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: Which one of the following territories was not affected by the

Revolt of 1857?
(a) Jhansi
(b) Chittor
(c) Jagdishpur
(d) Lucknow
: B
: What was Komagata Maru?
(a) A political party based in Taiwan
(b) Peasant communist leader of China
(c) A naval ship on voyage to Canada
(d) A Chinese village where Mao Tse Tung began his Long march
: Indian constitution is not as rigid as USA and its not as flexible
as UK.
It can be amended (100 times till now) but with extreme precautionary
: Which is the most important reason to consider india as a secular
state ?
1) peoples of different religion live in india.
2) Government works for the welfare of people of all religions.
3) minority religions are given special protection.
4) Religion is separated from politics.
: India is not member of
A) 1,2
B) 2,3
C) 1,3
D) 1,2,3
: Bhai Ye secular Wala 2 hona chahiye

Coz what government does special for minority religion is as per

But constitution doesn't provide these provision for the sake of
: Secular means working for all without any favor of discrimination.
: *Citizenship Act to be amended soon*
1. News: The government is likely to introduce a Bill in the monsoon
session of Parliament to amend the Citizenship Act, 1955
2.Amendment: Definition of illegal migrants to be changed that
will enable the government to grant citizenship to minorities
3.The minorities aimed are at mostly Hindus, from Pakistan, Bangladesh
and Afghanistan, who have fled their country fearing religious
4. Context: The Union Cabinet recently gave its approval to empower
district magistrates to allow certain facilities for people staying on
Long Term Visa (LTV) in India
5.Facilities covered include purchase of property, issue of driving
licence and self-employment.
:In law, the term 'neighbour' means
A) People who stay in your locality.
B) People who live adjoining to your residence
C) People who might be affected by your actions
D) The word has not been given any particular definition
: Match items in the ListI
(Country) with those in the ListII
(Name of Parliament) and select the correct answer using the code
given below the lists:
List I List II
(A) Netherlands (1) Diet
(B) Ukraine (2) States General
(C) Poland (3) Supreme Council
(D) Japan (4) Sejm
(a) 4 1 2 3
(b) 2 3 4 1
(c) 4 3 2 1
(d) 2 1 4 3
17/07/16, 12:34 AM - +91 74559 33399: D-1
C- 4
B- 3
A- 2

17/07/16, 9:19 AM - +91 74559 33399: Match items in the ListI

(Country) with those in the ListII
(Name of Parliament) and select the correct answer using the code
given below the lists:
List I List II
(A) Netherlands (1) Diet
(B) Ukraine (2) States General
(C) Poland (3) Supreme Council
(D) Japan (4) Sejm
*A B C D*
(a) 4 1 2 3
(b) 2 3 4 1
(c) 4 3 2 1
(d) 2 1 4 3
C- 4
B- 3
A- 2
Option - *(b)*
Question k malik kaha hai?
: Intended Nationally Determined Contributions, which has
recently been in news are
associated with the functioning of
(a) United Nations Environment Programme
(b) United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
(c) United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
(d) Global Environment Facility
: To secure independence of judiciary, there is a provision of ban on
discussion of conduct of judges in the legislature, so how can the
process of impeachment take place?
: Only in case of impeachment discussion can be made on the ground
incapacity and degrading unconstitution.
: Only in case of impeachment discussion can be made on the ground of
incapacity and degrading unconstitution.
: Only in case of impeachment discussion can be made on the ground
incapacity and degrading constitution.
: Who is China's Charge dAffaires (Charge of Affairs) to India, who
was in news over the conflict regarding South China sea?
A) Liu Jinsong
B) Le Kikyang
C) Xi Jinping

