May 6, 2010


Submitted to Respected Sir, Abdul Ghani Memon Shb

Mechanical Vibration

May 6


By Khalil Raza Bhatti (07ME40), QUEST, Nawabshah – Pakistan.


Khalil Raza Bhatti 07ME40 | [Type the company address]

Q.No.1 Define different types of vibration measuring instruments such as vibro-meter and accelerometer. Particularly explain in detail about accelerometer also designs the same?

Vibration refers to mechanical oscillations about an equilibrium point. The oscillations may be periodic such as the motion of a pendulum or random such as the movement of a tire on a gravel road. Vibration is occasionally "desirable". For example the motion of a tuning fork, the reed in a woodwind instrument or harmonica, or the cone of a loudspeaker is desirable vibration, necessary for the correct functioning of the various devices. More often, vibration is undesirable, wasting energy and creating unwanted sound – noise. For example, the vibrational motions of engines, electric motors, or any mechanical device in operation are typically unwanted. Such vibrations can be caused by imbalances in the rotating parts, uneven friction, the meshing of gear teeth, etc. Careful designs usually minimize unwanted vibrations. The study of sound and vibration are closely related. Sound, or "pressure waves", are generated by vibrating structures (e.g. vocal cords); these pressure waves can also induce the vibration of structures (e.g. ear drum). Hence, when trying to reduce noise it is often a problem in trying to reduce vibration.

Types of vibration
Free vibration occurs when a mechanical system is set off with an initial input and then allowed to vibrate freely. Examples of this type of vibration are pulling a child back on a swing and then letting go or hitting a tuning fork and letting it ring. The mechanical system will then vibrate at one or more of its "natural frequencies" and damp down to zero. Forced vibration is when an alternating force or motion is applied to a mechanical system. Examples of this type of vibration include a shaking washing machine due to an imbalance, transportation vibration (caused by truck engine, springs, road, etc), or the vibration of a building during an earthquake. In forced vibration the frequency of the vibration is the frequency of the force or motion applied, with order of magnitude being dependent on the actual mechanical system.


Khalil Raza Bhatti 07ME40 | [Type the company address]


An accelerometer is a device that measures proper acceleration, the acceleration experienced relative to freefall. Single- and multi-axis models are available to detect magnitude and direction of the acceleration as a vector quantity, and can be used to sense position, vibration and shock. Micromachined accelerometers are increasingly present in portable electronic devices and video game controllers, to detect the position of the device or provide for game input. Three types of accelerometers are currently in production: Pendular accelerometers : state-of-the-art strap-down navigation and guidance systems are currently based on this technology. Their measurement range can reach up to one hundred g's. Their precision can reach up to one in one hundred thousand for the most demanding applications. Theses devices have been in production in significant quantities for many years. > The Sagem family includes among others the A600 and the A305. Vibrating Beam Accelerometers : this technology has been developed for several years and is currently under production for tactical products. It offers costeffective performances, a small size and is well suited for state-of-the-art digital systems due to their digital output. > The AD301 accelerometer is used on the Sagem AASM navigation system. MEMS-based accelerometers : Sagem is also manufacturing the cost effective MEMS-based ACSIL accelerometer, based on a micro silicon chip pendulum. It is used for intermediate precision needs and other stabilization purposes.

How to design an Accelerometer?
The design specifications and parameters are required to take in consideration to design an accelerometer are: The Bandwidth = Hz, 3 The Sensitivity =pF/G, The Dynamic range +/- = G, Khalil Raza Bhatti 07ME40 | [Type the company address]

The Minimum detectable acceleration (#) mG. Mechanical study Design approach Single axis accelerometer The design to be fabricated is a single -axis capacitive accelerometer, this system contains:
  

a mass (m), a spring (with constant k), a dumper (with coefficient b).

This system can be translated to a simple mechanical system as it can be seen in

The Behaviour of an accelerometer This system is just an approximation to the real approach behaviour. This mechanical system gives a second order system given by:

dividing by m, thus:

…….(1) witch gives a transfer function (Lapalce domain):

or 4 where: : is the resonant frequency, and : is the quality factor.


Khalil Raza Bhatti 07ME40 | [Type the company address]


Assumptions and limitations The basic limitation are needed to look at it is the damping, where the accelerometer has to be critically damped, hence this permits to get the least amplitude distortion. This means that therefore [3]:

…….(3) In order to characterise the dumping we need to solve the dominator’s equation by calculating the Δ of the transfer function (equation (2)) of our system.

for Δ=0 thus: ……..(4) Three different cases can be distinguished then:
  

Under dumped system where Critically dumped system where Over dumped system where .

