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# Name: ________________________________

Teacher: _______________________________

Class: _______________________________

FORT STREET HIGH SCHOOL

2016

HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE COURSE

ASSESSMENT TASK 3: TRIAL HSC

Mathematics Extension 2

Time allowed: 3 hours
(plus 5 minutes reading time)
Syllabus
Outcomes

E2, E3
E4, E6
E7, E8
E5
E2‐E8

Assessment Area Description and Marking Guidelines

Questions

Chooses and applies appropriate mathematical techniques in order to
solve problems effectively
Applies appropriate strategies to construct arguments and proofs in the
areas of complex numbers and polynomials
Uses efficient techniques for the algebraic manipulation of conic
sections and determining features of a wide variety of graphs
Applies further techniques of integration, such as slicing and cylindrical
shells, integration by parts and recurrence formulae, to problems
Uses ideas and techniques of calculus to solve problems in mechanics
involving resolution of forces, resisted motion and circular motion
Synthesises mathematical processes to solve harder problems and
communicates solutions in an appropriate form

1‐10

Section I

Total Marks 100

Section I
10 marks
Multiple Choice, attempt all questions.
Allow about 15 minutes for this section.

Section II
90 Marks
Attempt Questions 11‐16.
Allow about 2 hours 45 minutes for this section.

Q1‐Q10
Section II

General Instructions:

Questions 11‐16 are to be started in a new booklet.
The marks allocated for each question are indicated.
In Questions 11 – 16, show relevant mathematical
reasoning and/or calculations.
Marks may be deducted for careless or badly arranged
work.
Board – approved calculators may be used.

Total 10
/10
Total 90

13
14
15
16
Marks

Marks

Q11

/15

Q12

/15

Q13

/15

Q14

/15

Q15

/15

Q16

/15

Percent

11, 12

Section I
1 What is  3  i expressed in modulus-argument form?
(A)

(B)
(C)
(D)

2(cos
2(cos

 i sin )
6
6

 i sin )
6
6

2(cos
2(cos

5
5
 i sin )
6
6

5
5
 i sin )
6
6

x2 y2

 1.
4 3
What are the coordinates of the vertex of the hyperbola?
(B) (0, 2)
(A) (2, 0)
2 Consider the hyperbola with the equation

(C)

(0, 4)

(D) (4, 0)

x2 y2

1
a 2 b2
and the chord PQ subtends a right angle at ( 0,0) . Which of the following is the
correct expression?

3 The points P(a cos  , b sin  ) and Q ( a cos  , b sin  ) lie on the ellipse

(A)

tan  tan   

b2
a2

(B)

tan  tan   

a2
b2

(C)

tan  tan  

b2
a2

(D)

tan  tan  

a2
b2

4 What is the value of   sec xdx ? Use the substitution t  tan 2x .
(A) ln | (t  1)(t  1) |  c
(C)

ln | (1  t )(t  1) |  c

ln |

1 t
| c
1 t

(D) ln |

t 1
| c
t 1

(B)

Page 3 of 12

5 What is the volume of the solid formed when the region bounded by the curves
y  2 x 3 and y  2 x is rotated about the x-axis? Use the method of slicing.

(A)

5
cubic units
14

(B)

10
cubic units
14

(C)

5
cubic units
7

(D)

10
cubic units
7

6

A particle of mass m is moving in a straight line under the action of a force.
m
(6  10 x)
x3
Which of the following is an expression for its velocity at any position, if the
particle starts from rest at x  1 ?
F

(A) v  

1
(3  10 x  7 x 2 )
x

(B)

v   x ( 3  10 x  7 x 2 )

(C)

v

1
2(3  10 x  7 x 2 )
x

(D) v   x 2( 3  10 x  7 x 2 )

7

The equation y 3  xy  x 3  7 implicitly defines
Which of the following is an expression for

(A)

3x 2
3 y2 1

(B)

y  3x 2
3y2  x

(C)

y  3x 2  7
3y2  x

(D)

3 y 2  y  3x 2
x

in terms of .

dy
?
dx

Page 4 of 12

8

Let  ,  and  be roots of the equation x 3  3x 2  4  0 . Which of the following
polynomial equations have roots  2 ,  2 and  2 ?

