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RT Procedure

SiTec
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PROCEDURE
FOR
RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION

00
Rev.No.

For the initial issue and approval
Description

Date

Prepared by Checked by

Approved by

Safety & Environment Inspection. 1996.  For process piping. ASME B 31. ASME Section V . SCOPE This procedure covers the minimum requirements for radiographic examination by using either X-rays or Gamma rays sources as per ASME SEC V Article 2 3. PWHT and NDE of Piping Systems  Welding and NDE of Piping System 25179-000-3PS-NWP0-N0005 4. 2. ABBRIVIATIONS/DEFINITIONS SM QIP I/C QA&QC ASME ASNT NDE TP RT PPE HSE IMTE BA BSD FRM ASTM IQI RS RW R1 R2` MSV CONTRACTOR Site Manager Quality Inspection Plan In -Charge Method Statement American Society of Mechanical Engineers American Society for Non-Destructive Testing Non Destructive Examination Third Party Radiographic Testing/Examination Personal Protective Equipment Health. Measuring & Test Equipment Business Area Business Support Department Form American Society for Testing and Materials Image Quality Indicator Re-shoot Re-weld Repair 1 Repair 2 Millisievert SiTec .RT Procedure SiTec SiTecProject No: SiTec Job Code: SiTecDoc No: ITEM NO.  Standard guide for radiographic examination.Article 2. REFERENCE DOCUMENTS The following documents are considered as reference document:  Written practice for NDE personal qualification as per ASNT recommended practice SNT-TC-IA. OBJECTIVE To define Radiographic examination process for detection of internal discontinuities in a welding joint.3  ASME SEC IX  Project specification for Field Welding.: Page 2 of 15 1.

When the radiographic techniques in use demonstrate that the required radiographic sensitivity has been achieved the minimum recommended thickness limitation might be reduced.2. AGFA D4. e.2. RESPONSIBILITIES Area In-charge and QA&QC NDE co-ordinator. upper limits are not shown. 6. Unexposed films should be stored in such a manner that they are protected from the effects of light. RADIOGRAPHIC FILMS 6.1 QUALIFICATION OF THE PERSONNEL: Personnel Performing radiographic examination should be qualified and currently certified as an NDE Level I. pressure. The source shall be a maximum of 3 x 2-mm size and shall be operated by remote control device. For X-ray fine grain may be used e. PROCEDURE 6.V 2004 and addenda.2 The maximum thickness for the use of radioactive isotopes is primarily dictated by exposure time. 6. AGFA D7. 6.RT Procedure SiTec SiTecProject No: SiTec Job Code: SiTecDoc No: ITEM NO.: Page 3 of 15 5. humidity. heat. The quality of RT performance is directly .1 GAMMA RAY SOURCE Iridium 192 Gamma ray sealed sources of appropriate curies shall be used. therefore.4 X-Ray source This is equipment operated with the help of power and is in the range of 150 kV to 300 kV. 6.2 The radiography shall be performed according to ASME Sec. For Gamma radiography only ultra fine grain film shall be used.g.3.3 If required to confirm.3. DESCON Engineering Abu Dhabi shall supply the source supplier’s certificate having detail of source activity and source size. 6.2. Personnel performing Radiographic interpretation should be qualified and have current certifications as an NDE Level II or III in the radiographic method. 5 mA. Kodak Industries MX or equal. Kodak Industries MX or equal.2.II or III equivalent as per ASNT-SNT-TC-IA. etc.3 6.g.2 RADIATION SOURCE 6.1 ASME Section V will be used as a standard guide for RT. 6.

6. chemical or other blemishes such as: a) Fogging b) Processing defects such as streaks watermarks or chemical stains. 6.01" front and back and in intimate contact with the film. The screens shall be 0.3. The composite viewing technique (if applicable) may be used in order to decrease the exposure.5 In the area of viewing.4 Generally one film shall undergo radiation exposure. 6. SCREENS Lead intensifying screens shall be used in direct contact with the film. and for examination of joints of different thickness.3. dirtiness. c) Scratches.2 The type of exposure will be delivered based on the joint technical details. and requirement as outlined in QIP or suggested by reference code / standard and customer specification Refer table below for film characteristics. to avoid misinterpretation of film defect. X-ray film type 6. Any brand with the required specification. e) False indications due to defective screens or internal faults. crimps. 6.RT Procedure SiTec SiTecProject No: SiTec Job Code: SiTecDoc No: ITEM NO. static marks.4 Characteristics ASTM Class II Fine Grain ASTM Class I Extra Fine Grain Equivalent Any brand with the required specification. film shall be free from mechanical. accessibility.3. d) Loss of detail due to poor screen to film contact. smudges or tears. finger marks.: Page 4 of 15 governed by the applicable code / standard and customer specification.5 PENETRAMETERS Penetrameters shall be of wire type. The essential wire shall be 2% of .