D) Akihito
E) Qin Shi Huang
: *TRAI seeks views on use of public Wi-Fi networks*
1 . The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) issued a
consultation paper, seeking views on the use of public Wi-Fi networks
for expansion of broadband in the country
2. Aim Likely to result in faster Internet speeds, while reducing data
costs by up to 90% for consumers
3. TRAI pointed out that the state of Wi-Fi hotspots was not
encouraging in India, significantly lower compared to countries like
France, US, and UK.
Select the correct statement using the codes given below ?
A) 1 only
B) 1 and 3 only
C) 2 and 3 only
D) all of the above.
: It will reduce burden on telecom network improve call drops
: Don't u think the forefathers of Indian constitution lacked a spirit
of innovation as there is nothing our constitution that is a result of
Indian political thought and innovation apart from the jugaad for
which Indians are generally known?
: Panchayat system is indian own innovation
: Yes but that is not innovation that was a necessity due to rural
mass of India
: Every country prior to industrial revolution had rural masses
: Including china
: Agreed but they were not diverse enough like India which was
dissected into multiple tribal groups
: I think most of the things were already experimented with...hence
not much to try
: It was a way of letting the tribal chiefs administer the territories
: Which new constitution has any significant innovation?
: This explanation was given by ambedkar but I'm not satisfied with it
: Likr US
: Fundamental rights
: ireland directive principles
: I think US borrowed fundamental rights from UK MAGNA CARTA.
: His explanation gave the sense of end of world where no innovation
seems possible
: Ireland copied it from Spanish constitution .
: What i meant was there was innovation done
: Innovation never ends

: It's like saying television has been invented, plasma or Led isn't
: Well they did innovation in reservation
: Necessity is the mother of invention.
: Reservation was also copied
: Emergency provision from GOI act 1935 ?
: I think it was also copied from britishers isn't?
: The whole GOI act 1935 was a gift from British
: But it had features not found in British constitution
: Us has one of the smallest constitution hna ? It consists only 7
: Originally yes
: I think UK has the smallest constitution
: It has no written constitution.
: Brothers please tell me " places related with Goutam Buddha " please
try to right down all, don't leave any because upsc definitely
obsessed with this topic.
: When we say something is a republic, isn't it redundant to add
: You r right
I think
: Then why does the preamble contains the term democratic
: When there is republic
: Actually Republic denotes to the elected head of state
: And democracy donotes to the elected government
: Minor difference
: Why does uk also a democratic country though it has a hereditary
: Because people elect the govt
: Because they have elected government
: Prime minister
: UK is not a Republic
: Why?
: Head of state is not an elected one
: Why does china consider a communist country though people choose the
: Because there's no other party but CPC
: Yes in democratic country the government should be changed.
: Wrong concept
: Why ?
: China is communist because of its economic policies
: No
: And not because of its political system
: I mean its earlier adopted economic policies
: People choose their rulers but the rulers remain the same from a
single party.
In democracy, the people have right to choose their rulers not from a
single party.
: But it has nothing to do with communism
: Why do we have article 19 ?
: Communism is not a political system

: Why do have right to know government policies?

: Why do we* have right to know government policies?
: In communist , dictatorship, monarchy countries people don't have
these rights that are mentioned in article 19.
: 9th and 10th ncert are good books to clear basics for polity.
: For the record China is a republic too. But it is no where close to
being a democracy
: What are Gandhi Marriages?
Can anyone explain?
: As far as i remember
Gandhi used to say the marriages should be simple without much
extravagant celebrations and thus he inducted his idea of marriages in
which many couples were married through simple rituals together.
18/07/16, 11:07 AM - Himanshu Aspi: Listen to Spotlight: A discussion
on Supreme Court decision on Arunachal Pradesh issue by
allindiaradionews #np on #SoundCloud
: Who was the editor of newspaper Hitabdi?
: Which provisions ensure criminals don't come to power?
: @madhusudan read this
: @Himanshu, Representation of People's act, 1950 and 1951
i: We are done with 100 amendments.. 101 onwards are constitutional
amendment bills proposed not passed uptil now..
: Who among the following is not the member of EU?
A. Slovenia
B. Croatia
C. Macedonia
D. Latvia
: C
: Arrange the following cities from North to South
1. Beijing
2. Pyongyang
3. Tokyo
4. Seoul
A. 1234
B. 1243
C. 2134
D. 2143
: 1243
1. Vision IAS Prelims General Studies Test Series 2016 (Tests 01 to

