Strategies to be adopted by Indofil Chemicals Company after studying and analyzing the Degree of Pest management in Paddy cultivation

in Western Uttar Pradesh.

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SUBMITTED TO:

SUBMITTED BY:

Mr. Sanjeev Sharma,
Regional Manager, Lucknow Division,

Rahul Fouzdar,
COLLEGE OF AGRIBUSINESS MANAGEMENT, Pantnagar

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

After nearly 2 months of hard work in completing this summer project, it conclusively arrives to a day of expressing my gratefulness and thankfulness to a number of people. I would like to extend my honest appreciation and gratitude to: Mr. Sanjeev Sharma, Regional Manager, for his continuous support during the internship program. Mr. Amit Aggarwal, Product Manager, who has mentored and inspired me in every possible way throughout the summer training. Mr. T.L. Sharma & Mr. K.L. Srivastava (Sales Officers), and field staffs of the respective areas for their co-operation.
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My professors at CABM, Pantnagar who had provided patronage, encouragement & support in numerous ways. My family, including Divya, classmates, friends for supporting me morally and motivating me at all times.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Western Uttar Pradesh is the one of the most productive basmati belts of the country, heavily dominated by 1121 and Pusa-I varieties. Since basmati rice requires numerous and extensive crop protection measures, there lies massive scope of fungicides in this region. The research determines the various crop protection measures that are practiced by paddy cultivators in regions of Western Uttar Pradesh. The extent of management essentially means the use of agrochemicals that is the broad range of pesticides, including insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. The level of awareness of farmers regarding the identification of diseases & insects and molecules employed for the same is also
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explored. Since this research has a holistic point of view and a relatively broad spectrum, a number of heads have been covered like awareness on crop protection measures, brand awareness on Indofil’s Baan (Tricyclazole), farmer purchase behavior and effectiveness of sales promotion inputs. The areas of study were Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar & Meerut districts of Western U.P. The study was conducted by segmenting the farmers into 3 categories, Marginal & Small, Semi-Medium & Medium and Large farmer landholding based classification of Directorate of Economics and Statistics, India. The second segmentation was on the basis of the variety of rice grown. This segmentation revealed the demographical and agronomical differences which exist among the farmers. Recommendations made are very descriptive as well as exhaustive and are entirely based on observations under the following heads. • Technical and molecule aspects like proposals on Indofil’s Baan, Dhan and Z-78 positioning and the scope of entering into the growth promoter market. Probable and feasible proposals with respect to the Field Development Assistants. Propositions regarding the sales promotion inputs like ways to improve demonstrations and techniques to effectual promotion. Some important recommendations with respect to channel partners like channelizing with Haryali Kisaan Bazar and improving existing distributorship. Some basic suggestions with respect to farmer purchase behavior.

• • •

The descriptive recommendation section can be found later in the report and is highly recommended by the researcher.

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Table of Contents
SECTION NO. CHAPTER NAME ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of Study 1.2 Introduction to project 1.3 Scope of the project 1.4 Problem statement 1.5 Research Objectives 2 3 COMPANY PROFILE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Design 3.2 Source of Data 3.3 Research Instrument 3.4 Area of Study 3.5 Sampling Unit 3.6 Sampling Technique 3.7 Sample size 3.8 Analytical Tools 3.9 Duration of Study 5 6 8 9 9 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 PAGE NO.

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4

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 4.1 Land Holding and Crop information 4.2 Awareness of Crop Protection measures 4.3 Brand awareness 4.4 Farmer’s purchase behavior 4.5 SWOT Analysis 13 16 26 28 37 40

5

RECOMMENDATIONS ANNEXURE Questionnaire- Farmers Questionnaire- Dealers

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1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY The production of rice in India was 99.37 million tons in 2008-09 which is 2.8 per cent more than the production in the previous year. Ensuring food security for more than 1 billion Indian population with thinning cultivable land reserve is a phenomenal task. This necessitates use of high yielding variety of seeds, balanced use of fertilizers, judicious use of quality pesticides along with education to farmers and the use of modern farming techniques. It is estimated that India approximately loses 18% of the crop yield valued at Rs.900 billion due to pest attack each year. The use of pesticides help to reduce the crop losses, provide economic benefits to farmers, reduce soil erosion and help in ensuring food safety & security for the nation. Accordingly an area of 638.33 lakh hectares has been reported to be sown under Rabi crops in 2008-09 against 619.68 lakh hectares in the corresponding period of 2007-08. The area sown under Kharif crops during 2008-09 was however; lower by 2.3 per cent as compared to 2007-08. Considering the challenges in the future, there is a clear need for the renewed focus on improving productivity in especially in the light of limitations on increasing net sown area and the shrinking farm size. The Indian pesticide industry, including with 85,000 MT of production during 2007-08 is ranked second in Asia (behind China) and twelfth globally. In value terms, the size of the Indian pesticide industry was estimated at Rs.74 billion for 2007, including exports of Rs.29bn. In India, the industry is fragmented with about 30-40 large manufacturers and about 400 formulators. The per hectare consumption of pesticide is low in India at 381 grams when compared to the world average of 500 grams. Low consumption can be attributed to fragmented land holdings, low level of irrigation, dependence on monsoons, low awareness among farmers about the benefits of usage of pesticides etc.

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India, being a tropical country, the consumption pattern is also more skewed towards insecticides which accounted for 64% of the total pesticide consumption in 2007-08.

1.2 INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT

The project is concerned with the study of the overall degree of crop protection measures employed by farmers in western Uttar Pradesh viz. Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar and Meerut. Essentially the project deals with paddy, as the given region is among the most productive basmati belts of the country. Basmati varieties 1121 and Pusa-I dominate the paddy market in this region and which in turn calls for intensified pest management not only because productivity is a crucial factor but because they are highly susceptible to diseases. Though this research has a holistic view on pesticides, fungicides and diseases in paddy is explored in depth. Neck blast dominated among other disease like leaf blast, sheath blight, brown leaf spot, zinc deficiency and grain discoloration while in insects, hopper dominated among leaf folder and stem borer. Hopper, though severe in nature was less ubiquitous in the previous years but last year (2008-09), hopper devastated farmers with its severe intensity and omnipresence. Combination of neck blast and brown plant hopper severely spoiled the productivity as well as economics of cultivation. A farmer, despite employing decent measures of crop protection reported crop loss in Pusa-I of 70% in Hastinapur, Meerut due to the dual effect of neck blast and brown plant hopper. Farmers have started employing protective or preventive application of pesticides which was exclusively curative application not so long ago.
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Application of the correct molecule at the correct time calls for sound technical knowledge based on past experience, company staff, books and literature and most importantly the dealers and distributors in the region. Generally speaking, neck blast could not be controlled in the last season primarily because the outbreak was severe. Neck blast calls for preventive application, be it tricyclazole or isoprothiolane, both being leaders in blast market. Farmers are quite reluctant in applying pesticides before outbreak because of the perception that possibly disease would not crop up in the present season and fungicides are meant for curative action. Another problem faced last season was the shortage of the branded pesticide molecules concerned. Small to very small companies, playing locally shelled out numerous ineffective products with more than 50% margin and sold them at comparatively smaller centers. The dealers on the other hand, not all for sure, sold all the carry over stock close to expiry date and even prescribed insecticides for fungal disease. Whatever be the reason, the non technical farmer was ruthlessly affected.

