government bridge engineer, Mr.
J. A. Macdonald, M . I . C. E., has accordingly
determined to adopt the composite system for
the Cowra bridge, consisting of three 160-ft.
spans. Since girder-work a ppears to cost about
24l. per ton erected, it is obvious that a considerable saving in the first cost of the bridge can
thus be effected, and though the combination structure is l ess durable, still, after allowing for this, Mr.
Macdonald fi nds that the annual outlay for maintenance and sinking fund shows a saving of 37 per
cent. as compared with the cost of the iron structure.

NOTES FROM THE UNITED STATES.


Pnu.ADELPHIA, November 28, 1893.
I NllARMONY prevails in steel rail circles, despite the
assertions to the contrary. It is given out that an
agreement has been made to sell at 24 dols. The
Tariff Committee will probably announce a duty of
8 dols. or 9 dols per ton. This secures the American
market to American makers. Very few orders are
being placed, as buyers do not believe that, wit.h
billets at 16 dols. to 17 dols. at Pittsburgh, steel rails
can be kept at 24 dols. at mill, and they are right.
Billets haYe been sold in this market, within a few
days, at 19 dols. in large, and 20 dols. in small lots.
~fanufacturers are urgently canvassing the market for
orders, and it is impossible to say what figures will be
reached. The iron trade is in an unsettled condition.
It is expected that before the close of the week the
new duties on i ron and steel products w.ill heknown;
but in Yiew of the revolution in public sentfment, it is
n ot considered likely that reductions will be made
which will benefit foreign producers. Iron and steel
mills are working half-time, or less. Bridge-builders
are doing very li ttle. Two or three locomotive works
have increased their labour force 25 per cent. Carbuilders are urgent ly canvassing the rail way corn p anies
for winter busine.ss, but as yet without success. At
the same time, it must be remembered that the foundation is being laid for a very acti \'e demand for all mill
and furnace products before the opening of spring.
Financial conditions are improving; banks have
more money; confidence is being restored, and general
market conditious are improving, though l:!lowly.
American manufacturing interests are avoiding the
mistake of accumulating stocks, until an actual demand
is presented. Railroad companies especially are
00l\1BINATION BRIDGES.
postponing the purchase of supplies, and large manuThe old adage, that "Like causes p roduce like facturing establis hments are running on extremely low
effects," receives an interest ing illustration in the stocks.
methods of construction adopted in new countries.
In such places timber is us ually plentiful, whilst
MISCELLANEA.
iron is scarce and dear. This, on the American
THE Russian Government has ordered the construction
continent, has led to a remarkable development in at Nicolaieff of another ironclad of the type of the
he building of wooden bridges, sometimes of as long Trafalgar. It is to be named the Paris.
as 250 ft. span. In spite of its g reat comparative
The twenty-eighth annual dinner of the L eeds Associatensile strength, timber is not, h owever, so suitable tion of Engineers was held at the Queen's Hotel, Leeds,
for ties as it is for struts, since in the former case the on Saturday last.
joints are necessarily somewhat clumsy, particularly
W e have been requested to state that Messrs. Charles
1n large spans, t he bottom chords of which are Churchill and Co.\ 21, Crm~s-street, Finsbury are the
liable to stretch, leading often to the conde mning agents for Great Britain of M essrs. Jones and' Lamson
of the bridge, and the substitution of iron struc- whose lathe we illustrated and described in our last
number.
t ures. On t he Pacific coast, however, iron is very
A meeting .is to be held at th~ room~ of the Society of
dear, as it h as to be conveyed by rail across t he
continent, or if sent by the cheaper r oute r ound Arts,, A~elph1, on J anua.ry 26, wtth a new to forming an
assoc1~t10n of ~ech nical in ti tu tions giving secondary
by Cape Horn, valuable time is l ost. On the other ed ucat10n. Part10ulars of the proposed society can be obhand, this region contains some of the best timber tained from Mr. J. Werthein1er, the Merchant Venturers'
in the world. Last year, indeed, a number of School, Bristol.
ticks 36 in. sq uare and over 60 ft. long were sent
The Admiralty have ordered designs to be prepared

for a new type of gun-vessel, an improv~ment on the


Linnet class but of greater speed and carrymg ~ stron~er
a.rn,a.ment, their equipment consisting of qUick -fin'?g
guns of the latest type. Several of these vessels wlll
be begun du ring the ensuing financial year.
Under the title of "The River L ea up to Date,"
Major L. Flower, sanitary en~ineer to the Lea Conservancy Board, has issued an Interesting pat;nphlet d~
scribing the work done in abating the pollut10n. of ~h1s
stream sincA the formation of the board. An hlBtOrtcal
retrospect of the river and the v~ rious towns on its
banks is also entered into.
The continued prosperity of the Institution of Civil
Engineers is shown by the number of new members
admitted at the meeting on Tuesday last. Twenty-three
associate members were transferred to the class of
members, and seven new members were at the same time
admi~ted. The new associate members numbered 122,
and sixty-nine students were also admitted at the same
time.
The Admiralty have caused a letter to be forwarded to
Chatham Dockyard, in which their lordships approve of
the sum of 40, OOOl. spent on the repairs to the Howe
battleship, and express their " great satisfaction " with
the speed and skill displayed by the officers and men in
executing the work. Special commendation is bestowed
upon Mr. Pa.lmer, foreman, and Mr. R. H. Andrews,
assistant engineer, of the yard.
The torpedo-boat destroyer Havock, built by Messrs.
Ya.rrow and Co., Poplar, went down the Tham~ for a
cruise on Saturday last, having on board representatives
of various foreign navies and others interested in this new
type of craft. The vessel went down the Kent coast as
far as the Mouse, the speed maintained varying from 18 to
21 knots. There was no attempt to run at high speed,
the vessel having on official trial made 26f knots. We
have already fully described the vessel and reported the
trials. (See ENGINEERING, vol. 1v., page 848, and pages
545 and 612 ante.)
Mr. Stuart Smith, writing in the E lectr&cal World ,
attributes the blackening: of the bulbs of incandescent
lamps entirely to a distlllation of the carbon, holding
that it cannot be due t o combination of the residual
vapours i? ~he lamp with the c~rbo~, and a. subsequent
decompos1t1on of tht:J:\e on commg m contact with the
walls, because dissociation is never produced by cooling.
The greater rapidity of deposit in new lamps than in old
ones h e attributes to the glass being a better condenser,
when clean, than after a. certain amount of deposit has
taken place.
The town of Macolesfield has, within the last few
years, been the recipient of seYera.l complaints from
different quarters for polluting the River Bollin. Plans
were accordingly prepared for acquir1ng 200 acres of land
for a scheme of disposal by irrigation, the estimated cost
being 70,000l. to 100,000l. It appears, however, that the
International Water and Sewage Purification Company
hava <?flAred to erect plant for dealing with the sewage at
a capttal cost of 10, OOOl., the annua.l charges being not,
however, stated, and this scheme is at present under consideration.
We are glad to notice that the Sa.vilia.n Chair of
Astronomy at Oxford, which has been vacant since the
death of Professor Pritchard in May las~1 has been filled
by the appointment of lVIr. Herbert Hau Turner of the
Royal Observatory, Greenwich. 1\II:r. T urner ~ho was
Second Wr~ngler a.t Cambridge in)882, and wh~ is one of
the secretartes of the Royal Astronomical Society has
been chief assistant at Greenwich since 1884 and has hence
had ample experience, not only in practi~l astronomy
but also in the. orga.nis~tion of observatory work. Alto:
get her the appomtment 1s an excellent one on which the
Oxford autho~ities are dec:idedly to be ~ongra.tulated.
Mr. Turner wtll be much mtssed at Greenwich.
An experiment on electric traction for barges was
recently tried on the Erie Canal at Rochester. The overh~ad trolley system was used, a return wire being provided. The trolley rods were about 15 ft. long, and
allow~d the boat to vary a distance of 10 ft. from
a. stratght co?rse. The boat was fitted with two 25horsepo~er Westmghouse motors, driving the screw direct.
Wtth 175 tons of sand and a ~a.rge number of people on
board, a speed of from 3~ to 6 m1les an hour was obtained.
It should be added that ~b e pla.~t was designed for
500 vol.ts, but the cu~rent bemg obtamed by connecting a
feed wue to the mams of the Rochester Street Railroad
Company, the greatest pressure available was 370 volts.
The following particulars as to the proposed " Canal
des Deu.x Mers, '' betwe~n Bordeaux and N arbonne, thus
connectmg the At_lanttc with the Mediterranean have
recently been p~bhshed by M. Rene Kerviller, a~ eminent ~ren_ch engm eer, who says that the canal would be
320 miles m length from sea to sea and would be from
144 ft. to 215 ft. b.road, with a. depth of from 28 ft. to
33 ft., so as to a.d.m~t the passage of the largest iron clads.
f'here are to be stdt~gs of ~hreequarters of a mile long at
I?tervals of eyery e1ght mtles, so as to facilitate navigatiOn and avOid delay of traffic, while there are to be
22locks, each of which is to be about 650 ft Ion b
80.ft. br?ad, and with a. fall of from 20ft. to 60ft. gTh~
sh1ps usmg the c~nal are to be towed or t o be drawn
along by fixed en~ne.s, and :M. Rene Kerviller estimates
that. a canal of th1s km.d wou.ld cost 27,400,000l., and that
the mt~rest on the ca.pttallymg dormant while the canal
was bemg l!lade wo~ld amount to 3, 000, OOOl. more, or
30,400,000l. m all, while the receipts, at the rate of 3s. a
ton, would be, less the cost of working and re airs
2,400,0~0l, .repre~enting an interest of 5 per cent. pupo~
the captta.lmvested.

E N G I N E E RI N G.

[D Ec. 8, I 893.

ELLIOTT'S SMOKE ANNIHI LATOR AT THE MINT, BIRMINGHAM.


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\ V E illustrate above Elliott 's smoke and fumes


annihilator, which has been at work at the Birmingham ~lint for several months, and t o inspect which
a n u mb~r of engineers fr om London and t he provinces
visited Birmingham yesterday week. T he principle
of the in vention, which was experimentally tried in
L ondon two years ago, is to wash the smoke t horoughly
and t o utilise t he carbon precipitated in the wat er as
well as t he fluid drained off.
F ig. 1 shows t he general arrangement of the installation. The stack , which is lOO ft. high from the ground
level and 6 f t. 6 in. in diamet er , takes the smoke from
three Lancashir e boilers, one 30 ft. by 8 ft. , and two
2 ft. by 7 ft . 6 in., each with t wo flues, and a t hreeflue boiler 22 ft . by 6 ft. In addition there is discharged into the stack the smoke from six large
mufilers fo r hot r olling and annealing.
Formerly the Birmingham ~lint was occasionally
fined for allowing dense smoke to be emitted from
the stack , and t his, in large measure, induced the
directorate to try E lliott's invent ion after seeing it at
work at his establishment at N ewbury, Berks. The
fumes, instead of being allowed to pass up the chimney,
a re drawn off by fans at a height of about 12ft. from
t he ground. Fitted into the shaft or stack is a cone
with t he large end downwards, reducing t he diamet er
at top to 3 ft. 6 in. An J 8-in. p ipe pierces t he shaft,
but it is proposed to s~bst.itute a 30-in . p~pe, . for
reasons which we shall mdicat e later. This pipe,
shown in Fig. 1, is connected t o t he induction opening
of a fan, the casing of which is shown on the front elevation and half longitudinal sect ion (F ig. 2), as well as on
the plan (Fig. 3). This is a four-vane fan with ordinary flat surfaces, ~nd has been found to work more
satisfactorily than many other arrangements. 'J'he
diameter is 3 ft. 6 in., and it is driven by belting as
shown ; it runs at a speed of about 1600 revolutions
per minute.
As the fu nct ion of t his fa.n is t o arrest t he progress
of the smoke up the chimney and dri ve it into t he
washing chamber, or annihilator, as .it is called, it. is
necessary that it should work efficiently; otherw1se
smok e will find its way up the chimney, and, although
t he s tack might under certain conditions b~ disJ!ensed
with there would still be ncessary a sufficient mduct ion draught to insure combustion in the boiler. It is
desirable that the air pre~su re given by the fan should

be 10 in. according t o the water gauge, but at t he speed


given it is from 8 in. to 9 in. It is pr oposed, however,
instead of driving the fan from a separate engine, to
convey the motive power from t he hot rolling mill
engines through a shaft un der~round for 50 ft. This
shaft will run at l OO revolut ions per minute. It is
hoped by this means t o increase the speed of t he fan,
which, combined with a larger pipe already referred to,
will give greater efficiency. The fan, it may be stat ed,
is cleansed from sooty deposits by jet s of wat er which
play upon it and the bearings.
The smoke is forced through a pipe into a re volving
barrel fitted wit h long blades as shown in the end sect ion (Fig. 4). This revolving barrel, which is of cast
iron, is about 11 ft. long and 16 in. in diamet er. I t is
perforated with holes from 1 in. to H in. in diameter,
and fixed to it, as shown, is a ser ies of beat ers
like the blades of an old-time paddle steamer . These
blades also are perforated, as indicated in F igs. 2 and 3.
In t he cast-iron casing in which t his revolving barrel
works, there is a quantity of wat er, as shown on F ig. 4,
constantly replenished by a small jet entering from t he
top. The smoke passes through the pipe into t he
inter ior of t he revolving barrel, and thence through
the holes.
The result of t he beating of t he water is to insure the precipitation of all the carbon and sulphur
in the smoke or fumes. The barrel, driven by belt
gearing, ma kes from 180 to 200 revolu t ions p er minut e.
Over t he chamber are semicircular co\rerings or gratings,
shown in sect ion in F igs. 2 and 4, and on plan in
Fig. 3. These are simply t o p revent t he water or
carbon finding its way t o the upper part of the shaft.
The hot Yapour given off readily passes through t he
perforations a nd up t he timber t runk shown on Fig. 1,
and finds its way into t he chimney or st ack about
50 ft. or 60 ft. aboYe ground level.
Opportunity was afforded of ascertaining the effect
of t he work ing of this a.pparatus yesterday week. The
stack was giving forth smoke when t he mechanism was
star ted, and in five minutes there was a very percept ible change, while in eight minutes only a gr eyish
whit e vapour \vas emitted, and this was easily dissipated. Dr. H eaton, of Charing Cross Hospital, made
analysis of the discharged gases, and stated in his report
that t here was not detected any trace of sulphurous or
sulphuric acid, while carbon was also entirely absent .

The residual products collected in t ha annihilator


are utilised for various purposes. The scum passes
out from the chamber as shown on Figs. 1 and 2, and
into a wooden box shown on F ig. 3. Here it appears
as a black and opaque bubbling liquid, the analysis of
which by Dr. H eaton is given as follows:
"The liquid was slightly acid. Qualita tive analysis
showed the presence of copper, iron, sulphates and
chlorides, and the absence of zinc and sulphurous acid.
"The liquor contained, in l OO grain measures:
Grains.
.646
Corn bined water and volatile matter ...
Ash
. ..
. ..
...
...
. ..
... .558
1.204

"Complete analysis gave t he following results :


Parts
per Cent.
Sulphate of iron (green vitriol) .. .
.. .
.40
,,
copper (blue vitriol .. .
...
.30
,,
ammonia
...
...
...
.08
Sulphuric a<-id (free)
. ..
.. .
. ..
. 005
I nsoluble organic matter ..
...
...
.022
Volatile organic matter .. .
.. .
.. . t race
"It is evident that the important constituent s here
are the sulphat es of iron and copper. The following
experiments were made t o determine whether any
appreciable quantity of tar compounds was present :
1. A por t ion of t he liquid was shaken with et her and
a lit tle acid. The et her, when decanted and evaporated gently, yielded a residue too small to be weighed,
and which, when tested, was found t o contain no
t race of carbolic a.cid. 2. T wo other portions of t he
liquid were t reated respectively with acid and with
alkali. Each was distilled separately, and the distilled p ortions extracted wit h ether as befo re. Practically no residue was cont ained in either case, but t he
distillat e from alkali after ethereal treatment deYel<Jped on t he wat ch-glass a. slight smell like creolin. "
The liquid is drained off through a. sieve, and is said
to have valua ble proper ties as a. disinfectant, for which
it is already sold commercially, while t he carbon is
used for many purposes after it is dried, notably for arc
lamps. The plant at t he Mint is worked by a 40 horsepower engine and portable boiler, which is fitted with
a similar arrangement for smoke prevention, but here
t he vapour passes off from the ann ihilator into the air.

