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Taj Mahal

2 Architecture and design

For other uses, see Taj Mahal (disambiguation).


The Taj Mahal (/td mhl/, more often /t/;[3]
Persian for Crown of Palaces[4] ) is an ivory-white marble mausoleum on the south bank of the Yamuna river in
the Indian city of Agra. It was commissioned in 1632 by
the Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan (reigned 16281658),
to house the tomb of his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal.
The tomb is the centrepiece of a 17-hectare (42-acre)
complex, which includes a mosque and a guest house,
and is set in formal gardens bounded on three sides by
a crenellated wall.

Main article: Origins and architecture of the Taj Mahal


The Taj Mahal incorporates and expands on design traditions of Persian and earlier Mughal architecture. Specic
inspiration came from successful Timurid and Mughal
buildings including; the Gur-e Amir (the tomb of Timur,
progenitor of the Mughal dynasty, in Samarkand),[9]
Humayuns Tomb, Itmad-Ud-Daulahs Tomb (sometimes
called the Baby Taj), and Shah Jahans own Jama Masjid
in Delhi. While earlier Mughal buildings were primarily constructed of red sandstone, Shah Jahan promoted
the use of white marble inlaid with semi-precious stones.
Buildings under his patronage reached new levels of
renement.[10]

Construction of the mausoleum was essentially completed in 1643 but work continued on other phases of the
project for another 10 years. The Taj Mahal complex is
believed to have been completed in its entirety in 1653
at a cost estimated at the time to be around 32 million
rupees, which in 2015 would be approximately 52.8 billion rupees (US$827 million). The construction project
employed some 20,000 artisans under the guidance of a
board of architects led by the court architect to the emperor, Ustad Ahmad Lahauri.
The Taj Mahal was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983 for being the jewel of Muslim art in
India and one of the universally admired masterpieces
of the worlds heritage. Described by Nobel laureate
Rabindranath Tagore as the tear-drop on the cheek of
time, it is regarded by many as the best example of
Mughal architecture and a symbol of Indias rich history.
The Taj Mahal attracts 78 million visitors a year. In
2007, it was declared a winner of the New7Wonders of
the World (20002007) initiative.

Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal

Inspiration

The Taj Mahal was commissioned by Shah Jahan in 1631,


to be built in the memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal, a
Persian princess who died giving birth to their 14th child,
Gauhara Begum.[5] Construction of the Taj Mahal began
in 1632.[6] The imperial court documenting Shah Jahans
grief after the death of Mumtaz Mahal illustrate the love
story held as the inspiration for Taj Mahal.[7][8] The principal mausoleum was completed in 1643[6] and the surShah jahan on a
rounding buildings and garden were nished about ve
globe from the Smithsonian Institution
years later.
1

ARCHITECTURE AND DESIGN

and guldastas. The dome and chattris are topped by a


gilded nial which mixes traditional Persian and Hindustani decorative elements.
The main nial was originally made of gold but was replaced by a copy made of gilded bronze in the early
19th century. This feature provides a clear example of
integration of traditional Persian and Hindu decorative
elements.[15] The nial is topped by a moon, a typical
Islamic motif whose horns point heavenward.[16]
The minarets, which are each more than 40 metres (130
ft) tall, display the designers penchant for symmetry.
They were designed as working minaretsa traditional
element of mosques, used by the muezzin to call the Islamic faithful to prayer. Each minaret is eectively divided into three equal parts by two working balconies that
Artistic depiction ring the tower. At the top of the tower is a nal balcony
of Mumtaz Mahal
surmounted by a chattri that mirrors the design of those
on the tomb. The chattris all share the same decorative
elements of a lotus design topped by a gilded nial. The
minarets were constructed slightly outside of the plinth
2.1 Tomb
so that in the event of collapse, a typical occurrence with
many tall constructions of the period, the material from
The tomb is the central focus of the entire complex of the the towers would tend to fall away from the tomb.
Taj Mahal. It is a large, white marble structure standing
on a square plinth and consists of a symmetrical building with an iwan (an arch-shaped doorway) topped by a 2.2 Exterior decorations
large dome and nial. Like most Mughal tombs, the basic
elements are Persian in origin.[11]
The exterior decorations of the Taj Mahal are among
The base structure is a large multi-chambered cube with the nest in Mughal architecture. As the surface area
chamfered corners forming an unequal eight-sided struc- changes, the decorations are rened proportionally. The
ture that is approximately 55 metres (180 ft) on each of decorative elements were created by applying paint,
the four long sides. Each side of the iwan is framed with a stucco, stone inlays or carvings. In line with the Ishuge pishtaq or vaulted archway with two similarly shaped lamic prohibition against the use of anthropomorphic
arched balconies stacked on either side. This motif of forms, the decorative elements can be grouped into eistacked pishtaqs is replicated on the chamfered corner ther calligraphy, abstract forms or vegetative motifs.
areas, making the design completely symmetrical on all Throughout the complex are passages from the Qur'an
that comprise some of the decorative elements. Recent
sides of the building. Four minarets frame the tomb, one
that the passages were chosen by
at each corner of the plinth facing the chamfered corners. scholarship suggests
Amanat Khan.[17][18]
The main chamber houses the false sarcophagi of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan; the actual graves are at a lower The calligraphy on the Great Gate reads O Soul, thou
level.[12]
art at rest. Return to the Lord at peace with Him, and
[18]
The calligraphy was created
The most spectacular feature is the marble dome that sur- He at peace with you.
Abdul Haq. Shah Jain
1609
by
a
calligrapher
named
mounts the tomb. The dome is nearly 35 metres (115 ft)
han
conferred
the
title
of
Amanat
Khan upon him as
high which is close in measurement to the length of the
[19]
Near the lines
a
reward
for
his
dazzling
virtuosity.
base, and accentuated by the cylindrical drum it sits on
from
the
Qur'an
at
the
base
of
the
interior
dome is the
which is approximately 7 metres (23 ft) high. Because of
inscription,
Written
by
the
insignicant
being,
Amanat
its shape, the dome is often called an onion dome or am[20]
Much
of
the
calligraphy
is
composed
Khan
Shirazi.
[13]
rud (guava dome).
The top is decorated with a lotus
[19]
design which also serves to accentuate its height. The of orid thuluth script made of jasper or black marble
shape of the dome is emphasised by four smaller domed inlaid in white marble panels. Higher panels are written
chattris (kiosks) placed at its corners, which replicate the in slightly larger script to reduce the skewing eect when
onion shape of the main dome. The dome is slightly viewed from below. The calligraphy found on the marble
asymmetrical.[14] Their columned bases open through the cenotaphs in the tomb is particularly detailed and delicate.
roof of the tomb and provide light to the interior. Tall
decorative spires (guldastas) extend from edges of base
walls, and provide visual emphasis to the height of the
dome. The lotus motif is repeated on both the chattris