, ,

In Order to get a maximum bandwidth, the sensing element should be critically damped [2]. Note also, that the mass should be big enough to conform to our sensitivity requirements, and at the same time it has to be small enough to be compatible with “b ” in such a way we can get critical damping. Another important assumption which can help us to find the right parameters for designing our capacitive accelerometer; is to assign the sensitive gap “d” , since it is limited by the fabrication processes. Bandwidth The mechanical resonance frequency of a suspended mass is given by:


This means that in an open loop arrangement a high sensitivity yields to a small bandwidth. In a closed loop arrangement the resonance peak can be suppressed by the control circuit. The bandwidth is no longer limited by the mechanical resonance of the sensor but is limited by the transition frequency of the control circuit.

Khalil Raza Bhatti 07ME40 | [Type the company address]


Minimum detectable acceleration and mechanical noise The given specifications for our design are the bandwidth, sensitivity, dynamic range and the minimum detectable acceleration. The minimum acceleration that the system can detect must be higher than the noise level, this means that the minimum acceleration is limited by the noise boundary. The noise affects the system is a combination of two different noises come from the mechanical sensor and electronic readout circuit. In the mechanical study of the design, we need to focus on the mechanical noise only. However in the electrical/electronic study which will follow later on we will neglect the mechanical noise and focus only on the electric noise since it is the dominant one in the electrical system. The mechanical noise of the accelerometer is mainly caused due to the damping, which is called Brownian motion noise. This is used to specify the noise in terms of acceleration noise. Therefore the noise or the minimum acceleration can be detected, is given by equation (5) [4]:

or Sensitivity


The sensitivity in a capacitive accelerometer is defined by the difference of variation in the capacitance divided by the difference in variation in the displacement, in which the sensitivity equation is given by [4]: …..(6) Where: ε: is the electric permittivity of air, A: is the overlap area of electrodes , d: is the gap between the electrodes. However the gap between electrodes should be as small as possible and it is defined by the process of fabrication. Dynamic Range In an open loop arrangement the operating range is limited by the maximum deflection of the seismic mass. Since a small spring constant k yields a high sensitivity, seismic masses in high resolution accelerometers are suspended softly. Therefore, the operating range of these accelerometers is small. In our design the dynamic range of operation which is given equals to ±##G. So the maximum measurable acceleration is determined by [4]:


…..(7) Khalil Raza Bhatti 07ME40 | [Type the company address]


Spring constant As it can be seen clearly in the equations above, that the spring constant “k ” affects directly the resonant frequency, bandwidth, sensitivity and also the pull-in voltage. Instead in the real design the spring constant is related directly to the beam characteristics, which are the length (L), the thickness (t), the width (W) and the elasticity of material coefficient ( Young modulus (E)). Note that the spring constant changes in a beam due to the tonsil and compressive stresses. However we assume that there is no variation in spring constant and the following equation can be applied :

…..(8) where: E=190 GPa (Young’s Modulus for the silicon). Mass & Damping Factor In our design we aim to get a critical damping for our system. The damping force in the accelerometer arises from the so-called squeeze-film effect, i.e., the interaction of the silicon mass and the air-film trapped in the gap between the mass and the electrodes. Provided that the “squeeze number” within the bandwidth of the accelerometer, the damping coefficient can be calculated from [2]:

…..(9) is the dynamic viscosity of air, and is the area of the air film, and is the driving frequency of a sinusoidal excitation. Parameters calculation Since the dumping is directly related to the mass “m” so it is required that the mass should be big enough to confirm to our sensitivity given and small enough to be compatible with “b” so that we get critical damping. is the atmospheric pressure,

Equation used are: The minimum acceleration is given by equation (5): 7

Khalil Raza Bhatti 07ME40 | [Type the company address]

The damping coefficient is given by equation as:

From equation (6) the capacitance


combining both equations gives:


Nominal capacitance


In order to calculate the nominal capacitance we need to combine equations (6) and (7) for the maximum value of distance “d” which is given in the assumption, thus we get: (In the range of picofarad pF The area (A) of the accelerometer: The area “A” can be calculated form the nominal capacitance “ ”:

The mass “m”: In order to calculate the mass “m” we need to use a combination between equations (4) and (5) thus we get:

The effective spring constant K: 8 In order to calculate k the spring constant we need to use equation (7): $latex a_{max} =\frac{K.d}{m}\Rightarrow K=\frac{a_{max}.m}{ d} &s=2$ Khalil Raza Bhatti 07ME40 | [Type the company address]


The resonance frequency:

Design the sensing element At this stage we need to define the sensing elements which consists of the proof mass and suspension system in such a way, our design will meet any specifications given (Bandwidth, sensitivity, dynamic range, minimum detectable acceleration). By calculating the length of the beam “L” (as it can be seen in Fig.3.4) and finding out the appropriate values for the width “w” and thickness ” t” for the beams, the size of the proof mass has to be calculated also and defining the thickness , the width ; then the Length .