(A)

x 3  9 x 2  24 x  4  0

(B)

x 3  9 x 2  12 x  4  0

(C)

x 3  9 x 2  24 x  16  0

(D)

x 3  9 x 2  12 x  16  0

9

Two equal circles touch externally at B. XB is a diameter of one circle. XZ is the
tangent from X to the other circle and cuts the first circle at Y.
Z
Y

X

A

B

C

Which is the correct expression that relates XZ to XY?
(A) 3 XZ  4 XY
(B) XZ  2 XY
(C) 2 XZ  3 XY
(D) 2 XZ  5 XY

10

Which conic has eccentricity
(A)

x2 y2
  1
3 2

(B)

x2 y 2
  1
32 22

(C)

x2 y2
  1
3 2

(D)

x2 y 2
  1
32 22

13
?
3

Page 5 of 12

Find the possible values of the principal argument of  z  i  for  z  on the locus. find    x 7x 1 dx      x2 2   a b) (i)  Prove    a f ( x) dx  0  f (a  x) dx    0    4 (ii)  Hence evaluate    1  tan x  1  tan x dx    0   c) If  z1  3i  and   z2  1  i .Section II   Question 11 (15 marks)    a) (i)     START A NEW BOOKLET    Marks      2      1      2      3  Find real numbers  A  and  B  such that   7x 1 A B     x  x  2 x 1 x  2 2   (ii)  Hence.   Show the locus of the point  P  representing  z  in the Argand diagram. find values of   i) z1  z2        1  ii) z1  z2        1  iii) z1    z2     1      2  2    d) z  is a complex number such that  arg  z     i) ii)  3  and  z  2 .                Page 6 of 12    .

ii) show that          p  2q    2 2 2 2 2     2      2    1  iii) apply  the  results  in  part  (ii)  to  show  that  x  3 x  5 x  7 x  8  0 cannot  have four real roots.      2      2      4    c) If   . . .       2  d) Evaluate    t e  t dt. and  .Question 12 (15 marks)   START A NEW BOOKLET    Marks  a) Suppose   .   are  the  roots  of  x3  3 x 2  2 x  1  0  find  the  equation  whose  roots  are  1 1 1 .      4 3 2 b) Let  P  x   x5  10 x 2  15 x  6 . .  i) show that  x  1  is a root of  P  x   of multiplicity three.  . or otherwise.  .    0                       Page 7 of 12    .       2  ii) Hence.   and    are the four roots of the polynomial equation    x 4  px 3  qx 2  rx  s  0     i) find the values of          and              in terms of  . find the two complex roots of  P  x  .

 .Question 13  (15 marks)   START A NEW BOOKLET    Marks   2   .  2                 Page 8 of 12    .      1  ii) Write the equation of any asymptote to the graph of  y  f  x  .  )  y  f  x      y  f  x       y  ln f  x         b)  P  2 p. The normal to the hyperbola at  p  2 P  meets the hyperbola again at  Q  2q.      1      1  iv) Is the function increasing or decreasing? Justify your answer.      2      1      1      2      2      1      3  iii) Find the  x ‐intercept(s) of  y  f  x  . p  2  p   .  M  is the midpoint of  PQ .  q    1    p3 i) Show that  q  ii) Show that  M  has co‐ordinates   1  2 1   1 2   p  2  .   x 1  a)   Function  f  x   is defined by  f  x   log e  i) State the domain of  f  x  .    v) use your answers to the above questions to sketch graphs of the following.  2   is a variable point on the hyperbola  xy  4 .  p  p  p  iii) Show that the locus of  M  is given by the equation   x3 y 3  y 2  x 2  .

where   is an integer.  1  x2   The area bounded by  y  f  x  . the line  x  1  and the  x  ‐axis is rotated about the line  x  1  to form a solid.Question 14 (15 marks)   START A NEW BOOKLET    Marks      4      4      4    3   2  a) Let  I n  (sin x ) n dx . for  n  2    n 1  In    I n  2     n  ii) Hence show that    2  sin 2n x dx  0   2n  ! 22 n 1  n ! 2        b) The diagram shows the graph of  f  x   x  for  0  x  1 .  Use the method of cylindrical shells to find the volume of the solid. show that.    c)  Evaluate    ln x  (1  ln x) 2 dx                       Page 9 of 12    .  n  0 .  0 i) Using integration by parts.