E N G I N E E RI N G.

D Ec. 8, 1893.]

DIAGRAMS OF THREE MONTHS' FLUCTUATIONS IN PRICES OF METALS.


(Specially compiled from O.fficiol R eports of London M etal and Scotch Pig-Iron Warrant Ma;rkets.)
SEPT.Ell\lJ}ER, 1893.

N OVEl\IBER, 1893.

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North umberland the coal trade has been exception~lly


good, and it is said that large p rofits have been r~ahsed
by the higher prices. 0~ _the other _ha?d, thts h as
been denied. 1 'ome inqUines ha.ve, 1t I S rumoured,
been made as to the prices in London, ~ost of sea transit and carriage, in order to ascertam whether t~e
higher prices realised justify a f ur ther_ ad\"ance ~n
wages. The matter is under consideratt~n, and w1ll
probably come up in some form at no <hstan~ d ~te.
.1\r!eanwhile the demand for coal from those dlStncts
has not abated by the opening of the federation pits.
\Vhile the coal dispute in this country has be~n
waged t o t he extent of an industrial war, and wlu le
enormous interest s have been at st ake, the end has
come with conciliation and adjustment, which is likely
to prove beneficial. On the ContiD;ent it app~ars to
be different. In Germ<t.ny the unions are_go:~g. t o
pieces, and one of the speakers rece~tly s~td ' W l th
one foot in the grave, they were st1ll wnngmg one
another's necks oiT." They fight and quarrel ~m~ng
themselves as to matters of policy. In France tt JS a
little different, but the employers victimise the men,
and the Government pounces do~n upon them "Yith
sabre and lance until they are dnven to desperatiOn .
T his is another example of relying up on the tate,
instead of manfully organising forces, and awaiting
with patience the time for an advance movement on
lines at once moderate and prudent. The men want
to rush everything, and they get out of breath in the
effort.
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The wages of the iron and steel workers under the


North of England Board of Conciliation and Arbitration ha\e not had a similar advance, possibly because
the price of fuel has not been greatly increased, owing
to supplies from Durham mainly. Neither, however,
have the rates of iron largely increased. The prices
have gone up to paying point, but not much beyond it.
At times there has been a spurt, but high prices have
not been maintained for any t ime.

a1 -tJ 21 29

NoTE.-Each vertical line representl:l a market day, and each horizontal line represents 1s. in the
case of hemati\e, Scotch, and Cleveland iron, and ll. in all other cases. The price of quioksilver is
per bottle, the contente of which vary in weight from 70 lb. to 80 lb. The metal prices are per ton.
Heavy ateel rails are to Middlesbrough quotations.

INDUSTRIAL NOTES.
CoAL still occupies the supreme place in questions of
labour, for the recent settlement has only begun to
operate in its effects upon Brit ish industry in general,
outside the coal trade itself. On the whole, t he t erms
of the settlement have been well observed and carried
out. Delays have occurred in some instances, but these
were inevitable, owing to the nature of the industry,
for an idle pit is always in mischief, accumulating
gases in t he stalls and ways, filling up the workings
by falls of r oof and face, and other wise deranging the
entire workings and machiner y. There was a hitch at
Lord Fitzwilliam's collieries in Yorkshire, but this
was got over by an agreement that unionists and
non-unionists should work amicably side by side.
The letter indicating terms was read amid cheers.
The pits employ about 12,000 men. At the Ackton
Hall Colliery of Lord IVl asham, there was a dispute in respect of the discharge of a man who ga ve
evidence as to the Featherstone disturbance, and the
men refused to work unless the man were reinstated.
But acting on t he advice of Mr. Cowey, the men
agreed to resume work, aud to pay t he man ll. per
week till he can obtain work elsewhere. The conference of Lancash ire and Cheshire miners condemned
the practice of st acking coal under existing circumstances, as being injurious to the public, and not to the
advantage of the men. T he IVIiners' F ederat ion have
appointed t heir fourteen representatives t o the Conciliation Board, to be established under the Foreign
Office settlement , the men select ed heing those prt~sent
at that conference, representing the miners. In
general, the pits are in full swing wherever there are
no existing difficulties in the workings, but the supply
to the public in many districts has been short, owing
to the crowded state of the railways, and the dera ngement of traffic consequent upon the idleness for some

wages of the iron and s teel workers in t he Midlands


have been advanced 2~ per cent. U11der the sliding
scale. This may not indicat e any real improvement in
the stat e of trade, but only higher prices as a result of
the coal strike. Yet it is gratifying from the fact that
the men in the Midlands were not much concerned in
the strike, a s both the miners and the iron and steel
workers were under a scale. vVork has been busy alsv
thr ough most of t he period of the recent coal stoppage,
and the supplies of fuel have been fairly good, though
at advanced rates, some of which the purchasers of
iron and steel have bad to pay . 'Fhe present 2i per
cent. advance brings tbe :Niidlands nearer to the rates
of t he northern iron workers.

time past, and the pressing requirements for t he manufact uring industries and large works which had been
idle.
The Scotch miners demand an advance of ls. per day
in wages, and refuse to work until the demand is conceded. During the past week several conferences have
taken place at Edinburgh, Glasgow, and elsewhere,
wi thout any permanent set t lement of the dispute. An
offer of 6d. per day advance until February 1, and the
establishment of a board of conciliation, was refused by
the coalowners, the latter offering t he existing rates of
wages till February 1, the other matters to be referred
t o a board of conciliation. A later conference, und er
the presidency of the L ord Provost of Glasgow, was
held, when it was hoped that terms would be arranged,
but the conference proved abortive. The Fifeshire
coalowners, however, agreed to concede 6! per cent.
advance to t heir men, after a prolonged discussion
at a conference at Edinburgh, the advance to take
effect a fortnight from the giving in of the notices.
The effects of the coal dispute in cotland are being
felt in several industries.
In the outh W ales district s the wages of the miners
have been advanced 7 ~ per cent. under the sliding
scale. The advance seP.ms slow in comparison with
t he reductions. The first advance was 2~, now 7! ,
total 10 per cent.; whereas the first reduction was
31! per cent. and the second 12i per cent., total 43~
per cent. But it is possible t hat the }?asis of the present advance does not take into account the very
highest prices attained since the strike. The work of
reorganisation is going on in \Vales, and it is possible
that at no dista11t dat e the vVelsh miners will be more
in accord with t he federation policy than they have
hitherto been.
In the two great northern coalfields of Durham and

The Employers' Liability Bill has been read a second


time in t he H ouse of L ords without a d ivision, on the
motion of Lord Rip on . Earl Dudley stated that a.t the
Dudlcy Collieries there had been accident funds for over
fifty years ; if the Bill passed in its present form, these,
and similar funds, would be destroyed. The Duke of
Argyll was of opinion that the Bill went too far, beyond
tbe necessities of the case, and was therefore fraught
with da nger. T he Marquis of L ondonderry made a
long speech, but of a very moderate character, and
announced that he should move certain amendments
in Committee. In his lordship's collieries t here was
no compulsory contracting out in any sense, but the
permanent funds did much good, and the coalowners
gave liberally to them in order to avoid litigation.
This is, indeed, the one sore point with all the objectors
to the Bill. It is not because the workmen are litigious
as a rule, but it is feared that lawyers will prompt
actions wherever they can. There may, of course,
be cases in which this will be done, but respectable
firms will not be guilty of it . It is said, however,
that it is often done in 'cotland, and that more cases
have arisen there than in all other parts of the United
Kingdom. Lord Stalbridge spoke with respect t o the
action of the London and North- \Vestern Railwav
Company, who, he said , would withdraw from tl{'e
insurance fund. The Lord Chancellor said he thought
better of employers than their lordships did, and be
could not believe that they would withdraw from
those funds with which they were associated if the
Bill passed. It was rumoured in the Ilouse of Commons
that a morl u.'i ,.; ,., ndi would be arrived at in Committee,
on the basis of a three years' agreement not t o interfere
with existing funds. This was a suggestion of Mr. ,Y,
~lather, but it was not made in the Commons because
the Bill was in the report stage. There are precedents
for this course.
The condition of the engineering trades throughout
Lancashire has undergone no material change as yet
but there is a more hopeful, not to say confident, ton~
on all hands. New work comes forward very slowly
and irregularly. Locomoth e builders are fairly well
off for work at present, but the outlook is not very
encouraging in this branch. 1vfa.chinc tool makers are

--

E N G I N E E R I N G.

710

but indifferently supplied with work. Heavy engine


bu~lders are kept tolerably well employed, but
boilermakers, except in some cases, are slackening off
for W?rk. In the general run of engineering work
there iS no great weight of work stirring, and the
prospects do not appear bright, though the tone is
hopeful. Fortunately there are no b.bour disputes of
an:Y consequence in any of those branch es, in a ny distriCt, so that no fears or misgivings exist on this
acc~:mnt. In the iron trade t here is greater activity
owmg to accumulated orders during the coal stoppage,
but generally it appears that no great weigh& of work
is coming for ward in any of those branches.
The
future seems uncertain, though r ecent prices were well
maintained, mainly, however, because of th e limited
supplies. In the manufactured bra nches orders for
prompt delivery are pressing, and prices are firm at the
better rates.

In the Sheffield and Rotherham district the condition of trade has not very materially improved as yet,
and as there is still considerable uncertainty as to the
price of fuel, the quotations tor iron are strengthening.
~'orge iron is higher by from 3s. to 4s. per ton than in
the July quotations. Pig iron from Derbyshire and
Lincolnshire r ealises higher prices, and hematites are
also higher. But it is expected that the l ocal blast
furnaces will soon be in blast again, so that the rates
may be moderated somewhat.

---

In the Wolverhampton district the markets h ave


been rather buoyant in tone, but the business transacted scarcely conforms to the buoyancy, as it has
been limited to present needs. In consequence of the
advance of 2; per cent. in ironworkers' wages, and of
the high price of fuel gen erally-for coalown ers are
slow to lower prices- th e quotations for various kinds
of iron stiffened to some extent, all classes being very
firm. The improved demand for bars of the better
class is well maintained, and the unmarked qualities
a re in fair d emand. Foreign and colonia l markets are
slack, but for home con sumption there has been a
brisk demand for common sheets, hoops, and plates.
In the Birmingham district a better tone is manifest, but orders have not been very freely distributed,
consumers waiting, apparently, for more favourable
t erms. But these appear to be distant, certainly until
fuel b e more plentiful and cheaper. Local pig iron
has been firmer in consequence of affairs in Scotland,
and probably also by r eason of the 2~ per cent. advance
in ironworkers' wages. Stocks a lso are low, and it will
be some little time before all the usual furnaces will be
in full blast, so as to largely increase the output.
The strike in the n ail trade at Bromsgrove has been
declared at an end by the federation of the men. The
state of affairs is due to the domestic manufacture,
and a large section of employers and workmen d eclare that things will not be and cannot be much
better until the domestic workshops are placed on the
s~me footing as the larger shops and factories, as
regards sanitation, hours of work, and other conditions under the Factory Acts. In order to bring the
strike to an end, the federation d ecided to stop the
strike pay from and after last Saturday.

In the South \-Vales districts there have b een more


inquiries for iroil and steel plates, and generally pricei
have b een hardening. The \Velsb makP-rs are tolerably
firm in their quotations. But the tinplate trade continues quiet, the demand f~r tin ba;s being les.s act~ ve,
and prices weaker. The ra1l trade iS dull a nd macttve,
the prices being low and unremunerative. But the
iron m a rket is better, with prices firmer. The coal
trade has been brisk, good prices ruling generally, but
on the whole the general prospects of the iron and
steel and cognate industries are not bright.
The Government have been instituting an inquiry
into the allegations of sw~ting in conn~ction with the
locksmit hs. The complamt of the men iS that by subl etting, and contracts being enter ed into by factors or
middlemen, prices are cut down to the verge of~ starvation wage. The Governm ent contract under review was,
it appears given to a London firm, and was then transmitted to' ' Volverhampton, where it was subdivided
and let out in small proportions among the lock- makers
of Wolverhampton and \rVillenhall, at the lowest prices.
It is alleged that the fair rates would range from
I5s. 6d. to 23s. per dozen, but the rates were
sweated down to Ss. , 9s., and I Os. per dozen. The
result of the inquiry is not yet known.

---

The living wage conference has met, speeches h ave


been made and resolutions have been carried, but
we are no nearer a. solution. A higher standard of
wages and of living has been declared . as ne~essary
for a Christian country.
Adam , m1th sat.d t~e
same thing a century ago-with, ho~ever, thlS d ifference : A living wage at that time. meant, and
was understood to mean, a bare subsis tence_. 'Ve
have arowu since then, and h ave advanced 10 our
econo~ic theories to the point that a living wage

means something beyond bare subsistence. The resolution put it at " such a wage as shall enable workers
to maintain healthy and human homes." '' Huma ne"
would have been a better word, meaning something
more.
Professor Cunningham's resolution d eclared
that it was to the interest of the whole community
tha t such high er standard should be fixed, as it would
tend to the b est efficiency. The last resolution was
in favour of conciliation and arbitration. If the conference can help to bring about those conditions, th e
country will be all the better for them. But they will
be a long time coming. The present condition is the
outcome of centuries, and the evils inherited cannot be
stamped out in days, or in years. These are matters
of slow growth, but we are growing apace, and the
rate has rapidly increased during the last two or
three years.
It is rumoured that a decided effort is to be made to
introduce the eight-hours system into Government
workshops and shipyards, by degrees at first, but with
the view of making eight hours the normal working
day. The Government can do this just as well as a
municipal corporation, local b oard, or other body, or a
public company or firm. They are employers, and can
make their own departmental regulations as they
please, subject to the criticism of Parliament. It
requ ires no Act of Parliament to effect it, and n o
statutory enactment, only that the increase in cost can
be challenged on the Eatimates for the year. The
exp eriment will be t ried by the 'Var Office and the
Admiralty at first, but the civil servants of the Crown
will not be content until they also obtain the same
t erms and hours.

