CONVENTIONAL METHODS OF SPEED CONTROL
OF PMBLDC MOTOR

© All Rights Reserved

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CONVENTIONAL METHODS OF SPEED CONTROL
OF PMBLDC MOTOR

© All Rights Reserved

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CHAPTER 2

CONVENTIONAL METHODS OF SPEED CONTROL

OF PMBLDC MOTOR

2.1

INTRODUCTION

PMBLDC motor is basically a surface mounted non-salient pole

terminals due to the concentrated pitch windings in the stator. The basic

block diagram of PMBLDC drive is shown in Figure 2.1. The three phase

inverter at the input side acts like an electronic commutator that receives

switching logical pulses from the absolute position sensor. The PMBLDC

drive is commonly known as electronically commutated motor (ECM).

2.2

The PMBLDC motor is modeled in the stationary reference frame

using 3-phase abc variables. The volt -ampere equation for the circuit shown

in the Figure 2.2 can be expressed as given in Equations (2.1) to (2.3).

27

v an

Ri a

d a

dt

e an

(2.1)

v bn

Ri b

d b

dt

e bn

(2.2)

v cn

Ri c

d c

dt

e cn

(2.3)

where van, vbn and vcn are phase voltages where values are given in Equation (2.4)

van = vao- vno, vbn= vbo - vno and vcn = vco - vno.

(2.4)

where vao, vbo, vco and vno are three phase and neutral voltages referred to the

zero reference potential at the mid- point of dc link as shown in the Figure 2.2

R is the resistance per phase of the stator winding

d

- is the time differential operator and

dt

28

a,

and

are total

expressed as given in Equations (2.5) to (2.7)

a

(2.5)

(2.6)

(2.7)

where Ls and M are the self and mutual inductance of the stator coil

respectively. The PMBLDC motor has no neutral connection hence, we have

ia+ ib+ ic =0

(2.8)

linkages can be rewritten as given in Equations (2.9) to (2.11)

a

= ia(Ls + M)

(2.9)

b= ib (Ls

+ M)

(2.10)

c= ic (Ls

+ M)

(2.11)

Equations (2.1) to (2.3) and rearranging them in a current derivative of state

space form, we get

di a

dt

di b

dt

1

(L s

M)

1

(L s

M)

[Van

Ri a

e an ]

(2.12)

[Vbn

Ri b

e bn ]

(2.13)

29

di c

dt

1

(L s

M)

[ Vcn

Ri c

e cn ]

(2.14)

Equation (2.15)

Te= [eania+ebnib+ecnic]/

where

(2.15)

d r

dt

(P / 2)

(Te

TL B

J

(2.16)

frictional co-efficient in N-ms/rad, and J is the moment of inertia in kg-m2.

The derivative of the rotor position ( r) in state space form is

expressed as given in Equation (2.17)

d

dt

(2.17)

The potential of the neutral point with respect to the zero potential

(vno) is required in order to avoid imbalance in the applied voltage and

simulate the performance of the drive. This neutral point voltage is obtained

by substituting Equations (2.8) in the volt-ampere Equations (2.1) to (2.3) and

adding them together. Hence,

vao +vbo +vco-3vno = R(ia+ ib+ ic)+(Ls + M) (dia/ dt + dib/dt + dic/dt)+(ean+ ebn+ecn)

(2.18)

Substituting Equation (2.8) in Equation (2.18) and simplifying we

get,

vao +vbo +vco-3vno = (ean + ebn+ecn)

(2.19)

30

vno = [vao +vbo +vco - (ean + ebn+ecn)] / 3

(2.20)

(2.14) and (2.16) to (2.20) define the model developed in terms of the

variables ia, ib, ic,

2.2.1

r,

The per phase back- EMF in the PMBLDC motor is trapezoidal in

nature and are the functions of the speed and rotor position angle ( r). The

phase back- Emf ean can be expressed as given in Equations (2.21) to (2.24)

ean = E

ean = (6E/ ) ( - r) - E

120 <

ean = -E

ean = (6E

/) ( r -2 ) + E

<

<120

(2.21)

< 180

(2.22)

180 <

< 300

(2.23)

300 <

< 360

(2.24)

where E = Kb .

and ean can be described by E as shown in Figure 2.3.

The back-Emf functions of other two phases ebn and ecn are defined

in similar way using E.

31

2.3

The three phase inverter circuit is shown in Figure 2.4. The

This feature is helpful in driving the motor at high current and low voltage

conditions. Each MOSFET conducts for a duration of 120 degrees. When

using a VSI, the desired current profile is achieved by controlling the

switching of the MOSFET. The gating signals given to the MOSFET are

sequenced to every 60 degree interval.