8 ms 2  and    0.Question 15 (15 marks)   START A NEW BOOKLET    Marks  a) In the case of turbulent flow.  The  situation  is  represented  diagrammatically below.      3    Show  that  this  allows  the  velocity  to  be  written  as  a  function  of  position  in  the  following way.2 m 1  and  give  your  answer  in  v) kilometres per hour.  gravity  is  providing  downward  acceleration  and  the  resistive  frictional  force  is  effectively  acting  upward.  i) Show  that  setting  the  initial  height  of  the  object  as  x  0  and  assuming  that  the  initial velocity is zero yields the following equation of motion.       2  ln  g   v 2   2  x  ln g   ii) v  x  g  1  e    2  x   iii) By using the result from (ii).      iv) Calculate  the  terminal  velocity  of  a  table  tennis  ball  in  free  fall  through  the  1  atmosphere.  since  friction  always  opposes  motion.      How far in metres will the table tennis ball fall before it reaches 80% of its terminal  velocity?        Page 10 of 12    1  2  . state the object’s terminal velocity. the net acceleration of the object is therefore given by    x  g   v 2  where     m    The coefficient    depends on the surface profile and mass of the object.  Take  g  9. the frictional force on an object travelling through a fluid is  modelled as being proportional to the square of the travelling velocity.    In  the  case  where  a  particle  is  falling  vertically  through  the  atmosphere.        Expressing  the  object’s  net  force  in  terms  of  its  velocity  and  a  positive  coefficient     yields  mx  mg   v 2   According to this representation.

3    3    ii.b) A  particle  of  mass  m.  attached  by  a  light  rod  to  a  pivot  point  C.  moves  with  constant  speed in a horizontal circle whose centre O is distant h metres below C.          Page 11 of 12    . on the motion of the particle if its speed is doubled. Show that the time T seconds taken for one revolution of the particle is given by  T  2 h . where g metres per second per second is the acceleration due to  g gravity. if any. discuss the effect.    i.

End of Paper  Page 12 of 12    . which is   units from each vertex.  prove  that  v 2  gy   g 2  x 2  y 2  .  prove  that  the  maximum  height  that  can  be  reached  by  the water projected by the sprinkler up the wall is  b) 15 x  metres.Question 16 (15 marks)   a) START A NEW BOOKLET    Marks  A  water  sprinkler  is  positioned  at  a  point  on  level  ground  at  a  distance  of  x   metres  from  a  vertical  wall.  2   iii)  show that the water from sprinkler hits the base of the wall only if  v  gx   iv)  Given  v  2 gx .    i) Show that the area of the horizontal cross‐section   units from the base  is given by  n 2  2  r  x 2  sin       2  n        2    . the horizontal and vertical displacement of the water from  the  point  of  projection  are  x  vt cos  . A circular arc joins the top of the dome  to each vertex of the base.  i) Show that  gx 2 tan 2   2 xv 2 tan   2 yv 2  gx 2  0        2    2    1    3      ii)  If  there  are  two  possible  angles  of  projection.        The  vertex  of  the  dome  is   units  directly  above  the  centre  of  the  polygonal  base. Each cross‐section is a regular n‐ sided polygon.  and  y  vt sin   1 2 gt  respectively  (DO  2 NOT PROVE THESE RESULTS).  Neglecting  air  resistance  and  taking  g  as  the  acceleration  due to gravity.  Water  is  projected  from  the  sprinkler  at  v  m/s  at  an  angle    to  the  ground.  8     The diagram below shows part of a polygonal dome.     3    2    ii) Hence show that the volume of the dome is given by  nr 3  2 sin  3  n iii) Show  that  as  n   . At time  t .  the  volume  of  the  dome  approaches  that  of  a  hemisphere.

