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INTERNATIONAL

STANDARD

IS0
6545
First edition
1992-10-15

Acceptance
conditions for gear hobbing
machines - Testing of the accuracy

Conditions de rkception
Contrble de la prkcision

des machines

B taller les engrenages

par fraise-m&e

Reference number
IS0 6645 : 1992 (El

IS0

6545 : 1992 (E)

Foreword
IS0 (the International
Organization
for Standardization)
is a worldwide
national standards bodies (IS0 member bodies). The work of preparing

federation
of
International

Standards
is normally carried out through
IS0 technical committees.
Each member
body interested in a subject for which a technical committee
has been established has
the right to be represented
on that committee.
International
organizations,
governmental and non-governmental,
in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. IS0
collaborates
matters

Draft
the

closely

with

International
member

approval

the

of electrotechnical

Standards

bodies

for

International

Electrotechnical

adopted

voting.

by the technical

Publication

by at least 75 % of the member

International

Standard

Commission

(IEC) on all

standardization.

IS0

6545 was

Machine tools, Sub-Committee


by removing metal.

bodies

prepared

committees

as an International
casting

to

requires

a vote.

by Technical

SC 2, Acceptance

are circulated
Standard

conditions

Committee

ISO/TC

for machines

39,

operating

,a
IS0
1992
All rights reserved. No part of this publication
may be reproduced
or utilized in any form or by any
means, electronic
or mechanical,
including
photocopying
and microfilm,
without
permission
in
writing from the publisher.
International

Organization

Case postale

56

Printed

in Switzerland

CH-IZl!

for Standardization
Geneve

20

Switzerland

INTERNATIONAL

IS0 6546 : 1992 (El

STANDARD

Acceptance
conditions for gear hobbing
Testing of the accuracy

Scope

This

International

practical tests,
tests (accuracy

Standard

specifies

geometrical

Preliminary

remarks

3.1

In this

permissible

International
deviations

Standard,

3.2

of the machine.

NOTE In addition
to terms used in the official
IS0
(English, French and Russian), this International
Standard

languages
gives the

equivalent
terms in the German language;
these are published
under
the responsibility
of the member body for Germany (DIN). However,
only the terms given in the official languages can be considered as IS0

To apply this International

machine

etc.)
etc.)

accuracy

the

(vibrations,

ponents,
feeds,

with

noises,

or to machine

which

of

the

to the testing

abnormal
should

accuracy

stick-slip

characteristics
generally

of

of the running
motion
(such

be checked

the

of the
of com-

The sequence

in which

following

reference
Standard.

At

finishing

standards
the

contain

constitute

time

with
provisions
provisions

of publication,

which,

through

of this International

the

editions

indicated

All standards are subject to revision, and parties to


based on this International
Standard
are encour-

: 1966, Acceptance
accuracy

code for machine

of machines

operating

tools -

Part 1:

under no-load

or

and recommended

the geometrical
of the machine
of testing.

or

tests are given is


and this in no way

In order

gauging

easier,

to make
tests

IS0 701 : 1976, International


geometrical data.
Parallel

gear

involute

notation

gears

IS0

Symbols

system

for

of

It is up to the user to choose,

manufacturer,
of the

those

machine

tests

relating

the

may

be

or to the

in agreement

to

properties

the

3.5

Practical

tests shall be made with

finishing

existing

which

interest, but these tests are to be clearly stated when


machine.

are of

ordering

cuts and not

with roughing
cuts which are liable to generate
appreciable
cutting forces. The actual feeds and speeds will be selected by
the manufacturer
to suit the particular machine.

3.6

When

different

conditions.

I SO 1328 : 1975,

Standard.

the

elements

IS0

accuracy.

order

instruments

methods

in any order.

national

references

dards.
IS0 230-l

applied

practical
of

be

the

aged to investigate
the possibility
of applying the most recent
editions of the standards indicated below. Members of IEC and
IS0 maintain
registers of currently
valid International
Stan-

Geometric

the

mounting

should

3.4
When inspecting
a machine, it is not always possible, or
necessary,
to carry out all the tests described
in this Inter-

in this text,

were valid.
agreements

defines

reference

as speeds,
before

is tested.

Normative

The

verification

It does not apply

and the

and inches.

for the installation


of the
up of spindles and other mov-

ing parts, description


of measuring
accuracy of testing equipment.

related to the sub-assemblies


only

in millimetres

Standard,

made to IS0 230-1,


especially
machine before testing, warming

3.3

terms.

It deals

the dimensions

are expressed

machines, with vertical


Standard also gives the

used for the main elements

machine.

and

with reference to IS0 230-I and also kinematic


of the transmission
of motion) for general pur-

pose and normal accuracy gear hobbing


or horizontal spindle. This International
terminology

tests

machines

the tolerance

from

230-l

that

: 1996, 2.311)

that the minimum

3.7

The values

nearest

0,001

is established

given
value

using

in this
it should

for a measuring

International
be taken

of tolerance

the formulae

is 0,005

Standard
into

range
(see

consideration

mm (0,000 2 in).

shall be rounded

to the

mm (O,ooO 1 in).

IS0 6545 : 1992 (El

Terminology

18
\

16

Ref.