Abstract forms are used throughout, especially in the


plinth, minarets, gateway, mosque, jawab and, to a lesser
extent, on the surfaces of the tomb. The domes and
vaults of the sandstone buildings are worked with tracery

2.3

Garden

of incised painting to create elaborate geometric forms.


Herringbone inlays dene the space between many of the
adjoining elements. White inlays are used in sandstone
buildings, and dark or black inlays on the white marbles.
Mortared areas of the marble buildings have been stained
or painted in a contrasting colour which creates a complex array of geometric patterns. Floors and walkways
use contrasting tiles or blocks in tessellation patterns.
On the lower walls of the tomb are white marble dados
sculpted with realistic bas relief depictions of owers and
vines. The marble has been polished to emphasise the
exquisite detailing of the carvings. The dado frames and
archway spandrels have been decorated with pietra dura
inlays of highly stylised, almost geometric vines, owers and fruits. The inlay stones are of yellow marble,
jasper and jade, polished and levelled to the surface of
the walls.[19]

3
is bigger than his wifes, but reects the same elements: a
larger casket on a slightly taller base precisely decorated
with lapidary and calligraphy that identies him. On the
lid of the casket is a traditional sculpture of a small pen
box.[22]
The pen box and writing tablet are traditional Mughal
funerary icons decorating the caskets of men and women
respectively. The Ninety Nine Names of God are calligraphic inscriptions on the sides of the actual tomb of
Mumtaz Mahal. Other inscriptions inside the crypt include, O Noble, O Magnicent, O Majestic, O Unique, O
Eternal, O Glorious... ". The tomb of Shah Jahan bears
a calligraphic inscription that reads; He travelled from
this world to the banquet-hall of Eternity on the night of
the twenty-sixth of the month of Rajab, in the year 1076
Hijri.[24]

2.3 Garden
2.2.1

Interior decoration

The interior chamber of the Taj Mahal reaches far beyond


traditional decorative elements. The inlay work is not
pietra dura, but a lapidary of precious and semiprecious
gemstones.[21] The inner chamber is an octagon with the
design allowing for entry from each face, although only
the door facing the garden to the south is used. The interior walls are about 25 metres (82 ft) high and are topped
by a false interior dome decorated with a sun motif.
Eight pishtaq arches dene the space at ground level and,
as with the exterior, each lower pishtaq is crowned by a
second pishtaq about midway up the wall.[22] The four
central upper arches form balconies or viewing areas, and
each balconys exterior window has an intricate screen or
jali cut from marble. In addition to the light from the balcony screens, light enters through roof openings covered
by chattris at the corners. The octagonal marble screen
or jali bordering the cenotaphs is made from eight marble panels carved through with intricate pierce work. The
remaining surfaces are inlaid in delicate detail with semiprecious stones forming twining vines, fruits and owers.
Each chamber wall is highly decorated with dado basrelief, intricate lapidary inlay and rened calligraphy panels which reect, in miniature detail, the design elements
seen throughout the exterior of the complex.[23]
Muslim tradition forbids elaborate decoration of graves.
Hence, the bodies of Mumtaz and Shah Jahan were put
in a relatively plain crypt beneath the inner chamber with
their faces turned right, towards Mecca. Mumtaz Mahals
cenotaph is placed at the precise centre of the inner chamber on a rectangular marble base of 1.5 by 2.5 metres (4 ft
11 in by 8 ft 2 in). Both the base and casket are elaborately
inlaid with precious and semiprecious gems. Calligraphic
inscriptions on the casket identify and praise Mumtaz. On
the lid of the casket is a raised rectangular lozenge meant
to suggest a writing tablet. Shah Jahans cenotaph is beside Mumtazs to the western side, and is the only visible
asymmetric element in the entire complex. His cenotaph

Walkways beside reecting pool

The complex is set around a large 300-metre (980 ft)


square charbagh or Mughal garden. The garden uses
raised pathways that divide each of the four quarters
of the garden into 16 sunken parterres or owerbeds.
Halfway between the tomb and gateway in the centre of
the garden is a raised marble water tank with a reecting
pool positioned on a north-south axis to reect the image of the mausoleum. The raised marble water tank is
called al Hawd al-Kawthar in reference to the Tank of
Abundance promised to Muhammad.[25]
Elsewhere, the garden is laid out with avenues of trees
and fountains. The charbagh garden, a design inspired
by Persian gardens, was introduced to India by Babur,
the rst Mughal emperor. It symbolises the four owing
rivers of Jannah (Paradise) and reects the Paradise garden derived from the Persian paridaeza, meaning 'walled
garden'. In mystic Islamic texts of the Mughal period,
Paradise is described as an ideal garden of abundance
with four rivers owing from a central spring or mountain,
separating the garden into north, west, south and east.
Most Mughal charbaghs are rectangular with a tomb or
pavilion in the centre. The Taj Mahal garden is unusual