D 2. A 3. C Question 11: a) 7x 1 A B i)   . D Marking  for correct B value  for correct A value Comments Well done 2 i) Let x  a  u x0 au dx  du Then xa u0  for correct integration  for set-up Page | 1 . D 6. D 5. C 9. C 7. hence equating numerators 2 x  x  2 x 1 x  2 7 x  1  A  x  2   B  x  1 x  2 : 15  A  2  2   B  2  1  B  5 x  1: 6  A  1  2   B  1  1  A  2 7x 1 2 5   x  x  2 x 1 x  2 7x 1 dx ii)  2 x x2 2 5 dx   x 1 x  2  2 ln  x  1  5ln  x  2   c  b) 2016 10. B 4.Solutions Questions 1-10: Multiple Choice 1.Fort Street High School TRIAL HSC Mathematics Extension 2 . B 8.

Fort Street HS Trial HSC Extension 2 Mathematics 2016 – Solutions a  f ( x) dx 0 0   for substitution  f (a  u )  du Well done a a   f (a  u ) du 0  for conclusion a   f (a  x) dx 0 (as a definite integral is independent of the variable used.)  4 ii) 1  tan x  1  tan x dx 0   1  tan   x  4  dx    0 1  tan    x 4    4  1 tan  4 1  tan 4  0 1 tan  4 1  tan  tan x  4 Well done tan x dx  tan x  4 tan x (using (i) above)  for using pt (i) result Page | 2 .

1  tan 0  4 tan x 1  tan 1  tan  4  4 tan x tan x  tan  4 dx  tan x  1  tan x  1  tan x dx 1  tan x  1  tan x 0 4   4  0  for resolving to simple integral 2 tan x dx 2  4 sin x dx cos x 0      ln  cos x   04   ln  1 2 1 ln 2 2  for value c) i) z1  z2   1 2  22  5 ii) z1  z2  3i  1  i  1  2i  for value Well done  for value Page | 3 .Fort Street HS Trial HSC Extension 2 Mathematics 2016 – Solutions  4  1  tan     tan x   tan  tan x  4 4  .

1 i 1 i 3i  3i 2  1   1   3  3i 2  for value d) i) Well done  for diagram The locus of P is the interval OZ.  for explanation Page | 4 . with the point at O excluded.Fort Street HS Trial HSC Extension 2 Mathematics 2016 – Solutions iii) z1 z2 3i 1  i .

Hence:    arg  C   arg  z  i   arg A 1. When z  2 . Most students did not get even the minimum value for arg  i   for value tan 1 3  1   Page | 5 .Fort Street HS Trial HSC Extension 2 Mathematics 2016 – Solutions ii) All the possible points for the complex number z  i lie on the interval AC. z  i is at A. As z  0 . 3  1   arg  z  i   tan 1 2    2  for value 3 1 Poorly done. z  i  C .

so not all roots are real.  for conclusion with justification Page | 6 .Fort Street HS Trial HSC Extension 2 Mathematics 2016 – Solutions Question 12: a) Marking b a  p Comments i)          for value c a q             ii)  2   2   2   2           2             2  for value  for expansion/ conncetion   p  2q Well done 2  p 2  2q  for value iii)        2 2 2 2  p 2  2q   3  2  5 2  1 0 Hence some roots must be complex.

. 3x  9 x  9 x  3x 4 . . . 3 2  for Q  x   x 2  3x  6 6 x 2  18 x 2  18 x  6 6 x 2  18 x 2  18 x  6 .14  20 1  15 0 Well done P "  x   20.1  20 3 0 Hence x  1 is a root of multiplicity 3. Thus P  x   x5  10 x 2  15 x  6   x  1 Q  x  3   x  1  x 2  3 x  6  3 So x 2  3x  6  0 gives Page | 7 .12  15 1  6 0  for working P '  x   5. x 2  3x  6 3 2 5 4 3 2 ii) x  3 x  3 x  1 x  0 x  0 x  10 x  15 x  6  for justification x5  3x 4  3x3  x 2 3 x 4  3 x3  9 x 2  15 x .Fort Street HS Trial HSC Extension 2 Mathematics 2016 – Solutions b) i) P  x   x5  10 x 2  15 x  6 P '  x   5 x 4  20 x  15 P "  x   20 x3  20 P 1  15  10.