This not only calls for educating the farmers from a technical standpoint. Technical knowledge, though superficial may help out the farmer in at least purchasing a pesticide and applying it correctly. Numerous government extension programs are there on paper but nothing remarkable was witnessed in the region concerned, which leaves this task to the private companies. It should be noted that events like farmers meetings, extension programs and jeep campaigns directly affect the perception of the company in a positive way. If a company with decent profile is perceived to be active, the company image also improves phenomenally.

AREA OF STUDY The areas given for study were Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar and Meerut. Being, among the
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Exhibit 1

most productive basmati rice belts in the country, the total area under rice, currently is 68,000 hectares in Meerut district (including Mavana), 25,000 hectares in Muzaffarnagar. The rice productivity of all the three districts is quite similar and all these districts are grouped under medium productivity zones of Uttar Pradesh.

District

Rice Productivit y 2397kg/h a 2433 kg/ha 2276 kg/ha

Saharanpur Muzaffarnag ar Meerut

The data regarding pesticide demand and consumption is as follows. PESTICIDE DATA OF UTTAR PRADESH YEARS Demand Consumpti on
Exhibit 2
2003-04 6750 6775 2004-05 6725 6710 2005-06 6700 6855 2006-07 6675 6672 2007-08 7075 7022

(M.T. Technical Grade)

1.3

SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

The study reveals vital statistics and data regarding the details of crop acreage, education level of farmers, main crops grown and pattern of agrochemical purchase & usage in the given area. The profile of the
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region including the rice variety grown and the prevalent diseases will help to position different products according the particular region. For example, the statistics that there is roughly 75% drop in seed sales of Pusa-I which accounted for Indofil’s Baan sales will be of immense help to the company to rethink their marketing and sales strategy as it was the variety with both maximum acreage as well as neck blast susceptibility. The study is of significant importance to the company as the consumer awareness aspects of the farmers regarding Indofil products will be explained. By understanding the perception of the typical consumer at farmer as well as dealer level, the company can utilize the results of the research study to check over the branding feature. That is the marketing of the brand including promotional and advertising. The research has also identified the consumer awareness and analyzed the satisfaction level expressed by farmers on two of the company’s products viz. Indofil’s Baan and Indofil’s Z-78 in the previous season. Not so good reviews will help the company to understand the problem statement and the study will figure out the facts and examine the same. The study also reviews the efficiency of different molecules used by farmers on rice and also lists down the most effective combination of molecules which gave better results last season, essentially for neck blast. Certain molecule combinations work locally which is a result of both hit and trial by technical people or supported by research. In any of the cases, the company should be aware of the effectiveness of molecules at local level. Also from a qualitative standpoint, the research project helps to understand the parameters which a farmer considers while buying an agrochemical, in particular fungicides. This will be possible after proper and appropriate market segmentation according to land holding. The study would be of immense help in analyzing the sales promotion inputs and the different tools and techniques employed for marketing and promotional strategies. The study may help the company to employ different measures for sales and promotion in future.

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1.4

PROBLEM STATEMENT

Strategies to be adopted by Indofil Chemicals Company after studying and analyzing the Degree of Pest management in Paddy cultivation in Western Uttar Pradesh.

1.5 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES • With a broad project title as mentioned earlier, the proposed research will have a number of research objectives. The highlight will gradually shift from a general to a more specific focus. Understand the degree of management adopted by paddy farmers with respect to crop protection measures, especially fungicides. Understand the significance of blast and specifically neck blast as a lethal disease and measures employed by paddy farmers to fight it. Understand the consumer awareness of the farmers regarding Indofil chemicals as a total crop protection solution. Identify the probable reasons behind exceptional sales figures of Indofil’s Baan in the previous year and forecast the future prospects in the given area. Find out the level of satisfaction expressed by farmers as well as dealers in respect to Indofil chemicals’ products, especially Indofil’s Baan. Understand the efficiency of branding strategies adopted by Indofil chemicals with respect to its competitors. Analyze the prospective and possible advertising and publicity techniques which can be employed at all levels to boost up sales and facilitate consumer awareness. Understand the dealers’ mindset and perception about Indofil chemicals and spot the factors by which they associate with a company.

• • • •

• •

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Figure out the steps which may be taken by Indofil Chemicals Company to intensify the degree of pest management and educate the farmers at a large scale.

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2. COMPANY PROFILE

INDOFIL CHEMICALS COMPANY - A Division of Indofil Organic Industries Limited belongs to the renowned K. K. MODI GROUP OF COMPANIES. The Management of Indofil constitutes a Board of Directors. Excellence as a Foundation and Winning as a Passion, is what describes the Group Chairman, MR. K. K. MODI, who continuously steers his group companies to reinvent and redefine themselves. INDOFIL CHEMICALS COMPANY, established more than four decades ago, headquartered in Mumbai, a research-led and fully integrated Chemical Company has emerged as a successful and vibrant enterprise, riding high on a simple philosophy of retaining loyalty and enlarging the fold of satisfied customers. The vision of the company is equally simple - to focus on specific opportunities, drive growth and enhance value for esteemed customers. It has a highly skilled and successful sales team that believes in learning and working with the customers as partners - thus developing the products and services around core issues, to meet their future needs. Employing 468 people, INDOFIL has a sales turnover of Rs. 403 crores, as on 31st March, 2007. INDOFIL has a very strong domestic base and a well recognized international presence. The Company believes in Complete Team working, Team winning strategies and innovation in its products, services and business processes with an unending urge to excel. Indofil Chemicals Company is uniquely placed both in Agricultural Chemicals (ABD) as well as Specialty & Performance Chemicals (S&PC) Business. As a part of K. K. Modi group, Indofil has a well-equipped manufacturing infrastructure, a result oriented Research & Development team, and an excellent domestic and international distribution network.

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Known around the world as "The Mancozeb People", Indofil has its export presence in more than 50 countries as suppliers of Mancozeb formulations. In India, Indofil is successful in strategic marketing of Insecticides including IGR's, Fungicides (Mancozeb, Tricyclazole, and Zineb etc), Bactericides, Herbicides, Acaricides, Surfactants, and Plant Growth Regulators (PGR). Indofil is driven by "Crop Care Concept" in agriculture business. The focus is to create partnerships for Research & Development, manufacturing & marketing for many more active pesticides & combinations.

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3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1

Research Design

The methodology adopted for the completion of the study was descriptive and exploratory, which has been used to analyze the degree of pest management, farmer buying behavior towards purchase of agrochemicals of Indofil Chemicals Company, the important factors responsible are identified and they have been described and the comparative standing of the firm vis-à-vis competitors in the farmers’ psyche was also explored in the present study. 3.2 Data source

Secondary data were collected from websites and company literatures. Primary data were collected directly through detailed interview of farmers, dealers and distributors. 3.3 Research Instrument

In depth interviews were taken using the pre-tested questionnaires with open and close ended questions. 3.4 Area of study

Western Uttar Pradesh was given as area of study under which the following three districts were covered.
• •

• 3.5

Saharanpur Muzaffarnagar Meerut Sampling unit

Sampling unit comprised of farmers, dealers and distributors. 3.6 Sampling Technique
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The sampling techniques used were non-probability judgmental and convenient sampling which comprised of two hundred and seventy five respondents. 3.7 Sample Size: distributors. Sample size comprises of One hundred and fifty farmers and One hundred and twenty five dealers & distributors. 3.8 Analytical tools First, the data was validated, classified, coded and tabulated. Analysis was done using statistical tools like averages and percentages and interpreted for meaningful inferences using tables and exhibits. 3.9 Duration of study The period of study was from 2nd June, 2009 to 31st July, 2009. S no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Task Problem formulation Data Collection Analysis of Data Report preparation Report submission & presentation TOTAL Duration 1 week 4.5 weeks 1 week 1 week. 3-4 days 8 weeks 150 farmers. 125 dealers and