3 CONSTRUCTION

in that the main element, the tomb, is located at the end


of the garden. With the discovery of Mahtab Bagh or
Moonlight Garden on the other side of the Yamuna,
the interpretation of the Archaeological Survey of India is
that the Yamuna river itself was incorporated into the gardens design and was meant to be seen as one of the rivers
of Paradise.[26] Similarities in layout and architectural
features with the Shalimar Gardens suggests both gardens may have been designed by the same architect, Ali
Mardan.[27] Early accounts of the garden describe its profusion of vegetation, including abundant roses, daodils,
and fruit trees.[28] As the Mughal Empire declined, the
Taj Mahal and its gardens also declined. By the end of
the 19th century, the British Empire controlled more than
three-fths of India,[29] and assumed management of the
Taj Mahal. They changed the landscaping to their liking which more closely resembled the formal lawns of
London.[30]

2.4

structed for architectural balance although it may have


been used as a guesthouse. Distinctions between the two
buildings include the jawabs lack of a mihrab (a niche
in a mosques wall facing Mecca), and its oors of geometric design whereas the oor of the mosque is laid
with outlines of 569 prayer rugs in black marble. The
mosques basic design of a long hall surmounted by three
domes is similar to others built by Shah Jahan, particularly the Masjid-i Jahn-Num, or Jama Masjid, Delhi.
The Mughal mosques of this period divide the sanctuary
hall into three areas comprising a main sanctuary and
slightly smaller sanctuaries on either side. At the Taj
Mahal, each sanctuary opens onto an expansive vaulting
dome. The outlying buildings were completed in 1643.

Outlying buildings

The Great gate (Darwaza-i rauza) is the main entrance to the


tomb.

Taj Mahal and outlying buildings as seen from across the


Yamuna River (northern view)
The Taj Mahal complex is bordered on three sides by
crenellated red sandstone walls; the side facing the river
is open. Outside the walls are several additional mausoleums, including those of Shah Jahans other wives, and 3 Construction
a larger tomb for Mumtazs favourite servant.[31]
The main gateway (darwaza) is a monumental structure
built primarily of marble, and reminiscent of the Mughal
architecture of earlier emperors. Its archways mirror the
shape of the tombs archways, and its pishtaq arches incorporate the calligraphy that decorates the tomb. The
vaulted ceilings and walls have elaborate geometric designs like those found in the other sandstone buildings in
the complex.[32]

The Taj Mahal is built on a parcel of land to the south


of the walled city of Agra. Shah Jahan presented Maharajah Jai Singh with a large palace in the centre of
Agra in exchange for the land.[33] An area of roughly 1.2
hectares (3 acres) was excavated, lled with dirt to reduce
seepage, and levelled at 50 metres (160 ft) above riverbank. In the tomb area, wells were dug and lled with
stone and rubble to form the footings of the tomb. Instead of lashed bamboo, workmen constructed a colossal
brick scaold that mirrored the tomb. The scaold was
so enormous that foremen estimated it would take years
to dismantle.[34]

At the far end of the complex are two grand red sandstone
buildings that mirror each other, and face the sides of the
tomb. The backs of the buildings parallel the western and
eastern walls. The western building is a mosque and the
other is the jawab (answer), thought to have been con- The Taj Mahal was constructed using materials from all

5
over India and Asia. It is believed over 1,000 elephants
were used to transport building materials. The translucent white marble was brought from Makrana, Rajasthan,
the jasper from Punjab, jade and crystal from China.
The turquoise was from Tibet and the Lapis lazuli from
Afghanistan, while the sapphire came from Sri Lanka and
the carnelian from Arabia. In all, twenty-eight types of
precious and semi-precious stones were inlaid into the
white marble.
According to the legend, Shah Jahan decreed that anyone
could keep the bricks taken from the scaold, and thus
it was dismantled by peasants overnight. A 15-kilometre
(9.3 mi) tamped-earth ramp was built to transport marble and materials to the construction site and teams of
twenty or thirty oxen pulled the blocks on specially constructed wagons.[35] An elaborate post-and-beam pulley
system was used to raise the blocks into desired position.
Water was drawn from the river by a series of purs, an
animal-powered rope and bucket mechanism, into a large
storage tank and raised to a large distribution tank. It
was passed into three subsidiary tanks, from which it was
piped to the complex.
The plinth and tomb took roughly 12 years to complete.
The remaining parts of the complex took an additional 10
years and were completed in order of minarets, mosque
and jawab, and gateway. Since the complex was built
in stages, discrepancies exist in completion dates due to
diering opinions on completion. Construction of the
mausoleum itself was essentially completed by 1643[6]
while work continued on the outlying buildings. Estimates of the cost of construction vary due to diculties
in estimating costs across time. The total cost has been
estimated to be about 32 million Indian rupees,[6] which
is around 52.8 billion Indian rupees ($827 million US)
based on 2015 values.[36]

1857, the Taj Mahal was defaced by British soldiers and


government ocials, who chiselled out precious stones
and lapis lazuli from its walls. At the end of the 19th
century, British viceroy Lord Curzon ordered a sweeping
restoration project, which was completed in 1908.[40][41]
He also commissioned the large lamp in the interior
chamber, modelled after one in a Cairo mosque. During this time the garden was remodelled with British-style
lawns that are still in place today.[30]

5 Threats

Protective wartime scaolding

In 1942, the government erected a scaolding to disguise


the building in anticipation of air attacks by the Japanese
Air Force.[42][43] During the India-Pakistan wars of 1965
and 1971, scaoldings were again erected to mislead
bomber pilots.[44]