6 2 3  15  2 3 15 as the two complex roots.Fort Street HS Trial HSC Extension 2 Mathematics 2016 – Solutions 3  32  4.1. Well done  for correct equation Page | 8 .  i 2 2 x c) x   for values 1  1 x  for correct method As   3  2  1  0 3 2 1 1 1  3      2   1  0  x x x 3 2 1  3x  2 x 2  x3  0 x3  2 x 2  3x  1  0 is the required equation.

Fort Street HS Trial HSC Extension 2 Mathematics 2016 – Solutions dv  et u t dt du 1 v  e  t dt Then d) Let 2 t e t dt  for correct “by parts” set-up 0 2   te  t    e  t dt 2 Well done 0 0   2e 2  0    e  t   2e   e  1 2  1  3e 2 2  for resolving 0  for correct answer 2  e2  3   2  e   Page | 9 .

0  .Fort Street HS Trial HSC Extension 2 Mathematics 2016 – Solutions Question 13: Marking  2  a) For f  x   log e  :  x 1  2 i) Domain needs 0 x 1 x 1  0 x 1 ii) x  1  2  iii) ln  0  x 1  2 1 x 1 2  x 1 x3 Hence the x-intercept is  3. 0 Hence the function is always decreasing. Some dx incorrect limits used instead of sign of dy .  for value  for value Well done for (i) – (iii)  for point iv)  2  f  x   ln    x 1   ln 2  ln  x  1 f ' x  0  1 x 1 as x  1 from (i). dx Page | 10 . Comments  for working  for justification Some had errors in dy or didn’t simplify dx sufficiently to support argument dy that  0.

Fort Street HS Trial HSC Extension 2 Mathematics 2016 – Solutions v) a. Well done  for graph Page | 11 .

Fort Street HS Trial HSC Extension 2 Mathematics 2016 – Solutions b.  for graph Well done Page | 12 .

Fort Street HS Trial HSC Extension 2 Mathematics 2016 – Solutions g.  for graph  for intercept/ asymptotes A few did not realize restriction on domain of 1  x  3 . Page | 13 .

Fort Street HS Trial HSC Extension 2 Mathematics 2016 – Solutions b) i) 4 x dy 4  dx x 2  2 At P  2 p. Hence p Gradient of PQ: 2 2  q p mPQ  2q  2 p (b) (i) and (ii) Generally well done y  for gradient  pq 2 pq    2q  p 1 pq As these are the same (equal): 1 p2  pq 1 q 3 p   for equating Page | 14 .  : p  1 m  2 . so normal has gradient p 2 .

It just shows that the identity is true (without relating it to the locus) which is not what the question required. This does not show the equation is the locus of M.  Page | 15 .Fort Street HS Trial HSC Extension 2 Mathematics 2016 – Solutions 2 2  2q  2 p q p ii) xm  and ym  2 2  pq 1 1   p q 1  p 3 1 p   p3 p 1 1    p2  2  p p  iii) 1 2 1   p  p2  y p   x  1  p  2  p2  p   2 1   p  p2   2  p  1    p2  2  p   2  p y   p2 x y p2  x Then from  for both values  for y to x relationship (iii) many students tried to use the incorrect method of showing LHS=RHS.

x  y x   y  y 2  x2  y    x  xy   for substitution 2 2   for algebra to result 2 1 2 y  x2  3  x y  x3 y 3   y 2  x 2  2 as reqd.Fort Street HS Trial HSC Extension 2 Mathematics 2016 – Solutions  1  y  p  2  p2  p   1  y  p  2  p2  p  2 2 2 2 y2   y  x  y     using  above. Page | 16 .

cos x v   cos x Then by parts:  for by parts set-up Generally well done  I n   0  0   n  1  1  sin 2 x  .Fort Street HS Trial HSC Extension 2 Mathematics 2016 – Solutions Question 14: a) Marking Comments  2 i) I n   sin n x dx 0  2   sin n 1 x. I n  2 relationship  resolves algebra to result as reqd.sin x dx 0 Let u  sin n 1 x dv  sin x du   n  1 sin n  2 x. Page | 17 .sin n  2 x dx 2 0  2   n  1  sin n  2 x  sin n x dx  resolves by parts… 0   n  1 I n  2  I n  Hence I n   n  1 I n  2   n  1 I n  n  1 I n  I n   n  1 I n2 nI n   n  1 I n  2  n  1 I I  n n n2  resolves to I n .