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4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 LAND HOLDING AND CROP INFORMATION

The present study was under taken to analyze overall degree of crop protection measures employed by farmers in western Uttar Prades. Essentially the project deals with paddy, as the given region is among the most productive basmati belts of the country. The study was conducted in three districts of Western Uttar Pradesh namely Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar and Meerut. The total information sought from the farmers regarding the study was analyzed based on the land holding as well as variety of rice cultivated. The land holding based classification was taken from GOI’s Directorate of Economics and statistics and Ministry of agriculture. Type of Farmer Land Holding (in Hectares) Marginal & small farmer Less than 2 Semi-medium & medium 4 to 10 farmer Large farmer Exhibit 3 The sampling was strictly judgmental type and it was taken into consideration that the number of Exhibit 4 farmers surveyed from different segments was useful and relevant for the project report. Snow ball sampling was more or less avoided. Since the project firmly pertained to paddy, rice growing locations were identified before surveying the farmers. Selective rice regions were
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More 10

than

selected. Though a significant area was dedicated to sugarcane in this region, rice dominated among other crops. Average area under paddy was just 1.62 acres in case of small famers. Medium farmers, which constituted the majority of the sample size, had average paddy acreage of 5.8 acres. Area under paddy for large farmers is Exhibit 5 18.83 acres while the average is around 8 acres/farmer (Exhibit1). The decent total average is dedicated to the large number of medium and large farmers surveyed. Paddy as a crop dominated among other crops because of a number of reasons. The most important reason being the favorable conditions for growth of basmati rice and the high return associated with its cultivation. The data reveals that the area under rice revolves around 33% for all the segments which are supposed to have fallen because of excessive disease outbreaks last year. Quite a number of farmers have reportedly shifted to sugarcane following the failure of rice in the previous season.

It can be seen from the above graphs (Exhibit) that Basmati variety 1121 and Pusa-I also known as Tudal, Duplicate basmati or Mucchar are the most preferable and cultivated variety in the region. It is evident from the above graphs that Pusa-I growers percentage increased to around 75% while moving from small to larger farmers. This indicates that this particular variety is more preferred by medium and larger farmers. Pusa-I not only fetches a handsome price in the market but is also known for its high productivity.
Exhibit 6

Other dominant varieties in the region are Sarbati which is a fine and non-basmati variety. Among other medium and coarse varieties, the dominant ones are PR-111, PR-112, PR114, Narendra and 999. The other varieties which are grown in small amounts are Saket-4, Sugandha etc. Among the PR varieties PR-114 was found to be quite common and constituted the majority of the coarse rice market. The market for
Exhibit 7

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Exhibit 8 Exhibit 10

Exhibit 9 Exhibit 11

Narendra and 999 have reported to be declining since the last few years and is expected to declining further. Hybrid rice, thanks to the extensive promotional campaigns by Bayer has found quite a number of takers in this region, though it is said to be less as compared to other parts of Uttar Pradesh. Arize variety 6444 dominated the hybrid market followed by Arize variety 6129. But the high price and coarse grain has barred them to expand freely in a basmati dominated rice belt.

Exhibit 12

Exhibit 13

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4.2

AWARENESS OF CROP PROTECTION MEASURES

SEVERITY OF PROBLEMS IN PADDY Weeds as a problem for paddy was not of much importance as most of the farmers gave 2.5 or 5 points out of 10 severity scale. The larger farmers were a little bit more concerned because of the larger land holding. Larger farmers do find some difficulty in manually uprooting the weeds which are mainly Sawan, Swank, Motha, Dilli, Mirch buti etc. The scope of weedicides mainly lies in these medium to large farmers. Insects on severity scale scored pretty high, and were around as severe as diseases in the previous season. Insects in rice mainly constituted of stem borer, leaf folder and most importantly hopper. The severity of insects, in case of small farmers was very high as a large chunk of them giving 10/10 severity. The larger farmers gave lesser severity points in comparison to the small and medium farmers.
Exhibit 14

But it is unlike the severity of diseases where the large farmers gave higher points to the severity of diseases. This has a lot do with the variety of rice grown by the farmers. Smaller farmers generally grow a handsome proportion of coarse variety which is somewhat resistant to diseases.
Exhibit 15 Exhibit 16

Deficiency symptoms were mostly given 5/10 points by all farmers but the chunk of smaller farmers gave high Exhibit 17 severity to these deficiency symptoms. Khaira (Zinc deficiency), though omnipresent, is considered to be less severe and easily controllable. The summarization chart denoted the severity of insects and diseases were quite similar for all the segments. Very less inter segment variation
Exhibit 18

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can be noticed. High level of insect infestation and widespread disease outbreak has caused this uniformity in the data as shown in the graph. Deficiency symptoms, though common in occurrence, was not given much severity points. It is because they could be easily controlled by suitable application of fungicides

SEED TREATMENT Seed treatment is generally not in practice among the small farmers but increased gradually In case of medium farmers and increased further in case of large farmers. `Famers recall Carbendazim as Bavistin, a BASF product but are well aware of the fact that all the major companies are having Carbendazim formulations. Farmers, be it small, medium or large express mediocre to good satisfaction in using seed treatment. Seed treatment is also done by other molecules like Mancozeb, Tricyclazole and Streptocyclin, Thiram in this region but very few farmers could recall the molecules they had used, except Carbendazim. Satisfaction with respect to germination was good but it is perceived that
Exhibit 19 Exhibit 20

in the long run, seed treatment does not contribute to the prevention of diseases. It lies in the mindset of the farmer that immidiate action is merely recognized. Given that a large number of farmers were reluctant to practice seed treatment, the probable reasons were identified and examined. 66% of small farmers were either unaware or partially aware of seed treatment molecules and techniques and 59% of the perceived no benefits. Large farmers, upto 215 of them did not perceive any benefits out of seed treatment. Very few farmers, from all segments cited already treated seeds as reason for not practicing seed treatment.

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Exhibit 21

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MAJOR DISEASES IN PADDY This analysis is based on variety segmentation, which essentially relates to the fact that diseases vary according to the variety of rice grown. Neck blast dominated in both the basmati varieties, the extremity in this data is attributed to the severe outbreak in the previous season. 87 and 92% farmers ranked neck blast as the most lethal disease in 1121 and Pusa-I respectively. Sheath blight follows in ranking but it is far less severe. Bacterial leaf blight was omitted in the process of research as it is not recognized by most of the farmers and is often confused with leaf blast. Sarbati variety is less affected by neck blast as compared to its basmati counterparts. Sheath blight and leaf blast are the prominent diseases, both of these are controlled by curative pesticides.

Exclusive coarse growers were analyzed separately because their disease profile is entirely different from the basmati counterparts. Coarse varieties experienced leaf blast as the most with 59% of them ranking it as most
Exhibit 22 Exhibit 23

severe. Sheath blight, neck blast and and grain discoloration were less important than Zinc deficiency. The intensity of these outbreaks is supposed to be way lesser than other varieties as coarse grain varieties are more resistant to diseases. The graph summarizes the various diseases in different varieties of rice. Since hybrid growers were not exclusive hybrid growers, so analyzing their diseases was not possible and results would have been more than
Exhibit 24 Exhibit 25

misleading.