THE RAILWAY COLLISION AT


DALNASPIDAL.
GENERAL HUTCHINSON':::i report on the above accident has just appeared, and from it we gather tha.t at
4. 43 a.. m. on September 23, as a down goods was standing
in the passing loop at Dalnaspidal station on the Highland
Railway (single line), it was run into by an up mixed
train.
No passengers were injured, but the driver of the leading engine of the up train had his foot bruised. A fireman was under one of the engines of the standing train
when struck, but although it was driven back about 50 ft.,
he was not hurt. The up train consisted of two engines
and tenders, each fitted with the automatic vacuum brake,
six loaded and eight empty wagons, brake van, eight
coaches (counting as ten), and brake van- twenty-four
vehicles in all, coupled in the order given. In it both
engines and the t ender of the leading engine were
damaged, one wagon destroyed, and two others damaged;
some of the wheels of both engines a.nd tenders and of
two wagons next the tender were knocked off the rails.
The down goods train was a heavy one, with two engines.
In it the leading Angina was damaged, two wagons buffer
locked, and the leading wheels of one of them derailed.
The damage to the permanent way was confined to eight
rails and their connections twisted or broken.
The primary cause of the collision was the failure of
the up distant signal to return to danger after having
been used some 80 minutes previously, owing t o the upright rod and counterbalance lever being clogged with
frozen snow. The signalman acknowledges not having
Aeen the back light, owing t o the snow that was falling,
but as be had never had complaints of the signal, be
thought it was all right. General Hutcbinson considets
that he is to blame for not havin~ gone to ascertain this,
as the traffic gave him plenty of ttme to do so. The front
spectacle of the home signal was also covered with snow,
and it was not till the leading engine of the up train was
within 100 yards of it that the driver saw it was at
danger. He then gave the brake whistle and reversed,
and did all he could to stop, and so did the driver of the
other engine as soon as he heard the whistle. General
Hutcbinson considers that the drivers should have k ept
a better look out when they found they could not see the
home signal, which in clear weather is visible from the
distant, and be finds it difficult to acce~pb the statement
of the second driver that he was misled by seeing the
green light of a signal nearly 400 yards south of the home,
and mistaking it for that.
The collision would not ba.ve occurred bad the signal
arrangements been different to what they were. They
were the same as at Ludg~rshall (where a similar accident
occurred on the same day), viz., that both the trailing and
facing points must be set for a through r un before either
home signal can be pulled off. General Hutcbinson
suggests to the company that th ey alter this locking so
as t o avoid the necessity of setting a through road before
pulling the home off, not only at this station, but anywhere else where it might be in use.
He also adds the following note on the vexed question
of the marshalling of mixed trains : "The circumstances
connected with this collision will no doubt be cited as an
instance of the advantage of making up mixed trains with
the wagons in front of the passenger carriages, as the
onl;v damage sustained was by the three wagons next the
tram engine, whereas, had the passenger carriages been
next the trai n engine, these would have received the brunt
of the collision. It must, however, be borne in mind
that had the carriages been next the train engine and (as
would have been the case) fitted with continuous brakes
applicable by the driver, the braked weight of the train
would have been increased from about 120 to 230 tons
out of a t otal weight of about 350 tons, or have be~;;n
nearly doubled, and under these oircumatances the train

[Dtc. 8, 1 89 3
would probably have been stopf>ed in time to avoid the
collision altogether, a more de!\irable result to obtain than
that of simply reducing the amount of damage sustained
after the occurrt-nce of the collision. " In this conclusion
we concur. One of the firemen had been on duty 19~
hours, with only three hours' rest, which the Government
inspector characterised as a most improper arrangement.
With the view of preventing the sticking off of signals
owing to the upright rod being frozen, we would suggest
that either the length of the rod be made as short as possible, by placing the counterbalance lever a.s high up a!i
possible on the post, a.s is successfully done on some of our
English railways, or, if the arm is counterbalanced, to do
away with the rod altogether, and use wire to "pull " the
signal off. Upright rods are heavy, and throw a great
dea.l of useless strain on the wire and lever in the cabin,
and a.lso involve a lavish expenditure of oil (which runs
to where it is not wanted) m order to keep them from
binding in the guides. W e also sincerely hops that not
only the Highland a.nd the 1\IIidland and South-Western
Railway Companies, but all those who ha.ve such interlocking at the passing places of their single lines as has
been rightly condemned at Ludgersball and here, will see
their way to bring it more up to da.te, especially as the
alterations involved would be very inexpensive.

THE PHYSICAL SOCIETY.


AT a meeting of the Physical Society, on November 24,
Professor A . W. Rlicker, F.R S., President, in the chair,
Colonel Maitland, C.B., was elected a member of the
Society.
Professor S. P. Thompson then occupied the chair
whilst the President read a paper "On the Magnetic
Shielding of Concentric Spherical Shells. " In this mathematical investigation the author considers cases in which
the equipotential surfaces are surfaces of revolution about
a. line through the centre of the shells, and the permeability (,u.) of each shell is constant. T aking the common
centre as origin, the potential within a.ny shell is expanded in t erms of zonal spherical harmonics, and the
ratio of the shielded to the unsbielded field determined.
The following important result is arrived at-vjz., if the
permea.bilities of the inclosed and external space be the
same, then the ratio of the shielded to the unsbielded
fields are the same for each harmonic t erm, whether the part
shielded be external or internal. It is a.lso shown tba.t the
shielding effect on the external space, when a small magnet
is placed at the centre of the shell, is the same as the
shielding effect on the inclosed space when the shells are
placed in a uniform magnetic field. The ca.se of a single
shell with a small ma~net at the centre is next considered,
where the p ermeabihties of the internal and external
spaces are taken as unity. Here the shielding depends
on the ratio of the outer t o the inner radius (a 1/a 0 ).
When the thickness of the sh ell is rl"lf of ah the
ratio of shielded to unshieldt:d field ( 1/t/1/to) is 3/13 when
1!- = 500, a.nd ~/ 23 when ,u. = 1000. For ,u. = 1000, increasIng the thtckness from a 1 /10 to a 1 /2 changee the shielding from 1/60 to 1/194, thus showin g that after the ebell
is moderately thick, further increasing the thickness is
not very effective. When the small ma~n et is displaced
from the centre of the shell with its ax1s along a radius,
then the shielding effect of the shell is greater on the
side towards which the magnet is moved, and less on the
opposite side. Thickening a single shell being inefficient,
the effect of using two or three shells separated by a.ir
gaps is. inv.esti~at~d. H ere, as in t~e case of a. single shell,
the sh1eldmg 1s Improved by addmg permeable material
either within the inner or without the outer shell. If
th~ inner and outer diameters are given, then, when the
difference in these diameters is small, one continuous
shell gives the best resul~. For a larger difference, two
shells separated by an a.1r gap are much more efficient
than a single one, and filling up the air gap would appreci.a?ly diminish the scree~ing .effect. '\Vhen the permeabJhty of the substance 1s htgh, the best shielding is
obtained when the radii of the bounding surfaces of the
shells are in geometrical progression. The great value of
lamination is shown in the following T:\ble, where the
volume of t~e permeable material is:expressed in terms of
that of the mclosed space, and the shielding in each case
being the best.
V olume of
E xternal
~Ia.terial Used.
Fi~ld .
S ingle shell
...
...
1. 0
0. 018
Two shells
. ..
...
5.0
0. 0006
Three shells
...
...
4.8
0. 00016
S ingle shell
...
...
7.0
0.0102
The.conditions for the best arrangement in each of the
followmg cases are fully worked out in the paper, viz ,
two shells when the largest and smallest radii and the
volume o~ the material u~~~ are given, two contiguous
shells of d1fferent permea.bthttes, and three shells of different permeabilities. The main results of the investigation a.re that with thin shells lamination is useless whilst
with t~ick shells it is essential, if the best effect is desired.
Expenments made on actual shells had fully confirmed
the theoretical conclusions.
Professor Minchin sa.id the mathematical results were
very simply ~xpressed . Altbo~gh the work was ap
parently restricted t o zonal sphertcal harmonics some of
the imp?rte.nt form?l::e apply eq~ally to general 'spherical
h.armom9s. Referrmg ~o th e d1fficulty of shielding by
smgle tb!ok shells, he pomte~ out that the equation giving
the relat10n between the shtelded and unshielded fields
with different thi cknesses of shell, represented a hyperbola with its asymptotes parallel to the axes hence the
shieldin~ tended to a definite limit as the thickness increased mdefinitely.
Mr. Evershed said be had been engag~d for the last
two years on the subject of magnetic shielding with a
view to screening measuring instruments from ~xterna.l

DEc. 8, 1893.]
fields. In such cases it was not possible to use closed
shells, a.nd this introdured trouble. .The best resul t he
bad yet obtained was to reduce the dtsturbance to about
onefifth. Anot~er difficulty was introduced by the f~cb
of the shield ~emg magn~t1sed by the ~urrent passmg
through the cotl, and, owt!lg to hysteresu~, t~e P.erm~a
bility was different accordmg. as the magn~ttsa.t10n mcreased or decreased. By usmg an outer tr<;>n shell a
great improvement bad been effected .. ';J.'o o~tam th~ best
results, 1t was ~mportant. to have no J?mts m the s~t~lds.
A coil fram e w1th two sbtelds of bent 1ron w~s exbt.bi.ted.
Mr. J. Swinburne remarke~ that the subJect ~1v1~ed
itself into two-shielding of mstru~ents and. sht~ldmg
sour~es. If a dynamo itself be shield~d, th1s dt.d n.ot
prevent the currents in the_leads prod~cmg: magnetiC ~ls
turbances. This was very Important m .shtps. By ustog
an alternator with revol ving fields, all d1sturba nces could

h
be avoided.
Dr. C. V. Burton inquired whether by c~ns1dermg t e
hydrodynamical analogue of a porous matenal the cas~ of
.
perforated shells could be elucidated. .
Mr. A. P. Trotter wished to know If t he homogene1t.Y
of the shield was of much consequ~nce. At Qxford 1t
bad been found that a screen of 4 m. of scrl:"p Iron was
better than boiler plate. Mr. Bla.kesley asked 1f the effect
of moving a magnet side ways in a sphere had been observed. H e thought the mathematics developed in the
pap~r would be useful in working out the magnetic theory
of the earth. Profes~or S. P. Thompson thought t~at
taking the permeabiltty as constant would not be qlllt e
correct for JJ. was a function of the magnet isation. Hence,
in the ~ases considered, the outer shell would be the more
permeable.
.
.
In his reply, the President said scrap tron m COJ?tact
was not like clear space, for there were comparattvely
free paths for the induction at the p oints of cont~ct. As
regards the shielding of the dynamo at. Greenwteh, Mr.
Cb ristie bad written to say that the credtt was due t o the
makers of the machine and shields, Messrs. J ohnson and
Pbillips.
"
Professor G. M. l\Iinchin, M. A. , read a. paper on The
.Action of Elect1o Magnetic Radiation on Fil!ms containing
Metallic P owders." After noticing t he resemblance <;>f
the phenomena. exhibited by tubes containing metallic
filings shown by Mr. Croft on October 27, to those of
photo-~lectri~ im P.ulsion cells, he repeated some of the ex
periments w1th filings, ~nd found the same effects w.hen
the filings were of ordmary fineness. H~ also notiCed
that the experiments did not succeed either when the
filings were coarse or very fi.ne. Coarse ones always c~n
duoted, whilst very fine fihngs or p owders acted as Insulators except when strongly compressed. To establish a closer connection with th~ impulsio~ <;:ells, he trie.d
films of gelatine and collod~on contamm~ m.eta.ll.tc
powders. (Directions f~r preparmg the fi~ms Yler~ gt ~en m
the paper. ) On insertmg such a. film m cucu.1t with a
battery key and galvanometer, 1t acts as an msulator.
To render a 'small portion conducting, the electrodes on
the surface of the film are brou&'ht very clos~ .toget her,
and one of the wires touched wtth an electrt fied body.
{An electric gas-lighter was often used.) This caused a.
current to pass. The electrodes may th en be separated a.
little fur ther and the process repeated until a ny desired
portion is rend ered conducting. The p eculiarity of such
a film is that if the circuit be broken at the film, the film
becomes an insulator; whereas breaking the circui t at
any other point leaves the film conducting. The action
of the sparks or charg~s on the con ducti yity of ~he films
is attributed to the mfiuence of electr10 surgmgs produced in the wires by the electric discharges.
The P resident read a written cotnmunication from P rofessor 0 . J . L odge, in which the writer suggested that
the phenomena. of the ~lms, .and also of L ord Ray lei~h's
water-jet experiment (m which water drops a re caused to
coalesce by the presence of an electrified body), were d ue
to the r~nge of molecular attraction being increased by
electric polarisation.
Mr. Blakesley said be had tried Mr. Croft's experiments and found that conductivity could be established
in a. tube of fil in~s whilst the circuit was unclosed.
Breaking the circmt of a transformer or electro-magnet
would prod~ce cond uctivity; ~ence he conclud~d that
electric surgmgs were not essentiaL Another curious experiment was t o put the ~ ischarging kn~bs of a n electric
machine on a photographic plate at a d1stance of a few
inches. On turning the machine, a small spark travels
slowly along the plate from the nega.ti ve t o the positive
knob. On reversing t he polarity of the mach ine the
spark travels b:1ck along the same path, but if the polarity
remains unchanged a second spark usually travels along a
dlfferet t path.
P rofessor C. V. Boys a.~ked P rofessor Mincbin whether
the films themselves, or the contacts between the electrode
a.nd films, were made conducting by the sparks.
ProfessorS. P . Thompson wished to know if ordinary
photographic dry-plates would serve the purpose.
Mr. Evershed inquired whether the metal used as
e1ectrode made any difference.
Professo1 Minchin, in his reply, maintained that the
phenomena were due to electric im?ulses. He had not
tried photographic plates, and bad always used platinum
for his electrodes.

BRITISH COLONIES AT THE WORLD'S


COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION.*
By J AMES D REDGE, 1\tfember of the British Royal
Commission.
(Oontinued from page 681. )
1. NEw SovTn WALES.-In almost every department the
distant colony of New South Wales has been conspicuous;