. 2n  4.  2  sin 2n x dx  I 2 n 0  2n  1    I n2  2n   2n  1  2n  3     I n4  2n  2n  2   establishes pattern  2n  1  2n  3     . and only a few found the value for I 0 .I 0  2n  2n  2  2  2 Now I 0   sin 0 x dx 0  2   1 dx  finds I 0 Many had problems establishing a pattern.I 2  2n  2n  2   2n  1  2n  3  1    .. .... hence inserting these:  identifies missing terms to complete pattern Page | 18 . we note the missing terms to be in sequence in the  2n  2n  2  numerator are 2n.... 2n  2.Fort Street HS Trial HSC Extension 2 Mathematics 2016 – Solutions  2  sin ii) To show 2n x dx  0   2n  ! 22 n 1  n ! 2 i..e. 0    x 02   2  2n  1  2n  3  From the pattern    .

.2n  3. Radius was often incorrectly identified as x ..     2n  2n  2n  2  2n  2  2n  4 2 2 2n.2 2 2 2 2 2   2n  !  2  .22 22. 2 b) x C  2 1  x  y r  1 x Hence the shell is rectangular with area  A  lb x  2 1  x  y where y  1  x2 Thus the volume of the shell is  V  2 1  x  y.. x y  set-up: diagram with derivation of  V in appropriate detail Set-up was generally poorly done..  2n   2n  2  2 2  resolves factorials and powers correctly .2.2  n  1 .1.2n  2..22  n  2  .2   2n  ! 2 n .2212..42.2.1 2 n   2n  ! 22 n 1  n ! 2 as reqd.22... . n  n  1 n  2  .2n  1.Fort Street HS Trial HSC Extension 2 Mathematics 2016 – Solutions I 2n      2n  2n  1  2n  2  2n  3  2n  4 1  .2.. Page | 19 .

 x  x 0 0 1  2  1  x  y.dx 1  x2 0 1  2  1  x 2  1  x .dx 1 x  .dx 0 1  2  1  x  0 x .dx 1  x2 0 1  2  1  2   1  x 2   1  x 0 1  2  1  0 1  x2  resolves into partial fractions (any method) .dx 1  x2 x  x2 .dx 2 1  x 1  x2 1 1    2   x  tan 1 x  ln 1  x 2   2  0 1  1     2  1  tan 1 1  ln 1  1    0  tan 1 0  ln 1  0    2 2           ln 2   2  2    answer Page | 20 .Fort Street HS Trial HSC Extension 2 Mathematics 2016 – Solutions 1 V  lim   V  x 0  resolves sum to integral 0 1  lim  2 1  x  y.

eu 1 du u 1 1      2 .eu 1 du u u  eu 1 eu 1 du   2 du  u u u 1   eu 1  e 1 u 1  du         e du  u u   u    eu 1  eu 1 eu 1 du   du   u u  u   eu 1   c  u  x  c 1  ln x  uses appropriate substitution Generally well done  resolves to simple integration  answer back into original variable Page | 21 .Fort Street HS Trial HSC Extension 2 Mathematics 2016 – Solutions c) ln x  (1  ln x) 2 dx Let u  1  ln x so ln x  u  1 . then 1 x  eu 1 du  dx x dx  eu 1 du ln x  (1  ln x)2 dx u 1   2 .