Beam geometry The dimensions of thickness and the width of the beam can be initially chosen by the designer although sometimes are limited by microfabrication capabilities. However the relationship between the thickness “t” , width “w”, and length “L” have to obey the following equation [2]:

This capacitive accelerometer contains a cantilevered beam, shown in Figure 3.5, with the following dimensions, where L is length, W is width, t is thickness. The proof mass with a thickness , a width ; and a Length . A gap which is the spacing between the substrate and the underside of the beam, is material density, and E is the material Young’s modulus (eg. Young’s modulus for silicon is Proof mass geometry We know that our proof mass volume is since it is homogeneously parallelepiped with rectangular area A. volume should be calculated from the Volumic mass density so: )

therefore to find the thickness 9


Volumic mass density for silicon for example is: Khalil Raza Bhatti 07ME40 | [Type the company address]


Sensing element dimensions

A laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) is a scientific instrument that is used to make non-contact vibration measurements of a surface. The laser beam from the LDV is directed at the surface of interest, and the vibration amplitude and frequency are extracted from the Doppler shift of the laser beam frequency due to the motion of the surface. The output of an LDV is generally a continuous analog voltage that is directly proportional to the target velocity component along the direction of the laser beam. Some advantages of an LDV over similar measurement devices such as an accelerometer are that the LDV can be directed at targets that are difficult to access, or that may be too small or too hot to attach a physical transducer. Also, the LDV makes the vibration measurement without mass-loading the target, which is especially important for MEMS devices

Types of laser Doppler vibrometers
  

  

Single-point vibrometers – This is the most common type of LDV. Vendors include Polytec, MetroLaser, B&K, Brimrose, and Piezojena. Scanning vibrometers – A scanning LDV adds a set of X-Y scanning mirrors, allowing the single laser beam to be moved across the surface of interest. 3-D vibrometers – A standard LDV measures the velocity of the target along the direction of the laser beam. To measure all three components of the target's velocity, a 3-D vibrometer measures a location with three independent beams, which strike the target from three different directions. This allows a determination of the complete in-plane and out-of-plane velocity of the target. Rotational vibrometers – A rotational LDV is used to measure rotational or angular velocity. Differential vibrometers – A differential LDV measures the out-of-plane velocity difference between two locations on the target. Multi-beam vibrometers – A multi-beam LDV measures the target velocity at several locations simultaneously.


Self-mixing vibrometers – Simple LDV configuration with ultra-compact optical head. These are generally based on a laser diode with a built-in photodetector, leading to a very rugged and compact optical system.

Khalil Raza Bhatti 07ME40 | [Type the company address]


A machine weighing 200 lbs and supported on spring of total stiffness 400 lb/in, has unbalanced rotating elements which results in a disturbing force of 80 lbs at a speed of 3000 rpm. Assuming a damping factor of £ = 0.2, determine: a) Its amplitude of motion due to the unbalance b) The transmitivity c) The transmitted force.

DATA: Weight of machine, W = 200 lbs Spring stiffness, K = 400 lb/in Disturbing Force,f = 80 lbs Speed, N = 3000 rpm = 50 rps Viscous damping factor, £ = 0.2

Required: a) Amplitude, X = ? b) Transmitivity, TR = ? c) Transmitted force, FIR = ?


A) Amplitude of motion due to unbalance:

The amplitude of motion due to unbalance is given by the relation shown below.

X  Xo

1 [1  (

 2 2  ) ]  [2  £  ( ) ]2 n n

Khalil Raza Bhatti 07ME40 | [Type the company address]



X [1  (


 2 2  ) ]  [2  £  ( ) ]2 n n


In the above relation, X o ,  and  n are unknown parameters. Therefore, we determine these first.

For X o :

Xo 

f 80 = 0.2 in  K 400

For  :

 = 2πN = 2  50 = 314 rad/sec

For n :


W 200 lb  sec2  = 0.517 g 32.2 12 in

n =

K 400  = 27.82 s 1 m 0.517


Substituting these values in equation (A), we get:-

Khalil Raza Bhatti 07ME40 | [Type the company address]

X  [1  ( 0.2 314 2 2 314 ) ]  [2  0.2  ( ) ]2 27.82 27.82
= 0.0016 inch

B) The Transitivity: We know that,

1  (2  £  TR  [1  (

 2 ) n

 2 2  ) ]  [2  £  ( ) ]2 n n

1  (2  0.2 

314 2 ) 27.28

[1  (

314 2 2 314 2 ) ]  [2  0.2  ( ) ] 27.28 27.28

= 0.176

C) The Transmitted Force: We know that,

FIR = f  TR = 80  0.176 13 = 14.08 lbs

Khalil Raza Bhatti 07ME40 | [Type the company address]

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