- --

* Read in a.bstr&ct before the Imperial Institute

711

E N G I N E E R I N G.
in more than one her exhibits occupied a front rank. ~he
number of her exhibitors was surprisingly. large, ha.v~og
been 12!.>0 as compared with less than 600 m the BrJttsh
section (the art exhibits being excluded in each case). Nor
were the exhibits of a trivial character; on the. contra.ry,
they gave a more vivid idea. of the wealth and m creasmg
power of the colony than has ever before been presented.
Nor must it be supposed that the bare number o~ ~be
exhibitors conveys any idea of the number of exhi bits.
Then the Exposition Commissioners of the colony, ~ho
made devoted and successful efforts to benefit the secb10n,
made extensive collective exhibits, a nd so did the various
Gmernment departmentt:i. The educati.onal exhibi~s CO!ltributed by the D epartment of P ubhc Instruct10n ~n
Sydney, as entered in the catalogue are under fifteen I?
number, but th ey represented no. ~ess than .20,00 exhtbitors five exhibits of the Exposttton Commtss10ners of
t he coiony comprised more than 600 objects; there we~e
very large collective exhibits of wool; the pbotograp?Io
exhibits were very numerous, and so on .. ~be f~llowmg
list gives the number of catalogued exh1b1 tors m each
departm ent, the n umber of British exh_ibitors in the
same departments being added for compa.nson:
NewSouth Great
Wales. Britain.
D epartment A . Agriculture ..
526
75
,
B. H or ticulture .. .
282
19
D. Fisheries
...
19
6
;;
E. Mining...
...
231
38
,
F . Machinery .. .
9
59
,
G. 'l'ransportation
19
79
,
II. M anufactures
43
192
,
J. Electricity ...
8
,
L . Liberal Arts . ..
108
98
,
M. Ethnology ...
33
2
,
N. Forestry
...
22
2
From the above it will be seen that in Agricultur e,
Horticulture, Mining, and Liberal Arts, New South
Wales took a. leading place, while in Fisheries, Ethnology,
and Forestry, she was very prominent. As might have
been expected, in Transport~tion, Machinery, and Ma:nufactures the ex hibits were n ot num erous, for the t1me
has not yet come for the colony to be a manufacturing
country and t he means of transportation are not yet
largely developed compared with the vast extent that has
to be trav ersed. It wa.CJ in t he display of her natural
resou rces that New South Wales was so conspicuous,
and in the exhibition of her highly developed educational system. ~t is ~orthy of notice, too, t~at the
E thnological sect10n, whwh added so much to the mterest
of th at department, could in no way, direct or indirect,
serve the commercial interests of the colony, and must be
regarded wholly as a. proof of good will and a desire to
promote the success of the Exposition. As may be supposed wool was the principal object shown in the Agrioul tu;al D epartment; there ~ere over 400 ex hibits ?f .wool
in the fleece or the bale, commg from about 200 exlubi tors.
These came from 19 wool di tricts in various parts of the
colony, districts producing more than 60,000,000 of sb~el?.
In the Horticultural D epartment, the bulk of the exhibit
was of wine for the colony is now pushing its wine-making
industry b~rd, and the vineyards are increasing every
year. ;here wer~ some 25q exhibitors of New ~outh
Wales wine, whtch collect1 vely made an admirable
show, and represented an annual produc~i~n of ab<;>ub
half-a-million gallons. The numerous exhibtts of dr1ed
and preser ved fruits, and the luxurious collections of
palms and ferns, spoke eloquently of ~be fertility of the
soil and the favourable nature of the chma.te. Although
there were only nineteen exhibitors in the Department of
Fishing a nd Fisheries, there were a large nu~~er of
objects shown. The New South Wales Commtsstoners
sent some hundreds of speci mens of Australian fishes, of
fish-eating birds, and of reptiles. The reports of the
Fisheries D epartment of New South Wales wera there,
so were m odels of fishing boats, and a large collection of edible fish es, .illustrating ~i!ferent ,m~thods of
preser vation. The lVImes and .Mmmg BUJldmg contained undoubtedly the crowmog glory of the- New
South Wales exhibit. No less than 231 exhibitors
crowded the spacious court, with every class of useful
mineral known in the colony. In this, as in the
other departments, the chiefs of departments and the
E xposition Commissioners did all m their power t o
add to the value and importance of the court.
The New South Wales exhibits for the mines display a.t
the World's Fair consisted of 2550 packages, m easuring
11106 cubic feet, a nd weighing 2751 tons. The contents
of 'these packages were arranged on a floor space containing
8301 square feet, and a. wall space of 1445 square feet.
The court bad a frontage of 87 ft. on the main central
avenue, and a. d epth of 160ft. to the west ern wall of the
building. A main division al passage traversed tb~ space
ab right angles to the frontage, the entrance to whtch was
formed by two massive octagonal trophies of tin and
copper ingots with bases of ores. Following this passage
west, two raised platforms, one on either side, were met
with ; on these were ad vanta.geously placed four handsome
upri ~ht show-cases. ~ith l?yrami~a.! plush-covered sta.nds
withm, ea~h contammg n ch exhtbtts of gold or preclOus
stones, to be mentioned later on. The passage then passed
under the centre span of a large triple archway and through
an avenue formed of full sections of coal seams, ranging
from 6 ft. to 14ft. high; these sections were partially encased in panelled framings which carried small archways,
supporting trophies of flags and coats of arms. At about
60 ft. from th e western wall a cross passage formed a. good
division between the metallic minerals and coal, and the
non-metallic minerals and geological collections and maps.
The entrance to the latter section was formed of large handsome marble slabs panelled into an arch way frame; the
main passage continued between large and massive
pyramids of building stones, trophies of cement, paint

ochres, alum-stone, &c. , and terminated at the superintendent's office. The whole court was tastefully d ~corated
with trophies, formed of shields with the Austrahan arms
and flags, which were advantageously placed a~ .all convenient points. On the wall space and partitiOn~ excellent enlarged photographs of mining and cave ':tews,
and geological and mining maps, were arranged effecttvely.
The most striking objects in the courtwer~ the han~some
silvered column erected by the Broken Htll. Propnetary
Company, and the massive triple archway wh10h.sl?anned a
portion of the space n ear the back of the exh1b1t. The
column will be described under the head of '~Silver. " The
archways, having two <.:I ear spans of 11ft. 6 m .. and. one of
15 ft., sprung from four ma~siye pillars.12 f~. 6 m. h1gh and
4 ft. 6 in sq uare ; two cons1stmg of b1t';lmmous coal, and
two of p etroleum oil coal, or bog head mmeral. The bases
of the pillars were formed of .W ara.tah sandstone 1 ft.
in thickness, and capped by 6 m. of Sydney sandstone.
The 11ft. of coal between the sandstone bases and caps
of the two centre pilla rs represented about the average
working thickness of the main (Borehole) seam from
which the coal was taken in the Newcastle coalfield. The
sandstone bases represented the strata below the ~pper
coal seams which are quarried in this district for bUildmg
vurposes ; and the sandstone cap, the upper beds !Jf .the
coal measures at Sydney, and of w.b10h the prmCipal
public and p rivate buildings of the capital are constructed.
As before stated the remaining pillars consisted of petroleum oil cannel c'oal, or ' 'kerosene shale," as it is locally
termed. The two principal mines in the colony each C?ntributed a pillar formed of rough blocks, and m to whteh
full sections of the seamA were worked.
The superstructure of the archways, which rose about
28ft. from the floor, was covered with ~lack cloth, and. b?re
an inscription on both sides in bold stlv6r letters, gtvJDg
statistical information of the quantities and values of the
various metals and minerals produced in New South
Wales from 1851 to end of 1891. The inscription is as
follows :
T otal value of mineral!:! raised in New South \Vales
from 1851 to end of 1891, 453,353,378 dols.
Value.
Mineral.
dols.
...
.. ... 178,7 58, 6!.>8
Gold .. .
Silver .. .
,
lead ...
...
.. . ...
54,978,350
,, ore
Tin
. ..
.. .
.. .
.. .
. ..
46,300,228
Copper...
..
...
.. .
...
29,273,874
Antimony
. ..
.. .
...
.. .
562,778
Bismu th
..
. ..
.. .
...
178,075
Fluxes ...
.. .
.. .
...
. ..
511,701
Sundry minerals
...
.. .
.. .
844,648
Coal .. .
.. .
.. .
.. .
. ..
124,195,672
Shale (petroleum oil coal) .. .
.. .
6,885,2G!>
Iron ...
...
.. .
...
...
1,864,115
It is worthy of note that a comparison of the per capita
values of the production of the United St ates and of New
South Wales, respectively, for the ten years endin ~ 18!>1,
on a. estimated population of 65 millions for the United
States, and l i millions for New South Wales, shows a.
result of 149.5 dols. to 11. 1 dols. in favour of the latter.
This calculation is based upon the returns given in the
eleventh United States Census, and the Annual Report
of the Department of Mines and Agriculture (N.S. \ V.)
for 1891. Taking the total production of each country
to the end of 1891 on the same pe1 capita ratio, the result
is also largely in favour of New South Wales. Though
coal has taken and is destined to bold the premier position
in the mineral productions of New South Wales, as regards
th':) value of its annual output, it is to the indigenous gold
that t he colony owes its r apid advancement. Gold was
first mined in Australia in 1851, though its existence was
kn own and reported by several different persons at intervals a ntedating the above d ate by twenty-eight years; the
first authentic record of its discovery was by a surveyor
named M'Brian in 1823. R ecent researches, indeed, have
brought to light a record dating back four centuries. On
an a ncien t Portuguese chart of the fourteen th century the
north-west coast of Australia is depicted, and marked
"Costa Doro" (the Gold Coast.)
.At the present time the &"old supply is chiefly drawn
from reefs or veins, the eastly worked shallow alluv ials
of the earlier discovered goldfields having been worked
out. Alluvial or " placer, goldmining is, however, still
carried on on a small scale in n umerous localities, a nd in
the New South Wales Court are exhibited samples illus
trating the physical characteristics of the precious m etal
from all t he principal workingtt, whilst neat labels afford
analytical information as to the quality and value from
tests made in the Sydney B ranch of the Royal Mint.
Conspicuous among the gold specimens exhibited by the
Department of Mines and Agriculture, was a handsome
nugget containing upwards of 313 oz. of ~old, and a fine
specimen of reef quartz with 258 oz. Mr Isaacsobn, of
Nundle, bad a magnificent display of crystallised gold, as
well as a large number of reef and alluvial gold specimens.
In his exhibit was also included a. number of large and
handsome aggregates of quartz crystals from " vugs ,, or
cavities in the auriferous reefs i n th e Peel RiYer District.
Professor Li versid~e, of the Sydney U niversity, in his
collection of crystalhsed and other gold specimens, illustrated some rare and specially in teresting forms of occurren ce.
The display of auriferous reef and lodestones in the
New South \Vales Court was as varied as it was extensive
and massive. The exhibits ranged from carefully prepared
general collections of h and sp ecimens- illustrating the
nature of the vein and lodestones and associated minerals
in nearly all of the mining districts of the colony-to
lar~e blocks and pyramids of ores several tons each in
wetghb. These massive displays attracted much attention,
and, by the size of the blocks composing them, afforded some

712
evidence of the size as well as ch aracter of the deposits
from which t h ey were taken. In the arrangement of
these pyramids, the position and transition of the ores
from oxidised to sulphurised conditions was maintained in
accorda nce with natural order; the sulphuret ores from
beneath the water-level forming the base of the trophies.
Gold-bearing reefs occur in New South Wales in sedimentary rocksof theSilurian, Devonian, and Carboniferous
ages, also in horn blendic granite, porphyry, diorite, and
serpentine. The; auriferous alluvial drifts are of the Permian, T ertiary, and Quaternary ages. E xamples of goldbear ing veinstones and of alluvial gold from each of the
above-mentioned formations are on exhibition.
In all the best known and proved mechanical appliances
for separation and saving of gold from reef or lodestones,
a certain percentage of loss is inevitable even under the
most kindly conditionRof gangue, but this loss is increased
in some instances by tbe extreme fineness of th e gold
p articles, and in others by the peculiar nature of the
gangue or association of refractory sulphides. Samples
of veinstones possessing one or more of the above characteristics are also on exhibition. With a view of end eavouring to obtain some really practical results from
. the display at the W orld 's Fair, large bulk samples of
ores of a refractory character were brought to it for the
express purpose of t esting any new a ppliances or processes, which it was confidently expected would be in full
working order within the Fair grounds ; and thus if a
paten tee should achieve results superior to any hitherto
attainable, the mine-holder and the inventor would by
this means be brought into touch, to th e mutual benefit
of each and the good of the country at large. But it is
a matt er for regret that these expectations have not been
realised. The mining machinery exhibits at the World's
F air fell far short of anticipation; little new was
shown, and even the extremely limited display of wellknown machinery was not fitted up on a working basis.
T ests of ores on a reasonably large scale, such as would
afford some indication of the value of the in vention for
the treatment of certain varieties of ore, were not possible,
owing t o the almost total absen ce of adequate provision
for sludge and other requirements.
Apart from t he great practical and educational value
of a d isplay of mining machinery in active operation, the
general a.ttraetion of t he Fair to visitors would have been
greatly enhanced by such a d emonstration, as was evidenced
by the daily crowded condi tion of the South African space
devoted to diamond washing, cutting, and polishing.
Coal.- New South vValfiS can fairl y claim to be in J?OSsession of the rich est, most extensive, and most accesstble
coalfields in the southern hemisphere. Her capital, the city
of Sydney, is situated over a great coal basin, recen t
d iamond drill boring a ab Port J ackson having proved the
continuation of the northern an d southern coal seams ab
th e great, though not unwork able, depth of 2800 ft.
Newcastle, t he chief coal port of New South \~ales, is
situated 60 miles north of Sydney, and it was here that
coal was first discovered about the year 1796. The upper
beds of the coal measures crop out at the surface on the
sea coast, and continue above sea-level in a southerly
direction for about 20 miles, when they disappear beneath
the N arrabeen and Hawkesbury formations, which are
largely developed at. Syd~ey ; here, as ~efore stated,. a
coal seam 8 ft. 9 in. 10 thtckness was p ierced by a dnll
bore t his point is probably the maximum depth of the
uppe~most seam, as other drill bores have proved it at
l esser depths southerly until Coalcliff is reached, 30 miles
south of Sydney, where the seam outcrop~ at sea-level n.nd
continues rising along t he coast range m the southern
coalfield until an elevation of 1500 ft. is reach ed ab
,Jam beroo. The coal in this field is worked by means of
tunnels and is con veyed to t he coast by gravity.
In th~ Newcastle coalfield the main seam worked is the
B orehole eeam which averages about 12ft. of workable
coal the depth of sinking being 1 from 200 ft. to 300 ft.
The' coal from this field is well k nown as b~ing equal to
the very best of its character the world over. I~ was fully
illustrated in the New South Wales court by etght excellent n atural-sized sections, several tons each in weight,
showing not only the thickness and quality of the coal,
but also whatever blemishes it possesses in the way of
bands and thus affording practical evidence upon which
t o bas~ an intelligent opinion.
The Permo-Carboniferous coal measures of New South
"\~Vales contain three productive horizons, t he uppermost
being the Newcastle ab?ve descri~e~; the second the
Maitland series, from whwh one exh tbtt of cannel e:oal was
shown ; and the third and lowest, ~he Greta .series: In
the most recently discovered ex tenston. of tlns senes ab
East Greta and Redden Greta, the mam. coal seam ~as
been proved in three places to have a thwkness var~mg
from 2R ft. to 30ft. of clean coal of excellent quahty;
and 10 fb. below the floor in the latter workings an~ther
Ream, 10 ft. i n th icknes~,. has been pr<?ved. The Gre~a
Collieries Company exhtbited a fine sec.tiOn about 14 f~. 10
thickness ; but the inten tion of s~ndm~ t o the Fatr a
natural section of the abnormal thtckenmg of the seam
at th e locali ties mentioned had to be abandoned as
imp racticable.
.
.
'I''he Western coal workinga are ~:ntnated about 70 mtles
west of Sydney ; here the coal is worked by t~.mnels from
the valleys which intersect the Blue Mountams, the coal
measures outcropping under l>old escarpments of the
Hawkesbury sandstone before refe~red to.
. .
Boghead mineral or petroleum Oil cannel coal was exhtbited from four localities in New South Wales, k nown as
Hartley, J oadj a, Katoo.mba, and Capertee.
The boghead mineralts locally know~ as kerosene sh al.e,
because its ch ief use is for the productiOn of kerosene 011.
It yields by distillation from 90 to 150 gallons of crud.e
oil per ton, from which about 6~ p~r cent. of k erosene o~l
is extracted; the res.idue con~Istmg of paraffin, lubnca.ting materials, benzme, gasohne, &c. Two of the corn-

E N G I N E E R I N G.