More recent threats have come from environmental pollution on the banks of Yamuna River including acid rain[45]
due to the Mathura Oil Renery,[46] which was opposed
4 Later days
by Supreme Court of India directives.[47] The pollution
has been turning the Taj Mahal yellow. To help conAbdul Hamid Lahauri in his book Badshahnama refers trol the pollution, the Indian government has set up the
to Taj Mahal as rauza-i munawwara, meaning the il- Taj Trapezium Zone (TTZ), a 10,400-square-kilometre
lumined or illustrious tomb.[37] Soon after the Taj Ma- (4,000 sq mi) area around the monument where strict
hals completion, Shah Jahan was deposed by his son emissions standards are in place.[48]
Aurangzeb and put under house arrest at nearby Agra Concerns for the tombs structural integrity have recently
Fort. Upon Shah Jahans death, Aurangzeb buried him been raised because of a decline in the groundwater level
in the mausoleum next to his wife.[38] In the 18th cen- in the Yamuna river basin which is falling at a rate of
tury, the Jat rulers of Bharatpur invaded Agra and at- around 1.5 m (5 ft) per year. In 2010, cracks appeared in
tacked the Taj Mahal, the two chandeliers, one of agate parts of the tomb, and the minarets which surround the
and another of silver, which were hung over the main monument were showing signs of tilting, as the wooden
cenotaph, were taken away by them, along with the gold foundation of the tomb may be rotting due to lack of waand silver screen. Kanbo, a Mughal historian, said the ter. Although it has been pointed out by politicians, that
gold shield which covered the 4.6-metre-high (15 ft) nial the minarets are designed to tilt slightly outwards, to preat the top of the main dome was also removed during the vent them crashing on top of the tomb in the event of
Jat despoliation.[39]
an earthquake. In 2011, it was reported that some preBy the late 19th century, parts of the buildings had fallen dictions indicated that the tomb could collapse within 5
into disrepair. During the time of the Indian rebellion of years.[49][50]

7 MYTHS

Tourism

Visitors at Taj Mahal

The Taj Mahal attracts a large number of tourists.


UNESCO documented more than 2 million visitors in
2001,[51] which had increased to about 78 million in
2014.[2] A two-tier pricing system is in place, with a signicantly lower entrance fee for Indian citizens and a
more expensive one for foreigners. Most tourists visit
in the cooler months of October, November and February. Polluting trac is not allowed near the complex and
tourists must either walk from parking lots or catch an
electric bus. The Khawasspuras (northern courtyards)
are currently being restored for use as a new visitor
centre.[52][53]
The small town to the south of the Taj, known as Taj
Ganji or Mumtazabad, was originally constructed with
caravanserais, bazaars and markets to serve the needs of
visitors and workmen.[54] Lists of recommended travel
destinations often feature the Taj Mahal, which also appears in several listings of seven wonders of the modern world, including the recently announced New Seven
Wonders of the World, a recent poll with 100 million
votes.[55]
The grounds are open from 06:00 to 19:00 weekdays, except for Friday when the complex is open for prayers at
the mosque between 12:00 and 14:00. The complex is
open for night viewing on the day of the full moon and
two days before and after,[56] excluding Fridays and the
month of Ramadan. For security reasons[57] only ve
itemswater in transparent bottles, small video cameras,
still cameras, mobile phones and small ladies purses
are allowed inside the Taj Mahal.[58]

Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, one of the rst European visitors to the


Taj Mahal

have consistently eclipsed scholastic appraisals of the


monument.[59] A longstanding myth holds that Shah Jahan planned a mausoleum to be built in black marble as a
Black Taj Mahal across the Yamuna river.[60] The idea
originates from fanciful writings of Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, a European traveller who visited Agra in 1665. It
was suggested that Shah Jahan was overthrown by his son
Aurangzeb before it could be built. Ruins of blackened
marble across the river in Moonlight Garden, Mahtab
Bagh, seemed to support this legend. However, excavations carried out in the 1990s found that they were discoloured white stones that had turned black.[61] A more
credible theory for the origins of the black mausoleum
was demonstrated in 2006 by archaeologists who reconstructed part of the pool in the Moonlight Garden. A dark
reection of the white mausoleum could clearly be seen,
betting Shah Jahans obsession with symmetry and the
positioning of the pool itself.[62]

No evidence exists for claims that describe, often in horric detail, the deaths, dismemberments and mutilations
which Shah Jahan supposedly inicted on various architects and craftsmen associated with the tomb. Some
stories claim that those involved in construction signed
contracts committing themselves to have no part in any
similar design. Similar claims are made for many famous buildings.[63] No evidence exists for claims that
Lord William Bentinck, governor-general of India in the
1830s, supposedly planned to demolish the Taj Mahal
and auction o the marble. Bentincks biographer John
7 Myths
Rosselli says that the story arose from Bentincks fund[64]
Ever since its construction, the building has been the raising sale of discarded marble from Agra Fort.
source of an admiration transcending culture and ge- Another myth suggests that beating the silhouette of the
ography, and so personal and emotional responses nial will cause water to come forth. To this day, ocials

10.1

Notes

nd broken bangles surrounding the silhouette.[65]


In 2000, Indias Supreme Court dismissed P. N. Oak's
petition[66] to declare that a Hindu king built the Taj
Mahal.[63][67] In 2005 a similar petition was dismissed
by the Allahabad High Court. This case was brought by
Amar Nath Mishra, a social worker and preacher who
says that the Taj Mahal was built by the Hindu King Parmar Dev in 1196.[68]