20 0.W/Tx100 2.Q.125 0.RT Procedure SiTec SiTecProject No: SiTec Job Code: SiTecDoc No: ITEM NO.7 SELECTION OF PENETRAMETER (I. PLACEMENT OF PENETRAMETER (I. The actual measurement of weld reinforcement is not required as part of the weld thickness in penetrameter selection. the penetrameter will be selected relating to double nominal wall thickness.0% 2. 6. Other than this point the application of Penetrameters shall be controlled as above.6.I) 6.5% 1.0% 1.Q.32 0.2% 1.5% 1. For welds with reinforcements the thickness on which the penetrameter is based is the nominal single wall thickness plus the estimated weld reinforcement permitted by the referencing Code section. a thinner penetrameter listed for that range may be used provided all other requirements for radiography are met.6.25 0. 6.3 The selection of penetrameter will be function of the single wall thickness for both single wall technique and double wall technique with single wall viewing.I) .2 For any material thickness range.1 The designation of the DIN / ASTM penetrameter shall be selected according to the table above.63 0.40 0.80 1. Thickness crossed by rays (mm) 04 to 06 06 to 08 08 to 10 10 to 16 16 to 25 25 to 32 32 to 40 40 to 60 60 to 80 Type of wire (mm) 15 14 13 12 11 09 08 07 06 Diameter of the wire 0.16 0. Their application and use shall be as per following table.00 Sensitivity S=V.5% 1. 6.6.6 6.3% 1. For double wall technique with double wall viewing. a lower sensitivity other than above indicated may be followed as the unavoidable distortion may make operational hindrances.0% 2.: Page 5 of 15 the parent metal thickness.25% For branch connections.

additional penetrameters shall be placed on longitudinal welds at the ends of the sections of those welds being radiographed. Geometric unsharpness Material Thickness 6.10 Each film shall be placed on the surface to be radiographed in a secure manner.Q. but in no case will the penetrameter identification be in the weld deposited area. 6.I sensitivity shall be used for evaluating radiographic quality.7.2 When required by the referencing code. SENSITIVITY 2% I.1 The characteristics that shall govern the minimum source to film distances are: a) b) c) Physical size of the radiation source. at least 3 equally spaced penetrameters per 3600.7.7.3 Where more than one film is used for an exposure.1 6. 6. the minimum film overlap shall be 1" on each end or as practically advised by referred Code.1 The penetrameter shall be placed across the weld. a penetrameter image shall appear on each radiograph.RT Procedure SiTec SiTecProject No: SiTec Job Code: SiTecDoc No: ITEM NO. at least 1. in which case at least three equally spaced penetrameters shall be used. and a lead letter "F" at least as high as the identification numbers shall be placed adjacent to the penetrameter. a film side penetrameter shall be placed on the film side of the joint. the film shall be shaped to the contour of the object.: Page 6 of 15 6.10.9. radiography is to be performed with a geometrical unsharpness not to exceed the following: .5” of the longitudinal weld shall be shown on the radiograph.8 6. Where portions of longitudinal welds adjoining the circumferential weld are being examined simultaneously with the circumferential weld. As per ASME B31. except where the source is placed on the axis of the object and a complete circumference radiographed with single exposure. Circumferential seam plus one additional penetrameter for each other seam shall be used. SOURCE TO FILM DISTANCE 6.2 Where inaccessibility prevents placing the penetrameter on the source side. where the source is located at the centre of the vessel and one or more film cassettes are simultaneously exposed. For spherical vessels. 6.10.9 FILM PLACEMENT 6. however where films are overlapped.3 pipe girth welds that intersect longitudinal welds.