[DEc. 8, I 893.

panies exhibiting-the New South W ales Shale and Oil locality it is associated with payable sil ver ore. At
Company and the A ustralian Kerosene Oil and Mineral Kingsgate, n ear Glen Innes, bismuth minin g was carried
Company-have each large works for treatment of the on for a short period ; the lodestuff occurs here as
shale.
"pipes" or bunches in granite near its junction with
It is largely used locally for the enrichment of ordinary slate; nodules of native bismuth up to 50 lb. in weight
coal gas for illuminating, and for t he same purpose is were obtained; the ores consisted of carbonate, oxide,
a~so exported. It yields from 75 to 85 per cent. of vola- and sulphide, the two former generally coating a. nucleus
tile hydrocarbons, the best varieties yielding up to of n ative metal. U nder the method of working adopted
18,000 cubic feet of gas per t on . The other company considerable loss was occasioned, owing to the fine powdery
exhibiting- the Genolan- has lately been formed to work condition of th e carbonate disseminated through the
a ne w deposit n ear Capertee.
lodestuff. The ore and as~ociated min erals at the localiKerosene shale occurs in the coal measures, and some- ties mentioned were fully illustrated by specimens in th e
times passes into true bituminous coal ; recent micro- d isplay.
scopic investigation points to local accumulation of
Antimony- as star, granulated crude, and arf ificial
sporangia, either of land or aquatic plants, as the origin oxide-was E\Xhibited by Lark and Sons, of Sydney, in the
of this interesting substance.
form of a massive trophy (about 16 ft. hi gh), faci ng the
Silvcr .- P erbapsthemost conspicuousobject in t he whole main avenue. The show-cases at the base contained the
building was the silvered column of t he Broken Hill Pro crude a nd oxide, and samples of the ores worked. A
prietary Company, which rises to a height of nearly 40 ft. general collection of antimot1y or es was also exhibited by
from the floor. 'he base of the trophy was formed of rough th e Department of Mines and Agriculture. In the
blocks of the native ores from the famous B roken Hill Macleay district, from which Lark and Sons' exhibit was
lode, 10 tons of which were used for this purpose; over obtained, t he lodes occur in Devonian rocks. In th e
the rough ores were eight plate-15lass compartments con- Hillgrove goldfield, antimony sulphide occurs as veins
t aining picked samples of the r1cher ores ; from t he top and bunches in t he auriferous quartz r eefs. The antiof the glass cases rose a handsome column supporting mony sulphide in this district contains up to 3 oz. of
Atlas and globe, the whole ornately figured, and covered gold per ton; but owing t o the difficulty and cost of exwith sil ver leaf. The complete column above th e ores at traction, a large ~roporti o n of the gold is lost to the probase, represented in bulk the average yearly production ducer. ThE\ Ganbaldi and Eleanora Companies on this
of sil ver from the Broken Hill proprietary mine during field forwarded bulk exhibits for the purpose of having
the first six years of its smelting operations, from :May, tests made of any new processes for separation whi ch
1886, to May, 1892 ; the total production during that might be in operation at tbe W orld's Ifair, but, as already
period being over 36! million ounces of silver, and in pointed out, this purpose was defea ted by the absence
addition nearly 152,000 tons of lead.
of any exhibits of the nature required.
In connection with this famous lode, which was fully
(To be continued.)
represented by exhibits from all the mines along its
course, a very important and critical problem presents
itself, and one, Loo, which is more or less forcibly obtrudSOME PRACTICAL EXAMPLES OF
ing itself upon the silver ~roducers in almost every
BLASTING.*
silver-field the world over-v1z., the excessive percentage
By Mr. PERRY F. NORSEY, Past President.
of zinc eulphide in the lode material below water level.
T HEUE is, perhaps, no more appropriate illustration of
In the lode in question t his difficulty is still further intensified by the extremely intimate mixture, in the work of the engineer in directing the forces of nature
almost equal proportions, of the zinc and lead sulphides, than that afforded by the use of e~plosive compounds. A
which renders mechanical separation impossible by any high explosive represents a special form of force. It is
known methods. The ores at present operated are the a maxim um of power compressed within a minimum of
easily-worked oxidised masses above the water level, and space, its resistless energy being ready for libera tion at a
vast though the supply of such material undoubtedly is, moment's notice. This storedU.P force, whi ch is in a high
yet at no distant date the refractory sulphide supplies state of tension, is simply an mgenious assemblage and
must be drawn upon. The local conditions are perhaps intimate admixture of all the elements which it i:::~ necesthe chief obtacles to the utilisation, with reasonable pro- sary should be united in combustion, including oxygen,
spect of success, of any of the known processes for treat- so that in action they are independent of the atmosphere
men t of ores of the character indicated. Costly timber and can be exploded under water. I t is, moreover, force
and fuel, owing to total absence of either within reason- in a portable and handy form, and which, under perfect
able distance, and uncertain labour conditions, are the con trol, is utilised in the removal of gigantic obstructions
chief impediments.
and for cognate purposes of minor character. Being
It was hoped t hat by bringing a large quantity of the capable of development and utilisation at any given
particular ore in question to the World's Fair, and thus moment, this force is of the greatest service in many
affording practical evidence of new and abundant sup- engineering, as well as naval and military operations,
plies of refractory material requirin g an efficient economic enabling large masses of rock or structural obst ructions
process for successful t reatment, in vestigators and in- to be removed in a short time and at a comparatively
ventors gathered there from all countries would be stimu- small cost. W ere it not for this concentration of force as
lated to effort in that direction, the abundant su pply in developed in modern high explosive~, many mining operathe New South Wales court being at the disposal of tions would have had to be carried on at a ruinous cost,
or suspended altogether ; for in some cases ground is met
such for experimental research and practical test.
S ilver lodes occur in numerous looalities over a large with which ordinary gunpowder will not touch, the charge
proportion of the ar ea of the colony ; and the nature of blowing out as from a gun.
In order to realise what the liberation of this condensed
the ores in them was fully illustrated by extensive collecenergy means, it may be interesting to briefly consider,
tions of hand specimens and large bulk trophies.
Tin.-Nextin importance are the tin ores, of whichanex- theoretically, the circumstances attendant upon the
tensi ve d isplay was made, embracing both lode and alluvial explosion of gunpowder. According to Abel, this comtin deposits. T in ores were fi rst ruined in New South pound yields upon explosion 43 per cent. by weight of
Wales in 1872 in the northeast portion of the colony, permanent gases, and 57 per cent. of matter which is
known as New England. The t in production is a steady solid at ordinary temperatures, but part of which may
source of wealth, though the easily-worked surface de- exist as vap our when the powder is exploded und er
posits ::tnd shallow alluvial leads fi rst discovered have pressure. At 0 d eg. Cent. , and ordinary barometric
been, comparatively speaking, exhausted. A s t he" leads" pressure, the permanent gases generated by gunpowder
or "gutters" were traced into deeper and wetter ground, occupy about 280 times t he volume of the original
generally covered by an ext ensive sheet of basalt, the powder . As, however, t he temperature of the explosion
annual yield decreased to its present stable condi- of gunpowder is about 2200 deg. Cent., or nearly 4000
tion ; with the ad vent of more powerful machinery and deg. .lfahr., these gases exert a tension, when developed
a larger basis of operation the deep leads will be in a confined space, which amountf\ to about 6400 atmo
rendered more productive and remunerative. So far spheres, or about 42 tons on t he square inch if the
little has been done in the way of lode tin mining. powder en tirely fills the space in wh10h it is exploded .
Several lod es have been worked to some extent in the The total theoretic work which gunpowder is capable of
New E ngland fi eld, but th eir irregular bunchy character performing in expanding indefinitely is about 486 footdeterred small parties from the continuous exploration tons per pound of p owder .
necessary for proper and successful development. Near
It would be interesting to know if there are, as yet, any
Broken Hill. in the north-western portion of the colony, sufficiently authen tic data upon which to base a statea number of tin lodes occur, some of which were par ment similar to the foregoing with regard to dynamite or
tially open.ed ~ fe w_yeara since during the. mining boo!D other high explosives. A s, however, dynamite is a mi xin that dtstnct. The lodes occur as greisen dykes m tu re of nitrogly cerine with an inert absorbent- ki eselschist country, the tinstone being disseminated .through guhr-any statement must relate only to the nitroth e gangue in irregular bunches and scattered ~rams. The glycerine contained in the dyn amite, and not to the comlocality is naturally waterless, but no doubt m the n ear p ound itself. As regards nitro-glycerine, Nobel estimates
future present ?ifficulties .will b.e overcome, and th~s dis- that one volume disengages 1298 volumes of gases of
trict will add tm to t he hst of Its already great mmeral 100 deg. Cent., at a barometric pressure of 760 millimetres,
consisting of 554 water vapour, 469 carbonic acid, 236
productions.
Copper Bismtttk; A ntimony.-Coppl:'r and copper ores n itrogen, and 39 oxygen. List estimates the bulk of the
formed a 'large featu re in the display. A large trophy of liberated gases ab 1504.9 volumes. N itro-glycerine, thereingots from the N ymagee Cop pet' M me surm ounted a base fore, evol ves nearly six times as much gas as gunpowder
of ores from all t he chief mines, whilst in show-cases was computed for a temperature of 100 deg. Cent. A far
a general collection illustrating the <?haracter of the ores higher degree of heat, however, is produced by the instantaneous combustion of nitroglycerine, which, according
in nearly all the known copper lodes m the colony.
At the present time c?pper :t;nining and smelti~g are to Nobel, ex pands the bulk of the freed gases to eight
practically at a standst1ll, owmg to the low prtce of times the original1298 volumes, whilst th e gases of guncopper; tho conditions governing the produc~ion. in powder would not b~ t rebled at a like temperature. The
Australia are such as to render profitable workmg Im- explosive force of nitro-glycerine, ther~fore, stands in
possible when the market price of copper falls below 45l. relation to that of gunpowder as 13 to 1, according to
volume. The principle here invol ved appears to the
per ton to the produce.r.
. . .
Bismuth ores occur m three locahtles m the colony, but author to be important as having a bearing on the method
ha ve been only exploited on a small scale in one, though of proving rifles, sporting guns, and artillery, in which
a new find at present being opened _at Pa~bula, frOJ?
* Paper read before the Society of Engineers,
which a sample was shown, offers fatr prom1se; at this

E N G I N E E R I N G.

DEc. 8, r 893.]
moaifications of nitro-compounds, otherwise known as
smokeless powders, are used as the _propelling ag~nts.
In previous papers upon th A subJect of explosiVe c~m
pounds which the author has ha:d the honour o~ readmg
before the Society,* be has n:ta.I_nly confined. btmsel~ t o
their history, tbei~ oharacten stlcs, and t~e1r practical
application. In tbts latter r~spect be !tas ~nen examples
of his own personal expenences wtth some of theru.
Those examples however, although chiE:fl y carried out
under actual wo~king conditions alike as regarde ind u~
trial, naval, and military op erat ions, c:an, from the1r
restricted nature, be regarded as hub . httle more than
experiments. Upon the present occas10n, therefore, he
proposes t o bring before th~ m~mbers some ex_amples of
blat~ting as carried out by h1m m purely practtcal work.
L est it should be thought egotistical on his part thus to
confine himself to his own practice when blasts of far
greater magnitude than he has ever undertaken have
been carried out by other~, t?e auth or woul? obser ve
that in previous commumcat10ns be has gt ven particulars of all blasting operations of any importance
which he has witnessed or of which he ha.c:~ been able
t o obtain particulars. These include a 3-ton and a
5-t on ~unpowder blast respectively at the 9rarae a ':ld
the Furnace quarries on L och _Fyne, whtch he ~It
nessed in 1879 ; the R~undown Chff blast at Dover w1th
9~ tons of gunpowder m 1843 ; the 6-t on gunpowder blast
at Holyhead, when the harbour was be~ng <;onstructed ;
bhe 5~ton dynamite blast at San Francisco m 1 8~, and
the 150-ton mi xed nitro-glycerine compound blast m the
same year, when the F lood Rock, at t he entrance to East
River New York, known as H ell Gate, was removed,
and ~hi oh is t he heaviest blast on record.
Demolition of a P alisade an,d B 1idge at Qlfe?tast. - T:he
earl iest work of practical struct ural demoht10n ca:rned
out by the auth~r was in 1R72 a t th_e exten~i ve quarrtes of
Quenast in BelgLUm. The e quarnes are Situate about 18
miles from Brussels, a nd occur at intervals over an area
of nearly a square mile of the count ry, there being a great
number of workinga which are connected together by
numerous lines of tramway. The stone is a. very hard,
compact greenstone, which is use~ t hroughout a. ~ery
large district of the country for pavmg and road-makmg.
At these quarries the author was demonstrating th e power,
safety and economy of t he then new explosive compound
lithofr~cteur as well as the services it was capable of
rendering to 'the mining industry, to military engineering,
and t o naval operations. The trials on a large scale were
directed by the Belgian Government to be ma:de, and t he
a.uthor, in conjunct~on with Herr E ngels, the m~entor of
lithofracteur ca.rrted them out before M. \ V1eler, the
:Minister of "\Var, 1\1. Kindt, the ivlinister of the Interior,
and a. committee of Be1gian naval and military officer~.
Lithofracteur is a nitro-glycerine compound, and constitutes a. peci~s of dynamite, t~an w_hich it is s~ig:htly more
powerful, but slightly slower 10 actiOn. In mmmg_operations it therefore fissures the rock over a large area 10stead
of smashing it up within a comparati v~ly r~stric:ted spa;oe.
The experiments included heavy blastmg m the quarrtes,
the demolition of a military palisade, t or pedo work, and
submarine mining operati?I?S As th_e removal of the
stockade was a practical mil~tary ?perat10n, the struc:ture
having been put ~p by scldters, 10 may b.l:' here not1ced.
T he palisade, whteh . was ereote~ on the stde of a. slope,
was double and consisted of a smglc row of half round
t imbers at t he fron t, with a double row of similar t imbers
8 ft. to the rear. Behind the front struct ure a charge of
about 30 l b. of l itbofracteur cartridges was quickly
lodged, being disposed in a line and c~,r~red with earth
as a tamping. A c:apped and _fuzed pru!lmg charge was
inserted, the fuzP. hghted, and m a few mn:~utes a tremendous explosion took place. T he. rea! palisade was sent
flying in fragments through the a1r With a cloud ~f earth,
while the front one was cut off at the ground hne, and
practically disappeared, and a hole 13 fb. by 12 ft. by_5 ft.
deep was formed. ~h e earth ~as loos~':l~d to a constde.rable depth in the cav1ty, affordmg famhtl~s for the .rap1d
formation of an en trenchment. Large p1eces of ttmber
wh ich had formed the palisade were hurled about 1000 ft.
from the spot where the structure had stood, while a tree
to the rear was uprooted.
Amongst other things t?e military authori.ti.es desired,
if possible, t o have exemplified, wa:s the demoht10n of_son:te
such permanent structure as was hkely to be met w1th 10
warfare. It so happened that a.l.i ne of tra~way_on embankment connected with the quarr1es was bemg di verted, and
at a point where the tramway crossed a roadway, there
was a one-arch m asonry bridge of 20 ft. span, 15 ft. high,
and 12ft. deep, which had t o come do ~n. It was proposed to demolish the structure forthWith by blastm g,
and the proposition being readily acceded to, a train of
cartridges was laid across bhe crown of the arch, tamped
with earth and exploded, with the result that the crown
was out through from side . to side. Simila;r trains were
laid on the haunches, which bad been latd bare, and
simul taneously fi red, the result being that the bridge was
quickly reduced to a mass of ruins. The author does not,
of course consider this demolition was carried out with
by any m~ans an economy of explosive, but ra ther with a
too liberal expenditure. But the object was to demon strate
that such a structure could be rapid ly and effectually
cleared away if it suddenly became necessary so to dispose of it in military operations. This, and the other
work done, however, proved so satisfac_tory to the
min isters of war and peace, as well as to thetr colleagues,
that no difficulty was experienced in introducing lithofracteur in Belgium for th e various purpose:J for which
high explosives are employed .
R emoval of Rocks at J ersey.-In h is inaugural address
as president of the Society in 1886, the author briefly

alluded t o a heavy blastin g operation which he carried


out in 1873 in conjunction with H err Engels. In order,
however, t o render the present paper complet e as a
record of his own work, he purposes includin g a notice of
that operation in a more detailed form. He will, however, first describe some lighter blasts which he carried
out upon the same occasion. These operations were all
undertaken in connection with the J ersey Harbour
\ Vorks when the late Sir J ohn Coode desired to remove
among~t other obstructions, some portions of th~
H ermitage Rook, as well as a wall of rock st anding out
from the main rock in the vicinity of the Hermitage.
The material is a very hard and dense syenite, traversed
by broad bands of trap rock. In selecting a blasting
mat erial the engineer of the works endeavoured t o secure
one which, while more powerful, should be no less safe
than gunpowder. Above all it was necessary that it
should be capable of withstandi ng the action of water for
a time. The reason for this was that there were circumstances in which the explosi ve had to be placed in clefts
of the rocks at low water, and allowed to remain there
until th e tide had risen over it, when it was fired with
good effect, the water offering great assistance t o the
action of th e explosive. L ithofracteur was the nitrecompound selected for trial, and it was fi rst employed in
the removal, piecemeal, by nipping charges, of a large
mass of rock standing out to sea in front of t he Hermitage
Rock. Small charges of lithofracteur were distributed
over t he rook in boreholes and crevices, a nd fired simultaneously by electricit y, a frictional machine being used.
Large masses of the refractory material were succes~ fu lly
brought down, and t he main body so loosened and fissured
as to fall a n easy prey t<J the quarrymen, who followed
up each blast with a vigorous application of crowbars and
hammers.
In another instance it was desired to remove a mass of
rock attached to the main rock, bat partially separated
from it by a crevice. In this case a 50-lb. charge of
lithofracteur was lodged and secured at the end of the
crevir e, as shown at Fig. 1, and the capped fur.e led up