2. Vision IAS Prelims General Studies Test Series 2016 (Tests 11 to

3. Vision IAS Prelims General Studies Test Series 2016 (Tests 15 to
4. Vision IAS Prelims CSAT Test Series 2016
5. Vision 2016 Hindi Medium Test Series
: I think AG is a part of executive
: yes he is
: Executive= President + PM + Cabinet + AG
: Yes AG is a part of executive
: He is the only one outside the members of parliament who can address
the floor of the house.
: Dear Aspirant, You can now attempt old UPSC Prelims GS Paper at Papers are classified year wise and topic
wise. Thanks Vision IAS
: Was tilak's league active in Bombay city?
: At one place it's written it worked in maharashtra excluding Bombay,
at another place it says it had a branch in Bombay city
: yes it was active in Bombay
: yes. Tilaks movement was in maharashtra , karnataka and Berar.
Besant's in rest of India.
i: Q. How can SC make two different judgements in similar cases? In
case of arunachal disqualification of rebel MLAs by the speaker, was
removed, since a motion for speakers removal was in place. But in case
of uttarakhand, SC didn't do the same when here also a motion for
disqualification of speaker is in place.
: In England Queen is above the law. In India SC Judge is above the
law. We have seen historically in last 70 years that they often pass
whimsical judgements as per their own feelings. But no solid provision
to question them as They are the last interpreters of Constitution.
: Any particular case you wish to elaborate?
: Judgement not prounounce till now...the sc just refuse to provide
interim relief.....
: But since our constitution provided for the system of judicial
precedent, there was no reason for the judiciary to refuse interim
relief, as all the circumstances were similar in both cases
: Also i don't agree with the way SC has interpreted article 179
: I don't know how SC has encroached upon the speakers exclusive
jurisdiction in 10th schedule
: First he matter is not similar as it is not clear till now who give
resolution no. Of things happen in one did'nt
encroached the speaker rite it just say when motion for removal of

speaker come to house...speaker cant change the composituon of the

: It's kind of an encroachment. What of the bar of jurisdiction of any
court in 10th schedule, did the court not understand.
: No jurisdiction with respect to any matter
: In both the cases it's known the motion for removal of speaker was
given before: 10th sechdule is only for defection.......court is
just watching if sechdule 10 cant be misused by speaker and effect
motion for removal of speaker.....
: Who say that...there is no jurisdiction of court when the speaker
decide defection ...however court can ensure that rule prescribe under
sechduled 10 is follwed or not ...for example speaker decide to
disqualify some mp....the court can however review while disqulaifying
mp..the rule defimed under article followed or not....
: It's not what I'm saying its written very clearly
: No jurisdiction wrt any matter related to disqualification
: And making a pre criteria for disqualification is a matter related
to disqualification
: See according to article 32 ...court can review anything
........even schedule nine also..but...however court cant question the
speaker decision if all the rules are folloed by speaker by
disqulaifying mber..
: Until unless the SC orders this provision ultra vires, i don't think
it has any reason of overstepping it's boundary
: It's just not related to speakers decision, it's related to anything
connected to disqualification
: Not just speakers decision
: The text says it very clearly
: Court already say that in various decison no clause can bar it
from exersisng article is basic structure....
: So if it is that, it has to prove this provision as ultra vires
: And make this a part of basic structure
: I think u hear about the history of schedule 9
: And remove all such provisions from constitution
: See im talking about just what's very clearly written right now
: Same thing is written for schedule 9
: Had the speakers acted in an unbiased manner probably SC wouldn't
have usurped the power of judicial review where it has been barred
21/07/16, 1:49 PM - +91 87968 89782: many cases where SC'c
decisions have been controversial:
Recent NEET issue where it has changed its own decision twice without
even considering exam systems in states destroying careers of lakhs of
students. My sister is a victim, where to ask justice?
Even previously they changed many times especially reg
Fund Rights, Basic Structure.
Indira Gandhi's numerous amendments etc
Its all right if change is part of evolution but its not at all
justified if those are part of deliberate corrupt practices.

