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3/3/2016

187 words ­ Vocabulary List : Vocabulary.com

187 words

March 3, 2016

By Mr. Rathore (India)

  • 1. dodgy

    • of uncertain outcome; especially fraught with risk

dodgy / ˈdɒdʒi $ ˈdɑː- / adjective British English informal

  • 1 not working properly or not in good condition :

Norton Disk Doctor can perform miracles on a dodgy hard disk.

inundate / ˈɪnәndeɪt / verb [ transitive ]

  • 1 be inundated (with/by something) to receive so much of

something that you cannot easily deal with it all SYN swamp :

After the broadcast, we were inundated with requests for more information.

    • a ghost that creates disorder and noise

...world

apparition an image of a dead person that someone sees

suddenly for a short time : He claimed to have seen an apparition

in the church. poltergeist a ghost that people cannot see, which throws things or moves things around : The house was haunted by a poltergeist that makes things move around all by themselves,...

scavenge / ˈskævәndʒ, ˈskævɪndʒ / verb [ intransitive and transitive ]

  • 1 if an animal scavenges, it eats anything that it can find : Pigs scavenged among the rubbish. scavenge for rats scavenging for

food 2 if someone scavenges, they search...

3/3/2016 187 words ­ Vocabulary List : Vocabulary.com <a href=VOCABULARY LISTS 187 words March 3, 2016 By Mr. Rathore (India) 1. dodgy of uncertain outcome; especially fraught with risk dodg ‧ y / ˈ d ɒ d ʒ i $ ˈ d ɑ ː - / adjective British English informal 1 not working properly or not in good condition : Norton Disk Doctor can perform miracles on a dodgy hard disk. 2. inundated covered with water in ‧ un ‧ date / ˈ ɪ n ә nde ɪ t / verb [ transitive ] 1 be inundated (with/by something) to receive so much of something that you cannot easily deal with it all SYN swamp : After the broadcast, we were inundated with requests for more information. 3. poltergeist a ghost that creates disorder and noise ...world apparition an image of a dead person that someone sees suddenly for a short time : He claimed to have seen an apparition in the church. poltergeist a ghost that people cannot see, which throws things or moves things around : The house was haunted by a poltergeist that makes things move around all by themselves,... 4. scavenge clean refuse from scav ‧ enge / ˈ skæv ә nd ʒ , ˈ skæv ɪ nd ʒ / verb [ intransitive and transitive ] 1 if an animal scavenges , it eats anything that it can find : Pigs scavenged among the rubbish. scavenge for rats scavenging for food 2 if someone scavenges , they search... 5. permeate spread or diffuse through https://www.vocabulary.com/lists/996513#view=notes 1/42 " id="pdf-obj-0-133" src="pdf-obj-0-133.jpg">

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187 words ­ Vocabulary List : Vocabulary.com

permeate / ˈpɜːmieɪt $ ˈpɜːr- / verb

  • 1 [ intransitive always + adverb/preposition, transitive ] if liquid, gas etc permeates something, it enters it and spreads through every

part of it :

The smell of diesel oil permeated the air. permeate through/into Rain permeates through the ground to add to ground water levels.

    • give new life or energy to

revivify / riːˈvɪvәfaɪ, riːˈvɪvɪfaɪ / verb ( past tense and past participle revivified , present participle revivifying , third person singular revivifies ) [ transitive ] formal to give new life and health to someone or something :

The aim was to strengthen and revivify the Labour Party.

    • being in the earliest stages of development

rudimentary / ˌruːdәˈment ә ri, ˌruːdɪˈment ә ri/ adjective

  • 1 a rudimentary knowledge or understanding of a subject is very simple and basic OPP sophisticated :

Gradually, I acquired a rudimentary knowledge of music. my rudimentary German 2 rudimentary equipment, methods, systems etc are very basic and not advanced :

subsistence farming in its most rudimentary form The classroom equipment is pretty rudimentary.

    • a standard or typical example

paradigm / ˈpærәdaɪm / noun [ countable ]

  • 1 technical a model or example that shows how something works

or is produced paradigm of the basic paradigm of the family tree 2 formal a very clear or typical example of something paradigm of Pius XII remained the paradigm of what a pope should be.

— paradigmatic / ˌpærәdɪɡˈmætɪk/ adjective — paradigmatically / -kli / adverb

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  • 9. ornery

    • having a difficult and contrary disposition

| She was passionate and wilful – exactly the sort of creature a man ought to avoid. ornery American English behaving in an unreasonable and often angry way, especially by doing the opposite of what people want you to do : an ornery kid | Teenagers can be ornery and rude.

    • the range of skills in a particular field or occupation

repertoire / ˈrepәtwɑː $ -pәrtwɑːr / noun [ countable usually

singular ]

  • 1 all the plays, pieces of music etc that a performer or group knows

and can perform in sb’s repertoire The group include some techno in their repertoire. repertoire of a wide repertoire of songs 2 the total number of things that someone or something is able to do :

the behavioural repertoire of infants

straddle / ˈstrædl / verb [ transitive ]

  • 1 to sit or stand with your legs on either side of someone or something :

The photo shows him dressed in leather, straddling a motorbike.

    • darkening or obscuring the sight of something

obfuscate / ˈɒbfәskeɪt $ ˈɑːb- / verb [ transitive ] formal to deliberately make something unclear or difficult to understand SYN confuse — obfuscation / ˌɒbfәˈskeɪʃ ә n $ ˌɑːb- / noun [ uncountable ]

    • overflowing with eager enjoyment or approval

ebullient / ɪˈbʌliәnt, ɪˈbʊ- / adjective formal

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very happy and excited :

My father is a naturally ebullient personality. — ebullience noun [ uncountable ]

  • 14. muggy

    • hot or warm and humid

AIR/WEATHER damp slightly wet, especially in a cold unpleasant way : It was a cold damp morning. humid hot and damp in an unpleasant way : Florida can be very humid in the summer. muggy warm and damp and making you feel uncomfortable : This muggy weather gives me a headache. dank dank air is cold and damp and smells unpleasant – used especially about the air inside a room : The dank air smelled of stale sweat.