Views of the Taj Mahal

[3] Wells, John C. (1990). Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow, England: Longman. p. 704. ISBN 0-58205383-8. entry Taj Mahal.
[4] Pictorial History of the World. C.S. Hammond & Company. 1962. p. 301. THE TAJ MAHAL, (Persian for
Crown of Palaces) was built by Shah Jehan in memory of
his wife Mumtaz-i-Mahal.
[5] Public Broadcasting Service. PBS. Retrieved 2015-0207.
[6] Sarkar, Jadunath (Sir) (1919). Studies in Mughal India.
archive.org. Calcutta M.C. Sarkar. pp. 30, 31. Retrieved
2015-05-20.
[7] Muhammad Abdullah Chaghtai Le Tadj Mahal D'Agra
(Hindi). Histoire et description (Brussels) 1938 p. 46.
[8] 'Abd al-Hamid Lahawri Badshah Namah Ed. Maulawis
Kabir al-Din Ahmad and 'Abd al-Rahim under the superintendence of William Nassau Lees. Vol. I Calcutta 1867
pp. 384-9 ; Muhammad Salih Kambo Amal-i-Sal\lih or
Shah Jahan Namah Ed. Ghulam Yazdani Vol.I (Calcutta)
1923 p. 275.
[9] Chaghtai Le Tadj Mahal p. 146.
[10] Copplestone, p. 166.

A panoramic view looking 360 degrees around the Taj


Mahal in 2005

[11] Taj Mahal Mausoleum from Britannica.


March 4, 2015.

Retrieved

[12] ASI. Retrieved March 4, 2015.

See also
Architecture of India
Mehtab Bagh, a garden directly across the river from
Taj Mahal
Fatehpur Sikri, a nearby city and World Heritage
Site
Bibi Ka Maqbara, a similar building in the Deccan
Taj Mahal replicas and derivatives
Inside, a 1968 new-age music album recorded in the
building

10

References

[13] Onion domes, bulbous domes. strombergarchitectural.com. Retrieved March 4, 2015.


[14] Ahuja, Dilip R.; Rajani, M.B. (2016). On the symmetry of the central dome of the Taj Mahal (PDF). Current
Science. 110 (6): 996997.
[15] Welcome To Ocial WebSite of
U.P.Tourism. Retrieved 25 May 2016.

Taj

Mahal-

[16] Tillitson, G.H.R. (1990). Architectural Guide to Mughal


India, Chronicle Books.
[17] Taj Mahal Calligraphy.
[18] Koch, p. 100.
[19] Anon. The Taj mahal. Islamic architecture. Islamic Arts
and Architecture Organization. Retrieved 2015-02-07.
[20] Public Broadcasting Service. PBS. Retrieved 2015-0207.
[21] Economic times article. Retrieved May 5, 2015.

10.1

Notes

[1] Dutemple, Lesley A (2003). The Taj Mahal. Lerner Publications Co. p. 32. ISBN 0-8225-4694-9. Retrieved
2015-02-07.
[2] Archaeological Survey of India Agra working on compiling visual archives on Taj Mahal. The Economic Times.
29 November 2015. Retrieved 16 January 2016.

[22] Vikas Khatri (2012). Greatest Wonders of the World. V S


Publishers. p. 128. ISBN 9381588309.
[23] Al Jvd, Tabassum Javeed (2008). World Heritage Monuments and Related Edices in India, Volume 1. Algora
Publishing. p. 309. ISBN 978-0-87586-483-9.
[24] Taj.net. Archived from the original on 28 April 2015.
Retrieved May 5, 2015.

10

REFERENCES

[25] Begley, Wayne E. (March 1979). The Myth of the Taj


Mahal and a New Theory of Its Symbolic Meaning. The
Art Bulletin. 61 (1): 14. doi:10.2307/3049862.

[49] Taj Mahal could collapse within ve years because


wooden foundations are rotting. Daily Mail. 5 October
2011. Retrieved 2015-02-07.

[26] Wright, Karen (1 July 2000). Works in Progress.


Discover. Waukesha, WI, USA: Kalmbach Publishing.
Retrieved 2015-02-07.

[50] Taj Mahal could collapse within two to ve years. Fox


News. 7 October 2011. Retrieved 2015-02-07.

[27] Allan, John (1958). The Cambridge Shorter History of India (First ed.). Cambridge: S. Chand, 288 pages. p. 318.

[51] UNESCO (2002). Periodic Reporting Exercise On The


Application Of The World Heritage Convention (PDF).
UNESCO. Retrieved 2015-02-07.

[28] The Taj by Jerry Camarillo Dunn Jr.

[52] Koch, p. 120.

[29] Royals, Sue (1996). Our Global Village India. India:


Lorenz Educational Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-4291-11072.

[53] Koch, p. 254.

[30] Koch, p. 139.

[55] Travel Correspondent (9 July 2007). New Seven Wonders of the World announced. The Telegraph. Retrieved
2015-02-07.

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9
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Mughal India, Chronicle Books.

11

External links

Media related to Taj Mahal at Wikimedia Commons


Ocial website of the Taj Mahal
Description of the Taj Mahal at the Archaeological
Survey of India
Prole of the Taj Mahal at UNESCO