As CJI katju said 50% of SC and HC judges are corrupt and give ill
motivated judgements.
Now problem is who is to judge or question whether decision passed by
them is ill motivated for someone's hidden benefits or according to
: Well the blame goes to speakers who certify non money bills as money
bills. Had they been cautious and not certified non money bills as
money bills, probably SC would have stayed away.
: If Money bill is also brought under the purview of supreme court
then surely it will enter the arena meant for legislature and 'super
legislature' term would be apt
: I think before overstepping it has to declare the provision as ultra
: SC is loving the word Suo-Moto nowadays
: Both Collegium and NJAC are un-transparent. There has to be exams
like UPSC but more transparent at each stage of judges promotion.
: I'm not saying executive should enter the arena, but SC shouldnt
have made CJIs recommendations binding on the president
: this whole appointment system breeds corruption. Exams are must at
any level or any field for appointment. Even for positions like CEC,
RBI Governor, Parliamentary Secretaries etc there has to be
transparent exams so that controversies dont happen like what Kejriwal
did appointing MLAs as secretaries
: Guys sorry for creating a confusion. Disqualification under 10th
schedule is put under judicial review as of 1992
: Can anyone explain the difference between "due process of law" and
"procedure established by law"?
: Under procedure established by law: Supreme Court just sees whether
proper procedure has been followed or not while under due process of
law the SC also examines if the law is reasonable or not and strikes
it down in case it is unreasonable.
Assume for example, the Parliament passes a law barring the people
above the height of 180cm. Here the law is unreasonable so under due
process of law it can be struck down though it would have been a valid
law under procedure established by law.
: So if the parliament passes a law as mentioned in the example, the
Indian SC has no other option than to uphold it?
: What about judicial review in this case?
: As per my knowledge SC has abandoned the procedure established by
law it now goes by due process of law.
: Of course it can be subjected to judicial review
: But laxmikant says otherwise
r: Yeah, I know. But I had read somewhere that SC now follows due
process of law. Not able to recollect.
: But I think procedure established by law makes more sense in Indian
: True. Given Indian judiciary's overstepping attitude, procedure
established by law makes more sense
: And Ambedkar did not include due process of law deliberately so as
to not make judiciary, Super Judiciary.

: Moreover the power to make laws resides with the citizens which
they exercise by electing their representatives. Giving the power to
the SC to reject laws according to their will will surely account to
be unconstitutional.
: If parliament tomorrow passes a law of public execution. If the law
made is as per the procedures in our constitution, SC won't
interfere. This is procedure established by law.
The US supreme court will judge the above law as per moral factors and
will later remove it. This is due process of law
: Btw we are actually still using procedure established by
: Yes as far as i know
: Prasad said otherwise
: He said something that isn't officially understood.
: But maybe personally done by judiciary
: I have seen cases of due process of law practised by Indian
: Under the veneer of judicial review?
: Yes
: Well that's constitutional
: Constitution is dynamic so understand it from the lens of the
judiciary similar to how the ancient janas understood scriptures from
the lens of Brahmin
: How would anyone object to it if such a thing is practiced be the
: It would be a constitutional way of doing an unconstitutional thing.
Is there any law or procedure to counter it?
i: Yes
: Appeal to higher bench
: What if the SC does it?
: The interpretation of SC is as good as the lawyer arguing for the
: Guys which chapters from economics do u think are the most
: IMO all the chapters that relate to what is there in Economic Survey
: Can anybody help me with why did the president have to use his veto
power in case of PEPSU appropriation bill?
: Defence of India Act was not passed for Gadhar?
i: @aditya because presidents rule was over when this bill came
: Okay so he vetoed it to let the government choose it's fate?
: Yup
: is investment by NRI treated as FDI/FII or domestic investment?
: Domestic investment.
: I think in Indian councils act separate electorate was given by
Britishers while in Lucknow pact it was agreed upon by INC & ML.

21/07/16, 9:48 PM - Safwan Aspi: It was a proposal, like a common

minimum programme between the two parties. It was for greater
: One doubt
If Indian Councils act 1909 introduced system of separate electorates
for muslims, why did Congress sign the Lucknow pact with aiml for
demanding the same thing again in 1916?
: It was not something which they authorized as they weren't in power,
it was just a pact between INC & ML to make them come closer. It was
like a pre coalition agreement.
: They sought Dominion status.
: Obviously it was the Britishers who were to take the final decision.
: Because of this pact INC was criticised for communal politics.
: It was a part of a larger framework of demanding Dominion status.
: Communal award was a part of it.
: Yeah, Muslims were given more seats compared to the proportion of
their population.
i: Did Congress had the power to grant separate electorates, i think
it's the power of govt
i: But the counting of votes was done by govt, how can they allow
separate electorates If it's not sanctioned by law
: Why will govt consider only Muslim votes for a particular candidate
from an area decided by Lucknow pact
i: U mean a demand to be included in next Indian councils act?
: Joint demand?
: But Indian council act 1909 already provided separate electorates
: Was it the demand for more muslim electorates, as it was already
there since 1909
: I think ICA 1909 provided just 8 Muslim seats
: One thing more
: Could muslims fight from general seats Apart from the reserved ones
: What is proportional tax system?
: Higher tax deductions for higher wages
: Tax proportionate to the income or price. It doesnt increase after a
certain limit like in progressive tax.
: Yes. Service tax for example
: What is credit default swap?
: Credit default swap is kind of an insurance agreement where the
issuer of bonds insures the possible losses to the buyer in case of a
default by the issuer in paying out dividends
: Q. Who collects the central sales tax?
: What's its current value?
: In special majority, total membership of house in case of LS should
be 545 or 552?
: 545
: One of my friends said, since it says it is total membership of the
house it should be 552, so was confused
: No
: It's the number of elected members
: I thought the same too
: Nominated members can also vote on bills.
: Sorry gilgit is a part of pok