Fort Street HS Trial HSC Extension 2 Mathematics 2016 – Solutions Question 15: a) i) Marking Comments  x  g   v2 dv  g   v2 dx vdv  dx g   v2 2  vdv  2  dx g   v2 v ln  g   v 2   2  x  c When x  0. Several students successfully used x v 0 0  ~dx   ~dv  resolves integral correctly method.  correct c value c  ln g  ln  g   v 2   2 x  ln g ii) 2  x  ln  g   v 2   ln g  g   v2  2  x  ln    g  g   v2 e 2  x  g 2  x ge  g   v2  resolves to exponentials Well done.  v 2  g  ge 2  x v2  v g  1  e  2  x g   correct algebra to result 1  e  (as v >0) 2  x Page | 22 . v  0 : 2   0  c  ln  g    02   resolves to integration Generally well done.

 correct answer Page | 23 .  e 2  x  0 . hence vT   iv) vT  g  1  0  g  correct reasoning as reqd.8  7 2   2.8 1 ln    2  0.2 km / h v) From (i): 2  x  ln g  ln  g   v 2   x 1  g  ln   2  g   v 2    9.2   0.8  0.2  7m/ s 7  60  60 km / h  1000  25.8 0.2  9. Don’t substitute  into equations – it’s not a number! g  9.  substitutions correct Generally well done.Fort Street HS Trial HSC Extension 2 Mathematics 2016 – Solutions iii) Terminal velocity when x  .55m  correct result Some did not read requirements and left the answer in m/s.  Some used the acceleration definition to get to the same result.

mr 2 mg r 2 g But from diagram: tan   r . hence h Page | 24 .Fort Street HS Trial HSC Extension 2 Mathematics 2016 – Solutions b) i) Forces Diagram  forces diagram and resolution of forces correct Resolving Forces: Vertically: no motion  Fi  0 Horizontally: circular motion  F  mr T cos   mg  0  2 i T sin   mr 2  T cos   mg    : tan   Set-up and forces diagram. usually poorly done. with resolution of forces.

g h  2 h as reqd.    2  resolved for  with correct resolution to required result.Fort Street HS Trial HSC Extension 2 Mathematics 2016 – Solutions r r 2  h g g 2  h g h For Period: 2 T  linking the two expressions for tan  . g ii) When the speed doubles: v2  2v1 Page | 25 .

1  r2   r  g  2  2  2r1  1  r    2  h1  2r1  Page | 26 .1  r2  : h2   g 22 g  2r1  2   . and erroneously finding that angle or radius doubled. this gives the following relationships: : v 2  2 r2  2v1 r2  appropriate working to support conclusions below Generally poorly done. Many assumed a doubling of  rather than v . thus not reading the question carefully.  2r    1  .Fort Street HS Trial HSC Extension 2 Mathematics 2016 – Solutions We know from h  So from part (i): v1  r11 g h1  2 1 2 T1  1 g 2 that h decreases as  increases and so clearly    . compared to double speed: v2  r22  g h2  2  2 2 T2   2 With v2  2v1 .

radius and angle (at least two mentioned)  effect on period r2 h2 r2  r2    h1  2r1  r 2 1 h1  2 tan    tan 1  2 tan   (i.Fort Street HS Trial HSC Extension 2 Mathematics 2016 – Solutions As h2  h1 . so reference should be made to this! Ensure you understand that the parts are linked! 2  2  2r1    . the angle is not doubled) Page | 27 . this leads to  r2    h1  h1  2r1  r2  2r1 : 2 T2  Period is specifically mentioned in the previous part. radius and angle increase (but NOT by doubling). Note also that r tan   1 h1 tan     height.e.1  r2   r    2  T1  2r1  Thus height and period decrease.

Some students did not realize to use the up of inequality discriminant.  2v 2 y  gx 2   0  link to discriminant and set. for two possible angles   0 .gx 2 .  v cos  2  v cos   gx 2  x tan   2 2v cos 2  2v 2 y  2v 2 x tan   gx 2 sec 2  Comments  resolves for t and substitutes 2  links sec  to tan   2v 2 x tan   gx 2 1  tan 2   Generally well done. ii) Considering the equation as a quadratic in tan  .  2v 2 x tan   gx 2  gx 2 tan 2  0  gx 2 tan 2   2v 2 x tan   gx 2  2v 2 y as reqd.Fort Street HS Trial HSC Extension 2 Mathematics 2016 – Solutions Question 16: a) i) Marking x  vt cos  gives t  x v cos  1 Substituting this into y  vt sin   gt 2 gives 2 1  x  x  g y  v sin  .  resolves to required eqn. 4v 4 x 2  8 gx 2 v 2 y  4 g 2 x 4  0 v 4  2 gv 2 y  g 2 x 2  0 v 4  2 gv 2 y  g 2 x 2 v  2 gv y  g y  g x  g y 4 2 v 2 2 2 2 2 2 2  correct algebra to result  gy   g 2  x 2  y 2  2 Page | 28 . Hence b 2  4ac  0  2v x  2 2  4.