English

language

French

language

Russian

language

Bed

Bane

Craer4ia

Column

Montant

Tlepe4Hm-i

Work-steady

column

Montant

de la lunette

3a#WlR

Work-steady

slideway

Glissiere

de la lunette

Hanpasnatotqae

Work-steady

Work

arbor

Axial

slideway

Lunette
(clamping

arbor)

Arbre

Porte-piece

Glissiere

du chariot

language

Bett
Hauptstander

CTOhKa

CTOtiKa

C ,lK)HeTOM

ntoriera

Gegenhalterstander
Gegenhalterfiihrung

flDHeT

Gegenhalterarm

Onpaaka

Aufspanndorn

Hanpasneqae

axial

German

cynnopra

Axialschlittenfijhrung

@pe3bl

Axial

Tangential

slide
slide

Chariot

10

Outboard

bearing

CynnopT

axial

Chariot tangentiel
fraise)
Contre-palier

(ou porte-

du madrin

porte-

Axialschlitten

@pesbl

nonepeqHblfi

Tangentialschlitten

cynnopT

onpasku

~o~twm~~~

@pesbt

Frasdorn-Gegenlager

fraise

11

Axis of rotation
spindle

12

Hob

13

Reference

14

Work-table

15

Workpiece

16

Index

worm

17

Index

worm

18

Work-steady

19

Hob arbor

of the hob

shaft
f-carrier;
wheel
slide

-spindle)

Ocb urnmiflena

Drehachse
tragers

Fraise-mere

0pesa

Wllzfrlser

Arbre

3TanOHHblti

Axe de la broche

Plateau

Porte-fraise

de reference
Porte-piece

Pa6oruli

cron

Werkstijcktrager

06pa6arbreaeMae

Roue de division

Aenr4renbrioe

Vis de division

flenL,TenbHblti

Chariot

CynnopT

Arbre

Porte-fraise

0pesepriae

Bezugswelle

Ban

Piece

Porte-lunette

des Werkzeug-

aeranb

koneco
BHHT

n meTa

onpaaka

Werksttick
Teilschneckenrad
Teilschnecke
Gegenhalterschlitten
Frlserdorn

IS0 5545 : 1992 (El

f dk0

Symbols

part of

fdkproportional

reference
For the purposes
symbols

of this International

in addition

to those

given

Standard,
in IS0

the following

701 apply.

f dkT

part of

fdkproportional

reference

5.1

Reference

workpiece

mission

reference

diameter

%.I

transverse

module

ptu

transverse

diametral

number

5.2

f,d, max
pitch

of teeth

Test workpiece
b

face width

reference

normal

transverse

normal

pt

transverse

number

helix angle

diameter

amplitude
component

fv

helix form

deviation

fHP
f Pt

helix slope deviation

ftl

module

f xk

module

diametral

pitch,

diametral

in reciprocal

pitch,

inches

in reciprocal

d max

diameter

of the

largest

workpiece

that

on the machine

mc max maximum

hob module

P c min minimum

pitch

angular

trans-

peak)
angular

of

the

low-

transmission

deviation

high-frequency
component
transmission
deviation

of the tangential

linear

low-frequency
transmission

of the

linear

component
deviation

high-frequency
component
mission deviation

Fd

angular

transmission

tangential

of the axial linear trans-

of the axial linear

trans-

deviation

diametral

pitch

of the hob,

high-frequency
sion deviation

component

of the angular

transmis-

cumulative

pitch

pitch

axial linear transmission

Fcx

total

linear transmission

profile

Additional

deviation

deviation

Fx

in reciprocal

or of the test gear

cumulative

tangential

Pl

of the machine

tqtal

Ft

5.5

inches

fdk

of a

inches

of the machine

reference

Accuracy

diameter

of teeth

can be hobbed

5.4

the

to

of the

low-frequency
component
mission deviation

Fpj

Capacity

of

(peak

fxl

FP

5.3

to the reference

component

maximum

f tk

of a

deviation

frequency
deviation

single

module

or test workpiece

low-frequency

fdl

to the transverse

or test workpiece

deviation

deviation

deviation

symbols

number

of periods

defined

in accordance

of the cumulative
with

pitch deviation

8.2

length

ZS

number

of starts

of the index

worm

zT

number

of teeth

of the index

worm

of arc on a reference

circle

wheel

IS0 6646 : 1992 (E)

Geometrical

No.

tests

Object

Diagram

A -

Gl

Measurement
surface

G2

WORK-TABLE

of the diametral

straightness

of the

of the work-table

Measurement
of radial
rotation of the work-table

run-out
of the
or work-spindle

axis

of

IS0 6545 : 19S

Permissible

deviation
0,000 1 in

0,001 mm

Observations

Measuring

to the IS0

instruments

d, D, I, m in millimetres

(E)

d, D, I, m, $

230-I

and

references

: 1986 acceptance

code

in inches

Subclauses

2,36

6 + 0,6 Jo-02
Straight

1,19 dm;

Straightedge
and dial gauge,
level or other
equipment

or concave

Trace
cision

5.2 and 5.3

the surface of the work-table


with a predial gauge using the bridge-type
straight-

edge as a reference.
Machines without
work-tables
do not require this
test. For machines up to 500 mm diameter worktable check the straightness
on

machines

with

500 mm on four

on two diameters

a work-table

greater

and
than

diameters.

Subclause

5.612

Place two gauges, located 90 apart at a) and b)


against the ball, perpendicular
to the axis of rotation of the work-spindle.
Adjust the ball on the
support
so that the variations
of the indicator
readings

of both dial gauges

of the work-table
Flat-tipped
gauge,
4 + or1 Jd,,

1.57 + 02

dial

ball, and

special support
or test cylinder

The variations

during

one revolution

will be as small as possible.

of the indicator

b) shall be recorded

readings

at a) and

as the measured

radial

run-

in both

of rotation

out.
Take measurements

directions

of the work-spindle
at a) and b). The largest of the
indicator
reading variations
shall be recorded as
the measured

radial runout.

These measurements
can also be made by using a
test cylinder
in place of the ball and special
support.

IS0 6545 : 1992 (E)

Object

Diagram

No.