10

12

12
12.1

TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses


Text

Taj Mahal Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taj_Mahal?oldid=737293541 Contributors: AxelBoldt, GayCommunist, Bryan Derksen, Koyaanis Qatsi, Manning Bartlett, Jeronimo, Ed Poor, Andre Engels, Danny, Imran, Hotlorp, Montrealais, Clintp, Frecklefoot,
Marvinfreeman, Infrogmation, D, Paul Barlow, Pit~enwiki, Gdarin, Shyamal, Gabbe, Ixfd64, Sannse, Yann, Flamurai, SebastianHelm,
Tiles, Minesweeper, Looxix~enwiki, Ahoerstemeier, DavidWBrooks, Snoyes, Den fjttrade ankan~enwiki, Jebba, , Usedbook, Whkoh, Nikai, Andres, Jiang, Raven in Orbit, Ventura, Charles Matthews, Jay, Fuzheado, WhisperToMe, Selket, Judzillah, KRS,
Tpbradbury, Manika, Furrykef, Morwen, Taxman, Mowgli~enwiki, Ed g2s, Warofdreams, Owen, Twice25, Robbot, Paranoid, Phil R,
Moriori, Kizor, RedWolf, Ee00224, Goethean, Stephan Schulz, Nurg, Tim Ivorson, Postdlf, Academic Challenger, Jxg, Taurus~enwiki,
Hemanshu, Diderot, Rrjanbiah, Hadal, Kzhr, Kent Wang, Ambarish, Pmcray, Dina, Pabouk, Amorim Parga, Barbara Shack, Nichalp,
MSGJ, Everyking, Michael Devore, JamesHoadley, Sik0fewl, Sukh, Syed Atif Nazir, Mboverload, Iceberg3k, Chameleon, Jackol, Bobblewik, Dainamo, Ragib, Chaerani, Wmahan, JE, Utcursch, Pamri, Daen, Popefauvexxiii, Antandrus, Ravikiran r, Jossi, Cb6, Sanbec,
Yanamad, Bumm13, Kevin B12, PFHLai, Nickptar, Neutrality, Joyous!, Michael L. Kaufman, Imjustmatthew, Ukexpat, Karl Dickman,
M1ss1ontomars2k4, Canterbury Tail, Mike Rosoft, MattKingston, Archer3, CALR, Ham II, Jiy, RossPatterson, Discospinster, ElTyrant,
Rich Farmbrough, Vsmith, Mani1, Ashwatham, Paul August, Bender235, Djordjes, LordGulliverofGalben, S.K., Aranel, CanisRufus,
Alren, El C, Shrike, Kwamikagami, Mwanner, Shanes, RoyBoy, TMC1982, Jpgordon, Causa sui, Thuresson, Bobo192, Yonghokim, Longhair, John Vandenberg, Adrian~enwiki, Russ3Z, Oop, ParticleMan, Sriram sh, Uttam h, TheProject, David Gale, WikiLeon, Rajnarang,
Idleguy, Krellis, Pearle, Irishpunktom, Poli, OneGuy, Alansohn, Dhar, SlaveToTheWage, Wiki-uk, Mr Adequate, Leo Africanus, Omerlives, Andrewpmk, Craigy144, JoaoRicardo, Riana, Ynhockey, Osias, Cdc, Yuckfoo, Harej, RainbowOfLight, Grenavitar, Drat, Lerdsuwa,
Kaiser matias, ~shuri, SteinbDJ, Zereshk, WojciechSwiderski~enwiki, Vonaurum, TheCoee, Johntex, Richwales, Nuker~enwiki, Siafu,
Woohookitty, LOL, Brunnock, Ganeshk, Nemonoman, Blondie05, Benbest, Je3000, Matijap, MONGO, Kelisi, Alphakappa, Cbdorsett,
Cbustapeck, BartBenjamin, SCEhardt, Zzyzx11, Wayward, Isewell, Jbarta, Marudubshinki, Dysepsion, Paxsimius, Matilda, Sikandarji,
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AySz88, Sango123, Yamamoto Ichiro, Bobby Awasthi, SNIyer12, FlaBot, L1CENSET0K1LL, Ageo020, Ian Pitchford, Bobber1, RCRC,
CalJW, Crazycomputers, Nivix, Sean WI, Hottentot, RexNL, Gurch, Mitsukai, Mehrshad123, Goeagles4321, Knight Samar, Bmicomp,
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Cornelius, Bovineone, Srini81, NawlinWiki, Anchjo, Shreshth91, Rohitbd, Wiki alf, Bachrach44, Veledan, ErkDemon, Stallions2010,
LiamE, Thiseye, Wisesabre, Lexicon, THB, Jpbowen, Bobak, Wookipedia, Tony1, Zwobot, Xompanthy, M2k41, BOT-Superzerocool,
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Nlu, Dv82matt, Thane Eichenauer, Igin, Nishant12, Norvo, Vpendse, MCB, Heptazane, Calaschysm, Deville, Ninly, Nortelbert, Barryob,
Malaiya, JPushkarH, Mike Selinker, Nusatafataka, Little Savage, Tarunuee, JoanneB, TBadger, Red Jay, Shyam, Pratheepps, Curpsbotunicodify, Tajik, Arad, Kungfuadam, Premkudva, Cmglee, Je Silvers, Ihsankhairir, That Guy, From That Show!, Luk, Sardanaphalus,
Attilios, SmackBot, YellowMonkey, Saravask, Malkinann, Prodego, KnowledgeOfSelf, Info@kashand.com, Lagalag, Bigbluesh, Kimon,