which would interfere with proper interpretation of the radiograph.: Page 7 of 15 Material Thickness (Inches) U G Maximum (Inches) Under 2 Through 3 Over 3 Through 4 Greater than 4 0.040 0. d= Thickness in inches of the weld or other object being radiographed assuming the film is against the weld or object.8 minimum to 4.13 FILM DENSITY / SENSITIVITY The film density through the hole IQI or adjacent to the designated wire of a wire IQI and the weld shall be 2. it is the thickness of the weld or object plus the space between the film and the weld or object.3 Geometrical un-sharpness (Ug) equals source size times object thickness over object to source distance: Ug = (F x d) / D Where. 6. FILM PROCESSING All radiographic films shall be processed in strict accordance with ASME Sec.RT Procedure SiTec SiTecProject No: SiTec Job Code: SiTecDoc No: ITEM NO. V and the film manufactures recommendations.0 maximum for radiographs made with an X-ray source. Exposed radiographs shall be stored in envelopes with interleaf paper between each piece of film(1 weld per envelope) 6.14 RADIOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE . Film sensitivity should be 2% or better.0 minimum to 4. 6.0 maximum for radiographs made with a gamma ray source and 1.11 F= Source size in inches.020 0. 6.050 6. the maximum effective dimension of the radiating source (or focal spot) in a plane through the source and normal to the distance D from the weld or object being radio graphed. D= Distance in inches from source of radiation to weld or other object being radiographed.12 QUALITY OF RADIOGRAPHS All films shall be free from processing or other defects.10. Otherwise.030 0.

Densitometers shall be calibrated at least every 90 days during use as follows. a minimum of two exposures taken 90 deg. the radiation beam may be offset from the plane of the weld at an angle sufficient to separate the images of the source side and film side portions of the weld so that there is no overlap of the areas to be interpreted. a technique may be used in which the radiation passes through the walls and only the weld (material) on the film sidewall is viewed for acceptance on the radiograph. a minimum of three exposures taken at 60 deg. a double wall technique shall be used.0 shall be used. As an alternate. Case should be exercised to ensure that the required geometric unsharpness is not exceeded. When complete coverage is required. If the geometric unsharpness requirement cannot be met.15. For double-wall viewing only a source side penetrameter shall be used.1 SINGLE WALL VIEWING For materials and for welds in components. 6.15 DENSITOMETERS Calibrated densitometers of reading film H& D densities from 1. or 120 deg. When complete coverage is required. a minimum of three exposures taken 120 deg. 6.0 to 4.2 DOUBLE-WALL VIEWING For materials and for welds in components 3”.14. When it is not practical to use a single wall technique. then Single-wall viewing shall be used. to each other shall be made. to each other shall be made for each joint.1 A national standard step tablet or a nominal standard step tablet and having at least 5 steps with neutral densities . For welds. or less in nominal outside diameter. When complete coverage is required for circumferential weld (materials). to each other shall be made for each joint.RT Procedure SiTec SiTecProject No: SiTec Job Code: SiTecDoc No: ITEM NO. 6. 6. Additional exposures shall be made if the required radiographic coverage cannot be obtained using the minimum number of exposures indicated.: Page 8 of 15 A single wall exposure technique shall be used for radiography whenever practical.14. the weld may be radiographed with the radiation beam positioned so that the images of both walls are superimposed. a technique may be used in which the radiation passes through two walls and the weld (material) in both walls is viewed for acceptance on the same radiograph.

0 on the national standard step tablet or step wedge calibration film shall be read.0. They shall produce sufficient illumination to view the maximum file density as required.16 FILM HOLDER Films Holders shall be light tight and shall be free of sand. dirt. 6.18 DEVELOPING EQUIPMENT Developing will be done manually as per chemical manufacturer's recommendation and in accordance with ASME Sec V.4 The densitometer is acceptable if the density readings do not vary by more than + 0. Film viewers shall be of the high intensity type with a variable intensity control.0. and 4. 6.20 PROCESS All radiography shall be performed in accordance with the safety requirements. 2. or other foreign particles. or glare on the radiographs being viewed. The step wedge calibration film shall have been verified within the last year by comparison with a national standard step tablet unless prior to first use.0 through 4.0. . it was maintained in the original light-tight and water proof sealed package as supplied by the manufacturer.15. 3.: Page 9 of 15 from at least 1.17 LEAD IDENTIFICATION MARKERS Lead Identification Markers shall be a minimum of 1/4" high and 1/16" deep in size and in quantities necessary.2 The densitometer manufacturer’s step-by-step instructions for the operation of the densitometer shall be followed. The viewer shall have provision to prevent light from lower density portions from interfering with interpretation.3 The density step closest to 1. 6. 6. Step wedge calibration films may be used without verification for one year upon opening.15. 6.0. 6. shall be used. shadows. 6.19 VIEWING FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT Viewing facilities shall provide subdued background lighting so as not to cause reflections. 6. provided it is within manufactures stated shelf life.RT Procedure SiTec SiTecProject No: SiTec Job Code: SiTecDoc No: ITEM NO.15.05 density units from the actual density stated on the national standard step tablet or step wedge calibration form.