Measurement
G3

---r-

axial slip of the work-

.-

Measurement
G4

of periodic

spindle

of camming

of the work-table

ISO6545:1992E)

Permissible
0,001 mm
d, D, I, m in millimetres

deviation
0,000 1 in

d, D, I, m, G in inches

Measuring
instruments

Observations
and references
to the IS0 230-I : 1996 acceptance

Subclauses
Place
with

the

Flat-tipped

I,57 + 0,12&g

gauge,
special

dial

ball and
support

of the

in both directions

On machines

where

the work

zontal,

a force

F, if necessary),

apply

shall be specified

l) Not necessary
bearings.

the work-table

successively
apart

on

the

dial gauge

points

largest

Take measurements
of the work-table.
reading
measured

axis is horiin order

to

the value of

by the manufacturer.

preloaded

5.632

surface

at two

with

a dial gauge

a) and b) located

possible

diameter (one measuring


the bob).

Crown-tipped

of rotation

in the case of axially

Subclause
Touch

arbor

the axial play in the bearing;

this force

2,36 + 0,5 fi

and

as in test G2.

of the work-spindle.

eliminate

6 + 0,25 ,ji!i,

in alignment

of the work-spindle

the ball adjusted

Take measurements

and 5.622.2

dial gauge

the axis of rotation

against

4 + 0,06 Jd,,,

stylus

5.622.1

code

point

9o

measuring

circle

a) or b) opposite

in both directions of rotation


The largest of the indicator

variations

shall

be

recorded

as

the

camming.

On machines
zontal,
apply
test G3.

where

the work

a force

F,

if

arbor

axis is hori-

necessary),

as

in

NOTE - It may be useful to put a flat block between the


stylus and the table surface.

1 Not necessary
bearings.

in the case of axially

preloaded

ISO6645:1992(E)

Object

Diagram

No.

B -

WORK-STEADY

65

a0-Q

I
Q
bl

1,

maximum

working

traverse

of the work-steady

Measurement
movement
arbor

of parallelism
with

of the

the axis of rotation

work-steady
of the work

IS0 6545 : 1992 (E)

Permissible

deviation

0,001 mm

0.000 1 in

d, D, I, m, $

d, D, I, m in millimetres

Measuring
instruments

Observations
and references
to the IS0 230-I : 1986 acceptance

code

in inches

a)
Subclause
Permissible

deviation

Attach
towards

the axis of the hob spindle:

the dial gauge to the work-steady

bore of the steady,


test mandrel

8 + 0,8 JT;

3,15

1,59&

mandrel

in the opposite

direction

Crown-tipped
dial gauge and

1,57 + 0,79 4

4 + 0,4 &

cylindrical
mandrel

test

Take

to its position

traverse

work-steady
Determine

of mean

deviation
236

the

the test

radial run-out

at a) and
of the

slide clamped,
the mean

b) over

work-steady,

the
with

for

full
the

if applicable.

of the variations

of the in-

dicator readings at a) and b) per spindle


ution. The variation
of the mean values

b)

revolis the

of parallelism.

+ 0,99 J77These measurements


recording
instrument
rotating.

a) and b). Adjust

direction.

measurements

working

near the

and place the tip against

in positions

each measuring

6 + 0,5 &

5.422.3

at the free end of the test mandrel

may also be taken with


while the work
arbor

a
is

IS0 6645 : l!W

(E)

Object

Diagram

No.

a)
b)

Measurement
of coincidence
of the work-steady
bush bore with the work arbor axis of rotation

G6.1

maximum

working

height

of the work-steady

above

the surface

of the table
8

distance

between

!I,

diameter

of the bush bore

the two

measuring

planes

For machines

Measurement

G6.2

work-steady
work

1,

distance

between

the measuring

point and the surface of the table

arbor

with

of coincidence

centres

or alignment

centre with the axis of rotation

of the
of the

IS0 6546 : 1992 (El

Permissible

deviation

0,001 mm

0,000 1 in

d, D, I, m in millimetres

Observations

Measuring
instruments

to the IS0

230-l

and

references

: 1986 acceptance

code

d, D, I, m, G in inches
Subclause
If this test cannot
shall be performed.

5.442

be performed

then

test

G6.3

Place the dial gauge and its support on the worktable and touch the inside of the steady bush bore
which

is placed

Take

at the maximum

measurements

near

working

the

top

height.

and

bottom

ends of the steady bush bore in both directions of


rotation of the work-table,
in positions a) and b) at
a distance
2,36

6 + 0,6 &

Crown-tipped
dial gauge and

+ 1,19&

its support

clamped

of /a apart,

during

The variation

with

the

work-steady

the measurements,

the readings

if applicable.

(ignoring

the effect

of

form deviations)
divided by two is the deviation of
the coaxiality.
These permissible deviations
apply
to each of the two
NOTE

measurements.

If

- < 0.5
D3
and

la < 80 mm;
only one check

Is < 3,15 in

at /S + 1

is necessary.

Subclause

5.44

Place the stylus of the dial gauge against the


clamping arbor or test mandrel at positions a) and

a)
Permissible

deviation
towards

6 + 0,4 &-

(offset)

in the opposite

2,36

dial gauge,
mandrel

3 + 0,2 fi

I,18

from the work-table

adjacent

to the work-steady.

Take

+ 0,79 &-

+ 0,4&-

clamping

work-table.

This

to a point

test

or
arbor

with

it separated

work-steady

the clamping
from

shall

measurements,

the clamping

be

clamped

if applicable.

readings,

caused

steady
against
the
measured deviation.

the work

arbor,

and also
arbor.