Od Mishehu, Gda27, Jacek Kendysz, KocjoBot~enwiki, Thunderboltz, Chairman S., Verne Equinox, Delldot, Eskimbot, Gordynor, AnOddName, Vilerage, Knowhow, TheDoctor10, LuisVilla, Lowzeewee, Swerdnaneb, Alsandro, Moralis, Yamaguchi , Magicalsaumy,
Aksi great, Peter Isotalo, Gilliam, Ohnoitsjamie, The Famous Movie Director, Skizzik, Nameshivam, Qtoktok, Vercalos, Lapsus Linguae,
TimBentley, Deep impact, Persian Poet Gal, Hibernian, Donelson, CyberSach, Enfantsduparadis, Ctbolt, Ted87, Baa, DHN-bot~enwiki,
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The idiot, Danmoore, Kipala, Heimstern, Maverick pkg, Soumyasch, Voxx~enwiki, Sonikwlf, Tktktk, Linnell, Atomicblah, Shyamsunder,
Chodorkovskiy, Coredesat, Ecmpc, Irfan5, ManiF, Gnevin, Syrcatbot, PseudoSudo, Anand Karia, Absar, Shavez, Volatileacid, Hvn0413,
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J Di, Sam Clark, Amakuru, Mathfan, Ewulp, Courcelles, Bruinfan12, Tawkerbot2, Nmadhubala, Daniel5127, Ouishoebean, Maria202,
Joey80, Randhirreddy, Dycedarg, Mcginnly, WATP, CWY2190, Basawala, Kylu, Requestion, GerritT~enwiki, Mujeerkhan, Godardesque,
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Daniel J. Leivick, Amandajm, Eric Herriman, Arvind Iyengar, Codetiger, Chrislk02, Teratornis, Chachilongbow, Anebalance, Omicronpersei8, Uspn, MaterTerribilis, Leedimaps, Satyaveer7583, Denzy, EvocativeIntrigue, Arajagop, CieloEstrellado, Mattisse, Thijs!bot,
Epbr123, Barticus88, Mbell, Bear475, Kablammo, Ucanlookitup, Davidelit, Andyjsmith, Mojo Hand, PanAndScan, Simeon H, John254,
Neil916, Sanjaykattimani, Merbabu, Turkeyphant, Dfrg.msc, Kaaveh Ahangar~enwiki, Marco963, MinnesotanConfederacy, Sean William,
Talknshare, Sairakhalid737, I already forgot, Canadian, AntiVandalBot, Fedayee, Luna Santin, Prince Godfather, ,
Guinsberg, Manishnayak, Kbthompson, Julia Rossi, Sriram2hi, Jj137, IndianGeneralist, BADMINton, Jayjrn, Mutt Lunker, Menosn,
Wayiran, Jankit, Disinterested, Myanw, Wahabijaz, Aim krazy, Liveindia, JAnDbot, Deective, Husond, Hawkeye89, Ekabhishek, Felipe
Menegaz, MER-C, Janejellyroll, J4bergen, FactoidCow, Albany NY, Avik 007, Roleplayer, Rueben lys, Hut 8.5, Robpinion, Snowjam,
.anacondabot, Mardavich, Jennifer c martin, GoldKanga, Dapsv~enwiki, Magioladitis, Connormah, WolfmanSF, Freedomlinux, Canjth,
Bongwarrior, VoABot II, Khaled hosny, Fusionmix, Haseeb Jamal, Hullaballoo Wolfowitz, JNW, Jllm06, IronCrow, Faizhaider, Pleckaitis,
CTF83!, Dmwime, Nyttend, Tharkee, Leeborkman, Avicennasis, Wikiality123, Bubba hotep, Hekerui, Bleh999, Doranb, Indon, Ferozeea,
Airknight, , AsgardBot, BilCat, Jules2, Allstarecho, $yD!, Dharmadhyaksha, Sumitsoren, EstebanF, Glen, DerHexer, Philg88,
Simon Peter Hughes, Esanchez7587, Khalid Mahmood, Greatindiangenius, TheRanger, Patstuart, Markco1, Ashishbhatnagar72, Gun
Powder Ma, DGG, Drm310, Ksero, Skumarla, MartinBot, Vigyani, Autosol, Smartinfoteck3, Dudewheresmywallet, Almaqdisi, Uvainio,
Rettetast, Ravichandar84, Shaq.ahmed, Mschel, R'n'B, CommonsDelinker, Zack Holly Venturi, Johnpacklambert, Asiaexplorers, PrestonH, Thewallowmaker, Bansal, J.delanoy, Abecedare, Fiddleback, Eskilaar, Fowler&fowler, Mammothm1, Qwanqwa, Kidshare, Sp3000,
Itzcuauhlti, Nigholith, Cocoaguy, Thyvillageidiot, Nadinexf, SubwayEater, BrendaRob, Ajmint, Anchitk, Johnbod, Walker9010, TimofKingsland, Bishzilla, Abhijitsathe, LordAnubisBOT, Mastiland, Arindambasu, Balthazarduju, Asuohasd, 568jj, PandoraX, Plasticup,
Chiswick Chap, Saudiqbal, Rdkr, Ndunruh, Lallsons, Ahuskay, Rajaprathap, Kansas Bear, Rumpelstiltskin223, Talk2xpert, Achint.iips,
Syedyasirkamal2, BrettAllen, KylieTastic, Cometstyles, Rklystron, Bobf16, Bobface, Skryinv~enwiki, Gwen Gale, Treisijs, Barastert,

