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1-1

2-1
3-1
4-1
4-1 4-1
4-2 4-1
4-3 4-5
4-4 4-8
4-5 4-9
5-1
5-1 5-1
5-2 5-2
5-3 5-14
5-4 5-17
5-5 5-20
5-6 5-21
5-7 5-25
6-1
6-1 6-1
6-2 DC 6-5
6-3 AC 6-10
6-4 6-22
6-5 6-24
6-6 6-26
6-7 6-27
6-8 6-30
6-9 6-32
6-10 6-37
6-11 6-39

A-1
A-23
A-39

CNS

1.
(1)
(2)
(3)

(4)

(5)
(6)
2.
(1)
(2)
(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

3.
(1)

(2)

1.
2.

3.
4.

II

1.

2.

3.

1-1

1-2

1.
2.(Megger)(HYPOT)

3.
(AC)(DC)
4.
5.(Transformer Turn Ratio Testser-TTR)

6.(
)
7.(Low Resistance Ohmmeter)

8.
9.
10.

11.

2-1

1.
3-1

L
E

Megger

3-1
3-1

(1)
3-1
3-1

250

(V)

(M)

20

500
50

50

100

1000
1000

200

2000

10000

2000 1000 5000 100000

(2)

3-1 0M

100 1000
100M 1000M

1/1000

250V 500V50M
2.

8 12Vinverter
10001500 Hz

3-2


50
60Hz
3.
10-6

Cut-out
4 3-2

shunt

Low
Resistance Ohmmeter
20
C
P
P
C

3-2
3-3

4.

(1)

(2)

(3)
5.
(1)
a. 0.2 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.5 5
b.
c.

d.
3-2 3-3

3-4
(2)

3-4

3-2

0.2
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.5

0.2 class 0.2


0.5 class 0.5
1.0 class 1.0
1.5 class 1.5
2.5 class 2.5

3-3

3-4

60

60

PT
3-3

3-3 PT CT
(3)

CT 3-3

3-5


3-5
3-5
(A)

(A)

10-15-20-25-30-40-50-60-75A 10
800-1200-8000-12000A

1
5

I2 [A]

I1=n I2 [A]

lA 5A

(4)

(5)
1
6.

40kV100kV 150kV
3-4

3-6

3-4

3-5
4

mA

11

3-5

10

3-7


(Dielectric Absorption Current)
3-6

3-6
7.

2.5kVl0kV10kV
2kVl0kV 3-7
AB
RBRBVA
CRBRR
3-8

RBRRB
RR
RBW

3-7

(1)
100V125V60HZ 25A
0l2kV
0200mA
(2)
212kV 10kV
0200mA 7 1 10A
02000W 7 1 0.002W
0100%
00.052F( 10kV)
00.26F( 2kV)
(3)
0.1% 5%
3-9

l PF 0.5%
8.
Trarsformer Turn Ratio Test Set
TTR
3-8

Null
H1X1H2X2
TTR
OLTC

3-8
9.

3-10

(1)

DS301

-30 1400

a.

b.
(a) 3-6

0.95
(b) DS /

D:S

25%

3-11

3-9

: D:S = 30:1
/ 30
3-9 3 10
(c)

3-10

DS

(d)

3-10

(e)

3-6
3-12

()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
(PVC)
()

()
()

()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()

()
()


0.02
0.2~0.4
0.78~0.85
0.02
0.4~0.5
0.85
0.1
0.6~0.75
0.95
0.88~0.92
0.9~0.92
0.85
0.85
0.85~0.9
0.8~0.85
0.85
0.85
0.85
0.9
0.8~0.85
0.85
0.96
0.7~0.8
0.94
0.97
0.7~0.85
0.94
0.87
0.95
0.9
0.4
0.64
0.86

0.9

T=60

,
(2)

a.

3-13

b.

30 20 320H240V
20
0.4 5
20

20

(a)

IFOV

IFOV-

IFOV

( Instantaneous Field of
View)

IFOV

3-11
(b)

IFOV

3-11

2tan1020m/320
2.2cm

2cm 5cm2.2cm
70

3-14

2tan1070m/3207.7cm 5cm
7.7cm
(c)
1=E+R+TRTE
T=0 1=E+R
E=0.4 R=0.6
30
0.6x30=18

(d)
P=RxI2

t2
I
= ( 2 )2
t1
I1

40t8 100
100/402850

(e)

(f)

(g)

3-15

4-1

4-2

1. 19
(1)(
)
4-1
0.05M
4-1

a.

b.