engineering change etc.23. job number.3 T1.23. 6. letters on the radiograph traceable to the contract. 6. 6. The radiography shall be carried out as per the specification. 6.21 SURFACE PREPARATION When necessary. T2 etc.23.: Page 10 of 15 6. with minimum dimensions of 0. Film Identification will be as per the specification. 6. As a check for back-scatter radiation.5 C1. C2 etc shall be added to the original weld number and the original RT report number when ever a weld is completely cutout and re-welded due to poor quality. The datum point and direction of numbering shall be clearly marked on the weld in paint marker. Shall be added to be original RT report number for a rejected weld that requires progressive examination. weld ripples or welds surface irregularities on both the insides (where accessible) and outside shall removed to such a degree so that irregularities cannot mask or be confused with the image of any discontinuity. 6.2 RW shall be added to the original weld number and the original RT report number whenever a weld is completely cut out and re-welded for reasons other than quality i.1 A system shall be used to produce a permanent identification by using lead numbers.23. & must conform to the applicable material specification and not exceed maximum reinforcement specified in the referencing code. R2 etc.24 LOCATION MARKERS Lead location markers or number belts shall be placed on the object being radiographed and not on the film or film holder and in such a manner that the complete coverage and overlap film areas are fully identified and the relationship between the film and the object is firmly established. a lead symbol “B”.23.RT Procedure SiTec SiTecProject No: SiTec Job Code: SiTecDoc No: ITEM NO. component.5” in height and 1/16 . Shall be added to original weld number and the original RT report number whenever there is a local repair identified on the original Radiograph.4 R1. In addition that the Manufacturer’s symbol or name and the date of radiograph shall be plainly and permanently included in the radiograph.22 RELEASES FOR RADIOGRAPHY Radiography shall be performed only on such joint which are acceptable in visual check. weld or weld seam. The finished surface may be flushed with the base material or have a uniform crown. 6. All material interfering with the radiographic interpretation shall be removed.e.Welding and NDE of Piping System. Markers shall not mask the area under examination.23 FILM IDENTIFICATION 6.

not on the film holder / cassette. Location markers should be not closer than ¼ inch to the weld.1 Location markers shall be used to ensure complete coverage and shall appear as radiographic image on the film.5 (Single Wall Viewing) 1 per exposure >3. 6.25.: Page 11 of 15 inch thickness.2 Location marker spacing foe circumferential pipe or tube welds Shall be as noted below.0 Minimum 2 exposure. Number belts may be used.5 through 6. For other than elliptical or superimposed exposures.RT Procedure SiTec SiTecProject No: SiTec Job Code: SiTecDoc No: ITEM NO. The location markers shall consist of lead numbers between .25. (Inches) <3.0 through 18.25.5 (Elliptical or superimposed Exposure) <3. 1 inch apart >6. The location markers shall be placed on the part. If a light image of “B” appears on the radiograph.3 Spacing Not to exceed 6 inches.0 2 inch apart >18 6. Nominal Pipe Dia. 6. marking extremities of the area of interest. A dark image of the “B” on a lighter background is not cause for the rejection of the radiograph. shall be attached to the back of each film holder during exposure. the radiograph shall be considered unacceptable.25 PLACEMENT OF LOCATION MARKERS 6. the first location shall be identified with a “0”.

RT Procedure SiTec SiTecProject No: SiTec Job Code: SiTecDoc No: ITEM NO.25. 6. ASME B 31. However. the concave area is acceptable.: Page 12 of 15 ¼ and ½ inches in height. c) 6.25.28 For welder Qualification. the site In charge .29 SITE SAFETY DURING RADIOGRAPHY OPERATION The site HSE procedure shall govern for the implementation of safe operation of radiography. 6. This sketch shall be filled with Radiographs.27 ACCEPTANCE STANDARD FOR WELDS a) For Process piping.6 If the image of the weld will not be a readily apparent on the radiograph (due to the weld having been ground flush.1 The Radiographic reports shall be furnished on the form FM-4321 given by the Contractor as attached .3 b) When a radiograph displays weld concavity and the pipe inside surface is not accessible to physically measure the depth.5 A clear accurate sketch of the temporary marking shall be prepared to allow traceability of the radiographs to the part or weld. This temporary marking shall be maintained until the area being examined is acceptable. temporarily mark the “ 0” and arrow. The starting point and direction of numbering shall be identified by marking a zero (which corresponds the zero of location markers) and an arrow (representing the numbering direction) on the pipe component in a manner allowing accurate tractability of the starting point for at the period of required film retention. 6.26 EXTENT OF RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION The extent of radiographic examination is as per the Descon’s scope of work and as per the specification. A starting point shall be selected for each weld being radiographed. for instance). the acceptability of the concavity may be determined by comparing the radiographic film density. 6.28. arrows or “Vs” shall be placed at the weld toe opposite the film location numbers and positioned to appear on the both ends of the film.ASME SEC IX RECORDS 6.25. 6. If the density of the concave area is the same as or less than (lighter than) the adjacent base metal.4 When permanent marking is prohibited or Impractical. 6.