  • 15. squeamish

    • excessively fastidious and easily disgusted

squeamish / ˈskwiːmɪʃ / adjective 1 easily shocked or upset, or easily made to feel sick by seeing unpleasant things 2 the squeamish [ plural ] people who are squeamish :

His new novel is not for the squeamish . — squeamishness noun [ uncountable ]

  • 16. formal

    • in accord with established conventions and requirements

ramification / ˌræmәfәˈkeɪʃ ә n, ˌræmɪfәˈkeɪʃ ә n / noun [ countable usually plural ] formal an additional result of something you do, which may not have been clear when you first decided to do it implications , implication :

an agreement which was to have significant ramifications for British politics ramification of the practical ramifications of taking on a new job legal/political/economic etc ramifications the environmental ramifications of the road-building program

    • not in harmonious or agreeable combination

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| At first I felt a bit out of place. incompatible two ideas or things that are incompatible cannot exist or be done together.

    • a development that complicates a situation

ramification / ˌræmәfәˈkeɪʃ ә n, ˌræmɪfәˈkeɪʃ ә n / noun [ countable usually plural ] formal an additional result of something you do, which may not have been clear when you first decided to do it implications , implication :

an agreement which was to have significant ramifications for British politics ramification of the practical ramifications of taking on a new job legal/political/economic etc ramifications the environmental ramifications of the road-building program

    • a form of the verb used as an adjective

tread 1 / tred / verb ( past tense trod / trɒd $ trɑːd / , past participle trodden / ˈtrɒdn $ ˈtrɑːdn / ) 1 STEP IN/ON [ intransitive always + adverb/preposition ] British English to put your foot on or in something while you are walking SYN step tread in/on Sorry, did I tread on your foot?

  • 20. wean

    • gradually deprive of mother's milk

wean / wiːn / verb [ transitive ] to gradually stop feeding a baby or young animal on its mother’s milk and start giving it ordinary food wean...

  • 21. strident

    • unpleasantly loud and harsh

strident / ˈstraɪd ә nt / adjective 1 forceful and determined, especially in a way that is offensive or annoying :

strident criticism 2 a strident sound or voice is loud and unpleasant :

the strident calls of seagulls

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— stridently adverb — stridency noun [ uncountable ]

    • having existed from the beginning

primordial / praɪˈmɔːdiәl $ -ˈmɔːr- / adjective formal

  • 1 existing at the beginning of time or the beginning of the Earth :

the primordial seas 2 primordial feelings are very strong and seem to come from the part of people’s character that is ancient and animal-like :

He was driven on by a primordial terror.

    • a sum total of many heterogeneous things taken together

conglomeration / kәnˌɡlɒmәˈreɪʃ ә n $ -ˌɡlɑː- / noun [ countable ] formal a group of different things gathered together conglomeration of the loose conglomeration of artists known as L'École de Paris

    • lacking in harmony or compatibility or appropriateness

incongruous / ɪnˈkɒŋɡruәs $ -ˈkɑːŋ- / adjective strange, unexpected, or unsuitable in a particular situation :

The new theatre looks utterly incongruous in its setting. — incongruously adverb THESAURUS unsuitable/not suitable not having the right qualities for a particular person, purpose, or situation : These toys are not suitable for children under 3.

  • 25. nebulous

    • lacking definite form or limits

nebulous / ˈnebjәlәs, ˈnebjʊlәs / adjective formal

  • 1 an idea that is nebulous is not at all clear or exact SYN vague :

‘Normality’ is a rather nebulous concept.

  • 26. gnaw

    • bite or chew on with the teeth

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gnaw / nɔː $ nɒː / verb [ intransitive, transitive always + adverb/preposition ] to keep biting something hard SYN chew :

Dexter gnawed his pen thoughtfully.

    • an outward semblance misrepresenting the nature of something

| The men had disguised the vessel as fishing boat. camouflage to hide something by covering it with materials that make it look like the things around it : We camouflaged the plane by covering it with leaves.

  • 28. didactic

    • instructive, especially excessively

didactic / daɪˈdæktɪk, dә- / adjective

  • 1 speech or writing that is didactic is intended to teach people a moral lesson :

His novel has a didactic tone.

    • an organized group of people undertaking a journey

2 I don’t envy you/her etc spoken used to say that you are glad that you are not in the bad situation that someone else is in expedition / ˌekspәˈdɪʃ ә n, ˌekspɪˈdɪʃ ә n / noun

  • 1 [ countable ] a long and carefully organized journey, especially to a dangerous or unfamiliar place, or the people that make this journey :

an expedition to the North Pole another Everest expedition on an expedition He went on an expedition to Borneo.

  • 30. epoch

    • a period marked by distinctive character

epoch / ˈiːpɒk $ ˈepәk / noun [ countable ] a period of history SYN era : the Victorian epoch The king’s death marked the end of an epoch . the beginning of a new epoch THESAURUS A PERIOD IN HISTORY period a particular...

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    • having brief brilliant points or flashes of light

scintillating / ˈsɪntәleɪtɪŋ, ˈsɪntɪleɪtɪŋ / adjective interesting, clever, and amusing :

scintillating conversation a scintillating performance

    • capable of catching fire spontaneously

incendiary 1 / ɪnˈsendiәri $ -dieri / adjective

  • 1 [ only before noun ] designed to cause a fire

incendiary bomb/device The explosion seems to have been caused by an incendiary device.

    • emitting light as a result of being heated

incandescent / ˌɪnkænˈdes ә nt$ -kәn- / adjective

  • 1 very angry :

The prince was said to be incandescent with rage .

Jill asked, trying to sound nonchalant. — nonchalance noun [ uncountable ] — nonchalantly adverb :

He smiled nonchalantly.