4-1

150
300
150
300

M
0.1
0.2
0.4

0.05
M
(2) 1M
(3)

(4) 500 250 220

(5) 300
300 l0

4-1
lM
(6)

a. 0.1
(100mA)
b.

4-2

5000

(7)

2000
1

2000
2.

ON

4-1 4-1

4-3


4-1
3.

E
L
4-2
4-1

4-4

4-2

4-3

1.

10

4-5

20

2mm2

(1) 4-3
E P
C

4-3

(2)

4-6

2.

(Hold)

(Telluric Current)(Threshold)

1 1200 mA 30A

4-4

4-7

4-4
3.
25
150V
100 151V300V 50 301V
10

4-4

4-5(a) 4-5(b)

4-8

(
)

4-5

4-5

1.
2. OFF

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

4-9

8.

4-10

5-1

1.

1000V2500V
6-1
25kV 20 1000M
15kV 20 800M
3.45kV 20 200M
(V )
M 75
2.
kWkVA1000
3. 500V 10M
5M
(V)
4.
M 75
1000

5-1

25050010002000 10000

5-2

1.

(1)

1.5 10
1 10
2 1
10
1 10

(2)
1.5 10

1.5
(3)

5-2


1.5 10

(4)
1.5
10
VA2f c E2kVA2f c E2 10-
C
EkV
C

2.

kVA 2F
(V)210-9

5-3

1 9 10

(1)
110 220 5kVA
3050 100kV 5-1

5-4

A2

5-1
(2)

5-2

5-5

3450V
34501.55175V
5175 110 = 86.25V

6600
(A)

3450V
34501.55175V
110

5175

= 86.25V

3300 + 3300

AC 110

6900V
69001.510350V
110
10350
= 86.25V

6600 + 6600
10350 110 = 103.5V

11000
(B)

3450V
34501.55175V
= 5175 110 = 86.25V

6600
(C)
5-2

5-6

11000
110

(3)
5-3

69kV

5-3
3.
(1)
a. 5-4
1.5

5-4
b. 5-5 5-6

5-7


Ed= 2 Ea
2 2 EaEdEa

E d = 2E a

Ea
Ed

R2

5-5

Ed

2 E a

Ea

Ed

5-6
c. 5-6
5-6(A)
adbecf 2 Ea2Ed
2

5-8


Ea
Eo

(A)

(B)

(C)

5-7
(2) 2 2

5-8

5-9

6.6kV

6,600[V]1.5 9,900[V]
9,900V

5-8

(3)

5-9

5-10

5-9
(4)
a.
(a) 10kV

OM
(b)
10kV 5000M
1000M 1000M

(c)
Hypot 1.5
1
(d)

5-11

b.
10
5-1

5-1 NEMA CAT 6.06

(V)

10 (V)

3,450

16,200

28,500

6,640

30,900

39,000

7,200

33,750

39,000

13,800

67,500

51,000

1A
1
50W

50M 100M

(5)

11,400
22,800 66 161
a. 5-10

5-12

b.

5-11
1.5
CB

MTR

5-10

5-11

PTCT

5-13

5-12

5-12 (a)
(b)(c) VI
(d) VI VI

5-12 VI

4.
GIS

5-3

1.
(1) Vv
UuV2UV 100200V
V1V2V2V1
5-14

5-13

V2

V1

V
5-13

(2) Uu
100200V 5-14UV
VWWUUvUwVvVw
5-15 YY

5-14
V

v
u
U

W
w

wW

5-15 YY
2.

5-15

100200V
5-16V1V2V1V2

u1

V1
V2
V3
V4
V5

u2
v1
v2

5-16
3.

R.S.T. PT
PT

Y 5-17 RSTL2L1
L1L2

5-17

5-16

4.

5-4

250 500 (Megger)

50M 1M
5MIED

1.(Overcurrent relay)

5-18

5-18
Relay Tester
(1)(pick-up)

(TAP)5
%
(2)
a. 200
%300% 500%

5-17

10 %
b. CO-11 5-19
(3)
a. 100120

b.

5-19 CO-11
(4)
20

(5)

5-18

5-20
a. 5-20
b.A
C.T open
c. P.T P.T 120V 220V
d. RSTN

e.C.T Ratio

(6) 5-21

5-21
2.( UV OV)

5-19

(1)
a.
b.

(2) 5
a. (pick-up voltage)120 %
130%150%
b. 806040

(3)

5-5

1.

2.

3.Inter-lock

4.

5.

5-20

5-6

Kohlransch

Earth tester
4-3

1. 25 5-2
2.

(1)

5-22

5-21

5-2

10

25
50

1.
1. 150V
100
2.
2. 151V
300V50
3.
3. 301V
10
4.