the radiography supervisor shall check restricted areas to confirm that no unauthorized person is in the area and he shall reconfirm it during the exposure time Radiography Supervisor of the supplier shall have the appropriate governmental license depending upon the type of radiography work. He shall prepare “radiography supervisor checklist” which includes the following information:  Name of license holder . To prevent the entry of unauthorized persons.  Fence.  During examination proper shielding should be used to prevent escape of radiation into the environment. The following areas shall be classified as restricted areas:  Storage place of radioactive materials to be allocated by customer. barricade or rope-off with radiation signs and flashing lights.: Page 13 of 15 QA&QC shall ensure safe performance of radiography operation through checklist duly coordinated with site HSE coordinator and customer. Before starting the radiation work. The following shall be considered as off-limit.  Any area where radiation exists at levels such that the body could receive a dose in excess of 300 micro-sievert per hour (30 millirems per hour) per week. labels and posters showing the existing radiation hazards and that no entry allowed. 7. HSE INSTRUCTIONS Radiography work shall be performed in accordance with detailed safety requirements for radiography works in Babcock.3  Warning signs.  Unauthorized persons shall not be allowed to enter the restricted area and off-limit areas. 7.  Area within minimum 15 meters from the source of radiation (operating X-ray or radioactive source).RT Procedure SiTec SiTecProject No: SiTec Job Code: SiTecDoc No: ITEM NO. the following shall be provided for the restricted and off-limit areas/spaces.  Any area where radiation exists such that the body could receive a dose in excess of 500 microsievert per hour (50 millirems per hour).

7.4 Descon HSE shall be informed 30 minutes prior to customer and shall report to main gate on entry.2 Radiography supervisor shall measure and record the dose of radiation everyday at the boundary of restricted area where the radioactive materials are stored. 7. the driver and other rider shall keep pocket dosimeters.1 Radioactive materials shall be stored separately from other materials or equipment.4. fire.1 Radioactive materials shall be transported by two or more men under the direct supervision of a radiography supervisor.6 STORAGE OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS 7.5. The storage shall be lockable and shall be fenced with a lockable gate. Assistance of operations shall be requested to facilitate the entry of the radioactive source to the security gates. The storage facility of radioactive material container shall be so constructed as to be free from the hazards of flood. ITEM Rules & regulations relating to the MINIMUM TRAINING HOURS 1. cave-in and other adverse conditions.5.4 7.2 During transport. This shall be subject for verification by the QHSE manager of Descon. 7. Other applicable regulations in consultation with the customer shall be applied.5.4.RT Procedure SiTec SiTecProject No: SiTec Job Code: SiTecDoc No: ITEM NO.5 7.: Page 14 of 15       Type of license License Number Date license was granted Expiry date of licence Copy of licence Other information as required The checklist shall be filed at the subcontractor field office and a copy thereof shall be submitted to Descon. The dose shall not exceed 300 microsievert (30 millions) per week. Transportation by one man is strictly prohibited. TRAINING The subcontractor shall provide proof that training to their personnel involved in radiography jobs as stated below has been conducted. copy to QHSE department.5 Hours . TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS 7. 7.3 Sign showing that radioactive material is being transported shall be displayed. 7.5.

0 Hours 0. Safe handling/operating method of radio isotope and X-Ray apparatus Effect of radiation on human body 7. 7. 20 msv during any 3 months and 30 msv during any 12 months.: Page 15 of 15 prevention of radiation damage. shall not exceed 10 millisievert per year.ATTACHMENTS  Radiographic Examination Report : FRM -4321 .7 4. NOTE: 1 millisievert (msv) = 100 millirems.7. accumulated dose shall not exceed 10 millisievert (msv) per month.5 Hours OPERATIONAL SAFE LIMITS OF RADIOGRAPHY APPARATUS Operation of radiography apparatus shall be done only be radiography supervisor or by his assistant authorized by the supervisor. Person who received a dose in excess of the 12-month limit shall not be allowed to do any radiography work for a period of 12 months. who temporarily enters the restricted area. 8.RT Procedure SiTec SiTecProject No: SiTec Job Code: SiTecDoc No: ITEM NO.1 DOSE LIMIT For persons working in the restricted area. Accumulated dose for a person.