The variations
by setting

clamping

The

during

the
of the

the work-

arbor,

is

the

may also be taken while

the

deviation
These measurements

6 + 0.4 &

2,36

+ 0,79 &-

work

arbor

Determine
indicator

is rotating.
the mean value of the variations

readings

revolution
separated

the

at a) and b) with

set against

indicator
b)
Permissible

from

measurements

steady

Crown-tipped
direction

I,

I, extends

Adjust the clamping arbor to its position of mean


radial run-out for each measuring direction.

the hob spindle:

b) at a distance
distance

at a) and

with the work-steady


from,
the clamping

ference

of

readings

is the measured

the

mean

values

of the

b) per work
set against,
arbor.
The
of

deviation.

the

arbor
and
dif-

indicator

IS0 6545 : 1992 (E)

Object

Diagram

No.

--I
Measurement
of coincidence
of the work-steady
bush bore with the axis of rotation
of the work

G6.3

arbor

I2

distance

table

12

between

the measuring

point

and the surface

of the

IS0 6546 : 1992 (E)

Permissible

deviation
0,000 I in

0,001 mm

Measuring
instruments

Observations
and references
to the IS0 230-I : 1986 acceptance

code

d, D, I, m, G in inches

d, D, I, m in millimetres

Subclause
f the test G6.1

cannot

5.44

be accomplished

this test

shall be performed.
lace the stylus
aligned clamping

of the dial gauge against the


arbor in positions a) and b) at a

distance

the work-table.

I, from

extends from the work-table

2,36 + 0,79 &

Erown-tipped

I
-or a), deviation
lob

(offset)

only

permissible

towards

dial gauge, test


nandrel or
clamping arbor

the

spindle.

The readings
ninus

one-half

I
shall not exceed

I,
to

the work-steady.

a) and b)

6 + 0,4 &

This distance

to a point adjacent

the permissible

4djust the clamping arbor to its position


radial run-out for each direction.
Take measurements

at a) and b) with

steady

and

set

against,

From, the clamping

deviation

arbor.

steady
shall be clamped
during the measurement.

of the play.

The variation

of the

also

with

of mean

the work-

it separated

If applicable,
against

reading

the workthe

of the

column

dial gauge

saused by setting
the work-steady
against the
clamping arbor, plus one-half of the play between
aore and journal,
rhese

is the measured

measurements

:lamping

arbor

deviation.

may also be taken

while

tht 3

is rotating.

13

IS0 6545 : 1992 (E)

No.

Diagram

Object

- AXIAL

AND

Measurement
G7

movement
spindle

I4

maximum

traverse

of the axial slide

of
with

TANGENTIAL

parallelism

of

the axis of rotation

SLIDES

the

axial

slide

of the work-

IS0 5545 : 1992 (El

Permissible

deviation
0,000 I in

0,001 mm

d, D, I, m, $

d, D, I, m in millimetres

Measuring
instruments

Observations
to the IS0

230-I

and references
: 1991 acceptance

code

in inches

a)
Permissible

deviation

towards

Subclause

at end of test mandrel

the axis of the hob spindle:


3,15

8 + 0,8 &
in the opposite

5.422.2

Place the dial gauge on the axial slide and touch


the test mandrel in two perpendicular
planes a)

+ 1,594

and b).

direction:

Adjust

the test

mandrel

to its position

of mean

radial run-out.
I,57

4 + 0,4 &

+ 0.79 &
Take
Crown-tipped
dial gauge
test mandrel

measurements

along the full traverse


and

directions

machines
the

planes

a) and bl

of the axial slide and in both

of displacement

On hobbing
method),

in the two

of this slide.

with

tangential

oblique

slideways

feed

(Grant

shall

be set

to o.
bl

The variations
of the indicator readings
a) and b) are the measured deviations.
2,36

6 + 0,5 Ji;;

+ 0,99 ,,&
These measurements

The deviations
the permissible

noted
limits

of the hob and work

in planes al and bl shall not exceed


at any distance
arbor.

in planes

between

the axes

may also be taken while the

work-spindle
is rotating.
Determine
value of the variations of the indicator
planes a) and b) per work-spindle
the full traverse
tions

readings

revolution

along

of the axial slide and in both direc-

of displacement

The variations

the mean
readings in

of this slide.

of the mean values of the indicator

are the measured

deviations

in al and bl.

15

IS0 6645 : 1992 (El

Object

No.

Measurement
of run-out
the hob spindle:
G8

I,

half the maximum


the middle

G9

distance

of the outboard

between
bearing

the hob spindle

of the mounting

a)

near the hob spindle

b)

at a distance

I, from

bore in

nose;
the hob spindle

nose.

nose and

of the hob arbor

Measurement
spindle

of

periodic

axial

slip

of the

hob

IS0 6545 : 1992 (El

Permissible

deviation
0,000 1 in

0,001 mm

Measuring

Observations
and references
to the IS0 230-I : 1986 acceptance

instruments

d, D,

d, D, I, m, i

m in millimetres

code

in inches

a)
Subclause
2,36

Irown-tipped
dial gauge and

:est mandrel

bl

5.612

Take measurements
in the two directions
of
,otation with the axis preferably set to the vertical
losition.

2,36

6 + 0,6 &

+ I,19

,&

Subclause
Flat-tipped
I,57

4 + Or6 Jmo.,,x

+ I,19

or
1.57 + ItI9

Jmo.,ax

5.622

dial

gauge,
preloading
device if

Place the stylus of the dial gauge against the bal I


located in the centre hole of the test mandrel, ant I
apply
a force F, if necessary*),
in order tc b

necessary,
test mandrel

eliminate

and ball

facturer.

of

this

the axial play in the bearing.


force

shall

Take measurements

l) Not
bearings.

necessary

be specified

by

in both directions

in the

case

of

The value
the

manu-

of rotation

axially

preloaded

17

IS0 6545 : 1992 (E)

Object

Diagram

No.