220
110V

11.4
22.8kV

110V

11.4
22.8kV

220V

R<10

R<10
E

(a) 2

(b) 3

11.4
22.8kV

11.4
22.8kV

(c) 3

(d) 4

5-22

(2)

5-22


5 5
25 5 25 125

25
(3)
5-23

( 5-23 E1E3)
25

6.6kV

6.6kV

E
E11

EE11

E
E33

(a) 2

6.6kV

E11

E33
E

EE33

(b) 3

6.6kV

(c) 3

E11
E

EE33

(d) 4

5-23

5-23

(4)

150 100 151


300 50 301600 10

5-3
5-3

mA

30

500

500

50

500

500

75

333

500

100

250

500

150

166

333

200

125

250

300

83

166

500

50

100

1,000

25

50

5-3
0.l

3. 444 10

10

5-24

5-7.

(1)

5-4 5-5

-/2+40
5-4

1.
75105

2. 6590

75

3.
75

90
4. PE
90

5.
80
6.PVC
60
1. 40
2.

5-25

5-5

80%

1.1.
2. 2.

(2)

Tr
5-6

Tr
-/100
5-6

Tr
Tr0 Tr1050 Tr 50 100
10

100

1. 1. 1.
2.

2.

2.

(3)NETA
International Electrical Testing Association, NETA
NETA ATS-1991

5-26

a. 13
b. 415
c. 16
(4)

5-27

6-1

106M
megger
250V500V1,000V
10,000V
1,000V

L
guard
E 6-1 L
GE

6-1

6-1
20
6-1
6-1

(kV)

161

1600

800

400

400

69
2244

1200

600

300

300

1000

500

250

250

1119

800

400

200

200

4.166.9

400

200

100

100

3.45

200

100

50

50

G(Good)
D (Deteriorated)
I (Investigate)
B (Bad)
1.

2500V 20

6-2

20R

CE
KVA

R (M)
GGuard
C 20 1.5 30
kVA kVA
E V

EkVA

20 69kV
1,200M25kV 1000M l5kV 800M4.16kV 400M

Rt2Rt1Kn
Rt2t2
Rt1t1
K 2,500V A 0.44
n(t1t2)/10
6-2
6-3

6-3

6-2

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

0.50
0.54
0.57
0.62
0.66
0.71
0.76
0.81
0.87
0.93
1.00
1.07
1.14
1.23
1.31

25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39

1.40
1.51
1.61
1.73
1.85
1.98
2.12
2.27
2.43
2.61
2.80
3.00
3.21
3.44
3.69

40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54

3.95
4.23
4.54
4.87
5.22
5.60
5.99
6.41
6.86
7.34
7.85
8.65
9.34
10.10
10.90

55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70

11.20
12.00
12.87
13.79
14.78
15.95
16.98
18.20
19.50
20.90
22.40
24.00
25.75
27.61
29.61
31.75

6-3
(kV)

20

30

40

50

60

66kV

1200M

600M

300M

150M

75M

2244kV

1000M

500M

250M

125M

65M

1119kV

800M

400M

200M

100M

50M

5.76.9kV

400M

200M

100M

50M

25M

3.45kV

200M

100M

50M

25M

12.5M

2.

6-1

6-4

3.
2500V 6-2
l000M GEWH
1000M

6-2

6-2

DC
DC HYPOT Tester

1.5
0.511.5 6-4
6-4

161kV

69kV

34.5kV

24kV

12kV

7.2kV

3.6kV

80kV

30kV

15kV

12kV

6kV

3.6kV

1.8kV

160kV

60kV

30kV

24kV

12kV

7.2kV

3.6kV

240kV

90kV

45kV

36kV

18kV

10.8kV

5.4kV

6-5

kV
V
=
mA A

20
1.

(guard) 6-3

6-4

6-3

6-4

Insulation
Class
6-6

1.2 1.6

6-2
20
2.
(1)OCB

a. 123456
123 (tank)
b. 6-4

10

6-7

c.
d.
e. 6-1 G

(2)

Oerlikon TOFQ

123 pole

Support housing

OCB

MOCB (Cylinder) OCB


5000M
1000M 5000M

1(90KV)
6-8


10000M 5000M

(3)VCBGCB GIS
VCBGCB GIS OCB GIS

10~30 2010%

70%
3.
PTCT

110 220V
250V lM
4.
DC 2.5kV Line A

10,000M
100200M
3 1

5.
6-9

6-4
10

6-1

69kV

6-4
10 6-5

6-5

80A/Km

6-3

80200A/Km

200A/Km

AC
W VA

Ic E 90

Rp
Ic

6-10

IRE 6-5

6-5
RpIR

6-6 ICIR(Dielectric Loss


Angle)IT

6-6

ITICIR
j()

ITjCEjCgeEjCgeECgeECge
Dieletric Dissipation Factortan

tan

I R
=
.(1)
I C

6-11

DF
DFtan100%
%DFtan100
ICIT
IR
Dielectric Power Factorcossin
sintan
costan
cos tan cos
PF
PFcos100%
%PFcos100
Dielectric LossWattEIREIT cos
E2 Cge cos
E2 Cge tan.(2)
(1)(2)

1.