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Exhibit 26

MAJOR INSECTS IN PADDY

Hopper, especially Brown Plant Hopper also known as BPH destroyed huge portions of crop last year. Severe instances of hopper burn were reported from a number of fields. Stem borer and leaf folder were all-pervading, but their severity was not of much concern. Farmers, who had stuck to BPMC for fighting Hopper, were most affected while Buprofezin gave satisfactory results. Stem borer attacks 1121 and Pusa-I varieties mainly. It is due to the fact that stem borer is attracted to the aroma given off by the basmati varieties. Despite its fixed host, non basmati crops were also affected to a
Exhibit 27 Exhibit 31 Exhibit 28

small extent. The exclusive coarse growers were least affected by the insects in comparison to Pusa-I and 1121 growers. One thing is worth noting that hopper was either give 1st or 3rd ranking because hopper was not omnipresent, but wherever it was spotted, the severity was the maximum. The summarization of the severity of insects is given in the graph. The graph depicts that the exclusive 1121 growers gave lesser points to the severity of insects. This may be because of certain reasons like proper insect management by either Imidacloprid or Buprofezin. Another
Exhibit 29 Exhibit 30

contributing factor is maybe the small number of exclusive 1121 growers among the surveyed farmers.

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Exhibit 32

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USAGE OF GROWTH PROMOTERS IN PADDY The usage of growth promoters in the region is not just restricted to micronutrients. Farmers, even the smaller ones have started to open up to different zymes marketed by the prominent agrochemical players of the region. Micronutrient molecules are dominated by Zinc Sulphate, with 21% Zinc. 33% Zinc, which has a lower dosage and a comparatively higher price, is also in use. Multiplex has largely dominated the micronutrient market and is not only blessed with excellent response but also good recall, even from the smaller farmers. Specific growth promoters like zyme has also found a potent market in the region. Though the usage is not towering as compared to neighbors Haryana and Punjab, still the degree of usage is decent. Biostadt’s Biozyme has the highest recall. Tata’s Rallizyme was also recalled by some farmers. Even if a farmer uses zyme of any company, he uses the word biozyme which depicts that the product has become synonymous with the brand. The smaller farmers showed less keenness about zyme, mainly because of the fact that either they are having a good proportion of coarse varieties or they are unaware regarding the same.

Exhibit 33

MOLECULES IN USE FOR THE MOST IMPORTANT DISEASES IN RICE 1. SHEATH BLIGHT The causative organism is Rhizoctonia solani. The lesions are usually observed on the leaf sheaths and at times leaf blades are also affected. The presence of several large spots on a leaf sheath usually causes the death of the whole leaf. Hexaconazole, Propiconazole and Pencycuron are the molecules which have found wider acceptance in the region. Farmers have shifted their preference to Propiconazole in recent years, the credit for which goes to Syngenta and Nagarjuna’s intensive promotional campaigns. Propiconazole not only
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Exhibit 34

finds good acceptance because of it is perceived to be newer as well as effective than hexaconazole. Effective in the sense that the above mentioned companies have promoted propiconazole and has capitalized on its lower dosage attribute. Monceren, a Bayer product containing the molecule Pencycuron, has been rigorously promoted through demonstrations and posters/banners. Monceren posters can be located everywhere and that too at the most suitable time (starting of paddy season).

Only the most recalled brands of both the molecules and Indofil’s molecules are depicted in the graphs. From the above graphs, it can be derived that in case of hexaconazole, whatever brand the farmers uses, he recalls it as Tata Contaf. Though the sales data of the company may show superior sales, recall of the brand is relatively less. Propiconazole market is dominated by Syngenta’s Tilt and Nagarjuna’s result, at least in recall value. It was hard to find out farmers who actually
Exhibit 35 Exhibit 36

recalled Dan as a molecule used for sheath blight. Awareness should not be concerned with recall here as the awareness may be better as compared to the recall. An analysis of Indofil’s Dan as a potent sheath blight molecule will be presented, but later in the report.

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2. BLAST/NECK BLAST Rice blast infects the rice plant at any growth stage. Rice seedlings or plants at the tillering stage are often completely killed. Likewise, heavy infections on the panicles usually cause a loss in rice yields. Rice blast is one of the most destructive diseases of rice because of its wide distribution and its destructiveness. There are some cultural practices that are recommended against the rice blast. For example, manipulation of planting time and fertilizer and water management is advised. Early sowing of seeds after the onset of the rainy season is more advisable than late-sown crops. Excessive use of fertilizer should be avoided as it increases the incidence of blast. Nitrogen should be applied in small increments at any time. Tricyclazole, as a molecule was not recalled as data shows. Tricyclazole has become synonymous with the brand Beam or Baan. Though Indofil’s Baan has better awareness and recall among other companies’ counterparts like Nagarjuna’s Sivic, Dow Agro’s Beam, Bayer’s Ektino and Syngenta’s Gain, it is essentially the field work of company personnel that provide with the edge. Certain specific locations have very intensive and successful fieldwork of select companies, where their own products are in better position.
Exhibit 37

Isoprothiolane, a molecule marketed as Tata Rallis’ Fujione also had decent recall because of the company name Tata attached to it. One thing, that needs special mention is that Edifenphos, marketed as Bayer’s Hinosan had the highest recall and satisfaction among all molecules despite the fact that it was injurious to applicant’s health. Because the product is out of market for the last couple of years, survey for the same was not conducted. Coming to the satisfaction level experienced by the blast treating molecules, tricyclazole gave mixed results. Farmers reported more than 90% efficiency of Tricyclazole/Baan two to three years back but now there is this perception that the molecule is a not that successful. This is maybe because of the
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Exhibit 38

heavy disease outbreak in the previous season, which called for strict and stringent preventive measures at the right time of crop. Most of the small and medium farmers are reluctant to employ preventive spray because there is this notion that even if there is no outbreak, how it can be known that it is because of the preventive spray, maybe outbreak was not supposed to occur this season. This belief that pesticides are only curative seriously needs to be busted.

4.3

BRAND AWARENESS OF INDOFIL’S BAAN

The perception of attributes of Indofil’s Baan unfortunately received a dent last season primarily because of the fact that the molecule was not that efficient as it used to be some years back. Surprisingly, the smaller farmers showed higher satisfaction with respect to disease control as compared to medium and large farmers. The other attributes mentioned in the product’s literature were not recalled by the farmers, except grain shining. Some farmers were satisfied with the grain shining attribute of Tricyclazole/Baan. Farmers who did experience better milling, increase in yield or grain shining to some extent were not sure, whether these improvements were consequences of using Baan. The awareness source of Baan is lead by dealers in case of small farmers. Larger farmers had the highest Exhibit 39 percentage of source as field staff. This indicates that field staff as an awareness tool was more accessible while moving from small to large farmers. It can also be analyzed that large farmers did not have to depend Exhibit 40 on dealers and were more or less experienced. The Brand name Baan, though synonymous with its previous name Beam, now a Dow Agro product of the same molecule was the main criteria for recognition of the product while purchasing it. Packet color, identical to
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Exhibit 41

Dow Agro’s Beam was also a recognition criterion in case of small farmers. Large farmers responded well to the entire criterion showed in the graph. Fortunately, a good fraction of medium and a better proportion of large famers could relate to the company name as a recognition criterion. When enquired about the recommendation one may make to fellow farmers for using Indofil’s Baan, 38% of the respondents were sure that they would highly recommend the product. The main reasons for the same being, firstly, the product is consistent for the last many years, secondly, the results have been great when applied at the correct time with the correct dose and thirdly, no better molecule substitutes are available. A good proportion (32%) could not make up their minds regarding recommendation as the molecule has shown a dipping trend in terms of efficiency in disease control as compared to previous years.