Measurement

GlO

bearing

I,

distance

between

the measuring

point adjacent

the hob arbor and the hob spindle

with

Measurement

traverse

of the tangential

of

the

outboard

axis

to the free end of

movement
spindle

maximum

coincidence

nose

Gil

I,

of

the hob spindle

slide

of parallelism
with

of the tangential

the axis of rotation

of the

slide
hob

ISO6545:1992(E)

Permissible

deviation

0,001 mm

0,000 1 in

d, D, I, m in millimetres

Measuring
instruments

d, D, I, m, G in inches

Observations
and references
to the IS0 230-I : 1986 acceptance

Subclause
Place the stylus

a) and b)

In a), deviation
work

permissible

only towards

the axis of the

arbor

against

perpendicular

the hob
planes

a)

to the outboard

bearing. The hob spindle


to a vertical position.

preferably

Adjust

2,36 + 0,99 &

in two

and b) and as near as possible


should

the hob arbor to its position

run-out

6 f 0,5 &

5.442

of the dial gauge

arbor successively

code

for each measuring

be set

of mean radial

direction.

Crown-tipped
dial gauge, test
bush, and hob
arbor

Take

measurements

without

the

test

bearing,

then with

The measured
coincidence

in positions
bush

a) and

inserted

in the

b) first

outboard

it inserted.

deviation

variation

is equal to the sum of the

caused

by inserting

bush plus half the play between

the test

the test bush and

the hob arbor.


These measurements
hob spindle

may also be taken while

the

is rotating.

Subclause
Place the stylus

of the dial gauge

mandrel

perpendicular

Adjust

in two

the mandrel

run-out

6 + 0,5 fi

Crown-tipped

2,36 + 0,99 ,/&-

dial gauge and


test mandrel

against

planes

to its position

for each measuring

Take measurements
a) and b)

5.422.3
the test

a) and

of mean

b).

radial

direction.

in planes a) and b) along

the

full traverse,
in both directions
of displacement,
of the tangential slide. The axis of the hob spindle
shall if possible

be set to a vertical

If the tangential

slide is clamped

the measurements

position.

during

shall be taken

hobbing,

in the clamped

condition.
The variations

of the indicator

a) and b) are the measured


These measurements
hob spindle

readings

in planes

deviations.

may also be taken while

the

is rotating.

19

IS0 6545 : 1992 (El

Kinematic

7.1

Description

tests
of the tests

Instead of the following

No.

kinematic

tests, practical tests, see clause 8, may be carried out.

Diagram

Object

Angular displacement
testers

Kl

20

Rotation
rotation

of

the

work-spindle

of the hob spindle

relative

to

the

IS0 6545 : 1992 (E)

Permissible
0,001

deviation

mm

0,000 1 in

Measuring
instruments

d, D,

m in millimetres

d, D, I, m, $

Observations
and references
to the IS0 230-l : 1986 acceptance

code

in inches

Attach angular displacement


the work- and hob spindles.
Take measurements
of the

during

under no-load conditions,


rotating
in the direction
and

reference

the

If the

measured
of

the

of rotation

continuous
with the
preferably

machine

workpiece

80 %

(I and II) to

in both directions

work-spindle

operation

testers

set

or @

up

for

or

fdu

deviation,

exceeds

repeat

measurements
with the hob spindle rotating
opposite direction (provided that the design

.fdl = t13Jd,,

fdl

= u4

machine

permits

this) to check

= fdk2

5 +

lf5s

deviation.

= fdk

Reference
fdk

the

in the
of the

f&l and fdk2

that

do not have values over the permissible


fdkl

the

respectively.

f&t

deviation

permissible

motion,

hob spindle
selected
in

f&

= 1,87+2,98

or

f&= 1,97+2t=,iG

Angular
transmission
deviation
measuring
device

41

workpiece

= +dmax;

d Ul
Zul = ~
mtu1
Reference

mtul = $0,

max;ptul = 3 PO, min

2&a,
or ZUI =
= m0, max

workpiece

du2 = +

d,,,;

du2

PO, min

mtu2 = mO,max; Ptu2 = PO,min

Zu2=~=3mo,max

2 dma,

dmax
-

or ~2

= 3

dmax PO, min

where
dlJ Tut*

the

number
of

Zlf Ptu1 and 42,

reference
the

?2J

reference

742~ PtuP are

transverse

of teeth and transverse

respectively.

diameter,

workpieces

module,

diametral
@

and

pitch
@

IS0 6545 : 1992 (E)

Object

Diagram

No.

Movement

of the axial slide relative

of the reference

I4

maximum

traverse

K3
Reference
shaft

22

Movement
rotation

maximum

traverse

to the rotation

in the slide drive

of the axial slide

Angular
encoder

/7

shaft

of the tangential

slide

of the tangential
of the reference

shaft

slide

relative

to the

in the slide drive

IS0 6545 : 1992 (El

Permissible

deviation

0,001 mm

0,000 1 in

d, D, I, m, +

d, D, I, m in millimetres

Measuring
instruments

Attach

the scale of the measuring

reference
deviation

deviation

on any length

tial linear transmission

shall not exceed

the permissible

1. The component

of the tangen-

deviation

is not taken into account.

Linear

transmis-

sion deviation
measuring

fxk = 6 + Or6Jmo,max fxk = 2,36+ I,19 ;


\i 0, min

shaft.