10kV 60kV 60kV

6-12


10kV 10kV
2.5kV
(1)
a.
(CH+CHL)
b.guard
CH
c.
(CL+CLH)
d.
CL
abcd
CHL
(2) 6-6 20
6-7
6-6

69kV

1~3

3~5

0.5

34.5kV15kV

2~4

4~6

2.5

1.5

6~12

12~20

20

6-13

(3)
1.0% 2.5%
2.0%

6-7

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

1.00
0.95
0.90
0.85
0.81
0.76
0.72
0.68
0.64
0.60
0.56
0.53
0.51
0.48
0.46
0.44

1.56
1.54
1.52
1.50
1.48
1.46
1.45
1.44
1.43
1.41
1.38
1.35
1.31
1.27
1.24
1.20
1.16
1.12
1.08
1.04
1.00
0.96
0.91
0.87
0.83
0.79
0.76
0.73
0.70
0.67
0.63
0.60
0.58
0.56
0.53
0.51

1.57
1.54
1.50
1.47
1.44
1.41
1.37
1.34
1.31
1.28
1.25
1.22
1.19
1.16
1.14
1.11
1.09
1.07
1.05
1.02
1.00
0.98
0.96
0.94
0.92
0.90
0.88
0.86
0.84
0.82
0.80
0.78
0.76
0.75
0.73
0.71

Doble Engineering
6-14

()
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
72
74
76
78
80


0.42
0.40
0.39
0.37
0.35
0.34
0.33
0.31
0.30
0.29
0.28
0.27
0.26
0.25
0.24
0.22
0.21
0.19
0.18
0.16
0.15
0.14
0.14
0.13
0.12
0.11
0.11
0.11
0.10
0.09

0.49
0.47
0.45
0.44
0.42
0.40
0.38
0.37
0.36
0.34
0.33
0.31
0.30
0.29
0.28
0.26
0.23
0.21
0.19
0.17
0.16
0.15
0.14
0.13
0.12
0.12
0.11
0.11
0.10
0.09

0.70
0.69
0.67
0.66
0.65
0.63
0.62
0.60
0.59
0.57
0.56
0.55
0.54
0.52
0.51
0.49
0.47
0.45
0.43
0.41
0.40
0.38
0.36
0.35
0.33
0.32
0.31
0.30
0.28
0.27

2.

6-8
6-8 PTCT

3.5

3.5~5

5~8

161kV

2~3.5

3.5~5

345kV

1~2

2~3

3.5

3.5~5

5~8

10

10~20

20~35

35

69kV

SF6

Doble

3.OCB

3.5%20

W1W2
WeWeW1W2(Tank loss
index)TLI

(1)

6-15

a. OCB(69kV)3.5G
b. OCB(11.4kV)5G
(2)
a. 2.5kV PF Test Set
(a)9mW OPEN G
(b)9mW16mW(Tank Liner)
D
(c)16mW(b) I
(d)9mW16mWD
(e)16mW(d) I
b. 10kV PF Test Set
(a)TLI 0.15W
(G)
(b)TLI +0.15 +0.25W (D)
(Tankliner)
(c)TLI +0.25W (I)(b)
(d)TLI 0.15W 0.25W (D)

(e)TLI 0.25W (I)(d)


(3)
6-9

6-16

6-9

161kV,
OCB

()

()

()

()

()

0.29

0.4

0.53

0.53

0.26

161kV, WH GM

0.2

0.31

0.44

0.44

0.16

69kV

0.15

0.26

0.39

0.39

0.12

0.12

0.23

0.36

0.36

0.08

0.12

0.23

0.36

0.36

0.08

0.02

0.04

0.04

0.02

0.15

0.26

0.39

0.39

0.12

0.29

0.4

0.52

0.52

0.24

0.29

0.4

0.52

0.52

0.24

0.15

0.26

0.39

0.39

0.12

1.5

2.5

3.5

3.5

0.15

0.26

0.39

0.39

0.12

161/69kV(Dead Tank),

1.5

0.12

0.08

0.5

1.5

0.12

0.08

0.15

0.12

25kV

VCB

69kV

MOCB

15kV (*
MBB

700A )

161/69kV(
ACB
)

GCB/GCS

161/69kV
GIS
161/69kV,

1. 161kV
10kV PF Test Set
2.
3.