  • 35. era

    • a period marked by distinctive character

epoch / ˈiːpɒk $ ˈepәk / noun [ countable ] a period of history SYN era : the Victorian epoch The king’s death marked the end of an epoch . the beginning of a new epoch THESAURUS A PERIOD IN...

  • 36. tread

    • put down or press the foot, place the foot

tread 1 / tred / verb ( past tense trod / trɒd $ trɑːd / , past

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participle trodden / ˈtrɒdn $ ˈtrɑːdn / )

  • 1 STEP IN/ON [ intransitive always + adverb/preposition ] British

English to put your foot on or in something while you are walking

SYN step tread in/on Sorry, did I tread on your foot?

  • 37. charade

    • a word acted out in an episode of a game

charade / ʃәˈrɑːd $ ʃәˈreɪd / noun

  • 1 charades [ uncountable ] a game in which one person uses

actions and no words to show the meaning of a word or phrase,

and other people have to guess what it is 2 [ countable ] a situation in which people behave as though something is true or serious, when it is not really true :

Unless more money is given to schools, all this talk of improving education is just a charade.

  • 38. criticize

    • point out real or perceived flaws

| Sheila walked into the museum, under the stern gaze of the curator. harsh punishing or criticizing someone in a way that seems very severe, often too severe : Don’t be too harsh on her – she’s only a child.

    • habitually disposed to disobedience and opposition

| I wish you’d stop being so pig-headed! headstrong very determined to do what you want, often without thinking about the results of your actions – used especially about young people : As a girl, she had been...

  • 40. damp

    • slightly wet

damp 1 / dæmp / adjective 1 slightly wet, often in an unpleasant way : Wipe the leather with a damp cloth. a cold, damp day ...

  • 41. scavenger

    • someone who collects things discarded by others

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...objects

: There are people who live in the dump and scavenge

garbage for a living. scavenge for Women were scavenging for old furniture. — scavenger noun [ countable ] : Foxes and other scavengers go through the dustbins.

    • light emission by a body as its temperature is raised

      • 2 technical producing a bright light when heated :

the invention of the incandescent lamp

  • 3 literary very bright :

incandescent flowers — incandescence noun [ uncountable ]

perdition / pәˈdɪʃ ә n $ pәr- / noun [ uncountable ] old use

  • 1 punishment after death

  • 2 complete destruction or failure :

an alcoholic on the road to perdition

  • 43. chide

    • censure severely or angrily

chide / tʃaɪd / verb [ intransitive and transitive ] written to tell someone that you do not approve of something that they have done or said SYN scold :

‘Edward, you are naughty,’ Dorothy chided. chide somebody for (doing) something She chided him for not responding to her Christmas cards.

  • 44. dishonest

    • deceptive or fraudulent

      • 2 seeming to be false, dishonest, or not to be trusted :

One girl thought the men looked dodgy.

dodgy share dealings

  • 3 involving risk or danger :

There were a few dodgy moments.

exuberant / ɪɡˈzjuːb ә rәnt $ ɪɡˈzuː- / adjective

  • 1 happy and full of energy and excitement :

an exuberant personality

  • 2 exuberant decorations, patterns etc are exciting and complicated or colourful :

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exuberant carvings — exuberance noun [ uncountable ] :

She needs to try and control her natural exuberance. — exuberantly adverb

ostensibly / ɒˈstensәbli, ɒˈstensɪbli $ ɑː- / adverb if something is ostensibly true, people say that it is true but it is not really true SYN supposedly :

She stayed behind at the office, ostensibly to work.

  • 47. intrinsic

    • belonging to a thing by its very nature

intrinsic / ɪnˈtrɪnsɪk, -zɪk / adjective being part of the nature or character of someone or something OPP extrinsic :

the intrinsic interest of the subject intrinsic nature/quality/value/property of something There is nothing in the intrinsic nature of the work that makes it more suitable for women. intrinsic to Flexibility is intrinsic to creative management. — intrinsically / -kli / adverb :

Science is seen as intrinsically good.

  • 48. extrinsic

    • not forming an essential part of a thing

intrinsic / ɪnˈtrɪnsɪk, -zɪk / adjective being part of the nature or character of someone or something OPP extrinsic :

the intrinsic interest of the subject intrinsic nature/quality/value/property of something There is nothing in the intrinsic nature of the work that makes it more suitable for women. intrinsic to Flexibility is intrinsic to creative management. — intrinsically / -kli / adverb :

Science is seen as intrinsically good.

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intrinsic / ɪnˈtrɪnsɪk, -zɪk / adjective being part of the nature or character of someone or something OPP extrinsic :

the intrinsic interest of the subject intrinsic nature/quality/value/property of something There is nothing in the intrinsic nature of the work that makes it more suitable for women. intrinsic to Flexibility is intrinsic to creative management. — intrinsically / -kli / adverb :

Science is seen as intrinsically good.

grotto / ˈɡrɒtәʊ $ ˈɡrɑːtoʊ / noun ( plural grottos or grottoes ) [ countable ] a small attractive CAVE delirious / dɪˈlɪriәs / adjective 1 talking continuously in an excited or anxious way, especially because you are ill :

He suffered an attack of malaria and was delirious.

    • a calm, lengthy, intent consideration

2 technical if animals such as cows ruminate, they bring food back into their mouths from their stomachs and CHEW it again — rumination / ˌruːmәˈneɪʃ ә n, ˌruːmɪˈneɪʃ ә n / noun [ uncountable and countable ]

2 formal to cover an area with a large amount of water SYN flood :

The tidal wave inundated vast areas of cropland. — inundation / ˌɪnәnˈdeɪʃ ә n / noun [ uncountable and countable ]

reconnaissance / rɪˈkɒnәs ә ns, rɪˈkɒnɪs ә ns $ rɪˈkɑː- / noun [ uncountable and countable ] the military activity of sending soldiers and aircraft to find out

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about the enemy’s forces :

reconnaissance aircraft a reconnaissance mission wartime roles such as observation and reconnaissance

  • 54. diesel

    • an internal-combustion engine that burns heavy oil

permeate / ˈpɜːmieɪt $ ˈpɜːr- / verb

  • 1 [ intransitive always + adverb/preposition, transitive ] if liquid, gas

etc permeates something, it enters it and spreads through every part of it :

The smell of diesel oil permeated the air. permeate through/into Rain permeates through the ground to add to ground water levels.