Take measurements
with the axial slide moving in
both directions
a) and b) under no-load
conditions.

device
Hobbing

machines

method)

and special

6 + 0,6dG

feed

(Grant

for cutting

worm

A laser interferometer
may be used instead
scale and the scanning head.

of the

Attach

to the

I <

shall not exceed the permissible

ftk = 2,36 + ,I8

\i

f
0, min

Linear

this test.

the scale of the measuring


of the machine,

to the tangential

I,

deviation
on any length 1. The component
of the axial
linear transmission
deviation
is not taken into account.

ftk =

oblique

machines

fxk= X36 + l,%/<x

ftl = 1,98J7-

do not require

the reference
deviation

with

wheels

bed or column

The measured

to the

or

fi = 1 Ji0 <

device

bed or column of the machine, the scanning head


to the axial slide, and the angular encoder to the

0 < I < I,
The measured

code

in inches

f,, = z38 Jr

f,, = I,2 fi

Observations
and references
to the IS0 230-I : 1986 acceptance

device

the scanning

slide, and the angular

head

encoder

to

shaft.

transmis-

sion deviation

Take

measuring
device

moving in both directions


conditions.

measurements

Hobbing
method)

machines
and machines

or

not require

ftk = 2936+ l,%,f~

A laser interferometer

with

the

tangential

a) and b) under

with

oblique

without

feed

tangential

slide
no-load

(Grant
feed do

this test.

scale and the scanning

may be used instead

of the

head.

23

IS0 6545 : 1992 (E)

7.2

Notes

7.2.1

relating

Test

to

kinematic

tests

f dk,,= o$f,j, 2
( ,

Kl

+ 29

in the metric

version,

ma

or
The accuracy
rotation

of the hob spindle

the form
train

of the rotation

and positional

between

the

of the work-spindle
is determined

deviations

work-spindle

relative

by the magnitude

of all elements
and

to the

the

hob

of

in the gear

spindle.

of the relative

the sum of several periodic


reasons,

it is advisable

nent from

the higher

turning

deviation

in
so

will be always

components.

to separate
frequency

motion

For practical

the low-frequency

and

fdlu=

0,9 &in

fdlu=

I,79

the metric

&in

The requirements

components.

angular

the angular
ition

transmission

position

determined

Fd: Deviation

deviation,

of the work-spindle

by the respective

from

position

its desired

of
pos-

NOTE

fdluhave

for

1,13 &

in the metric

dlu,max

2.24 flu

in the inch version.

angular

deviation:

fd,,

Component

of

the

caused

by

the

of the

measuring

axis of rotation

of the work-spindle

low-

in the

plane.

7.2.1.3

the angular

position

frequency

: Component

running

rotating

angular
of

speeds

limit of these high-

equals half the frequency


shaft

the

by deviations
at higher

The lower frequency

components

the slowest

caused

of the elements

than the work-spindle.

fdk of

component,

deviation

(the work-spindle

of rotation

of

excluded).

high-frequency

deviation
diameter

includes components
and to the transverse

this reason,
for

component

the procedure

taking

of the

angular

with

for test

a small

Kl

0.9

version,

or

Fpju

1,79

or the necessary

range of the measuring

and

a large

specified

equipment
values

inherent

in

(e.g. working

other

than those

mtu,or d,, and mtu2respectively may


mtu.The tolerances shall then be calculated

for d,, and

used for d, and


detailed

testing

for one or

for reasons

instruments),

&

transmission

the

requirements

deviation

of

for

test

single-purpose

Kl,

in actual

the

machines

to a reference

workpiece

the transverse

module

24

on the basis of a setting


having

the reference

m,,, fdkuand fdluare

over

a sector

1,6

fdku=

3.17

fdkuin

Jj/p,

the

fdkuin

fdkconsists
index

metric

the

inch

of testing
as

plates

as well

As the reference workpieces


only provide reference
checking the angular transmission
deviation between
spindle

and the hob spindle,


diametral

a standardized

value

ively,

numbers

and the

However,

the module

mtu,=

values for
the workmg,

an,,

pitch Ptu, = 3P,, min may deviate

of modules,
of teeth

if the testing

mits the use of integral

or diametral
z,,

pitch,

and zu2 need

equipment

employed

from

respectnot be inonly

values of z,, and zu2, the module

per-

of the

reference workpiece
shall be selected so that d,, and d,, will
have the required values. In this case the tolerances for fdku
of
the formula stated above. This applies, above all, to machines
on which the modules that can be hobbed are large in relation

workpiece

shall be calculated

workpiece

diameter

in accordance

with

of the machine.

angular
may

be

7.2.2

Tests

7.2.2.1
of the

linear
position

desired
is tested

Fpj

the reference

operation.

If the machine

the

as

measured with respect to the reference diameter and transverse


module corresponding
to those under which the machine will
work

of

devices.

to the maximum
from

values

be

below.

Deviating

fdku=

The testing equipment


for Fd, fd, and
devices with optical,
magnetic
or other

tegers.

the machine

&

is convenient

module

for test Kl is impracticable


workpieces

instantaneous
is

version.

If the measuring

of the reference

the

deviation

or

Fpj= Fd= fdl + .f&

the transverse

the other

version,

= fdlu + fdku

diameter as well as with a large module and a small diameter


(reference workpieces
@ and @ respectively).
method

the

transmission

which are proportional


to the
module of the workpiece.
For

specified

measurements

(s = d;rr/2),

The permissible
cumulative
pitch deviation
of j pitches shall be calculated as follows:

seismic
The

between

transmission

Fpju

high-frequency

transmission

relationship

Fdu

angular

frequency
component
of the tangential composite deviation of
the index
worm
wheel
in the installed
position
and the
instability

over half the circumference

The

workpiece.

transmission

of arc

is

dlu,max

reference

component,

to be met for any length

n/2.

case is assumed to be free from deviation.