: Azad Kashmir gilgit baltistan all are separate entity

: Azad kashmir and gilgit are part of pok
: And as per census 2001, we can have only 543 seats with 2 nominated
: Decided by delimitation commission
: Yeah, sorry I was wrong about those 7 seats. They are from UTs. But,
present strength of LS is according to 1971 census, intrastate
readjustment was done in accordance with 2001 census.
: Actually I got confused because j&k assembly provides for seats in
: Tribal Advisory Council (TAC),
TACs are mandated as per the Fifth
schedule of the constitution, to advice on matters pertaining to the
welfare and advancement of the STs in respective States as may be
referred to them by the Governor. The decisions taken in the TACs do
not need Cabinets approval and the council enjoys a say in crucial
matter related to tribal issues.
government has to nominate tribal MLAs and MPs for the TAC of which
the Chief Minister is the chairperson.
: Jainism is one of the world's most ancient religions, and Jain monks
lead a life of extreme austerity and renunciation. *Sallekhana or
santhara* is a controversial religious practice in which a Jain stops
eating with the intention of preparing for death. It is seen as the
ultimate way to expunge all sins and karma, liberating the soul from
the cycle of birth, death and rebirth.
: The Federation of Indian Export Organisations represents the Indian
entrepreneurs spirit of enterprise in the global market. Known
popularly as "FIEO", this apex body of Indian export promotion
organizations was set up jointly by the Ministry of Commerce,
Government of India and private trade and industry in the year 1965.
FIEO is thus a partner of the Government of India in promoting India's
: Indian Plywood Industries Research Institute (IPIRTI) has said
*Melia dubia trees* (also called malabar neem or kaad bevu) should be
grown instead of the water-guzzling eucalyptus tree.
Kaad bevu consumes less water compared to eucalyptus and can grow
to a girth of 100 cm (or one metre) in less than eight years in wellirrigated areas. Its peeling qualities also help get the best veneers
for the plywood industry.
sur: Should a candidate contesting LS elections be registered as a
voter in the constituency he is contesting from?
: No
: Candidate should be enrolled in voter list. But can contest from any
: Yes
: Initially for MPs(both of LS and RS) he says they should be
registered as a voter in the state they are contesting from and later
he says the clause was removed for RS candidates. So I thought the
clause is still there for LS candidates
: People are allowed to fight elections from 2 seats....elector is
not required
: The RBI Governor is appointed by the Central Government under the
provisions of the RBI Act. The Governor can be removed from office at

any time by the Central Government. Hence, the governor holds the
office at the pleasure of the Central Government.
: RBI was nationalized in 1949
: RBI was constituted under the Reserve bank of India Act 1934 based
on the recommendation of Hilton Young Commission.
: The Government has launched *Mission Indradhanush* on 25th
December, 2014 with an aim to cover all those children who are
partially vaccinated or unvaccinated.
Mission Indradhanush will be a nationwide initiative with a
special focus on 201 high focus districts. These districts account for
nearly 50% of the total partially vaccinated or unvaccinated children
in the country. Mission Indradhanush will provide protection against
seven life-threatening diseases (diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus,
polio, tuberculosis, measles and hepatitis B). In addition,
vaccination against Japanese Encephalitis and Haemophilus influenza
type B will be provided in selected districts of the country.
Vaccination against tetanus will be provided to the pregnant women.
The Mission focuses on interventions to rapidly increase full
immunization coverage of children by approximately 5% annually and to
expand full immunization coverage to at least 90% children in the next
five years.
Four special vaccination campaigns will be conducted from 7th of every
month staring from April, 2015 and this will cover all children less
than two years of age and pregnant women for tetanus toxoid vaccine in
these selected 201 districts.
The Health Minister, Shri J P Nadda stated this in a written reply in
the Rajya Sabha
23/07/16, 8:26 PM - Indu Aspi: Thanks Prasad... Will update few
more... read wen u take break guys... Just to brush up current affairs
23/07/16, 8:39 PM - Indu Aspi: Viability Gap Funding (VGF) Means a
grant one-time or deferred, provided to support infrastructure
projects that are economically justified but fall short of financial
viability. The lack of financial viability usually arises from long
gestation periods and the inability to increase user charges to
commercial levels. Infrastructure projects also involve externalities
that are not adequately captured in direct financial returns to the
project sponsor. Through the provision of a catalytic grant assistance
of the capital costs, several projects may become bankable and help
mobilise private investment in infrastructure.
Government of India has notified a scheme for Viability Gap Funding to
infrastructure projects that are to be undertaken through Public
Private Partnerships. It will be a Plan Scheme to be administered by
the Ministry of Finance with suitable budgetary provisions to be made
in the Annual Plans on a year-to- year basis.
The quantum of VGF provided under this scheme is in the form of a
capital grant at the stage of project construction. The amount of VGF
will be equivalent to the lowest bid for capital subsidy, but subject
to a maximum of 20% of the total project cost. In case the sponsoring