  • 55. thrall

    • the state of being under the control of another person

thrall / θrɔːl $ θrɒːl / noun in sb’s/sth’s thrall ( also in thrall to somebody/something ) literary controlled or strongly influenced by someone or something :

We have a congress that is in thrall to special interest groups.

  • 56. ruminate

    • reflect deeply on a subject

ruminate / ˈruːmәneɪt, ˈruːmɪneɪt / verb [ intransitive ]

  • 1 formal to think carefully and deeply about something

ruminate on/over He sat alone, ruminating on the injustice of the world.

  • 57. subjugate

    • make subservient; force to submit or subdue

subjugate / ˈsʌbdʒәɡeɪt, ˈsʌbdʒʊɡeɪt / verb [ transitive usually passive ] formal to defeat a person or group and make them obey you :

The native population was subjugated and exploited. subjugated people/nation/country subjugate somebody to somebody/something Her own needs had been subjugated to (= not considered as important as ) the needs of her family. — subjugation / ˌsʌbdʒәˈɡeɪʃ ә n, ˌsʌbdʒʊˈɡeɪʃ ә n / noun [ uncountable ]

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    • the property of being seemingly ceaseless

perpetuity / ˌpɜːpәˈtjuːәti, ˌpɜːpɪˈtjuːәti $ ˌpɜːrpәˈtuː- / noun in perpetuity law for all future time SYN forever :

The land had been promised to the Indian tribes in perpetuity.

  • 59. incognito

    • without revealing one's identity

incognito / ˌɪnkɒɡˈniːtәʊ $ ˌɪnkɑːɡˈniːtoʊ / adverb if a famous person does something incognito, they do it without letting people know who they are disguise :

That night, Lenin travelled incognito to the party headquarters.

  • 60. shudder

    • tremble convulsively, as from fear or excitement

shudder 1 / ˈʃʌdә $ -әr / verb [ intransitive ] 1 to shake for a short time because you are afraid or cold, or because you think something is very unpleasant :

Maria shuddered as she stepped outside. shudder with I shudder with embarrassment whenever I think about it. shudder at She shuddered at the thought that she could have been killed.

  • 61. plural

    • grammatical number category referring to two or more items

ramification / ˌræmәfәˈkeɪʃ ә n, ˌræmɪfәˈkeɪʃ ә n / noun [ countable usually plural ] formal an additional result of something you do, which may not have been clear when you first decided to do it implications , implication :

an agreement which was to have significant ramifications for British politics ramification of the practical ramifications of taking on a new job legal/political/economic etc ramifications the environmental ramifications of the road-building program

  • 62. disguise

    • any attire that conceals the wearer's identity

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disguise 1 / dɪsˈɡaɪz / verb [ transitive ]

  • 1 to change someone’s appearance so that people cannot

recognize them disguise yourself as somebody/something Maybe you could disguise yourself as a waiter and sneak in there.

  • 63. clammy

    • unpleasantly cool and humid

| Make sure that the soil is moist. clammy slightly wet and sticky, in an unpleasant way – used especially about someone’s skin : His hands were cold and clammy.

conceive / kәnˈsiːv / verb 1 [ intransitive and transitive ] formal to imagine a particular situation or to think about something in a particular way (cannot) conceive of (doing) something Many people can’t conceive of a dinner without meat or fish. conceive that He could not conceive that anything really serious could be...

  • 65. demure

    • affectedly shy especially in a playful or provocative way

demure / dɪˈmjʊә $ -ˈmjʊr / adjective

  • 1 quiet, serious, and well-behaved – used especially about women

in the past :

Old photos of Maggie show her young and demure.

    • remove completely from recognition or memory

obliterate / әˈblɪtәreɪt / verb [ transitive ]

  • 1 to destroy something completely so that nothing remains :

Hiroshima was nearly obliterated by the atomic bomb.

  • 67. harbinger

    • something indicating the approach of something or someone

harbinger / ˈhɑːbɪndʒә $ ˈhɑːrbɪndʒәr / noun [ countable ] literary or formal a sign that something is going to happen soon

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harbinger of These birds are considered to be harbingers of doom .

| Some dogs end up in totally unsuitable homes. not appropriate/ inappropriate not suitable for a particular situation or purpose – used especially about someone's behaviour or language : Slang is not appropriate in an academic essay.

  • 69. vestige

    • an indication that something has been present

vestige / ˈvestɪdʒ / noun [ countable ] formal 1 a small part or amount of something that remains when most of it no longer exists SYN trace vestige of The new law removed the last vestiges of royal power.

  • 70. brusque

    • marked by rude or peremptory shortness

brusque / bruːsk, brʊsk $ brʌsk / adjective using very few words, in a way that seems rude SYN abrupt :

a brusque manner — brusquely adverb — brusqueness noun [ uncountable ]

  • 71. pillory

    • a wooden instrument of punishment on a post

...him

to shreds. pan to strongly criticize a film, play etc in the

newspapers, on TV etc : Her first movie was panned by the critics. be pilloried especially written to be strongly criticized by a lot of people in the newspapers, on TV etc : He was pilloried in the right- wing press. condemn to say...

  • 72. dubious

    • fraught with uncertainty or doubt

THESAURUS SEEMING TO BE DISHONEST suspicious if someone or something seems suspicious, they make

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you think that something dishonest or illegal is happening : The police are treating the boy’s death as suspicious. dubious if something seems dubious, you think it may not be completely true, right, or honest : He has a rather dubious reputation.