The deviation
is
measured
as the length of arc on the reference
circle of a

low-frequency

or

of the hob spindle

and the setting of the machine, i.e. the transmission


ratio of the
gear train between hob spindle and work-spindle
which in this

7.2.1.2

For checking

limit deviation

version,

the inch version.

compofrom s = 0 to s = d;

7.2.1.1

in the inch version


max

As all

these elements rotate, their deviations will recur periodically


accordance
with their respective
frequencies
of rotation,
that the deviation

f dku= 0,6fdk thp!!! + 2 $

K2 and K3
transmission
of the axial

deviations,
F, or F,: Deviation
slide or tangential
slide from its

position.

corresponding
diameter

as follows:

d, and

The desired

position

the gear train between

is determined

by the transmission

slide and reference

shaft

(which,

ratio of
in this

IS0 6546 : 1992 (El

case, is assumed

to be free from

angular

of the reference

position

reference

shaft

or tangential)

deviations)
shaft

may be any shaft


between

could, for example,


The reference shaft

limit of these

and the respective

in the slide drive.

The

in the drive of the slide (axial

the feed spindle

and the differential.

be the shaft of a differential


change
may be chosen by the manufacturer.

high-frequency

rotary frequency
included).

linear

low-frequency
transmission

by lead deviations,
i.e. variation

components,
deviation:

deformation

of inclination

f,,

and

Components

ft,,

Apart from the above,


transmission

of

caused

of the feed screw,

of the axial or tangential

column

while

7.2.2.3
linear

high-frequency
components,
fxk and
transmission
deviation:
Components

7.2.3

deviation

Tests

slide to the

The course
function

between

reference

deviation
shaft

of

the

faster

and feed screw.

Deviation

till

shaft

(feed

screw

high-frequency

components

may also result from

of the feed screw

of the linear

geometric

defects

itself.

Kl,

K2 and K3

and tilting,

ftk, of
caused

rotating
The lower

the
by

elements
frequency

of the deviation

of the length

see figure

position

is equal to half the

running

the

mainly

moving.

angular

components
slowest

It

gear.

of components
7.2.2.2

of the

both

on a diagram

as a

1).

The curves
should

shall be plotted

1 (tests K2 and K3) or the arc s (test Kl,

of the positive

be drawn
vertical

and negative

on transparent

and horizontal

paper

permissible

deviations

on the same scale for

coordinates.

curve

Curves

of positive

and negative

tolerances

fdll
+

Checking

the course

of the deviation

Figure

1 -

Example

for test

Kl

25

IS0 6646 : 1992 (I3

If the origin
shifted

of the coordinates

along the measured

saxes

remain parallel,

the zone defined

of this tolerance

curve

curve in such a manner

the deviation

by the two

curve shall always

tolerance

is then

The number

Practical

lie within

2 = ZT -

the

cutting

of

a test

and

the

user

manufacturer
accuracy
design

of the machine,

gear
as

is agreed

indirect

of the test gear,

at the time the order

between

verification

all details including,

and the material

data shall be fixed

of

in particular,

In the

zT < 3,5 then p,

8.3

hob and all hobbing

shall also include

of

affect

hobbing

machines

the helix form

be a criterion

machine.

For

deviation

but

if

= 4 and z = zr - 4.

Tolerances

of the

test

gear

General

the

the

deviation

for
same

test and especially

are not practicable

the

The values of

m,d, and
A

and the values

of L

b are in millimetres

and

in the metric version

d and b are in inches in the inch version.

the results.
with

oblique

ffR is primarily

the deviations
of the hob and its mo&ting.
helix form deviation
of test gears hobbed
cannot

1
to 11 zT,

nearest

is placed.

The agreement

in the hob would

method),

integer

Tolerances are calculated in 0,001 mm in the metric version


in 0,OOOl in in the inch version.

purposes.

case

is the

the

equipment
to be employed.
Measurement
of the total
deviation
F, is not practicable
because any deviation

inherent

p,

the

of the test gear, hob and hobbing


data shall be
so as to produce a surface quality which is sufficient

for measuring
testing
profile

3,5,

the

Introduction

Material
selected

by the formula

p,

>

8.3.1
8.1

is given

tests
&

When

z of the work

curves.
For

of teeth

that the I or

the

(Grant

a function

of

For this reason, the


by the Grant method

acceptance

reason,

feed

or rejection
tangential

the radial composite

8.3.2
Part of fdk proportional
to the reference
of a reference
or test workpiece,
fdkT (see 5.4)

f dkT is

diameter

as follows:

of the

f dkT

composite
deviation

test

= L
d

in the metric

6+1,84=x
max 1

version,

either.
or

The

circular

pitch

should

machine

or alternatively

centring

rim of high

mounting

for cutting

The circular

pitch

preferably

be

measured

on

the gear blank shall be provided


geometrical

accuracy

to ensure

the

with

proper

.fdkT = &(2,36+3,57

of cylindrical

qears may be measured

area adjacent to one of the faces of the gear.


gear shall be hobbed without
axial feed.

in the

Design

of the

test

In this area the

f dkT

can

be

cumulative

with

the followng

design

andd

< 4000mmord

component

as the angular

zT periods

per table

Low-frequency

transmission

< 160in

fdlis
2o

This

as

deviation

the

component

with
has

p,

periods

approximately

transmission

deviation

revolution

(see figures

component

of

of

the

per

table

the

same

component
2 and 4).

criteria :
8.3.3

d,,,

determined

pitch

amplitude

gear

with
The test gear shall comply

d = f

intheinchversion

where

revolution.
8.2

&)

and measurement.

deviation,

fd, (see 5.4)

the

angular

as follows:

< p < 3o

IOmemax<

fd, =

1,6 fi

fdl =

3,17

b < 350mmor

IO/P0 min < b < 14 in

in the metric

version

in the inch version

t
In order to enable the evaluation
with

a high number

of the test results for machines

of teeth in the main index worm

wheel,

the

calculation
of the number of teeth of the test gear according to
the following
formulae is recommended.
The number of teeth
per period of the cumulative
to 11. Instead
of verifying
accuracy
machine
measuring

26

pitch deviation will then be about 9


the geometrical
and kinematic

directly
by means of measurements
taken on the
itself, such verification
may be performed indirectly by
a test gear.