4.VCB
(1)(Vacuum Circuit Breaker VCB)
a.
6-17

6-7 VCB
6-7
B1B2
R

S1S2
b.

16

(guard) 1
35 246

79

Ungrounded-Specimen Test,
UST

1015

(2)
a.

6-18

(a)15kV

(b)34.5KV
6-8

6-8
V1, V2

b.

UST

V1

V2

AC

34.5kV

(3) 6-9
5.GCB
(SF6 Gas Circuit Breaker GCB)
(1) Live Tank ACB "T"
ACB Dead Tank OCB
(2)
(Voltage Grading
Capacitors)

UST(Grading Capacitors)Dead
6-19

Tank GCB

16

()

79

()

1012

() UST

ICC(Interference-Cancellation Circuit)
(3) 6-9
6.GIS
(1)GIS(Gas Insulation Switchgear)
SF6GIS

GIS
GIS

SF6

(2)

G/S 345kV GIS


6-9

6-20

6-9 GIS
(DS1DS2)

UST

ES1ES2

ES1ES2

A(B)

ES1ES2

DS2ES3

B(A)

(3) 6-9
7.

10 50

1.0 2.0% 2.0%

6-21

6-4

6-10(a)
H1H2/X1X2H2H3/X2X3H3H1/X3X1Y
6-10(b)H1H2/X0X2H2H3/X0X3H3H1/X0X1
0.5%
0.5%

0 30
6-11
Transformer Turn Ratio Testser-TTR

0.5
0.5%

6-22

6-10

H1X1
H2-X2, H3-X2, H1-H2, H2-X3

(1)H2-X3=H3-X2
(2)H2-X2<H1-H2
(3)H2-X2<H2-H3

H1X1
H3-X2,
H2-X2 , H2-X3,

(1)H3-X2=H3-X3
(2)H3-X2<H1-H3
(3)H2-X2<H2-X3
(4)H2-X2<H1-H3

6-11

6-23

H3-X3,

H1-H3,

6-5

1.

VS
ISPS 6-12

6-12

Ps

ZtVS/IS
RPS/ IS2
X Z2t R 2

Zt puVS/Zt pu
R puPS/VA
2
2
R pu
X pu ztpu

6-24


75 85 Wc 75 85

234.5 + 85
Wc
Wc(85)=
234.5 + T
T
2.

V0I0P0 6-13

6-13

P0
P0
I0
Y0I0/V0
GP0/ V02
B Y02 G 2
Y0GB
Y0 (pu)I0/

6-25

G (pu)P/VA
B (pu) Y02 ( pu ) G 2 ( pu )

(1)
(2)
(3)

6-6

1.
6-14

V
R T0R0
I
R0

234.5 + T0
R
234.5 + T

( 226 )

T
T0 20

6-14

6-26

15%
2.
6-15
C G

A
R C
B
2.0m/m

6-15
3.

2-3

6-7

Contact resistance

I2R

T 20
6-27


234.5 + 20
R
R20=
234.5 + T
R
T
I2R

6-10

6-28

6-10

WH

OCB

GE

GCB

VCB

169GM31
169GM50
169/145GM50
169/145GMA50
1610/1380GM10000
1610/1380GM13000
1610/1380GM15000
1610GM10000
1610GM15000
690GM5000
690G3500
690G2500
345G1500
230G1500
FK-169-
FK-169-
FK-161-5000
FK-161-5000
FK-72.5-
FK-72.5-
FK-38-
FK-38-

(kV)
169
169
169
169
161/138
161/138
161/138
161
161
69
69
69
34.5
23
169
169
161
161
72.5
72.5
38
38
161
69
69
14.4/13.8
14.4/13.8
14.4/13.8
14.4/13.8
23
23
14.4
14.4
13.8
13.8
23.9
23.9
13.8
13.8
23
23
13.8
13.8

(kA)

1.2
1.2
1.2

2
2
1.2
1.6
0.8
Main
Feeder
1.6
0.6
1.6
0.6
1.6
0.6
2
0.6
1.6
0.6
Main
Feeder
Main
Feeder

(, )
290
290
290
290
290
290
290
290
290
60
165
165
185
125
350()
525()
800()
2000()
250()
450()
250()
450()
9010%
11010%
16510%
30
60
40
80
50
100
40
80
50
80
30
60
30
60
40
80
40
60

1. 161kV

2.
3.
6-29

6-8

1.