  • 73. intrusion

    • entrance by force or without permission or welcome

intrusion / ɪnˈtruːʒ ә n / noun [ uncountable and countable ] 1 when someone does something, or something happens, that affects your private life or activities in an unwanted way intrusion into/on/upon I resented this intrusion into my domestic affairs. the unwelcome intrusion of the press 2 when something comes into a place or situation and has an unwanted effect :

the intrusion of badly designed new buildings in the historic high street

ADJECTIVES/NOUN + EXPEDITION a scientific expedition He led the first major British scientific expedition to the Amazon. an Arctic/Antarctic expedition I accompanied the explorer on one of his Arctic expeditions. a military expedition The generals decided to launch a military expedition to the region. a punitive expedition (= one an army undertakes to punish someone ) The Afghan army mounted a punitive expedition against the local militia groups.

| He was dressed in a three-piece suit with an incongruous tie shaped like a fish. inconvenient an inconvenient place or time is not suitable and causes problems for you : He always seems to call at inconvenient times.

  • 76. crouch

    • the act of bending low with the limbs close to the body

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crouch / kraʊtʃ / verb [ intransitive ]

  • 1 ( also crouch down ) to lower your body close to the ground by

bending your knees completely squat :

He crouched in the shadows near the doorway.

    • relating to or resulting from the action of a downpour

herald 1 / ˈherәld / verb [ transitive ]

  • 1 to be a sign of something that is going to come or happen soon :

A flash of lightning heralded torrential rain.

  • 78. intimate

    • marked by close acquaintance, association, or familiarity

...Politicians

were quick to condemn the bombing. intimate 1 /

ˈɪntәmәt, ˈɪntɪmәt / adjective 1 RESTAURANT/MEAL/PLACE private and friendly so that you feel comfortable : the intimate atmosphere of a country pub an intimate meal for two The collection has been moved from its intimate setting to the British Museum.

  • 79. impetus

    • a force that moves something along

impetus / ˈɪmpәtәs, ˈɪmpɪtәs / noun [ uncountable ]

  • 1 an influence that makes something happen or makes it happen more quickly impetus for The report may provide further impetus for reform.

  • 80. obstinate

    • marked by tenacious unwillingness to yield

obstinate / ˈɒbstәnәt, ˈɒbstɪnәt $ ˈɑːb- / adjective

  • 1 determined not to change your ideas, behaviour, opinions etc,

even when other people think you are being unreasonable SYN stubborn :

He was the most obstinate man I’ve ever met.

indomitable / ɪnˈdɒmәtәb ә l, ɪnˈdɒmɪtәb ә l $ ɪnˈdɑː- / adjective

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formal having great determination or courage :

an indomitable old lady indomitable spirit/will/courage etc Alice was a woman of indomitable spirit.

infallible / ɪnˈfælәb ә l, ɪnˈfælɪb ә l / adjective

  • 1 always right and never making mistakes OPP fallible :

No expert is infallible.

an infallible memory

  • 2 something that is infallible always works or has the intended

effect fail-safe :

He had an infallible cure for a hangover. — infallibly adverb — infallibility / ɪnˌfælәˈbɪlәti, ɪnˌfælɪˈbɪlәti / noun [ uncountable ]

exuberant / ɪɡˈzjuːb ә rәnt $ ɪɡˈzuː- / adjective

  • 1 happy and full of energy and excitement :

an exuberant personality

  • 2 exuberant decorations, patterns etc are exciting and complicated

or colourful :

exuberant carvings — exuberance noun [ uncountable ] :

She needs to try and control her natural exuberance. — exuberantly adverb

ebullient / ɪˈbʌliәnt, ɪˈbʊ- / adjective formal very happy and excited :

My father is a naturally ebullient personality. — ebullience noun [ uncountable ]

  • 85. rubble

    • the remains of something that has been destroyed

...hotel

room while on drugs. obliterate formal to destroy a place so

completely that nothing remains : The nuclear blast obliterated

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most of Hiroshima. reduce something to ruins/ rubble/ashes to destroy a building or town completely : The town was reduced to rubble in the First World War. ruin to spoil something completely, so that it cannot...

  • 86. vile

    • morally reprehensible

 

vile / vaɪl / adjective

1

informal extremely unpleasant or bad SYN horrible :

This coffee tastes really vile .

a vile smell She has a vile temper .

 
distorted and unnatural in shape or size

distorted and unnatural in shape or size

monstrous / ˈmɒnstrәs $ ˈmɑːn- / adjective

1

very wrong, immoral, or unfair :

It’s monstrous to charge that much for a hotel room.

 
go back to a previous state

go back to a previous state

regress / rɪˈɡres / verb [ intransitive ] technical to go back to an earlier and worse condition, or to a less developed way of behaving OPP progress :

The patient had regressed to a state of childish dependency.

 
annoy persistently

annoy persistently

beleaguered / bɪˈliːɡәd $ -әrd / adjective [ usually before noun ] formal

1

experiencing a lot of problems or criticism :

the country’s beleaguered steel industry

2 surrounded by an army :

Supplies are being brought into the beleaguered city.

  • 90. boring

    • so lacking in interest as to cause mental weariness

...adjective

COLLOCATIONS ADJECTIVES an old cliché He seemed to

believe that old cliché about a woman’s place being in the home. a

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tired cliché (= boring because it has been used so often ) The story is based on a series of tired clichés. a worn-out cliché (= very boring ) His writing is...

  • 91. docile

    • easily handled or managed

docile / ˈdәʊsaɪl $ ˈdɑːs ә l / adjective quiet and easily controlled :

Labradors are gentle, docile dogs. — docilely adverb — docility / dәʊˈsɪlәti, dәʊˈsɪlɪti $ dɑː- / noun [ uncountable ]

...Her

mother was a plump cheerful woman. flabby having soft

loose skin that looks unattractive : a flabby stomach | Her body was getting old and flabby. portly literary fat and round – used especially about fairly old men : The bishop was a portly middle- aged gentleman.