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ROCK

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llol""-' ~!~~- . - - - - - - - ------- .. - - - - - - .. - - - - - -- --- ---J

the rock. The charge was exploded with 8 ft. head of


water over it, clearing away that portion of the rock
lined over, the line of cleavage being 18 ft. long. In a
second instance of this nature a ledge of rock about 8 ft.
wide and G ft. high stood oub about 20 ft. at right angles
from the main rock. A charge of 50 lb. of lithofracteur
was placed against the base of the rock, and with 8 ft. of
water for a tamping was exploded, with the result that
t he ledge of rock was brought down in fragments.
S imilar operations were successfully carried out with
5-lb., 10-lb., and 15-lb. charges.
The heaviest charge fired by th e author a t J ersey was
one in connection with what is known as the South-East
R ock, situat e near t he H ermi tage Rock. In this case a
charge of 115 lb., including the p riming charge, was ex-

Fc.!J.Z.
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RO CK

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ploded against a wall of rock which was standing out


from the main rock, but running in a line nearly parallel
with its face, there being a space of about 5 ft. ab the
opening, diminishing to nothing at t he back. The site
of this blast is shown in elevation at F ig. 2, while Fig. 3
is a side view showing the arran gement of th e charge
* Vide Transactions for 18G9. page 10; 1871, page 108; and tamping. The wall was about 20ft. high, 19ft.
and 1889, page 71.
long, a nd 12ft. thick; the base being exposed for a short

time only a~ low water, .and th.d rock ~h~ng ffeadl~ s~~
merged at h1gh water ordmary tl ea. d 1 a dr
t e
ad van tag~ of the re~istance due to a goo
ef
jba ef
f?r t ampmg. ;Havmg prepared .a ?barge 0 1 0f Hl ~
hthofracteur, wtth a pr.otect~d. prunmg c?ar~e 0

attached, it was placed m pos~t10n at low t1de 10 thes finxg~


~orme~ ~y th~ wall and the roam rock. The charge wa
m pos1t10n With wedges and cross struts, and the whole was
protected by twelve bags of sand and a heap of fr~gments
of rock,_ some of. large ~i ze. The safety fu ze, whteh, a s a
precaut10n, was 10 duphcate, was 30 ft. long, and was led

h 3t

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up the angle of the crevice and secured to a staple on the


top of the rock. The charge was laid when the tide was
out on a Saturday, the intention being to fi re it at 9 p.m.,
when there would be a good head of water over it. The
author made an attempt to land on the rock at that hour,
which, however, proved ineffectual, there being a heavy
sea running. The charge, therefore, had t o remain under
water during the Sunday, an d on the ivi onday morning
the author effected a landing at high water. He lighted
the fuses, rowed away to a safe distance. and hung about
awaiting the explosion. But the explosion came not.
The fu ze was a 30-second fuse, that is-it was timed to
bu rn at the rate of a foot in h alf a minute. The explosion should, therefore, have taken place in about fifteen
minutes from the time of lighting. After allowing ample
time for the explosion to take place, but without it
occurring, there was nothing left for itl but to put back
ingloriously to shore and wait for low water t o disclose
the cause of the misfire.
U pon reaching the spot in the afternoon the first thing
that meb the view was the heap of stones and the twelve
bags of sand washed down and spread about by the
inrush of the waves. The charge itself, fortunately,
remained intact, the timbering having kept its place.
The priming charge a.leo remained, but the fu zes, cracked
and chafed and with the unexploded detonators still
fixed on thei r ends, were dangling in the air. The remedy
was first, by way of precaution, to place 5 lb. more lithofraoteur between the 10 lb. exploding charge and the
deal cases containing the main charge, thus bringing the
charge up to 115 lb., a nd to fix some extra protecting
struts. New fuzes were then capped, ineerted in the
primer, and led up the rook in a wood guttering, well
strutted and stayed. Surmising what had taken place, th e
author had provided for the contingency wi th men and
materials, so that by the turn of the tide the read justment
was completed. Facilities for landing on the t op of the
rook were also provid ed in case of another squall. At
10 p.m. the author again rowed out, mounted the rock
lighted the fuzes, and rowed away to a safe distance. I~
due course t he low rumble of the subaqueous explosion
was hea rd, which, together with the surface disturban~e
of the sea, indicated that the explosive had done its work.
A cloud of spray was thrown high up into the air and
showed distinctly against a clear sky. A lthough it was
night and the weather anything but propitious, a number
of persons assembled on the Victoria and Albert Piers
from which they distinctly saw the effect s of the ex~
plosion.
An examination of the spot on the following day showed
t hat the charge had taken full effect. The wall of rock
was lying on th~ bottom a heap of fragments. while a
number of fissures in the rock underfoot showed that the
blast had also acted in a downward direction. The rook
as already stated, is a bard, dense syenite weighing
about .2 t ons per cubic yard. It was a good 'test for the
explos1ve, whtch had been exposed for 55 hours t o the
action of the wind and waves during five heavy tides.
I t was computed by the author and confi rmed by 1\Ir.
M atthews, the engineer in charge of the works that at
lea~t 4,00 t ons of rook had been dislodged by the blast.
Th1s g1ve~ about 3~ tons of rock p~r pound of explosive
used, whteh may be taken as a fatr average of what it
should do. In the b ig blast, in a stone quarry at San
lfrancisco in 1885, already referred to, the charge was
5~ tons or 11,000 lb. of dynamite. It was estimated that
35,000 t ons of rock had been displaced, which is a little
over 3 tons p er pound, thus practica11y agreeing with the
author's experience. This average work of 3 to 3~ t on s
of rook per pound of explosive he also obtained in other
and smaller blasts.
Chambering a Deep Borchole at Eali-ng.-In tbe autumn
of 1888 t~e author was consulted as to. the desirability
of explodmg a charge down a deep bor10g for water in
the chalk, with the view of opening up the fissures and increasing the flow. H aving advised t hat the blast should

[ DEc. 8, I 893.

E N G I N E E R I N G.

be made, the matter was placed in the author's bands to foot above ground, bad never less than 2 fb. or 3 ft. of upheaval of water, and a scattering of the debris in all
carry out. In this case Messrs. L e Grand and Sutcliff water over them. It will, therefore, be seen that it was directions. There was, however, but little indication of
had sunk one of their artesian tu be wells n early 500 ft. rather an awkward job to tackle, and one which neces- the blast even to practised ears. \Vhen the first stump
without obtaining the anticipated supply of water. The sarily occupied some time, as the stumps could only be was blasted, Mr. Rankin, the engineer in charge of the
horing was situated on land adjoining the Grand Junction got at for a short period, and at inter vals of tides. Added wharf mchinery, was on the look -out for some startling
effects. H aving neither seen nor heard anything, he was
W ater Company's W orks at Ealing, on the border of the
greatly surprised upon the landing of the working party
Brent Valley, for which company the bore was put down.
T H VV
to learn that the blast had taken place, and co:1ld hardly
The borehole was 470 ft. in depth from surface, and was
be persuaded that WE' had not bad a misfire. He, howtubed for 326 fb. of its d epth, with 5-in. tubing, and the

ever, expressed greater surprise when the next low tide


water stood at 50 ft. from surface. Below the tubing the
revealed the shattered stump, which the men were clearboreh ole was 4! in. in diameter. The chalk was of a
'

R,q
4.
mg
away.
very h ard and compact nature, and r equired sharp treatAs a matter of course, the Thames police manifested a
m ent. In order to avoid injury to the tube, and to get

special interest in the proceedings, especially at each


well into the chalk, it was decided to fire the shot 400 ft.
Q
150 0 to Wall ;
.,.
bla~t. Their galley hovered around while the boles were
from surface. By this means a 350 fb. head of water was
~
were being charged, and when the fu ze was lighted and
obtained over the charge, giving a pressure of about
~
'
'
'
we rowed away to a safe position, they betook themselves
I
150 lb. per square inch. Lithofracteur not being obtain'
to a much safer one, doubtless with the praiseworthy obable, and h aving from experience formed a favourable
'
I
ject of making sure of being able to render us personal
opinion of carbo-dynamite, th e author determined to use
assistance should our boat be blown ou t of the water. It
it in carrying out the operation. Carbo-dynamite is a
L w 5 r
..
is hardly necessary to state that the Thames Tunnel still
....l
nitro-compound, the invention of Mr. \V alter F. R eid and

'
exists unimpaired, a standing testimony to Brunei's genius.

Mr. \V. D. Borland. I t consists of 90 parts by weight of

'''

'
'
. ... 'J.
(To be continued. )
nitro-glycerine absorbed by 10 parts of a variety of
'
'
.
'
.
carbon, the great porosity of which is indicated by its
''
'

'

..
p owers of absorption. B esides being a good absorbent,

....
P ACIFIC MAIL STEAMSfliP COMPANY.- The operations
'

1b is a good retainer of the nitro-glycerine, and is more


of this company were attended with a loss of 56,742 dols.
'!!?
....
.

p owerful than dy namite, which consists of only 75 per

in 1892-3. In 1891-2 a profit of 721,207 dols. wa.s realised .


...
'

cent. of ni tro-e-lycerine ab3orbed into 25 per cent. of

.
In 1890-1 the profit was 802,921 dols.
'
'
kieselguhr, whtcb is merely an inert carrier, whilst the
'
~

' ,...

10 per cent. absorbent in carbo-dynamite is itself com./ )


~
I
TRE ANTWERP ExamnroN.-Arrangements are n ow in
'
J.
'
....
'