6-16(A)

10 20 6-16(B)
2.
(1)
(2)
3.

10
30

5
3
6-11

6-16
6-30

6-11

GIS

GCB

Close

Open

80~100

18~28

4.2

70-SFM-40A

69

80~100

18~28

4.2

70-SFL-350P

69

125~130

35~37

4.2

MFPT-140-50L

161

118~122

22~25

4.2

161

150

33

4.2

69

130

33

4.2

69

1.2

130

33

4.2

69

1.2

144

58

4.2

161

150

33

4.2

161

150

33

4.2

69

1.2

130

33

4.2

(DC24V)

69

1.2

144

58

4.2

(DC125V)

69

1.2

150

53

4.2

23

2/1.2

35~55

20~25

4.2

23

0.6

35~55

20~35

4.2

14.4/13.8

2/1.2

40~60

35~45

4.2

14.4/13.8

0.6

40~60

20~30

4.2

23

300

50

4.2

14.4

65

35

4.2

13.8

300

50

4.2

23.9/14.4

80

70

4.2

13.8

60

40

4.2

GCB

23/13.8

70

55

4.2

GCB

14.4

90

55

4.2

23

60

33

4.2

13.8

90

50

4.2

VCB

(kV) (KA)
161

(ms, )

140-SFM-50A

GCS

1. 161kV

2.
3.

6-31

6-9

1.
(Dielectric strength)
20
30

6-17110V (Slidack)

6-17

3kV

2030 6-12
2.
W
VA
6-18
10kV W

6-32

VA 20
6-13 20
10kV
10kV 10kV
6-12

6-33

6-12

ASTM

69kV

>69~161
kV

345kV

69kV

>69~161
kV

345kV

1.

D1524

2.

0.5

L1.0

D1500

3. 15/15

0.91

0.91

D1298

4.

145

145

D92

5.

-27.5

-27.5

D97

6. 40,cSt

12.0

12.0

D445

0,cSt

76.0

76.0

D445

40

39

24

26

30

D971

0.03

0.03

0.2

0.1

0.1

D974

9.

D1275

10.

D878

35

20

35

25

20

25

20

15

D1533

0.15

0.15

0.5

0.5

D2440

0.3

0.3

0.6

0.6

30

50

14. 2560Hz , %

0.05

0.05

250.25

100 60Hz , %

0.30

0.30

200.20

15. 85,-cm

5.01013

5.01013

16. ppmv

7. dynes/cm,25
8. mg KOH/g

11. ppm
12.
72 :

%m/m

mh KOH/g
164

%m/m

mh KOH/g
13. kV
VDE 1
2.03-mm

TCG:10
C2H2+C2H4=0

30

6-34

50

D1816

D924

D1169

TCG:10
C2H2+C2H4=5

D3612

6-18
6-13

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25


1.54
1.52
1.50
1.48
1.46
1.45
1.44
1.43
1.41
1.38
1.35
1.31
1.27
1.24
1.20
1.16
1.12
1.08
1.04
1.00
1.00
0.96
0.95
0.91
0.90
0.87
0.85
0.83
0.81
0.79
0.76

26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50


0.76
0.72
0.73
0.68
0.70
0.64
0.67
0.60
0.63
0.56
0.60
0.53
0.58
0.51
0.56
0.48
0.53
0.46
0.51
0.44
0.49
0.42
0.47
0.40
0.45
0.39
0.44
0.37
0.42
0.35
0.40
0.34
0.38
0.33
0.37
0.31
0.36
0.30
0.34
0.29
0.33
0.28
0.31
0.27
0.30
0.26
0.29
0.25
0.28
0.24
6-35

52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
72
74
76
78
80


0.26
0.22
0.23
0.21
0.21
0.19
0.19
0.18
0.17
0.16
0.16
0.15
0.15
0.14
0.14
0.14
0.13
0.13
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.11
0.11
0.11
0.10
0.10
0.06
0.09
0.09
0.09

3.

=R

A
cm
l

R
A(cm2)
l(cm)
-cm

K 1,000V2,000M
R M
KR109-cm
K

50
50
6-14( 6-12)
6-14

1013-cm

1014-cm

1012-1013-cm

1012-cm

50
50

6-36

4.
(Neutralization test)
KOH KOH
(1)BTB 0.1 BTB(Bromotymol Blue) 25cc
(2)1/20 N KOH (1/20 N KOH cc KOH2.8
)(3)
20cc 40cc
BTB KOH
KOH cc
56

N
(KOHcc) ( KOH)
20
(cc

6-12

6-10

250 500 (Megger)

50M 1M
5M
1.