Hence v  gx to hit the base of the wall. . v are all >0. iv) Substituting v  2 gx into (ii):  2 gx  2  gy  correct inequality   g x  y   4 gx  gy  2 2 2 2 2  g 2  x2  y2  g 2  4x  y   g 2  x2  y2  2 16 x 2  8 xy  y 2  x 2  y 2 16 x 2  8 xy  x 2 15 x 2  8 xy 15 x (as x  0 ) y 8 ALTERNATE METHOD (used by many) Substituting v  2 gx into (i): 0  gx 2 tan 2   8 gx 2 tan   8 gxy  gx 2  x tan 2   8 x tan   8 y  x x x y  x tan   tan 2   8 8 dy x   x sec 2   tan  sec 2  d 4 dy  0 gives d  Having missed the  correct algebra to link earlier. x.  correct reasoning ALTERNATE MARKING  finding tan   4 Page | 29 . but used the alternate method below. noting g . many did not use this eliminate y 2 method.Fort Street HS Trial HSC Extension 2 Mathematics 2016 – Solutions iii) To hit the base of the wall substitute y  0 in (ii): v 2  0   g 2  x 2  02  2  correct reasoning v4  g 2  x2  v  gx Many students did not use the inequality derived in (ii).

8 Also:  y'  proving the result. Most students recognised the need to use 1 A  ab sin C . y and r in a right triangle. 2 Page | 30 .16  8 8 15 x  as reqd. Many students did not confirm that the required value was a maximum. tan 1  3 tan 1  4  tan 1  5   0  showing a max value.  Hence the value is a maximum. tan   4 into : x x y  4 x  . b) i) Top view: Side view radians From the side view: y  r 2  x 2 Many students did not demonstrate the relationship between x.Fort Street HS Trial HSC Extension 2 Mathematics 2016 – Solutions x 0  x sec 2   tan  sec 2  4 x  sec2   4  tan   4 Hence tan   4 as sec 2   0 .

one triangle has 1 A  ab sin C 2 1  2   y 2 sin   2  n  So the total cross-sectional area is n  2  AT  y 2 sin   2  n  n  2    r 2  x 2  sin   2  n  ii)  V  AT  x n 2  2 r  x 2  sin   2  n Hence V  V  r  lim   x 0 0 n  2    r 2  x 2  sin  2  n 0  resolves to given result   x  Well done.  resolves to result Page | 31 .  2 3  n  nr 3  2  sin    3  n  as reqd.Fort Street HS Trial HSC Extension 2 Mathematics 2016 – Solutions From the top view. n 2  2 r  x 2  sin   2  n r  diagrams and setup for one crosssection   x    dx  n  2   2 1 3   sin   r x x  2  n   3 0  derivation of  V leading to integral r n  2  sin  2  n  resolves for r values    3 1 3    r  r    0   3     n 2r 3  2  .sin   .

.Fort Street HS Trial HSC Extension 2 Mathematics 2016 – Solutions iii) Noting that n   implies 2  0 .1 3 2 r 3  3 14     r3  which is half the volume of a sphere (a hemisphere) as reqd. 2 n 0 3 Hardly any students realized that as 2 n  . then n nr 3  2  sin   n  3  n  nr 3  2   lim sin   2 0 3  n  n lim  2  sin    n  2 n n  2  sin   2 r 3  n   lim 3 2 0 2 n n 3 2 r  . 0 n and hence were unable to correctly sin x resolve lim 1. 23   resolves limit correctly nr 3 2  lim . x 0 x  demonstrates conclusion with supporting working Page | 32 .