12.2

Images

11

Dorftrottel, Doub1etap, Idioma-bot, Funandtrvl, Redtigerxyz, Newnimproved, Motlaghs, Joinsiva, Psamathos, Sabir123, VolkovBot, Rayis,
Bentonia School, Leebo, Indubitably, Fundamental metric tensor, Sunnywc, Michael.frederick, Mk only4u91, AlnoktaBOT, Vincent Lextrait, Hsankalpa, Aslamt, Kanithapithan, TXiKiBoT, Joopercoopers, Mercurywoodrose, Maximillion Pegasus, Jimmyeatskids, MOHIT
(TRENDSTER), Dgrewal, Dhanu86, Naveenpf, Ajjstep10, Luvblondy12, Sean D Martin, Drvkunni, Arnon Chan, IPSOS, Piperh,
Triplec787, Anna Lincoln, Bibijee, Marshall2u, JhsBot, Ftc7, Muhammad Mahdi Karim, Seb az86556, Maxim, Nikkul, Uannis~enwiki,
Greswik, Enigmaman, Tommytocker, Moizsyed, AgentCDE, Temporaluser, Tinttong, AlleborgoBot, ColinLR, Kehrbykid, Redchaos12,
Logan, PGWG, Janas~enwiki, FlyingLeopard2014, Tuhtah, EmxBot, Lolittakapoor, JToye, LOTRrules, Itzpratik4u, Obaidz96, Bhatt
nav, Vdhillon, SieBot, BalanceRestored, VK35, Graham Beards, Scarian, Inath, Gerakibot, Incanecow, Wikifex, Leoeck, Caltas, Universe=atom, Iheartcoop, Eclectic star, Jainrajat11, PlasticMetal, Keilana, Zain25, Manojkumarpadhy, Danielgrad, Skjha, Ipodfreakerz,
PropertyFAG, Manish ismite, Screw u wikinerds, Rohit tripathi60, Wombatcat, Lagrange613, Marvinbrauer, Allmightyduck, Tunion,
Oxymoron83, Kuldip1~enwiki, Oculi, Fastlapper, Lightmouse, Lara bran, Flexijane, Rainbowluver, Alex.muller, DanniellaWB, IdreamofJeanie, Count Bleck, Aravind V R, Vice regent, Fuddle, Coolz123, Dodger67, Mistari, Richard David Ramsey, FlyingxsnailRAWR,
Vanyo, Nattuvijay76, Ryadav22, Eyeintheskye, RegentsPark, Martarius, Sfan00 IMG, User aaqib12, ClueBot, Balvinder1, Foxj, The
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DumZiBoT, Jsbr08, Soccersam908879, Skunkboy74, Against the current, XLinkBot, AgnosticPreachersKid, Rohansd, Huggle, RkOrton,
BodhisattvaBot, Swift as an Eagle, Sandeepriya, Fred the Oyster, Awalktm, Marchingknight11, John Prattley, Topsyanshu, Badgernet,
Brooxter117, Cleajames, Scientic Truths, Santasa99, Beememe, Zidaneisbak, Cincistarr16, Addbot, Skikids10, Anishkasana, Ocrasaroon, Poco a poco, Mihirbhojani, Sappa Ye-Sai, Guoguo12, Kyle9003, M.nelson, Phlegm Rooster, Tom a56, Mac Dreamstate, CarTick,
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Kamuran otukenli, Anujkhandelwal, Aks khandelwal, Dewan357, ArthurBot, Quebec99, Suasysar, Xqbot, Jayarathina, Vrghs jacob, Historicist, Night w, Rupakpk, Smk436, HFret, Truthspeaks11, Srich32977, Fishhawkg, GrouchoBot, Armbrust, Kylelovesyou, RibotBOT,
SassoBot, GhalyBot, , Samcooldude1430, Mudassir Rizwan, Benny White, Saturn-78, FrescoBot, Tobby72, BrownyCat,
Ishiai, Endofskull, Raj0216, Louperibot, Lilaac, Citation bot 1, Pshent, SpacemanSpi, Pinethicket, I dream of horses, HRoestBot, Alonso
de Mendoza, Tra, Aaabdolrashidi, CanberraBulldog, Hariehkr, Carolina cotton, Smanoida, User123 india, Elekhh, TobeBot, Trappist
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Tbhotch, Vengaconmigo, Shanefb, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, Obsidian Soul, TjBot, Bento00, RepliCarter, 06alin, DRAGON BOOSTER,
Samdacruel, EmausBot, WikitanvirBot, Look2See1, Marco Guzman, Jr, , Rarevogel, Gogophergo, BillJohnson0003, ZxxZxxZ,
Mikey456, Anajayshankar, Grzdacz, Italia2006, ZroBot, Ab600, Akhilm1009, Iwanttoeditthissh, AvicAWB, Medeis, H3llBot, Koresdcine, SporkBot, Monterey Bay, Sswelm, Shrikanthv, Brandmeister, Kanvis1981, L Kensington, Gsarwa, Tourismtraveltour, Ppyoonus, DeCausa, Wresded, ChuispastonBot, Nsrikanth.sree, Enfuite, Brigade Piron, Vikviv, Shobhit Gosain, ClueBot NG, Faizanalivarya, Pradyumnas741, Fauzan, Theintuitus, Atsme, Frietjes, Hazhk, Aurora Glory Paradise, Duranged, Gautham Pillai, Bobbyb373, Lysozym, Raoulis,
Helpful Pixie Bot, AnsarParacha, Yashmistrey, Omer123hussain, Titodutta, Asfak95, Huckillberry, BG19bot, Sahara4u, PartTimeGnome,
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petrosyan, Steve92341, Uneedk, Nequa.s, Numpty9991, Yashrajbisht, Royroydeb, HiIamstandingbehindyou, Capitals00, Peleio Aquiles,
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Ankush 89, Tiger7253, KasparBot, Artin Mehraban, Capankajsmilyo, Anurag sitar, Deepanshu1707, Firebrace, 6liveonevil9, Burningshame, WP MANIKHANTA, GSS-1987, NuturalObserver, ABPower, GreenC bot, KumaraNeeson, Vimala Darshani, PantherDePunjab14700, Acopyeditor and Anonymous: 1085

12.2

Images

File:Agra_castle_India_persian_poem.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e7/Agra_castle_India_
persian_poem.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Maahmaah
File:Dome_Chhatris_Spires_-_Taj_Mahal_-_Agra_2014-05-14_3805.JPG Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/
commons/0/04/Dome_Chhatris_Spires_-_Taj_Mahal_-_Agra_2014-05-14_3805.JPG License: CC BY 3.0 Contributors: Own work
Original artist: Biswarup Ganguly
File:Flag_of_India.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/41/Flag_of_India.svg License: Public domain Contributors:
? Original artist: ?
File:Flowers_in_Marble,_the_Taj_Mahal,_Agra,_Uttar_Pradesh,_India.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/
commons/6/64/Flowers_in_Marble%2C_the_Taj_Mahal%2C_Agra%2C_Uttar_Pradesh%2C_India.jpg License:
CC BY-SA 2.0
Contributors: originally posted to Flickr as The Taj Mahal, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India Original artist: Dan Searle
File:GroupFromNorthEastIndiaAtTaj.jpg
Source:
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