<(
bustible and adds t o the explosive effect. Carbo-dyna'
_.,.
('17qD) - -"ffl -- ,..
progress for the adequate representation of Great Britain
__
..,
mite, moreover, is n ot hygroscopic, water apparently
'
and Ireland at the forthcoming International Exhibition
.- having n o effect upon it, whereas water readily proat Antwerp, which is to be opened in May n ext, and
duces 6)xudation in ordinary dynamite.
to this, the screw of the westward column of the outer of which the King of the Belgians is the patron and the
In the Ealing borebole blast the charge was inclosed in 'air was only 20ft. in a diagonal direction from the Thames Count of F landers the president. The Exhibition includes
a. l ead torpedo, and was fired by a submarine safety fu ze runnel, so that great care had to be exercised in guarding industrial, scientific, and artistic productions, maritime,
and a deton ator. The torpedo was 2ft. 6 in. in length by against damage by the explosion t o the outer works of colonial, and African sections, and shows of agricultural
2 in. in diameter, and was char~ed with 2 lb. of carbo- that structure.
products, flowers, fruit, &c. The site of the E xhibition
dynamite. The fu ze was 12 fb. m length, and was timed
The method adopted was to bore a 3-in. hole in the is a plot of land of 200 acres near the River Scheldt, and
t o burn 1 ft. in 30 seconds. T o prevent accident or chance centre of each stump to a d apth of 7 ft. into the concrete. connectod with all the principal railways, and th e main
of a misfire from drawing, the fu ze was protected by The boring t ool was guided by a 3-in. diameter wrought- buildings cover 120,000 square yards. The Governor of
tubing. The author had ascertained that it would take iron tube, which was driven down into the hole as the Antweri>_ is th e president of the Executi,e Committee,
two minut~s to lower the charge by the hand winch to boring progressed, work being carried on chiefly under and the Belgian Government has appointad a Commisthe intended ~osition of 400ft. down the bore. Nor did water. When the bole was down to the required depth, sary-General. The British Government ba.s authorised
h e desire a quicker rate of d escent, in view of vibration the wrought-iron liner was fixed in p osition, and served Mr. D e Courcy Perry, H er Majesty's Consul- General in
and a possible hitch. It will therefore be seen that the ex- as a guide for the charging tube, which was subsequently Belgium, to act as Commissioner-General for Great
plosion should not be expected to take place in less than inserted. Owing to the interference of tides and the wash Britain, anc he has nominated as the Antwerp committee
four minutes from the time the torpedo had come to rest, from steamships, these holes took a long time to complete. the L ord Mayor, Sir l!'rederic L eigbton, P ..R.A., A1 det"
at 400 fb. from surface. After a final critical examina- T o get at the outer pair of stumps, a staging reaching man Sir David Evans, Sir George Birdwood, }\Jr.
tion the charge was lowered, the fuze being lighted at the just above low-water level was rigged up over each, with Kennedy, C.B . Colonel North, Mr. Walter H . Harris,
top of the borebole. At the end of two minutes the ~ guide for the boring tool. In course of time the bore- Mr. A. Agelasto, Mr. James Dredge, Mr. J ohn Morgan.
400 ft. of wire rope had been paid out, and in 1! minutes boles were ready for charging, and taking one stump and others. Tbe scheme has received the warm approval
more the rebound of the wire rope indicated the explosion first, a 16-ft. length of 1!in. strong tin tubi ng was fixed of the L ondon Chamber of Commerce and the Associated
of the charge, which was confirmed by a noise of the within the iron liner in the borehole, and left for the rise Chambers. and a programme indicating their eo-operation
water in the boreh ole, which was in a state of violent of tide, when it was intended to insert the charge in the will shortly be issued. Meanwhile information will be
agitation. Ib will thus be seen that the charge was ex- borehole throngh the tu be. The tide was allowed to rise supplied in L ondon by the Chamber of Commerce, and in
plod ed 2~ minutes before the calculated time, which the within a foot of the top of the tube when the working Antwerp by the British Consul -General. To co-operate
author attributes to the action of the fu ze being accele- party rowed out to charge the hole. So strong was th e with the Chamber of Commerce an important committee
rated by th e pressure of a heavy head of water upon it. tide, however, that just as the boat reach Eid the tube, has been formed by M . Ro~ier, Belgian Vice-Oonsul in
There was no question that the fu ze burned correctly to which was seen to be canted over, it broke off close down London. Many of the exh1bitors at Chicngo are sending
time in the air, as the author tested a piece before deciding by the hole, and was carried away.
their goods direct to Antwerp.
on the length be should use for the blast. It illustrated
Two 16-ft. lengths of 1i-in. wrought-iron tubing were
the n ecessity of keeping well within t he limits of safety then prepared, and at next low water were inserted in the
COLLISION AT L ODGERSHALL ; MIDLAND AND SOUTHin such operations. So far as the work done in cbamber- pair of stumps nearest the shore, and held against the WESTERN RAILWAY-0 r'l'ICIAL REPORT.-Major Y orke's
ing the borehole was concerned, the blast was a success, tide by ties. When the tide had risen sufficiently high, report on the above has just appeared, and, to quote
as chalk and water were pumped up for a day or two an 8-oz. charge of carbo-dynamite was dropped down one his words, "This collision must be held to betray a
afterwards. The flow of water, however, was only in- of the tubes and rammed well home with a 17-ft. loading laxity of discipline and a disregard of rules, to which the
creased a bare 15 per cent., and the conclusion, therefore, stick. A 2-oz. priming charge, attached to an 18-ft. length earnest attention of the company should be called, " a
is that t h e chalk at that point is dense and fissureless.
of capped fu ze, was then inserted, the fuze lighted, and conclusion in which we heartily concur. Ludgersball
Clearing Column B ases at Wapping.-Ib will probably the boat pulled out mid-stream Thirty seconds fuze was station is a passing place, with up and down platforms on
be remembered by some present that about sixteen years used, and in due course there were indications of the ex- the single lin e, between Andover and Cheltenham; ther e
since a steam ferry was started on the River Thames plosion having taken place. An attempt was then made is a falling gradient of 1 in 100 from Cheltenham towards
between the T unnel Wharf, \Vapping, and Church Stairs, to charge t he second hole, but the cartridges jammed the station, whi ch is itself on the level. At 9.15 p.m.
Rotherbithe, on the opposite shore, with the view of about a foot from the mouth of the tube, and the tide on September 23, an up excursion train from A ndover
r elieving L ondon Bridge of some of its h eavy traffic. U n- rising rapidlyt it had to be abandoned. When the tide was standin ~ at the station, when it was run into by
toward circumstances, however, supervened, and the steam allowed, wbicn was at midnight, the top length of the the down mu,ed train from Cheltenham, which had overferry unfortunately had a short life, but not a very merry tube was unscrewed and the cartridges extracted. Upon run the home signal. The leading buffers of both engines
one. In course of time the landing stages on eipher side of examination, it was found that there were iron splinters and a. carriage drawbar hook were broken, while one
the river had to be cleared away, and just to the eastward projecting inside the tube, wh ich effectually barred the passenger complained of slight injuries, but both trains
of that on the Middlesex side an extensi ve deep- water passage of the charge. It was satisfactory to find that were able to proceed on th eir journeys. The collision
landing-stage or j etty was constructed for Middleton's the carbo-dynamite was perfectly intact and free froru was due, first, to the porter - signalman at LudgerWharf Company, some of the materials of the ferry land- exudation, notwithstanding its protracted immersion in sball taking on both trains at onca in the usual way,
ing-stage being utilised in its construction. The columns water. At 8 a. m. the next morning, the obstruction in instead of taking the second on under the warning signal
of the ferry land ing-stage, which bad to be removed, ex- the tube having been removed, it was screwed in position, of "Section clear, but station blocked ;" secondly, to his
tended down 18ft. into the bed of the river, and to avoid the bole charged, and the charge successfully fired. On going out of his cabin to fetch the ta blet before setting
all risk of damage to craft they had to be cleared away t o the morning of the following day the t hird bole was hi~ road for the mixed train, though he bad some excuse,
a depth of 6 ft. below ground level. To t his end t he con- charged and blasted, a nd ab midnight the fourth hole, the as it was necessary to ascer tain if the excursion train
tractor for th eir removal, hit upon the expedient of haul- operations being carried out in th e same way in each was clear of the trailin~ points before setting his road
ing on' to them from the top with tackle until th~y instance. It should be stated that temporary moorings for the other train; thudly, t o the fact of th e mixed
~napped off. This method of treatment was successful m were laid down at each stump, in order that the boat train overrunning the home signal, although the driver
all but four cases, in which the colum ns broke off at about might be kept steady within a few inches of the tube. Of acknowledged that be bad seen the distant signal at
the level of the ri ver bed, and therefore constituted sources course, as the tide rose. the mooring rope had to be danger as h e passed it, in spite of its not being alight
slacked out in order to preserve a constant distance (apparently another piece of negligence). The driv er
of danger to navigation.
In February, 1890, the author was consulted by Mr. between boat and t ube. Great care was necessary in pleaded that t he rails were gr easy, but as there are 757
F. E. Duckham, an old member of this Society, and con- slacking out, as a bump from the boat against the tube yards between the distant and home signals, there sh ould
sulting en~ineer to Middleton's Wharf Company, as to would have upset the arrangements, and might have led have been ample time to pull up; it is true, however, that
the feasibility of removing these awkward snags by to a premature explosion. The charge was the same in he did nob expect to have to pass any train at L udger
blasting. Having advised their removal in this way, all cases, namely, 8 oz. of carbo-dyn amite, with a 2-oz. shall, and it ai?peared that he bad never been informed
of the compositton of his train, it having been frequeRtly
the author was commissioned to undertake their demo- primer.
The results of these blasts were in every way satisfac- altered since be left Cheltenham. A fourth contr1butive
li tion. The tops of one pair of thE' stum ps were 20 ft.
below Trini ty bigh-w~ter level. and the t<?ps of the tory, the lower end of the wrought-iron tube in each cause was the peculiar interlocking at Ludgersball,
other pair 22 ft. 6 m ., as shown at F1g. 4, at;ld instance being rent into strips for about 2 ft. up, and whereby it was necessary for both the facing and trail6 ft. of these obstructions ha.d to be removed- that 1s, bulged out claw-like to a. diameter of about 18 in. The ing points to be set for a through train before the home
each column had to be cleared away to about 6 ft. ?r so wrought-iron liner was shattered, and the COllcrete in the signal could be pulled off; thus, if two trains were taken
below g round level. The ~olum?S were of ca~t tr<?n, cylinders in the region of the explosion disintegrated. on together, even under the warning signal, it would
3 ft 6 in. in diameter by 1~ m. thick, and filled m w1th The cylinders were broken up to the depth of 7 fb. or 8ft., be impossible to prevent a collision if the second t rain
con~rete. The four stumps, as seen in Fig. 5, were 40 ft. and some portions were removed by band, whilst othE~rs overran the h ome signal before the road had been set
apart in line with the shore-that is, up and down str.ea.m were extracted by a pair of grabs and the wharf crane. for it. :Major Yorke points out that the more modern
-and 15 ft. apart in ~be op.po~ite or across-str.eam direc- A dredger was afterwards set to work, and fur ther portions arrangement is to interlock the hom e signals with the
tion The inshore patr, wh10h were broken off JUSt under - of the cylinders were dredged up. In S~<?rt, the demoli- faci ng points only, and the starting signals with the
gro~nd were situate a.t low-water line, and were only tion was complete. Not the !easb surpnsmg part o~ the trailing p oints, and he recommends that this alteration
u ncove:ed for a very short time, and at some tides nob at operation to some was the n Olselessness of t he explosiOns. be carried out as soo~ as possible at all the stations 011
all, while the outer pair, which were broken off about a It was anticipated that there would be a suqden roar, ~n this rail way.

--

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Jo:"

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E N G I N E E R I N G.

D Ec. 8, 1893.]

an annular r ecess l/~ a t the end fi ts i nto a hollow formed in the


wardly, thus elevating the counter weigh ts. As the to p carriage bolder, the set screw which secu r es the latter to the feed screw
begins to d escend, th e oonn eotingrods !llove th~ tru~k forwa!dly
between the cy linders, and force the flUid oont:uoed 10 th em mto
the air chamber , and by the time the pi!itons have rP.aohed the end
of the st roke, the gun a nd counterweights have moved to the
COMPILED BY
LLOYD WISE.
loading p osition. During tbe recoil tbe systeO? _rotate~ abo_ut t he
SELECTED ABSTRACTS OF RECENT PtrnLISRED SPEOIFICATIONS journals of the parallel c ranks, the loading posttton betryg d~rectl_Y
under the firing position. T he r ecoil stores ene_r~y 1n th~ atr
UNDEB. THE ACTS 1883-1888.
chamber for return ing the gun to tbe firing pOSlt lon, but 1nde
The nu1Mer of views given in the Speci#ation Drawi1t.f!B i8 ~tat~ p enden t means a re attached to tbe counte rweight for working
in each ca.9t ; where none are mentwned, the Specificatwn ts eith er by ba nd or power, a nd consist of a segment Y attached to
not illustrated.
ea.ob side fra me E of the main ca.rriagf', and a series of ~ear wheels
Where I nventions are communicated f rom alfroad, the Names, carried by the counter weights, and adap ted to m esh \\'lth th e seg
~c., of the Communicators are given ~n italics.
mental gears on the side fr ames. (& ccepted October 18, 1893).
A
Copiu of Specifications m.a.y be obta~ntd at the Patent Offiu
.,0_ 0_0
_ 0 0 0
17,104. M. Basselmann, Frankfort-on-the-Maln.
Sale Branch, 38, CurGitorstreet, Chancerylane, E. C., at the
c
o oo o o o
Germany. R evolvers. (4 Figs.] September 12, 1893.unlform price of 8d.
The date of the advertisement of the acceptance of a complete This invention relat.es to revolvers , and its objec t is to enable ?ne
GJJecijication is, in each ca.9t, given after the a.]>stract, unlus the t hat has been discharged to be quickly r eloaded. Tbe turmog

piece
B
is
connected
with
the
revol
\'er
by
a.
central
stud
E,
the
Patent haJJ been sealed, when the date of ltealing is given.

"ENGINEERING" ILLUSTRATED PATENT


RECORD.

Fig .1.

w.

Fig.2.

An1J person m.a.y at any time within two months from th.e dat~ of
the advertisement of the acceptance of a complete specijicahon,
give notice at the Patent Office of opposition to the grant of a
Patent on any of the groundJJ mentioned in the A ct.

t 'N4-3

pres ing w.ith its end into t he annula r ~roovc. An addi~io!'al


cove ring ptpe E flt over and can be adJusted on the CO\ enng
tube. (Accepted October 25, 1893).

GAS, &c., ENGINES.


20 413. T. Ryland, Dublin. Explosion Engines.

RAILWAY APPLIANCES.
15 470. P . Wheeler, Jr., Branchport, Yates, New
York. Railway Sleepers. [5 F igs.] A!Jgust 16, 1c93.-

. .2.

[6 Jl/gs. ) November 11, 189Z.-This in vention. relates to explosion


engines. T wo cylindE"rs a re employed, t he p tst ons of .wh tch are
connected with a common crankshaft. One of these cy ~md ers, W,
is worked by the ignition within it of a. mixture of a tr a nd gas,
the other being worked with t~e vap?ur of. a by d~ooarb~n.
Tho ignition cylinder W is pro,tded w1th a J ~Oket 10 whtch
a ,.0 latilo hydrocar bon liquid such as p etroleum 1s placed, so t hat

This invention r elates to a. railroad t ie and chatr a nd m eans for


securi ng the rail removably on them. Tbe tie A is constructed
of m etal and has a bottom 1 and upturned edges 2. Tbe side
pieces 3 'are adapted to be secured to the side of the tie, and
extend up abo\'e the edges, and a re provided with a recess
extending beyond the side. Lips extend out into the mouth of the
recese , having thei r lower ed ges adapted to . fit over .the upp~ r
face of the flan ge of tbe rail B. 6 and 7 are shtms. 6 ly tng wtt~m
t be tie, having bolts 8 passing through it, the Std e of the t te,

11 lfn

Fig .1.

in terna l shape of this piece corresponding with the external shape


of t he magazine d rum D. T o tbe front part of t he tu rning piece
is faste ned a round butt-plate, in which a r e holes in to which
fits the striking pin F of t he hammer H . Fastened to the turning
plate Bare stops I tor turning and arresting i t together with tho
mag azine drum D. (Accepted October !5, 1893).

MACHINE TOOLS, SBAFTING, &c.


24,149. B. J. T. Piercy, B. Lea, and W. B. Thornbery, Birmingham, Bearings of Shafting. [1 4 FigR.]
December 31, 1892.-This io,rention has refere nce to long cast
iron swivelling bearings, and consiets in making it in two halves.
In tbe middle a n internal concentric annular r eoes a2 is made,
which consti tutes the resen oir, from which the oil is raised by an
endless band of cotton, another internal conce n tric annular recess

. . 1.

-------------J - .

~/J

'

t he he~t g enerated hy the explosion in th e cylinde r ass~sts. in


vaporising the liquid in the jacket. The complete vapor tsatton
of the hydrocar bon is effected in a vessel h eated by t he cu rr ent
gl!nerated by a dynamo d ~ctri c _mac bine. The ig nition of t~ e
explosive mixture in t he cyhnder 1s effected by means of electr tc
sparks from the dyn amo ; a small quantity of h ydroca r bon being
heated in the vaporiser to start t he engi ne. (Accepted October
25, 1893).

GUNS, &c.
10 214. w. B. Gordon, Cold Springs, Putnam. New
York, U.S.A. Gun Carriages. [ 19 Figs.] May 28, 1893.


-------------

(l

""- -------------J
---------,.T
J-.- ------- ~ :... -

Fi9 .a.

.Fig.4.

8~

..

G
A

3
In

.,

_.
8

and the side plate 3, by which the parts are seoured rigidly
together and to each other. The shim 7 has its lower f9.0e
inclined so that it may be interposed between t he shim 6 and
the bottom of t he rail, and then drhen until the lips c lutch and
bold the rail by the flanges. The small recess allows the flange
of the rail B to extend into it, when t be r ail is turned edgewise,
for the purpose of getting it within t he recess in the side plate
S. Wben t he shim 7 is dri ven home and the rail tightly clamped,
a s pik e 9 may be placed in t he upper e nd of the shim next to tbe
flange of tbe rail Lo p re,ent its worki ng out and becoming loose.
(A ccepted Octobu 25, 1893).
1227. A.J. BoUlt, London. (K. G. Fieke, Dresden, Saxony.)
Rallway Brakes. (6 F i1)s. J J a n uary 19, 1893.-This invention r elates to a bu ffer brake for railway carri a~es , and consists of
an a rrangement of m ovable and revolvable rods d aoted upon by

~-...,---------

,----------

:---@ --

-~I ------

-------

: t--J~ -- -----J,. "i


,'-------;;'4,---I ---------1------------- -........__J:J==::=:===~dj
-r
--

'

24149

Fr.g 1.

a 3 being pro\'ided at each end of the bearing for reoehing the

.-

-~

'' ~
I '

overflow oil, t hese r ecesses being connected by channels a" in the


lower half a of the bearing with the oil r eser voir. Longitudinal
motion of the shaft can be prevented wh en d esired. This in vention also relates to m eans fo r effecting an accurate ad justment
of the bearings of shafts in their supports. (Accepted October 25,
1893).

. . 2.

W. Asquith, Halifax, Yorks.


Tool
Holders. [5 Figs.) December 13, 1892. -In this in vention a
22,869.

circular disc 1 is employed, which is carried in a slide bed 2, and


has a t raverse motion impa rted to it. Through the centre of this
plate 1 is a. hole 3 tor the passage of the shaft 4 to be" turned up,"

. . 1.

Flg.2.
------ --

1227

the buffer-rods a, so that the cams e provided on the rods cause


the brake shoes h to press upon the wheel ty res i, the rods d
being capable of turning so as to disengage the cams e from the
brake shoes h under t he a ction ot a. reversible leYer. (~ ccepted
October 25, 1893).