  • 93. intuition

    • instinctive knowing, without the use of rational processes

intuition / ˌɪntjuˈɪʃ ә n $ -tu-, -tju- / noun

  • 1 [ uncountable ] the ability to understand or know something

because of a feeling rather than by considering the facts SYN

instinct :

feminine intuition Intuition told her it was unwise to argue.

  • 94. stern

    • of a strict bearing or demeanor; forbidding in aspect

stern 1 / stɜːn $ stɜːrn / adjective

  • 1 serious and strict, and showing strong disapproval of someone’s behaviour :

sterner penalties for drug offences stern look/voice/expression etc ‘Wait!’

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2 active and determined :

Sherry’s been making a strenuous effort to lose weight. — strenuously adverb :

Barrett strenuously denied rumors that he would resign.

  • 96. nip

    • sever or remove by pinching

| He was chewing on a cigar. gnaw if an animal gnaws something, it bites it repeatedly : The dog was in the yard gnawing on a bone. nip somebody/give somebody a nip to give someone or something a small sharp bite : When I took the hamster out of his cage, he nipped me. nibble to take a lot of small bites from something : A fish nibbled at the bait.

  • 97. reverie

    • an abstracted state of absorption

reverie / ˈrevәri / noun [ uncountable and countable ] a state of imagining or thinking about pleasant things, that is like dreaming daydream :

She was startled out of her reverie by a loud crash.

...ә

n / noun [ countable ] something that you imagine you can see,

especially the spirit of a dead person : He stared at the strange apparition before him. a ghostly apparition of a man THESAURUS ghost the spirit of a dead person that some people think they can feel or see in...

...)

The committee unanimously condemned the idea.

vehemently/vigorously/fiercely condemn something/somebody (= in a very strong or angry way ) The educational reforms were vehemently condemned by teachers. utterly/ unequivocally condemn something/somebody (= very definitely and with no doubts ) We utterly condemn any acts of violence.

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  • 00. shady

    • sheltered from the sun's rays

| It all sounds highly dubious to me. | the country’s dubious record on human rights shady shady business deals or people seem to be dishonest or connected with secret and illegal activities : Several senior members of the party had been involved in shady deals....

gimmick / ˈɡɪmɪk / noun [ countable ] informal a trick or something unusual that you do to make people notice someone or something – used to show disapproval stunt :

advertising gimmicks — gimmicky adjective — gimmickry noun [ uncountable ]

  • 02. construe

    • make sense of; assign a meaning to

construe / kәnˈstruː / verb [ transitive usually in passive ] to understand a remark or action in a particular way misconstrue construe something as something comments that could be construed as sexist The term can be construed in two different ways.

2 formal a large flood, or period when there is a lot of rain SYN flood imperturbable / ˌɪmpәˈtɜːbәb ә l $ -pәrˈtɜːr- / adjective remaining calm and unworried in spite of problems or difficulties SYN unflappable — imperturbably adverb — imperturbability / ˌɪmpәtɜːbәˈbɪlәti, ˌɪmpәtɜːbәˈbɪlɪti $ -pәrtɜːr- / noun [ uncountable ]

  • 04. empirical

    • derived from experiment and observation rather than theory

empirical / ɪmˈpɪrɪk ә l / adjective [ only before noun ]

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based on scientific testing or practical experience, not on ideas OPP theoretical , hypothetical :

empirical evidence — empirically / -kli / adverb

  • 05. erudite

    • having or showing profound knowledge

erudite / ˈerәdaɪt, ˈerʊdaɪt / adjective showing a lot of knowledge based on careful study SYN learned — eruditely adverb — erudition / ˌerәˈdɪʃ ә n, ˌerʊˈdɪʃ ә n / noun [ uncountable ]

  • 06. aesthetic

    • characterized by an appreciation of beauty or good taste

aesthetic 1 , esthetic / iːsˈθetɪk, es- $ es- / adjective connected with beauty and the study of beauty :

From an esthetic point of view, it’s a nice design. a work of great aesthetic appeal — aesthetically / -kli / adverb :

aesthetically pleasing

imbibe / ɪmˈbaɪb / verb [ intransitive and transitive ] formal 1 to drink something, especially alcohol – sometimes used humorously :

Both men imbibed considerable quantities of gin.

    • the trait of remaining calm and seeming not to care

Jill asked, trying to sound nonchalant. — nonchalance noun [ uncountable ] — nonchalantly adverb :

He smiled nonchalantly.

  • 09. imbue

    • spread or diffuse through

imbue / ɪmˈbjuː / verb imbue somebody/something with something phrasal verb formal

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to make someone or something have a quality, idea, or emotion very strongly :

His philosophical writings are imbued with religious belief.

  • 10. cog

    • tooth on the rim of gear wheel

incognito / ˌɪnkɒɡˈniːtәʊ $ ˌɪnkɑːɡˈniːtoʊ / adverb if a famous person does something incognito, they do it without letting people know who they are disguise :

That night, Lenin travelled incognito to the party headquarters.

  • 11. stubborn

    • tenaciously unwilling to yield

obstinate / ˈɒbstәnәt, ˈɒbstɪnәt $ ˈɑːb- / adjective 1 determined not to change your ideas, behaviour, opinions etc, even when other people think you are being unreasonable SYN stubborn :

He was the most obstinate man I’ve ever met.

construe / kәnˈstruː / verb [ transitive usually in passive ] to understand a remark or action in a particular way misconstrue

construe something as something comments that could be construed as sexist The term can be construed in two different ways.