6-19
412A 4A 0.52.5A 0.5A

6-37

6-19
2.

6-20 (a)RiI1RdId
I2(I1+Id)I1IdId 5A
6-20(b)R2I2RdId
I1(I2+Id)

I1I2

6-20
6-38

6-11

1.

(1)
6-15
6-15
(345kV)

(161kV)

(69kV)

()

0.1

0.5

250mm2
H.D.C

150 mm2
H.D.C

100 mm2
H.D.C

250 mm2
H.D.C

80 mm2
H.D.C

50 mm2
H.D.C

(2)

(3)

2000V
a.(Etouch)
155 + 0.23 s

R o
Io t
b.
2,000
Io

Ro

6-39

Io
35 5

t ()
s(cm)
(4)IEEE
a. IEEE

1
1 5

b.IEEE Standard 80RE

RE(GPR/ET)ET-Max./IE ()

REET-Max./IE ()

GPR (Ground potential rise)(V)


ET(V)
ET.Max(V)
IE(A)
=GPR/ET(3 ~ 5)
2.

6-40

6-16

6-16

(-cm)

2,370

590

7,000

1,630

340

4,060

13,500

1,020

15,800

94,000

59,000

458,000

6-21

6-21 ()

6-22

6-21 Wenner(Ammeter Voltmeter method)


6-22 AC 60 RX
R X

V
() RX
A

2a RX(-m)

a (m)
RX()
a a
20

6-41


6-23
1()
2
3

6-23
D44mean

mean

mean =

' mean =

1 D1 + 2 D2 + 3 D3
D1 + D 2 + D3

mean + 4
2

3.
(1)

a.
b.
c.
d.
Fall-of-potential method
6-24
6-42

6-24
C
LCPLP
7.5 180

120

C
C 6
P 3 3

220V30A PVC

6-43

(2)
a. OFF
Vs
b.ONF
IV1
c.Rb
V2
OFF
d. 6-25

6-25
(a)Is=0 Vs
(b)I(20A)V1
(c)V2
(d)V1VsVsV2

V=

V12 + V222Vs 2
2

e.
R =

V
I

f.
6-44

(3) Ground Megger Tester


6-26

6
LC

LP

6-26
(4)
6-27

6-27
4.

(1) (Touch Potential)

6-45

6-28
6-28 Ground Megger Tester
6-26
a. C1E
b. C2
c. P1
d. P2 1
e. RT
f. V=IRT
(2)(Step Voltage)

6-29 Ground Megger Tester


6-26

6-46

A
B

RF

6-29

a. C1E
b. C2
c. P1B
d. P2AAB
e. Rs
f. V=IRS

6-47

()
()

()

1.
2.
3.

()

()

A-1


()
1.
2.
()

()

()

()

A-2

1.
2.

A-3

:
()()
()

()
()
:
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()

()
()
()

():
1.
2.()

A-4

3. a b

c d

4.

5.

6. ( MOF
)
7.()

():
1.
2. (
)
3. ()
(
)
4.
5.
6.
7. (
)
8.

A-5

(A)

A-6

(A)__________

__________

__________

A-7

()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()

A B
C

A-8

________________
______________________

()

( V )

7.
8.
9.

5.

1. PVC
2.

3.
4.
5.

6.

1. PVC
2.

3.
4.

( V )

( V )

10.

( V )
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

A-9

CT

5A

PT

1.

2.

3.CT
PT
4.CT
5.

6.

1.
2.
NO.

3. NO.

1.

2.

3.
4.

A-10

1.

2.

3.

A-11

________________
_____________________

()

( V )

( V )
1. PVC
6.
2.
7.

8.
3.

9.
4.
10.
5.
( V )

( V )
1. PVC
6.
2.
7.

8.
3.

9.
4.
10.
5.

1.
2.
3.
4.

1. 1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

2.

A-12

CT

/ 5A

PT

1.

2.

3.CT

PT
4.CT

5.

6.

NO.


1.

2.

NO.

3.

NO.
1.

2.

3.

4.
5.

A-13

: ______________________
:()_____________________________________________________
:( )_____________________________________________________
:_______________________________________________________________
__________________________ _____________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

:
1.:
2.:
3.
:
1. :

2. :
3. : (Buchholtz relay SPR)
)
4. :
5. B.C.T.:

6. :
7. :
8. :Arcing horn ()

:
1. :DC AC
Heater

2. :

A-14

3. :
(L.D.C.)L.D.C R X LDC CT
PT
4. :

1.:DC AC
HeaterX
Y
2.:Trip Free

3.BCT:
4.:
()
5.:
:
1.:
2.:
3.:
4.:
:
1.:
2.
3. ()
4.:
:
1. :DC AC
2. :
3. :

4. :
5. :;

:
1. :AH DC
2. :Floating
Charge
:

A-15


:
1. :

2. :

:
1.
2.:
3.
:

:
1.
2.
3.
:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

A-16

()

A-17

C.T.

