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# MECH 370

Modelling, Simulation and Control Systems

Lab 3: Frequency Response of Passive Electrical Filters

James Coulton 2363011
Alexandre Simpson 6462261
Michael Aziz 6458092

Lab Performed: February 26, 2014
Lab Due: March 12, 2014
Objective

This means that the imaginary part of the impedance is zero and that the phase angle is zero. and active filters normally having a dependent source like an amplifier. Our focus is solely on the passive filter type.The objective of this experiment is to study the frequency response characteristics and resonance of passive RC (resistor-capacitor) and LC (inductor-capacitor) frequency filters. The rejection of frequencies is called stopband while the acceptance of others to pass is called passband. Rc=-1/wC and the inductors resistance. See Figure 1. Figure 1: Ideal vs. Practical Frequency Response Curves of Filters When using inductors and capacitors there will be positive or negative peaks at specific frequencies called resonant frequencies. This resonance occurs when the resistance of the capacitor. Rl= wL cancel out. Several filter types exist: passive filters composed of passive elements R. The third type of passive filter is the bandpass filter which allows a certain range of frequency to pass while frequencies outside the range will be blocked. L and C. Introduction An electrical filter is a type of signal-processing circuit whose output allows only certain frequencies while blocking others. Low-pass filters (LPF) have a passband in the low frequency region while the high-pass filters (HPF) have the bandpass located in the high frequency region. . This experiment will study three different types of passive filters.

3 Connect the filter circuit of interest.2. and ensure that readings for frequency of channel 1.Procedure Measure the R. 2. C. Record results at each frequency.3.1. and RMS amplitudes for both channels are displayed. Measure the input and output voltages for the circuits in the Figures 2. and sweep the frequency range of interest. The values for the inductors and capacitors used it this experiment are L1=L2=240uH. 2.1 Figure 2.2 Figure 2. . Set the DSO to AC coupling. and L values in the RCL box using the Multi-Meter available in the lab. Figure 2. C1=C2=1uF and R=22Ω.

74 31415. ω (rad/s) Magnitude=20 log V out V¿ ( ) .60 18. M (dB) 19.85 75398.10 7. M (dB) -20 HPF -25 -30 -35 -40 -45 angular velocity.59 6283.09 -25.56 25132.67 62831.51 0.90 3.85 -29.40 0.09 -35.51 0.37 -24.15 -20.90 10.60 15.37 18849.38 -12.51 0.10 3.51 0.25 2.51 0.85 5.30 5.19 12566.30 50265.51 0.93 37699.35 2.59 -21.22 94247.86 -28.Results & Sample Calculations LC-Type Frequenc y (Hz) 500 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 12000 15000 Radian Frequency (Hz) 3141.48 56548.37 LC Pass Filters Response Curves 0 -5 0 50000 100000 -10 -15 Magnitude Ratio.13 -17.93 -15.78 Channel 1 (V) Channel 2 (V) Magnitude Ratio.51 0.30 0.51 -42.51 0.51 0.80 12.15 0.51 0.95 8.03 -16.11 43982.97 -23.

4 14.6 6.0 7.56 25132.8 3.2 8.0 1.0 8.86 -4.37 18849.2 7.2 6. -0.16 -3.22 94247.93 37699.58 -0.30 -11.93 37699.4 7.15 19.74 -8.8 7.18 -0.67 62831.98 -3.10 -0.56 -2.19 12566.19 12566.8 5.4 18.30 50265.86 -6.6 2.2 5.4 2.30 50265.2 8.2 Magnitude Ratio.19 -0.55 -6.56 25132.8 8.78 -10.8 6.74 31415.8 8.1 1.4 18.8 7.9 11.M =20 log ( 0.59 6283.8 1.2 2.2 3.02 Radian 3141.59 6283.4 Magnitude Ratio.85 75398.2 8.6 7.68 -1.8 3.0 3.48 56548.74 31415.4 9.37 18849.2 9.92 -1.90 -2.85 75398.43 -4.22 94247.8 7.4 4.67 62831.11 43982.4 12.8 10.6 17.78 Single Section RC Channel Channel 19.6 6.47 -7.11 43982.8 19.92 -12.48 56548.25 -5.6 10.5 4.2 7.67 -9.0 15.31 -1.6 11.6 9.6 ) M =−42. -0.7 7.4 7.7 13.78 Twin Section RC Channel Channel 17.07 .09 d B Frequency 500 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 12000 15000 Frequency 500 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 12000 15000 Radian 3141.84 -3.82 -15.4 14.

59 19.57 -27.38 -18.67 11.37 15.19 18.87 -25.20 0.20 0.508 Magnitude Ratio.60 0.20 .508 62831.78 5.508 43982.80 0.Magnitude Ratio vs Frequency for Single and Twin Section RC 0 100000 50000 0 Magnitude Ratio.85 -29.508 94247.85 9.60 0.508 75398.22 5.508 18849.32 -27.11 8.40 0.53 -20.40 0.74 6. M (dB) -5 -10 Twin Section RC Single Section RC -15 -20 angular velocity.340 12566.198 6283.86 -27. M (dB) -40.16 -20.508 56548.93 4.20 0.20 0.502 31415.508 37699.35 -24.508 50265.30 11.48 12.80 0.00 -34.56 11.508 25132.40 0. ω (rad/s) Frequenc y (Hz) 500 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 12000 15000 Double Resonance Circuit Radian Channel Channel Frequency (Hz) 1 (V) 2 (V) 3141.75 -26.80 0.02 -22.80 0.

ω (rad/s) SIMULINK Bode Diagram: dB Vs Frequency & Phase Vs Frequency 100000 . M (dB) -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45 angular velocity.Double-Resonance Response 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 0 -5 -10 -15 Magnitude Ratio.

the graph indicates the start of the curve appears to be a high pass filter and then becomes a band pass filter from the small peak on top. This can due to the fact that the magnitude ratio of the Twin Section RC. the slope of the Single Section is much less steep than that of the Twin Section. For the Single Section RC and Twin Section RC. This is due to the much bigger difference in voltage lost in the circuit when passed through the .Discussion For the LC-type. That peak is the resonance peak. because the nominal cut-off frequency of these filters is assumed the natural resonant frequency. channel 2 over channel 1. M =20 log V out V¿ ( ) . will equate a bigger ratio once entered in the magnitude equation.

It can be determined from the graphs. output. theoretical. Conclusion The analysis of the frequency response characteristics of passive RC and LC filters was determined. a lowpass filter and finally forms into a band pass filter. One of the few possible sources of error is that due to some noise in the circuit the output voltage was not entirely constant witch lessened the accuracy of our results.Twin Section RC Circuit. the curve begins with a high pass filter. . All the experimental data was as expected with very little error. that they are both low pass filters. The double resonance circuit had two resonant frequencies as expected. The presences of two resonance peaks in the graph are generated due to the presence of an inductor L and capacitor C in the circuit. The objective of the experiment was achieved since the outputs of the different circuits are identical to the expected. then becomes a band pass filter. For for Double Resonance Circuit. As expected the LC-type filter had one resonant frequency and a shallow curve at the cut-off frequency. The RC-type filters have no resonant frequency and the twin section has a steeper cut-off slope than the single section.