where
can be determined
as the low-frequency
fdl
the cumulative
pitch deviation.
For checking

fd,, the
t

number

z for even

numbers

j of pitches
numbers

of teeth.

component
the course

has to be valid from j

of teeth

and to +

of
of
1 to

(z - 1) for odd

1sO6545:1991

8.3.4

Cumulative

cumulative
The

cumulative

deviation
results

pitch

pitch

Fp9 and total


F,, of the workpiece

deviation,

deviation,
pitch

deviation

shall also be limited


in the following

and

total

teeth

cumulative

= fdk

additionally.

deviation

for

The

this

permissible

workpiece

is

total

fd,,maxas

8.4

Remarks
the

diagram

(see

figure

2)

of

the

permissible

high-

frequency
angular
transmission
deviation
components
fdkl
(with mtu, and d,,) and fdk2
(with mt,,2and d,,), the permissible
high-frequency
deviation component
fdk(see figure 2) for any
diameter d, and module mt can be read off. Alternatively
the

+ fdl

Fpj= 0,6fdk

hobbed

tolerances:
From

Fpj

be
pitch
above.

pitch

fdkand fd,.This

by the deviations

may

cumulative
mentioned

(E)

mt

mo,mm

fdkucan

formula

be used (see 7.2.1.3).

and
The
Fp = fdk

+ fdl,max

in the metric

-+2mo, max

version,

smaller
drawn.

mt

Fp= o$f,j,

machine

diagram

shown

is valid

for

a hobbing

machine

(d max= 600 mm and m. max = 6 mm), the deviations of which


are equal to the permissible
deviations
if,,, and fdti). For
+ I,13

d ma*

The

or

deviations

the

transmission

copied

on

deviations
which

machine

deviations

to

the

gears

(see

figure

is different

from

deviation

actual

of a gear
produced.

2)

diagram

have

hobbing
As

to IS0

which

also

machine

these

be

are

transmission

a dependency

the dependency

(fPtl has according

can

on

diameter,

the single

pitch

1328, it is not possible

to

say that a machine will produce one particular


class of gear
with respect to fpt. The high-frequency
component
of the

and

angular

transmission

diagram.
deviation
in the inch version.

depends

depends

Figure 3 shows
Helix

slope

The helix slope deviation


fHP = 8 + 6

shall be limited

in the metric

the machine
transmission

m, (fdkO)and the other part

d (fdkT).

the drives which

component

angular

of the

cause fdko and fdkT. The highangular

transmission

deviation

fdkT most likely has p = zT periods

fHp (see 5.4)

deviation,

may be taken from

on the module

on the diameter

frequency
8.3.5

deviation

One part of the high-frequency

per work revolution


(see
figure 4). With the number of teeth of the test gear mentioned
from
the
above
lz = Zr-pI),
f&T can be determined
measurement
of the cumulative
pitch deviation.
In fact the

by

cumulative

version,

pitch

deviation

shows

p,

periods,

the amount

of

which is approximately
equal to the value of the high-frequency
component
of the angular transmission
deviation with p = zT
periods, i.e. fdkT. As thisp, period does not actually exist in the

or

fHB = 3,15 + I,98 &

angular

in the inch version.

transmission

transmission

8.3.6

Comments

on tolerances

of the test

especially

make a test workpiece

in the case of large machines,

with a number

of teeth according

the manufacturer
and the user shall agree upon
gear to verify the accuracy of the machine.
For

special

accordance
tolerances
cutting

workpieces
with
cannot

speeds

If, in the curve


frequency
cannot

this

for

which

International

be stated,

are applied.

of the total

cumulative

be separated

and

the

easily then

is

test

not

generally

pitch deviation,

a test workpiece

the virtual

by means of a span measurement

Hobbing

machines

in

valid
high

with multi-start index worm drives have one


of fdkT with p = zT periods and another compo-

nent with index worm

rotation

periods. In this
-3
case the evaluation
of the cumulative
pitch deviation
presents
more problems than for machines with single-start
index worm
7
~-~~ does not result in an integer, the
drives. When the fraction
dT

the lowp,

with

when fdk has

to be determined.

component

with

is called

to 8.2,

in cases in which

component

to

a special

design

Standard,

especially

and feeds

component

the

this curve

To facilitate the separation of the two components


fd, and fdk,
it is not permissible to determine the course of the cumulative

gear

pitch deviation
If it is not possible,

deviation,

deviation.

frequency

of :

ZS

periods

cumulative

z. = zT

useful

pitch

deviation

measurement

does

not

produce

result.

27

IS0 6646 : 1882 (E)

16

Test workpiece

z = 73;

I
I

m = 4,5 mm;

p = 30

mt = 5,2 mm;

d = 3Nl mm

F dkO = 4,5 pm;

fdkT = 6.6 vrn

52

12
------------I---

10

I I

100

300

200

400

I
+
Figure

2 -

High-frequency

component
a capacity

28

d max
fdkof

the angular

of d,,,

transmission

600
d,mm-

dmax

deviation

= 600 mm and mo,max = 6 mm

of a hobbing

machine

having

IS0 6545 : 1992 (E)

Origin

of fdko

-Hob,

zo

-.-.---.-*-.

Index
gears

change

Origin

of

f&T 4

Figure

3 -

--.-.-e---s

Angular

transmission

Index

worm,

zs

-.--de

drive of a gear hobbing


machine
- Origin
of the angular transmission
deviation

of the high-frequency

components

28

1 0
0
0

i
I

30

E
0

IS0 6646 : 1992 (E)

UDC

621.914.6

Descriptors:

: 621.833

machine

Price based on 30 pages

tools,

milling

machines,

gear hobs,

tests,

dimensional

measurement,

testing

conditions,

accuracy.