  • 13. mortified

    • made to feel uncomfortable because of shame or wounded pride

mortified / ˈmɔːtәfaɪd, ˈmɔːtɪfaɪd $ ˈmɔːr- / adjective extremely offended, ashamed, or embarrassed mortified to hear/find etc Nora was mortified to discover that her daughter had been out drinking. — mortification / ˌmɔːtәfәˈkeɪʃ ә n, ˌmɔːtɪfәˈkeɪʃ ә n $ ˌmɔːr- / noun [ uncountable ]

    • so great in size or force or extent as to elicit awe

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prodigious / prәˈdɪdʒәs / adjective [ usually before noun ] very large or great in a surprising or impressive way prodigious amounts/quantities of something Some galaxies seem to release prodigious amounts of energy. the artist’s prodigious output — prodigiously adverb

  • 15. lout

    • an awkward stupid person

yob / jɒb $ jɑːb / ( also yobbo / ˈjɒbәʊ $ ˈjɑːboʊ / ) noun [ countable ] British English a rude noisy and sometimes violent young man SYN lout :

drunken yobbos

sonorous / ˈsɒnәrәs, sәˈnɔːrәs $ sәˈnɔːrәs, ˈsɑːnәrәs / adjective literary having a pleasantly deep loud sound :

a sonorous voice — sonorously adverb

  • 17. vandal

    • someone who willfully destroys or defaces property

| The plane crashed into a suburb of Paris, demolishing several buildings. flatten to destroy a building or town by knocking it down, bombing it etc, so that nothing is left standing : The town centre was flattened by a 500 lb bomb. wreck to deliberately damage something very badly, especially a room or building : The toilets had been wrecked by vandals.

  • 18. grotto

    • a small cave, usually with attractive features

grotto / ˈɡrɒtәʊ $ ˈɡrɑːtoʊ / noun ( plural grottos or grottoes ) [ countable ] a small attractive CAVE delirious / dɪˈlɪriәs / adjective 1 talking continuously in an excited or anxious way, especially because you are ill :

He suffered an attack of malaria and was delirious.

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    • varying in color when seen in different lights

...very

difficult to understand iridescent / ˌɪrәˈdes ә nt, ˌɪrɪˈdes ә

nt/ adjective formal showing colours that seem to change in different lights : small iridescent blue flies — iridescence noun [ uncountable ] elongate / ˈiːlɒŋɡeɪt $ ɪˈlɒːŋ- / verb [ intransitive and transitive ] to become longer, or make something...

  • 20. slender

    • having little width in proportion to the length or height

slender / ˈslendә $ -әr / adjective 1 thin in an attractive or graceful way SYN slim :

She is slender and stylish.

| The country’s economy has been devastated by years of fighting. demolish to completely destroy a building, either deliberately or by accident : The original 15th century house was demolished in Victorian times.

    • change toward something smaller or lower

diminution / ˌdɪmәˈnjuːʃ ә n, ˌdɪmɪˈnjuːʃ ә n $ -ˈnuː- / noun [ uncountable and countable ] formal a reduction in the size, number, or amount of something diminution of/in a diminution in value

brusque / bruːsk, brʊsk $ brʌsk / adjective using very few words, in a way that seems rude SYN abrupt :

a brusque manner — brusquely adverb — brusqueness noun [ uncountable ]

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‘That’s none of your business.’ surreptitious / ˌsʌrәpˈtɪʃәs$ ˌsɜː- / adjective done secretly or quickly because you do not want other people to notice :

Rory tried to sneak a surreptitious glance at Adam’s wristwatch. — surreptitiously adverb — surreptitiousness noun [ uncountable ]

  • 25. envy

    • a desire to have something that is possessed by another

...to

political tensions. [ sentence adverb ] Inevitably, the situation

did not please everyone. envy 1 / ˈenvi / verb ( past tense and past participle envied , present participle envying , third person singular envies ) [ transitive ] 1 to wish that you had someone else’s possessions, abilities etc : I really...

  • 26. obese

    • excessively fat

Large is more common than big in written English : My father was a big man. | two large ladies obese extremely fat in a way that is dangerous to your health : He went to a summer camp for obese teenagers. chubby slightly fat in a nice-looking way...

    • showing sustained enthusiasm with unflagging vitality

indefatigable / ˌɪndɪˈfætɪɡәb ә l / adjective formal determined and never giving up SYN tireless :

an indefatigable campaigner for human rights — indefatigably adverb enigma / ɪˈnɪɡmә / noun [ countable ] someone or something that is strange and difficult to understand SYN mystery :

The neighbours regarded him as something of an enigma.

  • 28. forage

    • collect or look around for, as food

COLLOCATIONS

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Meaning 2 NOUN + EXPEDITION a shopping expedition (= when you go shopping ) I took Mary and the kids on a shopping expedition into Manchester. a fishing expedition We’re organizing a fishing expedition to the lake for next week. a hunting expedition He was joined on his hunting expedition by two local guides. a foraging expedition (= when you search for food ) On our foraging expedition into the woods, we found mushrooms and wild berries.

infallible / ɪnˈfælәb ә l, ɪnˈfælɪb ә l / adjective 1 always right and never making mistakes OPP fallible :

No expert is infallible. an infallible memory 2 something that is infallible always works or has the intended effect fail-safe :

He had an infallible cure for a hangover. — infallibly adverb — infallibility / ɪnˌfælәˈbɪlәti, ɪnˌfælɪˈbɪlәti / noun [ uncountable ]

  • 30. inhale

    • draw deep into the lungs in by breathing

inhale / ɪnˈheɪl / verb [ intransitive and transitive ] to breathe in air, smoke, or gas OPP exhale :

It is dangerous to inhale ammonia fumes.

    • forced submission to control by others

subjugate / ˈsʌbdʒәɡeɪt, ˈsʌbdʒʊɡeɪt / verb [ transitive usually passive ] formal to defeat a person or group and make them obey you :

The native population was subjugated and exploited. subjugated people/nation/country subjugate somebody to somebody/something Her own needs had been subjugated to (= not considered as important as ) the needs of her family. — subjugation / ˌsʌbdʒәˈɡeɪʃ ә n, ˌsʌbdʒʊˈɡeɪʃ ә n / noun [ uncountable ]

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  • 32. contrived

    • showing effects of planning or manipulation

contrived / kәnˈtraɪvd / adjective seeming false and not natural :

The characters are as contrived as the plot.

