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**shear modulus and effects of implant geometry in
**

pull-out tests

A. Berzins,1,* B. Shah,1 H. Weinans,1,2 and D. R. Sumner1

1

Section of Orthopedic Research, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rush Arthritis and Orthopedics Institute,

Rush–Presbyterian–St. Luke’s Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612; 2Biomechanics Section, University of Nijmegen,

Institute of Orthopedics, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

Push-out and pull-out tests are used for destructive evaluation of implant–bone interface strength. Because nondestructive mechanical tests would allow maintenance of an

intact interface for subsequent morphological study, we developed such a test to determine the shear modulus of the

interface by measuring the shear deformation of a thin layer

adjacent to the implant. A polyurethane foam model was

used to test the experimental setup on a group of nine cylindrical implants with three different lengths (15–48 mm)

and three different diameters (5–9.7 mm). The shear modulus of the interface, as calculated from the pull-out test, was

**validated against the shear modulus of the foam derived
**

from tensile tests. The two values of shear modulus were

well correlated (R2 = 0.8, p < 0.001), thus encouraging further

application of the setup for tests of implant–bone interface

mechanics. In addition, we also examined the effects of implant length and diameter. The length of the implants had a

significant influence on the interface shear modulus (p <

0.05), indicating that comparisons of this variable should

only be made of implants with the same length. The length

and diameter of the implants were not critical parameters for

the ultimate fixation strength. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

INTRODUCTION

**tive about the type of tissues at the interface than the
**

strength obtained from destructive tests. Measurement of elastic properties is much more difficult than

measurement of the strength of fixation because the

interface zone constitutes only a thin layer (usually

less than 3 mm in most experiments).

It has been shown in push-out tests that certain test

conditions, such as the modulus of the implant and

the clearance of the hole in the supporting plate, can

affect the calculated strength.1 In pull-out tests, cylindrical implants varying from 5 to 9.7 mm in diameter

and from 15 to 48 mm in length have been used by

various laboratories.2–7 Because the stress distribution

along the interface is usually not uniform, particularly

for short implants, the actual strength values calculated from these tests may not be comparable.1,8 Similar limitations may apply to the interpretation of nondestructive interface modulus tests.

The purposes of the present study were to develop

a nondestructive mechanical test of the implant–host

bone interface shear modulus and to test the effects of

varying diameter and length of the implants on the

interface shear modulus and strength in trabecular

bone.

**The mechanical competence of biological fixation of
**

orthopedic implants is most often characterized by the

strength of the implant–host interface. Usually, cylindrical plugs are tested after having been implanted in

vivo. The strength of fixation is determined by dividing the maximum force measured in a push-out or

pull-out test by the nominal surface area of the implant in contact with the host bone. Because these tests

are destructive, the ability to examine the intact interface after the test is lost, although it is still possible to

examine the implant itself or the host bed.

It would be helpful to have a nondestructive test to

characterize the mechanical behavior of the interface

so that mechanical and morphological assays of the

intact interface could be performed in the same specimen. Obviously, the strength of fixation cannot be determined nondestructively, but it should be possible to

determine the shear modulus of the interface zone. In

addition, the modulus may prove to be more sugges*To whom correspondence should be addressed.

**Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, Vol. 34, 337–340 (1997)
**

© 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

CCC 0021-9304/97/030337-04

338 BERZINS ET AL. one specimen was prepared from each foam model tested to determine the tensile modulus. 6.S. Ten foam bone models with 7 × 48 mm implants were tested. Because the measured displacement d can be expressed as d= R2 R1 gdr. Load–displacement curves were recorded during each test. U. Fig. Mechanical pull-out tests were performed on a servohydraulic materials testing machine (model 1321. the shear modulus of the interface. aluminum mold. extended yoke. * ln R2 − ln R1 . Daro Products. 2) through a device consisting of an extended yoke (4. 2). Because the foam was the only material present at the implant–bone interface in our model (7. 2) was applied to the implant (2. When the shear stress is expressed as the axial force over the area of the interface. Models were left to harden for 24 h before the foam cylinder was retrieved from the mold. Split aluminum mold used to form foam models and to hold them during pull-out tests.9 isocyanate by weight. sliding sleeve held against the foam surface by springs. 2) adjacent to the implant was tested. The shear modulus of the .0 resin/1. U. and F. 3. we expected that the shear modulus of the interface foam layer would be the same as the shear modulus of the foam itself. can be expressed as Gif = F Figure 1. Five of these foam bone models were made using the manufacturer’s recommended ratio of 1. The tensile tests were performed on cylindrical specimens machined to ASTM standard E8 (gauge length of 25 mm and diameter of the waist portion of 6. Fine threads ([40. in fact. 4. 2). Instron) sensed longitudinal displacements between the yoke and the sleeve. 1. Fig. 1) while premixed foam was poured in the space between the implant and the mold. Fig. Experimental setup for a pull-out test (longitudinal cross section). Instron) at a loading speed of 0. extensometer. foam layer in which the interface shear modulus was measured. foam layer (7.9 Implants were coaxially held inside a 35-mm diameter aluminum split mold (Fig. standard) were used as a surface finish. which was ground against the surface of the foam model (3. Fig. Fig. 2.25 mm) at 0. 2). Coarse threads ([8. The model was refit into the mold (1. Fig. Foam components underwent manual mixing for 1 min. Butler. where g is the deformation due to shear. 2) surrounded by a 20-mm diameter sliding sleeve (5.25 mm/ min and calculations were based on the linear part of the load-deformation curve.25 mm/min. the shear deformation in the thin Figure 2. cylindrical implant. Thus. Polyurethane foam (RF-100. Excess foam extending beyond the distal portion of the implant was cut off. The other five models were formed using an altered mixing ratio of 1. The initial linear portion of the curve was used to calculate the interface shear modules. 5. Thus. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cylindrical steel implant with a diameter of 7 mm and a length of 48 mm was machined.0 resin/0. The increased fraction of isocyanate reportedly raises the modulus of the foam product. tensile force applied to the setup. and R2 is the radius of the sleeve. Tensile force (F. Fig. Gif. R1 is the radius of the implant.S. 2) with a gauge length of 10 mm and range of ±1 (model 2620-830. Fig. which was then used as a holder for each model during the pull-out test. 2) surrounding the implant.5 isocyanate. for the purpose of validation. WI) was used to simulate the surrounding bone. Fig. 2pdL where F is the tensile force and L is the length of the implant. standard) had been machined on the inside of the mold to assure interdigitation between the mold and the foam model of the bone to assure a uniform stress transfer from the mold to the bone model. foam model. An extensometer (6. Shown inside the mold are a foam model (sectioned longitudinally) with a cylindrical implant. 7.

30. 3).9× isocyanate by weight were used. The average (±SD) Poisson’s ratio of the foam was 0. was calculated according to normal isotropic material conditions using data from the tensile test: Gfoam = E 2(1 + n) where E is the axial modulus of the material and n is Poisson’s ratio. Figure 3. DISCUSSION The present study describes the development of a nondestructive test to measure the shear modulus of the interface zone of an implant placed in trabecular bone. because most cementless joint replacement components are implanted in a trabecular bone bed. In addition to the test for the interface shear modulus as described above.80 and p < 0. Two-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) were used to test for the effects of the implant diameter and for the effect of implant length.01Gif.9 In addition. A significance level of 0.36 ± 0. as calculated from the pull-out tests (Gif).0× resin/0. Poisson’s ratio of the foam was determined by compression loading of four cubic-shaped foam specimens with two separate extensometers for simultaneous measurements of the axial and transverse deformation.7 mm) and three different lengths (15. 5). Foam models with the standard ratio for components of 1.001. A linear regression was performed to evaluate the relationship between the interface shear modulus (Gif) and the shear modulus (Gfoam). The elastic properties of the foam used in our study resemble those of human cancellous bone. the threads on the implants always had attached foam after the test. rather than cortical bone. the average diameter of bubbles in the foam (between 200 and 300 mm)9 was similar to trabecular separation of newly formed trabecular bone (between 300 and 400 RESULTS The shear modulus as estimated from the tensile test (Gfoam) was well correlated with the experimental shear modulus of the interface based on the pull-out tests (Gif) with R2 = 0. specimens were tested to failure and the ultimate pull-out force was recorded. Each implant size was tested in five replicates for a total of 45 foam bone models. Neither the diameter nor the length of the implant had a sig- Figure 4. and 9. The dashed line and the regression equation represents a no-intercept model. . The average (±SD) tensile modulus of the foam models were 103 ± 12 MPa (range 90–121 MPa) for the standard mixing ratio and 126 ± 20 MPa (range 109– 160 MPa) for the altered mixing ratio.01. Regression analysis between the shear modulus of the foam (Gfoam) and shear modulus of the interface (Gif). The shear modulus of the interface. Separate analyses were applied to interface shear modulus and to fixation strength. An additional eight cylindrical implants were machined to complete a set consisting of combinations of three different diameters (5.NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTS OF IMPLANT–BONE INTERFACE STRENGTH 339 foam. then the regression equation is Gfoam = 1. Gfoam. 7. 4). If we assume that a no-intercept regression model can be applied (Fig.05 was used. and 48 mm) for a total of nine implant sizes.05) (Fig. A where Fult is the ultimate force and A is the nominal surface area of the implant. The ultimate shear stress sult of the interface was calculated as sult = Fult . We chose this site. Interface shear modulus as a function of implant geometry. All failures in the pull-out tests occurred in the foam immediately adjacent to the implant. The solid line and R2 value represents the regular linear regression. was significantly affected by the length of the implant (p < 0. nificant influence on the ultimate shear stress of the interface (Fig.