Exhibit 42

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4.4

FARMER’S PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR

BUYING SPOT AND CASH/CREDIT RATIO Purchase of pesticides pattern was mainly confined to village shops in case of small farmers as locomotion is a possible problem apart from the payment medium, which is around 90% in credit. When a farmer buys a product in credit, it essentially means that he has at least some type of association with select shopkeepers. It is better for a farmer to purchase pesticides in credit from his locality and nearby areas. Smaller dealers located mainly in villages tend to have more liberal credit policies than the larger ones. Larger farmers have the basic advantage of transportation and cash purchase, so they are more inclined to purchase from town or main market. One thing that needs special mention is that large farmers, originally hailing from Punjab and Haryana, often procure the desired pesticides at wholesale prices from the states Exhibit 43 mentioned.
Exhibit 44

FACTORS AFFECTING PESTICIDE PURCHASE DECISION As evident from the graph, dealer’s push in undoubtedly accounts or the maximum percentage of small farmers (93%) which gradually drops to 12% in case of large farmers. The two main reasons are high credit purchase and lesser knowledge in case of small farmers. Farmer’s discussion and recommendation from the opinion leaders is also an important factor in case of small farmers. Large farmers, to up to 91% on the other hand had clear idea of the molecule and brand they wanted to apply with respect to different diseases. It is noted that company staffs also plays a vital role in influencing the purchase decision of the farmer which goes up to 64% in case of large farmers. But dealer’s push and farmers discussion happens to be the two most important tools in general.

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MOST IMPORTANT PARAMETER FOR BUYING A PESTICIDE
Exhibit 45

Quality is undoubtedly the main parameter a farmer seeks while buying a pesticide. But there are several liabilities and constraints, a farmer may have. Price, not surprisingly is ranked the most important parameter by 48% of the small farmers. 92% medium farmers and 94% of the large farmers ranked quality as their 1st parameter. 52 % of the small farmers ranked quality as the most important parameter. Apart from these two parameters, availability is also a crucial factor while purchasing a pesticide. Last year, tremendous shortage of pesticides was reported, because of which cheap products were shelled out by retailers.

Exhibit 46

Exhibit 47

Exhibit 48

A summarization of the ranking of parameters was done by converting ranking to points and totaling them eventually to get a total of points scored by different parameters. The summarization graph depicts that for a small farmer, quality remains the most important factor closely followed by price. Availability is not of much concern to him because he is not brand or company conscious and is subjected to dealer’s push.

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Exhibit 49

So, when choice is not of importance, so becomes the availability parameter. Substitutes are easily available in the market. Highest point is scored by quality and is followed by availability, with the exception in case of small farmers.

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IMPACT OF SALES PROMOTION INPUTS at FARMERS LEVEL A company recalled by farmers is mainly subjected to the degree of activity a company is involved in. Bayer leads among all companies not only because of superior products but also because of dedicated field work and rigorous seasonal campaigns. During this present weedicide season in paddy, Bayer’s Topstar posters and banners were hung on every possible dealer shop. This not only promotes the point of purchase when a farmer enters a dealer’s shop but also facilitates the buyer’s mindset in trying the product. This is propelled by dealer’s push and literature distribution. Syngenta’s Rifit, a product with Pretilachlor is also worked upon, with the seasonal aspect in mind. Rifit bottles can be spotted at the nearer shelves at the dealer’s outlets. Indofil’s Offset, the same molecule as Rifit is a product with very poor publicity and promotion status. Despite fetching similar results as molecules of other big companies, the recall is shockingly less. Apart from these problems, lack of literature in the form
Exhibit 50

of pamphlets also added to the existing problems. Company’s strategy might be different and vary from product to product. But the concern is not just about the weedicide segment. Bayer has started working on Monceren (banners and posters to start with) that Bayer claims to effectively fight sheath blight. Same cannot be said for Sitara or Dhan. Indofil has some genuine hit products, so 10%, 26% and 36% of the small, medium and large farmers respectively could recall Indofil as a major pesticide company. M-45, Z-78, Companion, Moximate & Baan were the products mostly recalled.

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SUITABLE APPROACH FOR INFLUENCING FARMER’S PURCHASE DECISION

For influencing a farmer’s purchase decision, more than 80% of the total farmers actually believed that demonstrations were the most effective tool for influencing a farmer. Rationally speaking, demonstrations cannot be practiced at all times and it needs to be efficiently supplemented by word of mouth. If a successful demonstration takes place and farmers of the locality are unaware of the same, the promotion attempt cannot be marked as success. Farmers are needed to be spotted those who are actually willing to switch to the demonstrated pesticide after successful trials. Farmer’s meetings were found to be quite important because there is a level of respect and trust a small or semi medium farmer has towards the village opinion leaders. Small farmers are heavily dependent upon the larger farmers for technical Exhibit 51 52 Exhibit knowhow. Company personnel can improve the interactions with the technically sound farmers of a village. Demonstrations maybe practiced at medium and small farmers as they are most likely to get benefited. For most effective results company should have a mix of demonstrations and meetings for influencing farmer’s purchase behavior. Though banners, posters and wall paintings were ranked after demonstrations and meetings, one should not ignore they immense potential they carry.
Exhibit 53

Indofil is one of the leading and among the few top “Branded” companies of the region. But Indofil lags behind in the banner publicity department. Only a few select distributors had Indofil banners or posters hung on their walls. It was observed that other companies’ brands were ubiquitous and were seasonally timed. Lack of literature added to the promotion deficiency. Company personnel must ensure that a dealer or distributor trading in Indofil products, should hang banners and stick posters and that too periodically (depending upon season).

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NEWSPAPER AS ADVERTISING TOOL

Exhibit 54

Exhibit 55

Newspaper is an effective tool not only for advertisement, but also for pamphlet/leaflet circulation and distribution. Newspaper distributors can be contacted and after analyzing the potential of the particular product specific to the region. For example, Ramraj in Meerut territory is one of the most progressive and productive rice grown area in U.P. Newspaper distributors can be contacted and a leaflet can be slipped between the pages of a newspaper. Not only the source is relatively cheaper, but maybe more effective than other advertising tools. Among the newspapers, Dainik Jagaran and Amar Ujala, both were equally popular and any one or both maybe utilized for advertisement.

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IMPACT OF SALES PROMOTION INPUTS at DEALER’S LEVEL Apart from the sales promotion inputs, the dealers were asked to roughly state the sales of Pusa-I variety seeds as compared to last year. If last year was taken as 100%, 55 respondents said that Pusa-I sales has gone down below 50%. After taking average of rough sales data collected from 87 dealers, it was found that there will be a total drop more than of 60% in Pusa-I sales. This value of 60% drop is likely to rise if the current rainfall scenario does not change. As on date, 29th July’09, 47 districts in Uttar Pradesh have been declared drought hit and more districts are likely to be added soon, U.P.has received a total of 128 cms of rainfall since 1st June against the expected normal of 307 cms.
Exhibit 56

SALES PROMOTION INPUTS Though the data reveals that company’s field work is the best factor for a dealer to purchase products from a company, latent factors does exist. Strong company field work base is the main factor by which a dealer decides the company to work with. Field workers not only help to promote a company’s sales, but more importantly it fulfills the personal interests of his own business.

Profit margin is a criterion that Exhibit 58 most dealers are reluctant to accept as a crucial factor. It is understandable that most small companies have a wide profit margin. Most dealers Exhibit 57 deal in a blend of products of good companies and a few products from smaller companies, especially to earn some good profit through them.