32

At any given time, only two switches out of the six switches of an

inverter are conducting. This means that only two phases are conducting at

any instant, with current entering in one of the phases and leaving through the

other. The convention used in this thesis is that, the current entering any

phase of a motor is assigned a positive sign and the current that is leaving any

phase of a motor is assigned a negative sign. Therefore, the upper switches of

the inverter, namely, S1, S3 and S5, carry a current (flowing into the motor)

which is assigned a positive sign. The lower switches of the inverter, namely,

S2, S4 and S6 carry a negative current (flowing out from the motor).

The back-EMFs, stator phase currents and Hall sensor outputs are as

shown in Figure 2.5. It is seen clearly that there is a definite relation between

the back-EMFs and the current waveforms, as a function of the rotor position.

Hence, to have proper operation of PMBLDC motor, it is necessary to

synchronize the phase currents with the phase back -EMFs. This is achieved

by the use of Hall position sensors which detect the position of the rotor field

and hence the position of the rotor shaft. Corresponding to the rotor field, the

Hall position sensors output a combination of binary numbers. A motor with

synchronized switching is able to produce a positive torque.

33

and Hall Sensor Outputs

Figure 2.6 depicts the definite sequence in which the phases conduct

and turn off. The current commutation from one phase to the other phase

corresponding to that particular state of the back- EMF is synchronized by the

Hall position sensors, and it occurs after every sixty electrical degrees. It

takes a finite interval of time for commutation, to transfer the current from

one phase to the other phase in the appropriate sequence.

2.4

The closed loop speed control system of a PMBLDC motor using

voltage control method with PI controller uses speed regulator to control the

DC bus voltage is as shown in Figure 2.7. The three phase inverter fed

PMBLDC motor uses MOSFET as the switch.

34

Figure 2.7

Using PI Controller

Two control loops are used to control the speed of PMBLDC motor,

in which the inner loop synchronizes the output of the inverter with the back

EMF of the motor. The outer loop controls the speed of the motor, by varying

the DC bus voltage using PI controller. The actual speed of the motor is

compared with its reference value and the error in speed is processed by the

PI controller. The output of PI controller is applied as the input voltage.

The stator voltage to the motor is varied in linear proportion to the supply

frequency to maintain the flux at a constant value. Hall sensors are used to

identify the rotor position. The gates of the inverter are controlled by the Hall

effect switches, passing through a gates decoder.

35

The Hall sensors generate

These waves are in phase with the respective phase voltage. Each of Hall

sensor states correspond to a certain stator flux vector. The Hall sensor states

with corresponding stator flux vectors are illustrated in Figure 2.8. The same

information is detailed in Table 2.1.

Table 2.1 Truth Table Representation of Stator Vector Flux

0

-1

+1

-1

+1

-1

+1

+1

-1

+1

-1

+1

-1

36

The decoder circuit is shown in Figure 2.9. This circuit uses logical

AND gates and generates EMFs based on the Hall sensor signals.

Figure 2.10 shows the gate pulse circuit. Table 2.2 shows the

commutated output based on Hall sensor signals.

37

Emf_a Emf_b Emf_c

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

-1

+1

-1

+1

-1

+1

+1

-1

+1

-1

+1

-1

the middle of the respective positive voltage half-cycles. The lower devices

are chopped in sequence for 2 /3 angles in the respective negative voltage

half cycles with the help of decoder for controlling the current.

2.4.1

Motor Specifications

The PMBLDC motor specification is given in Table 2.3.

Table 2.3 The PMBLDC Motor Specification

Type

Trapezoidal Motor

Voltage

415 Volts

Stator Resistance

18.7 ohms

Inductance

0.02682 H

0.1717 wb

Friction Factor

1.349e-005

Pole Pairs

Back Emf

Trapezoidal

RatedSpeed

1500 rpm

38

2.4.2

Simulation Results

Figure 2.11 shows the gate driving pulses to the MOSFETs. These

conduction and remains in off condition for the 240 degrees. Successive base

drives are delayed by 60 degrees. Six intervals are present for one cycle.

Figure 2.12 shows the output of controlled voltage source which is

fed to three phase inverter. The PI controller takes about 6 seconds to

maintain a constant input voltage to an inverter when there is a speed

variation.

39

The simulation results of stator current are shown in Figure 2.13 (a) to

(d). The currents are quasi square wave with a displacement of 120. The

stator phase back-EMF is shown in Figure 2.13(b). The phasor back-EMF is

trapezoidal as shown and is in phase with stator phase current.

Figure 2.13

(b) Phase Back- EMF in Phase a (d) Stator Phase Current ic

40

controller with step load is shown in Figure 2.14.

Load disturbance is

speed at t = 27 seconds with a delay of 7 seconds to reach the desired speed.

with Step Load

The simulation carriedout in the presence of Ramp followed by

Step load without disturbance is given in Figure 2.15. The variation in speed

with ramp followed by step has larger amount fluctuation in speed as compared

to Step load. The settling time is almost equal for both the load variation.

Figure 2.15 Variation of Speed Response with Ramp + Step and Step

Load

41

Figure 2.16 shows the variation of torque for Step load and Ramp

followed by Step load. While using Step load the torque increases to nearly

15 N-m when the motor starts and stabilizes rapidly when the motor reaches

the reference value.