  • 33. strenuous

    • taxing to the utmost; testing powers of endurance

strenuous / ˈstrenjuәs / adjective 1 needing a lot of effort or strength :

a strenuous climb The doctor advised Ken to avoid strenuous exercise.

undulate / ˈʌndjәleɪt, ˈʌndjʊleɪt $ -dʒә- / verb [ intransitive ] formal to move or be shaped like waves that are rising and falling :

undulating hills — undulation / ˌʌndjәˈleɪʃ ә n, ˌʌndjʊˈleɪʃ ә n $ -dʒә- / noun [ uncountable and countable ]

...condemn

something/somebody Army officers openly condemned

the war. unanimously condemn something/somebody (= with the agreement of all the people involved ) The committee unanimously condemned the idea. vehemently/vigorously/fiercely condemn something/somebody (= in a very strong or angry way ) The educational reforms were vehemently condemned by teachers. utterly/unequivocally condemn something/somebody (= very definitely and with no...

...actions

– used especially about young people : As a girl, she had

been lively and headstrong. | the headstrong impulsiveness of youth wilful British English ( also willful American English ) doing what you want, even after you have been told to stop, or when you know that it is wrong – used especially about children :...

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    • incapable of being transgressed or dishonored

inviolable / ɪnˈvaɪәlәb ә l / adjective formal an inviolable right, law, principle etc is extremely important and should be treated with respect and not broken or removed — inviolability / ɪnˌvaɪәlәˈbɪlәti, ɪnˌvaɪәlәˈbɪlɪti / noun [ uncountable ] :

the inviolability of the country’s borders

erudite / ˈerәdaɪt, ˈerʊdaɪt / adjective showing a lot of knowledge based on careful study SYN learned — eruditely adverb — erudition / ˌerәˈdɪʃ ә n, ˌerʊˈdɪʃ ә n / noun [ uncountable ]

  • 39. sullen

    • showing a brooding ill humor

sullen / ˈsʌlәn / adjective 1 angry and silent, especially because you feel life has been unfair to you morose :

Bill sat in sullen silence and refused to eat his lunch. a look of sullen resentment 2 literary a sullen sky or sea is dark and looks as if bad weather is coming SYN overcast — sullenly adverb — sullenness noun [ uncountable ]

  • 40. delude

    • be dishonest with

delude / dɪˈluːd / verb [ transitive ] to make someone believe something that is not true SYN deceive :

I was angry with him for trying to delude me. delude somebody/yourself into doing something It is easy to delude yourself into believing you’re in love.

  • 41. ghostly

    • resembling or characteristic of a phantom

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...countable

] something that you imagine you can see, especially

the spirit of a dead person : He stared at the strange apparition before him. a ghostly apparition of a man THESAURUS ghost the spirit of a dead person that some people think they can feel or see in a place : His ghost...

  • 42. herald

    • (formal) a person who announces important news

herald 1 / ˈherәld / verb [ transitive ]

  • 1 to be a sign of something that is going to come or happen soon :

A flash of lightning heralded torrential rain.

  • 43. devastate

    • cause extensive destruction or ruin utterly

| The twin towers were destroyed in a terrorist attack. devastate to damage a large area very badly and destroy many things in it : Allied bombings in 1943 devastated the city.

    • the state of existing in reality; having substance

rudimentary / ˌruːdәˈment ә ri, ˌruːdɪˈment ә ri/ adjective

  • 1 a rudimentary knowledge or understanding of a subject is very simple and basic OPP sophisticated :

Gradually, I acquired a rudimentary knowledge of music. my rudimentary German

  • 2 rudimentary equipment, methods, systems etc are very basic and not advanced :

subsistence farming in its most rudimentary form The classroom equipment is pretty rudimentary.

  • 45. warily

    • in a manner marked by keen caution and watchful prudence

      • 2 tread carefully/ warily/cautiously etc to be very careful about

what you say or do in a difficult situation :

If I wanted to keep my job, I knew I’d have to tread lightly.

deluge 1 / ˈdeljuːdʒ / noun [ countable ]

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1 [ usually singular ] a large amount of something such as letters or questions that someone gets at the same time SYN flood deluge of Viewers sent a deluge of complaints about the show.

  • 47. devise

    • a will disposing of real property

| I wonder who dreamt up that idea! devise formal to invent a way of doing something, especially one that is clever or complicated : This system was devised as a way of measuring students’ progress. conceive formal to think of a new idea, plan etc and develop it in your mind : The project was originally conceived by a Dutch businessman two years ago.

‘That’s none of your business.’ surreptitious / ˌsʌrәpˈtɪʃәs$ ˌsɜː- / adjective done secretly or quickly because you do not want other people to notice :

Rory tried to sneak a surreptitious glance at Adam’s wristwatch. — surreptitiously adverb — surreptitiousness noun [ uncountable ]

    • a conjectural possibility or circumstance

empirical / ɪmˈpɪrɪk ә l / adjective [ only before noun ] based on scientific testing or practical experience, not on ideas OPP theoretical , hypothetical :

empirical evidence — empirically / -kli / adverb

  • 50. perdition

    • the place or state in which one suffers eternal punishment

      • 2 technical producing a bright light when heated :

the invention of the incandescent lamp

  • 3 literary very bright :

incandescent flowers — incandescence noun [ uncountable ] perdition / pәˈdɪʃ ә n $ pәr- / noun [ uncountable ] old use

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  • 1 punishment after death

  • 2 complete destruction or failure :

an alcoholic on the road to perdition

ramification / ˌræmәfәˈkeɪʃ ә n, ˌræmɪfәˈkeɪʃ ә n / noun [ countable usually plural ] formal an additional result of something you do, which may not have been clear when you first decided to do it implica