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When the motivating factors through which a dealer associates with a company comes into question, nothing beats the good results of a molecule i.e. the quality of the product. A dealer feels that to sustain in the long run, one should focus on good companies. Though the margin is drastically less as compared to smaller players, quality and brands with a company remain the prime motivations. Regularity in supply is also a key motivation factor. There is this general grief among dealers regarding big companies that supply period is high. An Indofil distributor said that it took 22 days for the shipment to get delivered from the source location. 22 days are enough for pesticide demand to change for a particular disease. For identifying the factors influencing farmer’s purchase behavior according to a dealer, the results were pretty much the same when asked from the farmers. Company field work gathered the highest points. Dealer’s push followed in the second position.
Exhibit 59

Since a typical farmer, despite using the same molecule and perhaps the same brand over the years, still comes to the dealer with disease symptoms and asks for the cure. This low level of confidence and reluctance on his part to ask for a particular molecule/product allows the dealer to push products of his choice to a farmer.

Figure 60

Regarding the most suitable approach as promotional tool, most dealers ranked demonstrations as the number one measure, followed by meetings, banners and at last newspapers. Dealers felt that the main strength of the major player lies in strong and periodic brand promotion followed by extensive support from the field

College of Agribusiness Management, Pantnagar.
Exhibit 61

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staffs. Intensive campaigns were also given closely importance and significance.

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4.5

SWOT ANALYSIS

SWOT ANALYSIS FOR INDOFIL’s DHAN

Strengths Changing molecule preference from Hexaconazole to Propiconazole for treating Paddy sheath blight. Excellent trial and after usage reviews as product. Good awareness and high level of molecule acceptance. Functional in smaller dose, so perceived more Opportunities Comparative newer molecule than Hexaconazole, which has started to be perceived as outdated. Certain niche markets have been identified, where propiconazole users are 100%. Fewer companies have this molecule as on date. Existing excellent

Weaknesses Poor brand awareness. Lack of promotion and somewhat less backed brand. Present sales are mainly on dealer’s push. Recall value is unsatisfactory. Exclusively positioned for Grain discoloration.

Threats Threat of cannibalism (Indofil’s Hexaconazole Sitara) maybe affected. Heavy competition: Intra molecule: (Nagarjuna’s Result and Syngenta’s Tilt). Intermolecule: (Tata’s Contaf and Bayer’s Monceren).

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SWOT ANALYSIS FOR INDOFIL’s BAAN

Strengths Reliable molecule as well as brand, dominating the blast market for many years. No other molecule, apart from Isoprothiolane is even close in terms of popularity and sales. Strong brand awareness among all farmers. Not hazardous and harmful like Edifenphos (Bayer’s Hinosan). Opportunities Indofil’s Baan may be prescribed along with Streptocyclin @ 6gm/ acre. This combination earned great results and reviews last season. It is officially prescribed by Bayer.

Weaknesses Preventive molecule, farmers seek curative ones. Highly systematic, immediate results are not visible which causes a farmer to spray another molecule in a hurry. Did not give good results last season, maybe because of increased resistance of fungus against the molecule. Isoprothiolane, Threats being a

Heavy competition: Intra molecule: (Dow Agro’s Beam, Syngents’s Gain, Nagarjuna’s Sivic, and Bayer’s Ektino).

Intermolecule: (Tata’s Fujione (Isoprothiolane), Dose is higher in fields, PI’s Kitazin, Biostadt’s than in paper. Second Roko and Dhanuka’s KasuCollege of Agribusiness Management, into thoughts can be given Pantnagar. B. this matter. Farmers habitually compare to Bayer’s Hinosan (Edifenphos), so there is a threat of any

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SWOT ANALYSIS FOR INDOFIL’s Z-78

Strengths Indofil is the only player in this technical. Zineb, the active ingredient is exclusively marketed by Indofil. Effective in overcoming Zinc deficiency. Excellent trial and after usage reviews as product. Good awareness among Opportunities slightly larger farmers and high of molecule Newer level molecule than other acceptance. contact fungicides,

Weaknesses Poor brand awareness among smaller farmers. Z-78 does not have exclusive disease range. Other contact fungicides are also effective. Traditional pesticide users does not feel to switch when satisfactory results Threats are given by prevalent molecules. Widely perceives as Zinc substitute. Farmers compare it to Zinc 21 and 33% on the basis of price.

The primary contact fungicide attribute is Can replace the use of a pushed into the College of Agribusiness Management, Pantnagar. contact fungicide and Zinc background by the supplement together. secondary Zinc supplement attribute. Maybe a better positioning strategy is required.

progressive and semi progressive farmers believe in newer technology.

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5. RECOMMENDATIONS
TECHNICAL/ MOLECULE ASPECTS • Indofil’s Baan dosage, which is presently 120 gm/acre, needs to be rethought. Higher dosage is practically applied in fields. Most farmers applied more than 150-160 gms/ acre and occasionally sprayed more than two times. Attention should be given into this matter as this a complex issue and should be dealt with care, keeping competitor’s action in mind. Indofil’s Baan needs to be efficiently backed by combination chemicals. Indofil’s Baan gave better results last season when combined with Streptocyclin at 6gm/ acre. This combination is not a case of hit and trial but is purely research backed. Bayer literature prescribes Ektino @ 120 gm/ acre combined with Streptocyclin @ 6gm/ acre. Other possible combinations need to be worked out. As per the observations, analysis and subsequent findings, Indofil’s Dhan (Propiconazole) is positioned for treating Grain discoloration and not for sheath blight. Farmers have started shifting towards newer molecules like Propiconazole and Pencycuron for treating sheath blight. Sheath blight is more severe and ubiquitous disease than grain discoloration. Research shows the high level of acceptance for propiconazole as Syngenta’s Tilt and Nagarjuna’s Result have tremendous recall among farmers. Re-positioning strategies are needed to be worked for Indofil’s Dhan. A potent molecule like Propiconazole deserves a higher degree of importance and of course, a better positioning strategy. There is a serious need for Indofil to work in the growth supplement department. Analysis has proven the prospective usage pattern of zyme as growth promoter. Indofil can take the late mover advantage into this area as the awareness work has already been carried out by Biostadt, Tata Rallis, Dhanuka etc.

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Indofil, if launches a zyme, will only have to work on the brand and not the molecule. The need for 21% Zinc as well as 33% Zinc can be felt. Though Multiplex covers a large market share, there lies immense scope of success, if Indofil ventures in this area. The study on micro nutrient usage proves the tremendous potential of venturing into the growth supplement market. The farmers should know the time when the fungicide begins to show the effect. A typical farmer at the time of severe outbreak panics and sprays another molecule in hurry, mostly resulting in high incurred cost and disastrous results. An archetypal farmer wants a fungicide to be systematic as well as contact. Contact, because something has to convince him that the molecule is working and that is any possible when immediate result is perceived. If not formulations, effective combinations are needed to be listed out for the above mentioned purpose of being systemic as well as contact. Utmost care should be taken that the positioning message is not an overstated one and should be based on feedback from all levels and not merely based on research. Indofil’s Baan, at times is reported to promise more than it actually delivers. Keeping aside educated farmers, most of the rest of them believed that advantages like better milling, grain shines and increased yield are not of importance, when the disease is not controlled. It should not be sidelined that a fungicide’s main purpose is disease control in which it should not fail. But to have a competitive advantage over other competitors it should provide some additional benefit in form of improvement in plant health. The company should provide better research extension to the field staff, dealers and distributors at the time of poor results of a particular molecule. The company should take the responsibility of trying out various possible combinations. If the company does not help out, dealers, field staffs and so called local experts has to work out hit and trials, which seldom result in success.

PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (FDAs)

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Field Development Assistants (FDAs) are very critical to the success of company since they are in immediate contact with farmers and they represent the company. FDA’s are to be better trained and be highly effective in the way they interact with the farmers. Since, money can be good motivator, FDAs can be made more effective through Introduction of performance based salary system, a part of the salary to be fixed and a part to be purely based on performance (Incentives), Performance appraisal to be done through 3600 appraisal technique, awarding the best performer etc. Exemplifying a specific case, a Multiplex TFA, if reaches the target, say Rs. 2,00,000 sales in a year, gets up to Rs. 70,00-1,00,000 as incentive. Field assistants must be sufficiently trained by the company to have complete knowledge of product portfolio and the diseases/pests of crops; they should be preferably graduates with special knowledge regarding agriculture. Field development assistants should often visit the farmers and provide detailed necessary information about the prevalent diseases of crops and pests as well as the products of the company. If a crop fails, or to be precise, if a product prescribed by the field assistant or sales officer fails, careful steps are required to be taken. At any cost, the farmer should not be avoided. The duty of the company does not end after selling the product. Sympathizing with the farmer’s loss is not only a moral responsibility on the part of the company, but is also an important element in the long run. Personnel of different companies are swift enough to convince the farmer in shifting to products of their respective companies, when a gap is created. A number of big companies including Indofil lost a significant share of loyal farmers to smaller companies with better and rigorous fieldwork. A dress code can be one measure that can be adopted for improving FDA efficiency. In present market condition company’s field staff keeps shifting from one company to another company. To overcome trust factor that goes out with exit of an individual (field staff), a proper dress code (in a logo helmet, bag, and
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monogrammed shirt pockets) with a symbol or mark of the company can be employed. SALES PROMOTION INPUTS • Indofil should start the promotional campaigns, strictly based on the start of the season i.e. from the time of sowing and should be in contact with the farmers throughout the season. During the season farmers’ meeting can be arranged at least twice a week. Dealers meeting should be arranged before season. Demonstrations should be conducted not only for newly launched product, but also for products requiring push sale. Sometimes a large farmer considers the interests of the smaller ones and suggests the demonstration at their fields. Even if the trial is successful, the word of mouth appreciation and satisfaction cannot match the probable promotional result if the demonstration had been done at the large farmer’s field. It was observed that the farmers selected for demonstrations were randomly chosen. Carefully and rationally, these trials are needed to be made. A calculated percentage of small, medium and large farmers are needed to be tried. Small farmers, though may not return the investment with promotion as compared to the larger farmers, should not be left out. It adds to the CSR as well as helps improve the company image phenomenally. A two-way communication and dialogue should be necessarily developed between the company and farmers. The company officials/representatives are required to meet the farmers and take the holistic view of their problems and revisit them with better products and good rapport simultaneously benefitting both the farmer and organization. Organizing meetings, block wise can be helpful. Indofil, being a respected company will not face the problem of low attendance. This will help to evaluate the company’s hold in the particular set of villages. Farmers meetings are often conducted by Indofil but it needs to be augmented by feedback meetings. A booklet/information guide with complete paddy schedule of the company may be provided to the farmers so that they are become less dependent on dealer’s/retailer’s/ advice. The Paddy
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schedule available widely as charts can be transformed into a 4” x 3” booklet, which will be a handy source of literature for the farmer. For effective promotion, the two paramount things are tools of promotion and time for promotion. The various tools of promotion are farmers’ meeting, jeep campaign, crop seminar, postering etc. Loudspeaker campaigns in three wheelers helps a farmer to memorize a particular brand. India witnesses over 25,000 melas in a single year, they are held to signify religious, cultural festivals as well as local fairs and events. On an average, visitors at these melas spend between Rs. 5,000 to Rs. 50,000 a day. For example, 3 lakh people visited the annual mela at Navchadi which lasts for 7 days in Meerut. The largest mela is the Maha Kumbh Mela which is visited by an average of 12 crore people. Company’s product at the 500 “big” melas should be sufficient enough to generate product awareness in the rural market among farmers. Statistics reveal that the number of visitors per mela is approximately 7.5 lakhs. On average, 850 outlets are set up in every mela. Haats are local markets which are smaller than mandis.

CHANNEL PARTNERS • Company should have alliance with several agri-input retail outlets and other co-operative agencies working in the area of agriculture and should make available the products of the company through them to the farmers. Haryali Kisaan Bazaar centre and stores are of tremendous potential. HKB stores mainly deal in only one of Indofil’s products i.e. Indofil M-45. More products can be added to their shelves. Except for the unavailability of the credit facilities, HKB outlets score well in all the parameters essential for marketing a product. Mostly located in the core area of main markets, HKB is among the most accessible, reliable and genuine retail chains in the region. There are more than 200 outlets across Uttar Pradesh alone. Farmers visit HKB stores in large numbers, though the purchase is relatively less. Collaboration with HKB can be helpful for sales as well as display purpose. Even if sales figures are not
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exceptionally good, promotional aspects may be more than successful. Schemes, benefits and prizes should not only be given to distributors, retailers but also should be awarded to progressive and loyal farmers of the company. Discounts for bulk purchases can also be given. Dealers play an important role in case of agrochemical sale, so dealers should be motivated by company to sell its brand of products. It was observed during the course of project that dealers get motivated to sell those products which have high margins (though it is not revealed openly by them), so sufficient margins maybe provided to dealers to sell company’s products. Display of the products at dealer’s/retailer’s shop forms one of the most important attribute for purchasing decision in case of farmers. It was also observed that the point of display’s (POD’s) along with the banners and promotional material were very poor in case of Indofil’s products at dealer’s shop, company should seriously consider improving POD’s at dealers shops. It was also noticed that when an Indofil distributor also deals in other big and locally strong players like Bayer, Syngenta, and Tata, not much attention is paid to Indofil, or it can be said that attention is impartially divided. ‘Attention’ specifically pertains to poor PODs, inferior banner placement and lesser product push. Though this statement does not question the distributor’s association with Indofil, it is always a better option to select a distributor where Indofil is the largest and strongest company among the others in which the dealers are dealing in. So, future and prospective dealership should be carefully given to someone, who is ready to give higher degree of exclusivity to Indofil. The study area has all types of distributors, so the statements made are purely based on self observations.

FARMER PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR

Companies are required to keep strict vigilance on spurious and duplicate brands of pesticide moving in the market. Farmers

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become skeptical at the time of purchase if bills are not provided by the dealers. Some steps may be taken to ensure that bills are provided by dealers. Though it is an ardent task associated with huge post purchase risks, the prospective benefits like remarkable rise in sales and betterment of company image can also be achieved. Indofil products have premium pricing and are often considered costlier than molecules of competitor’s. Enhance the perceived value, there by supporting premium pricing, sheltering the product from low price competition. This would be based on perception of farmers that expensive products are definitely effective. Availability of the company’s products at right time is very important. The demand of molecules is not extremely difficult to predict according to the cropping season. For example, in the current rice weedicide season, Offset was not easy to find even at the common outlets which is exactly the opposite for Syngenta’s Rifit and Sofit, both Pretilachlor formulation with different concentrations. The timely availability of pesticides from depot is often not done due to stock out of required items. There are many repercussion of this, they are: 1. Distributors do not float any new orders 2. Loss of retailer and farmer confidence 3. Late application of pesticide in field resulting in failure of desired result. 4. Ultimately farmers say that the product is not effective

REFERENCES

http://indofilicc.com (Company profile) http://saharanpur.nic.in (Secondary data) http://muzaffarnagar.nic.in (Secondary data)
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http://meerut.nic.in (Secondary data) http://timesofindia.com (Uttar Pradesh rainfall scenario) http://newkerala.com (Rice production 2008-09 data)