Res. de Wijn. K.’’ J. 72A. Bensusan. Harrigan. the present model is a good simulation of the biomechanical environment encountered during pull-out tests from trabecular bone. H. but depends on the specific geometry (length and diameter). 159–171 (1994). 373 (1995). S. 1135–1147 (1995). Figure 5. Braak. 1995 Accepted March 8. Cook. Urban. Bone Joint Surg. Urban. Turner. and P. H. Dalton. E. etry. 1996 . H. R. T.. Bone Joint Surg. ‘‘Enhancement of bone ingrowth by the use of bone matrix as a biologic cement. R. and J.340 BERZINS ET AL. A. J. 10. 4.. Benjamin. E. Fixation strength as a function of implant geom- References mm) in a canine model. 10. stress distribution effects at the ends may overlap. 225–230 (1995). M. L. Orthop. Galante. and W. S. M. J. one could extrapolate the results to bone tissue with an elastic modulus beyond the range tested in this study (from 90 to 160 MPa). J. ‘‘Efficacy of autograft and freezedried allograft to enhance fixation of porous coated implants in the presence of interface gaps. 8.’’ Trans SFB..’’ J. Reger. Goldberg. Thus. S. B. and M. R. S.’’ J. Bone Joint Surg. It can be argued that the shear modulus may be more indicative of the tissue type at the interface than the strength of fixation because dense fibrous tissue can give a fixation strength at times approaching that given by bone ingrowth. Wolff.. Kienapfel. Lisecki. The shear modulus values obtained from the interface and values calculated from the tensile tests of foam specimens were well correlated. Liebner. Res. 77A. and J. C. J. Tisdel. L. and a uniform distribution can only be expected along the middle portion of the implant. Sumner. 119–130 (1992). Trillingand.’’ J. J.’’ J. O. Turner. Bone Joint Surg. 269–272 (1993). E. 8. ‘‘The influence of support conditions in the loading fixture of failure mechanisms in the push-out test: a finite element study. 183. R. L. Kienapfel. ‘‘Enhancement of bone ingrowth by transforming growth factor beta. M. D. The site of failure during the destructive portion of the tests (immediately adjacent to the implant) was similar to that reported for pullout tests from a bone bed. experimental data from pushout and pull-out tests are often processed as if there were a uniform stress distribution along the whole length of the implant. Callahan. Orthop. Pierson. W. 678–684 (1990). R. Turner. P. similar to results reported for push-out tests. Galante. 423–433 (1992). Thomas. thus encouraging further application of the setup for tests of implant–bone interface mechanics. and J.10 that interface stress around cylindrical implants is not just a function of load and interface area.. The length and diameter of the implants were not critical parameters for the ultimate fixation strength. and H. Galante. J. where the uniform interface stress calculations would have been applicable. M. Orr. Szivek. D. Harris. and S. 255–261 (1984). de Groot. However. A. Purchio. Klein. O. indicating that comparisons should only be made of implants with the same length. R. Spector. B. This information would be of particular use as input into finite element models where the nature of the connection between the implant and host can now only be roughly approximated. and J. Urban. ‘‘Effects of radiation on fixation of non-cemented porous-coated implants in a canine model. McLaughlin. Parr. It has been reported from theoretical models1. R. C. E. 4. Biomed. 6.8 one can compare strength values from pull-out tests of implants of different dimensions if the 7 1. Appl. I. H.. M. F. The length of the implants had a significant influence on the interface shear modulus. Kareh. ‘‘The influence of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium-phosphate coating on bone growth in titanium fiber-metal implants. Biomater. M. T. ‘‘The testing configuration for the most accurate determination of shear strength at the implant/bone interface: the effect of ingrowth. Thus. 76A. Eschenroeder. R.’’ J. E. Rozing. 7. Dhert. M. R. P. Mater. thus eliminating the middle portion. Bolander. XVIII. H. Banks. C. ‘‘Characterization of a synthetic foam as a model for human cancellous bone.’’ Clin. A. R. D. Sumner.’’ J. V.’’ J. Based on the results of the linear regression. and J. L. 26. J. E. The fixation strength in the present study was comparable to the strength of biological fixation of similar cylindrical implants. 77A. A. 3. Sumner. T. 1527–1533 (1990). The local effects at the ends of the implant substantially affect the stress distribution.. Verheyen. Stevenson. M. T. 9. J. C. T. T. implants are in the range of lengths and diameters tested in the present study. Staikoffs. R. A. ‘‘The effect of warfarin on the attachment of bone to hydroxyapatite-coated and uncoated porous implants. Gombotz. C. ‘‘A finite element analysis of the push-out test: Influence of test conditions. S. If short cylinders are used.8. J. 2.. P. M. Res.4 This work was supported by NIH Grant RO1AR42862. M. Orthop. W. M. D. The shear modulus of the interface zone is essentially uncharacterized. Received October 5.. 5. C. D. O.

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