16,253. J. Zilius, Bunttngdon, Penns., U.S.A. Car

Couplers. (6 F igs.] August 29, 1893.-Tbis invention con-

'

't

1()114 A

'

22869
th~

tool 7 being carried in radial slots. The cutting edges of the


tools all converge towards a common cen t re, and each can be
regulated by a screw 8, so as to approach n eare r to o r recede
furt her from the centre, and to the sha ft which pass es through it.
(Accepted October 25, 1893).

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MINING AND METALLURGY


23,443. E. B. White and J. L. Rogers, Sheffield
Drilling Apparatus. [2 F i{Js.] D ecember 20, 1S92.-Tbis

invention relates to appa ratus for drilling holes in r ook, and its
object is to provide means whereby the feed screw can be removed
and r eplaced without it being necessary to t ake away the drill,
..... ... ..
and to ent\ble the length of the feed-screw pipe to be adjusted at
-a
--"'
-
""JI
-- w ... - ....v ... - ....
wilt The drill-holder A is made separate from the feed screw B,
and is fixed to the end of it by a set screw C. The thread for the
- This invention r elates to disappearing gun carriages. As the reception of the ratchet.wheel D is made upon a projecting part
chcn ge is Qred the gun I begins to move rea.rwl\rdly and down- of the drill-bolder A, and a plain part bl of the feed screw with

I' I

"'
,,
' '

sists of a.n automatic car coupler. The end sill1 extends transversely beneath the end ot a. oor, and t he drawbar 2 extends beneath the end sill running back between two fra me pi~ces which
converge towards their inner ends, a cross which a bear ing plate is
secured .. A heade~ rod passes. thr~>Ugh the central opening of
the bearmg plate mto a loogttudmal opening formed in the
s tem of the drawbar, bein~r h eld in place by a r etaining bolt
A buffer spring encircles the rod between the r ear end of th~
drawbar and the beariog pla te. The outer end of the drawbar is
f?rm ed with the drawbead 8, having on one side the lo oking
hp 9, and on ~be othe~ the outwardly extend in~ curved lip 10.
The drawbar, JUSt behmd the dra.whead, is bevelled on its opposite sides in the same inclined plane, to adapt it to fit with and
be aotua.~ed. by a slotted a ?tua.ting plate.
This plate fits
loosely w1thm a r ecess formed 10 the end sill, and is formed with
an oblique opening to adapt it to fit and slide down upon
the drawbar. A lever 13, moun ted in bear ings on the end of tbe
car, has its crarJked ione r end 14 connected by a short chain 15
with an eyed stem 16 whic h rises from the top of the a c tuating
~loc~. . When. tbe actuating block is raised by the lever 13,
tts m chned sdes, form ed by tbe block open ing, slide the
outer e~d ot the drawbar outward, t h e opening in the bearing
plate bemg large enough to admit of this movement. A series
of small rollers are mounted in tho bearing plate beneath
the outer pan of the drawba r, and support tbe weight of the
d.rawbar and take up th~ friction as the bar slides from side to
Sld:e. When the a ctuatmg pla~e has been r aised to its hig hest
p omt, the pressur e of the sprmg pushes the drawba r slightly
out, so that the upper end of the sboukier on its side engages
under a shou~der formed on the inner side of the actuating plate
t be plate bemg thus locked and h eld in its raised position'
holdmg the d r awhead moved out\ard to one aide. When th~
two cars to 'be coupled come together, the cur ved ends of the

locking lips 9 strike a2ainst the curved faces 10, and the drawbal's
are pushed back sufficient]\ to clear their sh oulders from t he
lock in ~ shoulders of the actuati nlr plates, when the latter drop by
their own weight, and as t hey slide down upon the drawbars thei r
inclined sides slide the latter inward, until the locking lips 9 a re
closely engaged with each other, thus locking thP drawheads
together. The upper and lower sides of each locking lip or book,
back of its point, are closed by an integral hood piece, beneath

(DEc. 8, I 89 3

E N G I N E E R I N G.

716

Ft9-

Fig .1

I~

14

.....___~

/'I
==:!)r----'

which the point of t he other drawhead hook fits. To uncouple


cars, the levers are turned to raise the actuating plates, when
their inclined sides slide both drawheads outward, until their
l ockin~ hooks clear each other ; and the shouldered drawbars,
pushed out by their buffer spl'ings, engage the shoulders of the
actuating plates, and the couplings are thus locked in their uncoupled positions r eady to automatically couple when two of
the cars are brought together. (.Accepted October 25, 1893).

fits loosely on the spindl r between the front face of the colla r and lea.ves p and enters the enlaried space, thereby allowing the prest he packing-box cover G. A spring II is arranged to l<eep the sure fluid to enter through a pipe which is part of pipe a. and
through pipe n into chamber E, where it will act on C. Should the

con tr olling valve in connection with a then be closed to the supply


and open to the exhaust, the vahe spindle with the valves i . le, l, m.
r etu rn to the position shown, "bile the lift descends, thereby
raising the step plunger and ex pelling t he e>.baust fluid in chamber
E through n, pl, and o. If the load placed on the lift exceed the
middle limit, the pressure of the fluid in chamber A is corr espond
ingly hig her, and after r aising the valve spindle d with weight
and lever f attached to it, until the lower part of the slot in the
connecting-rod g has reached lever and weight h raises the lattH
also, whereupon t he valves will be moved so as to close the exhaust from obamber E, then this chamber enti rely .Prevents any
upward movement of the plungc>r B, C, D, and also allows the
pressure fluid to pass from a l into pipe q, and through the non2Jfi5
return valve 1' into chamber A, where through pipe b it acts
directly on the lift ram, and the full load can be raised by using
collar, packing ring, and packing-box cover in contact. (A ccepted the same quantity of pressure water as is ~ene rally used. Should
the controlling vahe in connectior. with a then be closed to the
October 25, 1893).
supply and opened to the exhaust, the 'ahes i, k, l, m r etu rn to
MISCELLANEOUS.
the position shown, while the used pressur e fluid ex hausts
23,354. T. Rolmes and R. WUltams, Seacombe, through the non-return vahe s and along pipe a. (A ccepted
Chester. Pipe Joints. (5 Figs.) December 19, 1892.- Tbis October 26, 1893).
invention relates to the joints of pipes in which flanges are em23,470. T. W. Cole, Leyton, Essex. Producing
ploy ed and are bolted together. The 10ner faces of the flanges a 1 ,
a2, by which the adjacen t ends of the pipts IJl, IJ2 arc conn( cted Motive Power. (8 Figa.] December 20, 1892.- This in vention
relates to the production of motive power by centrifugal force.
The apparatus comprises a bar mounted so that its ends can move
in any direction, and provided with means by\\ hich it can \'le
rotated upon its axis. At thE' ends, but at opposite sides of the
axis, are placed weights b, which, when the bar a is rotated, cause

7/

STEAM ENGINES AND BOILERS.


23.573. J. E. Roward, Ralesowen, Birmingham.

- .

Reducing Valves. (2 .f!'igs. ] December 21, 1892.-This in' cn tion r elates to 'ah es, and consists of a cylinder C having a
piston F working in it. The inlet and outlet pipes A, B, respeC'
.....;u.w 2 3:/S~
ti\'ely, are diametrically opposite to one another, an d lead to
p or ts on the inner face of the <.vlinde r C. The piston F has a cir- together, are corrugated, the corrugations being so arranged that
the projecting parts of one flange fit within spaces between the
projections of the other. The pipes may thus be adapted to comey
liquids under pressure with s imply the employment of a layer of
r ed lead. (.Accepted Octobe) 25, 1893).

Fig 1.
23,130. T. S. Tait and J . Rood, Inverurie, Aberdeenshire. Pulp Engines. [3 F igs.) December 15, 1892.
-T~e object of this in vention is to provide an engine with :l guide
to d1rect the pulp away from the back of the roll, and preve rat it
from be!ng carried round with a nd over t he top of the roll. A
passa~e IS fo rmed at th~ ~aok of the roll D, and so placed that the
B
pulp IS forced through 1t 1nto the t1oug-h A of the engine, and pre;;;-..J.;.F

.1.

ZJ,S"'J

-..

Fig .!

\
.PHI

......
~

..

c:::at.

.R:g.J .
a-

13, .f 70

--UNITED STATES PAT.ENTS AND PATENT PRACTICE.

J:?esoriptions with illu~trations of inventions patented in the


U01ted States of Amer1ca from 1847 to the present time and
reports of tria~s of patent law c~ses in the United States, m~y be
2J,tJO
consulted, g ratts, at t he offices or ENGINEERING, 35 and 36, Bed fordvented from being carried round with the r oll . In existing street, Strand.
engines the passage is formed by raising the backfall and giving
it the proper s hape by a block of wood or iron, and fixing to
IRON IN I TALY.-The imports of iron into Italy in the
the cover of the engine a guide F extending the whole width of
the roll, so as to form a passage between the raised backfall and first nine months of this year amounted to 175 229 tons
guide through which the pulp is thrown. (A ccepted Octobu 25 a s compared with 114,424 tons in the correspond in~ period
1893).
.
?f 1892. In . the ~otal of 175,229 t on s r epresentmg the
43. C. Christtansen, London. Hydraulic Machl 1mports of 1ron mto Italy to September 30 this y ear
nery. [1 Fig.) January 2, 1893.-This invention relates to a Germany figured for 57,328 tons, and Great Britain fo;
fluid supply regulator wh;ch con trols the quantity of high pres- 117,899 tons.
sure fluid consumed by machinery, such as lifts or cranes, to the
amount of work they have to perform. The pipe b forms a direct
communication with the cylinder of the lift, which, with the
Nxw Sov TH \ VALES RAtLWAYS.- Th e quarterly r eport
<;hamber A, is always full of fluid under a pressure corresponding o f the Commissioners states that the line from Cootn.with the load placed upon t he lift. Steps B, C, and D for m m undra to Temora, a distan ce of 3D miles, was opened
a plunger, the dimensions of t he former being such that its for traffic o n Septembe r 1. The r evenue for the m onths
comparatively short travel displaces enough fluid to force
the lift upward to the full extent. When the supply is turned o f July a nd August showed a very serious dec r ea se but
on, the chamber F is always open to the pressure fluid, s ince that date a material improvement has taken place
in con sequen ce o f the wool coming fo rward much more
rapidly than was the case l ast year. The total decrea e
in revenue for the quarter amounts to 20 435l. the w o rking expenses at the same time showing a d ecrease of
50, 3~2l. The percentage the expenditure bears to the
~arnmgs shows a dec r ease of 5.35 per cent. The coachmg traffic has fallen off to t.he extent of 22, 711Z., or 8.86
per cent., n o less than 19,472l. of this amount being in
fi rst-class passenger r evenue. The total number of passenger journ eys made during the quarter s hows a decrease
o f 118,979, or 2.44 per cent. only; prac tically, the r efore,
the same amount of work has been performed, altbou~h
the r evenue has falle n off so much. The inte rcoloma
B '
passenger traffi c, in consequence of the general depression
,
in the colon_ies, continues to s how a very heavy decr ease,

the loss durmg the quarter amounting to 31.26 p e r cent.


'
In t?e merchandise traffic the live stock and wool s h o w
an m crease of 30,303l. ; th e mineral traffic however
s hows a decre~e of 17,407!., being 28.90 p e r dent. o f th~
~alue o f the mmer~l traffic for the same quarter of 1892.
General merchandise shows a falling off of 12,242l. , or
5. 21 per cent. Out of the gross decrease in the mineral
which, acting on D, pushes the whole plunger for ward, thereby t r affic, 14,177/. is attributable to coal, the r e being a loss of
raising the lift when the load does not exceed the smallest limit. 142, 000 tons. This decrease is following one of lH 081
When the controlling valve is cloged to the supply and opened to
the exhaus t, the lift descends, thereby raisinlr the step plun~er, !iOns in the corresponding quarter of last y ear. The
and the used pressure fluid exhausts th rou~rh pipe a. When the mcreased.revenue deri~ed_from wool is cau sed by 40,715
pressure fluid is admitted to chamber E, and acts on t he annular bales havmg beeu 7arr1_~d m excess of the q~antity carried
ring of C in addition to the pressur e noting on D, the step C is fo~ the sa~e. p e rtod tn 1892. The earcmgs p er train
able to push the plunger fo rward, thereby raising t he lift when m~le show an Improvement of 3~d. p e r mile as compared
the load does not exceed the middle limit, but only using Wtth las t y ear, and the expenses p er train mile have b een
the qoontity of pressure fluid necessary to displace C, instend
of consuming the whole quantity necessary to displare the whole reduced b~ 2~d . per !DilP, thus giving an additional n e t
travel of the lift ram. Ir a. load exceeding the minimum limit, profit of. 6d. p e r mtle upon the 1,800,931 miles run ;
but not e'ceeding middle limit, is placed on the lift, the spindle reP.resentmg a _sum of 45,000/. The earnings per train
d wilh vah es i, k, l, m rise, and the first one enters pl m~le shO\~ an mcrea.se of la. 2;fd. p er mile ~s compared
firs t, thereby closing the e\ haust through o and then vah e k w1 t h the :::;pptember quarter of U90,

Io

plate a and have boles io them at intervals corresponding with


holes ro'rmed in the plates. Jets of steam a r e thus in t roduced into
the fu el at any angle from the centr e towards the sides of the flue.
A pipe is placed along the centre of the upper part of the Aue
as far as the bridge, this pipe being form ed with holes fro"? wh~ch
jets of dry steam a r e introduced into the flue, so as to muc w1th
the smoke. { Acupted October 25, 1893).
23155. S. Drummond and T. Abbott, Bradford.
M etallic Packing. (3 F iys.] De~ember 16,_ 1892. -This ~n
vention relates to a method of packmg the spmd les of Corhss
vahes, its object being to provide a steamtight _p acking adapted
to cause little fri ction. A steamtight collar A IS secured on the
s pindle B, so that it lies in the packing-box D when the spind le is
in position ; and a packing ring F, of a. material such as g un-metal,

..

the_ ends to m_ove in circular paths, t~e radii of t~ese paths being
,ar1ed: acco~dmg to t!'t~ speed at wh1ch the ?ar 1s being rot~ted
upon 1ts ax1s. To ut1hse the force of the we1ghts when mO\'lnfZ',
in ~onjunction. with _eac h end of the bar is a rranged a c rank
hav u~g a slot w1th wh1ch t~ e end of the bar engages, the axis of
rotat1on of the crank passmg through t he centr e of the circular
pat h in which the weights move, the motion ot the cranl< being
utilised as desired. (.AcCfpted October 25, 1893.

F G

F-ig
1
a

: : il~
.'

cumrerential ~ roovej, which allows the steam to pass round it


from the inlet to the out.let port. The outlet has a passage leading from it to the end or the cylinder beyond t he piston, so that
when the pressure here increases, the piston is mo,ed longitudinally asrainst an adjustable sprin~, and so partially closes the
ports, diminishing the flow, :lod thus reducin~ the pressure in
the outlet to the proper amount. (Accepted October 25, 1893).
18,784. W. Beesley, Freshfield, and A. V. Wright,
Formby, Liverpool. Steam Boiler Furnaces. [7 Jfigs. ]
October iO, 1892.-This invention relates to steam boiler furnaces.
I n place of 6rebars, plates a are employed, and are fo rmed so t hat
their ion er edges meet in the centre at a hig her level than their
outer edges, which r est on angle bars attached to the interior
of the flue. Pipes of small diameter are placed und er each