Figure 2.16 Comparison of Variation in Torque Ramp+ Step and Step Load

The speed variation curve with and without disturbance using Ramp

followed by Step load is shown in Figure 2.17. Load disturbance is applied at

t = 25 seconds. The PI controller is capable of tracking the desired speed at

t = 37.5 seconds. It takes 12.5 seconds delay to reach the desired speed.

the Presence of Load Disturbance

42

2.5

FLC

The closed loop speed control of PMBLDC motor with FLC

scheme is shown in Figure 2.18. The FLC scheme observes the pattern of

the speed loop error and correspondingly updates the output of the controller

to match the actual speed with the reference speed.

The triangular

membership function with 7 linguistic variables and 49 rules are used in the

FLC design.

The triangular membership function is used to partition the input

and output spaces. The various linguistic variables used are negative large

(NL), negative medium (NM), negative small (NS), zero (ZE), positive small

(PS), positive medium (PM), positive large (PL). The rule set then contains

forty nine (7x7) rules to account for every possible combination of the input

fuzzy sets. The rules are of the form, IF (x is {NL, NM, NS, ZE, PS, PM,

PL}) and (y is {NL, NM, NS, ZE, PS, PM, PL}) THEN {output}, where

43

output is one of the fuzzy sets used to partition the outer space. The Table 2.4

shows the FLC design parameters for the voltage control based speed control

of PMBLDC motor in the presence of Hall sensors.

Table 2.4

Speed Control of PMBLDC Motor

Parameters

Membership Function

No. of Input variables

Values

Triangular

2(error, change in error)

No. of linguistic variables error- NL, NM, NS, ZE, PS, PM, PL

change in error- NL, NM, NS, ZE, PS, PM, PL

Decision making logic

Defuzzification

No. of rules

Max-Min logic

Centre of Area

49

The two input space use a total of fourteen triangles, so that the

string to represent a given rule set and membership function combination

would have forty nine bits as shown in Table 2.5.

Table 2.5 Rule Base Matrix

e(u)/ ce(u)

NL

NM

NS

ZE

PS

PM

PL

NL

NL

NL

NL

NL

NM

NS

ZE

NM

NL

NL

NL

NM

NS

ZE

PS

NS

NL

NL

NM

NS

ZE

PS

PM

ZE

NL

NM

NS

ZE

PS

PM

PL

PS

NM

NS

ZE

PS

PM

PL

PL

PM

NS

ZE

PS

PM

PL

PL

PL

PL

ZE

PS

PM

PL

PL

PL

PL

44

2.5.1

Simulation Results

The simulation is carriedout in the presence of Step load disturbance

with the fuzzy controller. Figure 2.19 shows the speed response plot of FLC

and PI controller schemes. There is an overshoot in FLC, but it settles with

lesser settling time of 3.5 seconds and also settles at rated speed. Though,

there is slight overshoot in PI controller it takes 6 seconds to settle with a

speed of 1480 rpm which is lesser than rated speed.

Schemes

The speed variation curve with and without disturbance is shown in

Figure 2.20. Load disturbance is applied at t = 20 seconds. FLC is capable of

tracking the desired speed at t = 26 seconds. It takes 6 seconds delay to reach

the desired speed which is lesser than conventional PI controller.

45

presence of load disturbance using FLC

The torque responses of FLC and PI controller schemes are shown

in Figure 2.21. While using FLC scheme the torque increases to nearly

31.25 N-m when the motor starts and stabilizes rapidly when the motor

reaches the reference value.

Schemes

When the nominal torque is applied at t = 0.1 second, the controller

reacts rapidly and increases the DC bus voltage to produce the required

46

electric torque. In the case of PI controller, the torque raises nearly to 15N-m

when the motor starts and takes larger time to stabilize compared to FLC

scheme.

Table 2.6 shows the comparison of performance analysis of PI and

FLC controller. It is clear that the FLC has improved performance in all

aspects compared to conventional PI controller. The results have shown that

fuzzy controller is robust to external load disturbances. The performance of

the PMBLDCM drive with the application of FLC in reference to both the

steady state and the dynamic conditions is improved.

Table 2.6 Performance Analysis

Performance measures

Settling Time (Ts) in Seconds

RMS current in amperes

IAE

ISE

THD in %

2.6

PI

6

1.93

25.59

13700

4.072

FLC

3.5

3.066

14.04

8599

2.278

SUMMARY

In the PI and FLC schemes presented above, there are two

drawbacks. Embedding the Hall sensors into the stator is a complex process

and involves high implementation cost. Moreover, the stator current contains

harmonics which deteriorate the motor performance.

Hence, sensorless

THD and also to improve the power factor.

In the subsequent chapter a suitable filter is designed for a three

phase inverter to obtain the output with less THD and improved power factor.

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