A-18

A
B

A-19

(A)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

A-20

2.
_________________

1.
______________

____________________
____________

NO.

(B)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

A-21


2.
_________________

1.
______________

____________________
____________

NO.

A-22

(
)
()

()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()()
()
()
()

()
()
A-23

()

()
1.(
)
2.
()
3.(
())
()

()
()
(())
()()
()()

()

A-24

()

()

A-39

()

()

()
()
()
()

()

()
()
()
()

()
()
()
()

A-40

A-41

A-42

A-43

A-44

A-45

A-46

1
2
3
4
5
6

50KV

()

DC 2000V

DC 500V

0~1000

600V. 600A

1
1
1
2
2
2

AC 2.5KV

10

060m10A

11

DC080KV

A-47


(.)

HP

KW

KW

KW

()A
()B
()C

()D
()E
()F

A E F


A-48

A-49
5

KVA
KV

(KV)

(A)
10" 30" 60"


(M)
()

KVA

KV
A

KVA

KV
A

KVA

KV
A

KVA

KV
A

KVA

KV
A

KVA

KV
A

KVA

KV
A

20

KV 2KV

10KV
M
M

KV 2KV

M

10KV
M
KV 2KV

M

10KV
M
KV 2KV

M

10KV
M
KV 2KV

M

10KV
M
KV 2KV
M

10KV

M
KV 2KV
M

10KV

M
KV 2KV
M

10KV

()
A

A-50
5

(KV)

(A)
10"
30"
60"

KA

KV
A

KA

KV
A

KA

KV
A

KA

KV
A

KA

KV
A

KA

KV
A

KA

KV
A

KA

KV
A

(M)
R
S
T
R
S
T
R
S
T
R
S
T
R
S
T
R

()

()


()

S
T
R
S
T
R

()

A-51

KV

(M)

KV/A

20

KV/A

KV/A

KV/A

KVA

KV/A

KVA

KV/A

KVA

KV

V/A

KV

V/A

KV

V/A

KV

V/A

KV

KVA

KV

V/A

KVA

V/A

KV/A

V/A
1
2

(A)
10" 30" 60"

KVA

KVA

KV

M
3

()
C

(V/A)

(S.L.K)


A:200 A:300 A:500
OV:130 OV:140 OV:150
UV:80
UV:40
UV:20
(V/A)
(A)
(S)
(A)
(S)
(S)
(S)



(M)

A-52

CT
PT

CT
PT

CT
PT

CT
PT

S
T
N
[](NI)
[](VI)
[](EI)
I1(P):
I2(S):
P:
S:
:

[](DT)
V :
A

A(
V(

)--(
)--(

[](DT)
V :
A

A(
V(

)--(
)--(
_

[](DT)
V :
A

A(
V(

)--(
)--(

A(
V(

)--(
)--(

A(
V(

)--(
)--(

)
)

A
A
A
A

A
A
A

A
A
A
A

A
A
A
A

A
A
A
A

KV
A

KV
A

A
A
A
A

KV
A

A
A
A
A

A
A
A
A

A
A
A

KV
A

KV
A

KV
A

)
)

KV
A

[](DT)
V :
A

)
)

[](NI)
[](VI)
[](EI)
I1(P):
I2(S):
P:
S:
:

KV
A

)
)

[](NI)
[](VI)
[](EI)
I1(P):
I2(S):
P:
S:
:

KV
A

[](NI)
[](VI)
[](EI)
I1(P):
I2(S):
P:
S:
:

)
)

[](NI)
[](VI)
[](EI)
[](DT)

I1(P):
I2(S):
P:
S:
: V :
A
CT
PT

5

KV
A

()
D

(M)
R-E

S-E

T-E

(M)
R-S

R-T



()

S-T

AT

21

AT

AT

22

AT

AT

23

AT

AT

24

AT

AT

25

AT

AT

26

AT

AT

27

AT

AT

28

AT

AT

29

AT

10

AT

30

AT

11

AT

31

AT

12

AT

32

AT

13

AT

33

AT

14

AT

34

AT

15

AT

35

AT

16

AT

36

AT

17

AT

37

AT

18

AT

38

AT

19

AT

39

AT

AT

20
P AT
40

A-53

(M) (M)
R-E S-E T-E R-S R-T S-T

()

()
E

A-54


KW

A-55