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ANNEXURE Paddy Survey Questionnaire

Paddy Survey Questionnaire: Farmer’s 1. Farmer’s Details & Crop information
1.1 Farmer’s Detail Name of the farmerAddress: Father’s Name-

Qualification……………………………………… Phone no and Mobile no……………………………………………………………………… E-mail …………………………………………………………………………………………… 1.2 Crop Information ( Area in acre) Total cultivated land …………………….Irrigated…………………. Unirrigated………… irrigated……………………. Paddy …………………………Other crops…………………….. Paddy Varieties Super fine ( Basmati) Fine ( Non Basmati) Hybrid Coarse

2. Awareness of crop protection measures
2.1 What are the major problems in Paddy ? Pest Yes / No Severity ( 1-10 Scale )* Weeds Insects Diseases Deficiency Symptoms 2.2 Do you practice Seed treatment? (Yes / No) if yes

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Chemical Name

Brand Name (Company name)

Dose (gm/ Method of Cost / Acre Satisfaction kg seed) Treatment (Rs/ acre) level (1-10)

If No the probable reason: Parameters Seeds already treated Difficult to do Not aware at all No benefits perceived at all Others

Yes/ No

2.3 What are the major Diseases in Paddy ? Pest Yes / No Rank ( 1-7 )** Leaf Blast Collar / Node/ Neck Blast Sheath Blight Brown leaf spot Khaira /Zinc deficiency Grain discoloration Others

2.4 What are the major insects in Paddy ? Pest Yes / No Leaf folder Stem borer Hopper

Rank ( 1-4 )**

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Others 2.5 What are the major weeds in Paddy ? Pest Yes / No Echinochlova ( Sawank) spp

Rank ( 1-5 )**

Cyperus spp (Dila / Dilli) Monochoria buti) Ludwigia spp Others 2.6 What is the spray schedule you follow in Paddy ? Appl Pest Chemical Brand name Applicati icati Name (Company on on name) time No /Stage (DAS) spp (Mirch

Wate Dose r (gm/ Vol / acre) acre

No of spra y

Cost per spray

2.7 Weather there is any practice of growth promoters in Paddy ? ( Yes/ No) if Yes Name Brand Name Application Dose Purpose of Cost ( Company) time application spray Zyme Micronutrient ( Name)

per

3. Brand awareness for Indofil’s Baan
3.1 Do you recognize blast ( Yes/ No) if Yes which of the following
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Type of Blast Leaf Blast Node Blast Collar Blast Neck Blast

Yes/ No

Severity ( 1-10) Scale*

3.2 What is the molecule you use for Blast? Molecule Brand Company Dose/ acre Tricyclazole Isoprothiolane Kasugamycin Iprobenfos Others

Time of Cost/ application acre

Satisfactio n level ( 110)*

3.3 If the farmer has used Indofil’s Baan what are the advantages perceived? Advantages perceived Yes/ No Satisfaction level Overall Satisfaction ( 1-10)* level ( 1-10)* Disease control) control (%age

Increase in yield ( % increase over control) Grain shining/ Weight Better milling Over all healthy crop Others 3.4 From where you come to know about Indofil’s Baan? Sources Yes/ No Previously used
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Company people ( Indofil) Company people (Others) Dealer’s shop Government sources Others 3.5 If the farmer has not used Indofil’s Baan what are the probable reason? Reasons Yes/ No (Comments if any) Not heard of Indofil’s Baan Heard of Indofil’s Baan but not used Heard of Indofil’s Baan but was not available Used earlier not satisfied with results Using other molecules and satisfied (Pl give name of molecule used) 3.6 How do you recognize the Indofil’s Baan Packet? Recognition by Yes/ No (Comments if any) Color of packet/ Design of packet Company name By Brand name Company logo/ Baan picture Others 3.7 How do you ever heard of Indofil Z-78 ( Yes / No)? If yes 3.8 Will you use Indofil’s Baan or Indofil Z-78 again or recommend to othrs? Molecule Yes/ No Reasons Indofil’s Baan

4 . Farmer’s purchase behavior
4.1 From where do you purchase pesticides? Place ( Give name) Yes/ No
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Percentage

of

total
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purchase Village Town Main market Government Sources ( Societies etc.) 4.2 How you pay for the pesticides Mode of payment Cash Credit 4.3 How you take the pesticide purchase decision ? Activity Tell the crop stage and symptoms to dealer and he will give the pesticides of his choice Have a clear cut idea what I have to purchase based on past experience Discuss with other farmer’s and take the decision Take the help of government / company people, refer relevant books

Yes/ No

Percentage purchase

of

total

Yes/ No

4.4 When you ask for a particular brand from a dealer then: 4.5 What is the most important thing when you purchase the pesticide? Parameter Yes/ No Rank (1-4)** Quality Availability Price Packing Others

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5 . Impact of sales promotion inputs
5.1 Can you recall the name of any pesticide company: Company Product Reasons for recall How the awareness came

5.2 Have you heard of Indofil Chemicals Company: ( yes/ No) Product Reasons for recall How the awareness came

1.3 Which is the suitable approach for influencing farmer’s purchase behavior ? Approach Yes/ No Rank ( 1-8)** Banner, Leaflets Poster,

Demonstrations Farmer’s meeting / Training programs Cheap product Newspaper Radio TV Regional TV Cable local Others 1.4 Do you hear/ participate in the agriculture related programs ? Channel Program Name Yes/ No

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TV eg. Darshan) Radio

(

Krishi

University Department fairs

/

1.5 Which newspaper do you prefer for pesticide advertisement? Newspaper Yes/ No Dainik Jagram Amar Ujala Swatantra Bharat Hindustan times ( Hindi) Any other 5.6 If one wants to educate large number of farmers, what are you suggestions? 5.7 Any other suggestion would like to add?

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Paddy Survey Questionnaire: Dealers
1. Dealer’s Detail Name of the ShopAddress: Dealer’s Name-

Qualification……………………………………… Phone no and Mobile no……………………………………………………………………… E-mail …………………………………………………………………………………….. No. Of village/market cover ………… Turnover in Rs lacks

2 . What are the major companies you are dealing? Company Name Major Products Motivating reasons for Satisfaction selling level ( 1-10 Scale)*

3. What is the credit norm of farmers purchasing the pesticide? 1. Credit (85%) 2. Cash (15%) 4. What influence your purchase behavior from companies? Factors Yes/ No Rank (1-5)* Farmer’s Demand Company field work Profit Margin Govt. recommendations

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Availability Others

5. From dealers point of view what influence farmers purchase behavior? Factors Yes/ No Rank (1-5)* Their own knowledge Dealers push Company field work Govt. recommendations Others technical

6. What motivates you the most to work with a company? Parameters Yes/ No Rank (1-7)* Brands with company Quality of products Accounts transparency Strong field company Profit margin Regular supply Others support by

7. Which is the suitable approach for influencing farmer’s purchase behavior ? Approach Yes/ No Rank ( 1-8)** Banner, Leaflets Poster,

Demonstrations Farmer’s meeting / Training
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programs Cheap product Newspaper Radio TV Regional TV Cable local Others

8. What is the main strength of Major Player? Paramete Yes/ No Rank ( 1-5)** Strong brand promotion Intensive campaings Strong dealer channel Government liasoing Others 9. Can you recall any of Indofil Chemicals Company products?

10. Any other suggestion would you like to add.?

*: on a 1 to 10 scale- 10 is the highest score **: When you Rank from within the alternatives than 1 is the highest score

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