Ministry/State Government/ statutory entity propose to provide any

assistance over and above the said VGF, it will be restricted to a
further 20% of the total project cost.
Support under this scheme is available only for infrastructure
projects where private sector sponsors are selected through a process
of competitive bidding. The project agreements must also adhere to
best practices that would secure value for public money and safeguard
user interests. The lead financial institution for the project is
responsible for regular monitoring and periodic evaluation of project
compliance with agreed milestones and performance levels, particularly
for the purpose of grant disbursement. VGF is disbursed only after the
private sector company has subscribed and expended the equity
contribution required for the project.
: *UNSC resolution 1267 *.( UN Security Council Resolution
1267 )
A sanctions regime applicable to designated
individuals and entities associated with Al-Qaida, wherever located.
Read it when u have time
Enough of their privileges. An arrogant child should be sternly taught
a lesson, not given better gifts than other children to placate him.
This is a negative precedent and inspires other children to behave the
same to fulfil their desires.
25/07/16, 12:52 AM - +91 87968 89782: *Dr Ambedkar Strongly
opposed Special Status to JK by article 370 :*
Ambedkar had clearly told Sk. Abdullah : "You wish India should
protect your borders, she should build roads in your area, she should
supply you food grains, and Kashmir should get equal status as India.
But Government of India should have only limited powers and Indian
people should have no rights in Kashmir. To give consent to this
proposal, would be a treacherous thing against the interests of India
and I, as the Law Minister of India, will never do it."
25/07/16, 12:58 AM - Himanshu Aspi:
25/07/16, 1:02 AM - +91 87968 89782: *Dr Ambedkar's Solution to
Kashmir Issue*
Dr. Ambedkar had warned that this problem will not be solved by the
United Nations, but it will become more complicated.
He quoted Bernard Shaw that, 'good ideals are good but one must not
forget that it is often dangerous to be too good', he criticized that
India's foreign policy is in complete opposition to these words of

The great drain on our resources made by our military expenditure, it

is a colossal expenditure that has hardly any parallel and is the
direct result of our foreign policy.
The real issue to my mind, he said, is not who is in the right but
what is right and he observed: "... my view has always been that the
right solution is to partition Kashmir. Give the Hindu and Buddhist
part to India and the Muslim part to Pakistan as we did in the case of
India. We are really not concerned with the Muslim part of Kashmir. It
is a matter between the Muslims of Kashmir and Pakistan. They may
decide the issue, as they like.
Ambedkar's views were praised by most of the national as well as
international newspapers including the Manchester Guardian.
: But isn't it forcing the muslims to leave India
: not them India partition.. If they want
they will vote to keep their part of Kashmir with India
: but even if they go to Pak, India will definitely have at least
OFFICIAL OWN part of kashmir where people wont be able to object of
atrocities bla bla bla. All Hindus and Indian Muslims would stay
happily forever in that part without a nail of Separatists.
: If we could do partition of one of the largest country of the
world, why not a tiny Kashmir? If wound gets worsen it has to be
operated and if not possible to do it then that part needs to be cut
off from the body in order to save whole body.
i: Have u read about the basic concept of communalism? U give them a
piece of cloth, tomorrow they'll ask for a suit
: They'll never be content with what's provided
: Whatever they still have, that's also illegal
: Saalo se POK bhi cheen lena chahiye
: Our politicians are talking about the dangers of pellet guns. In my
opinion i also support such alternatives, though i prefer substituting
the pellet gun with an AK47
: But that seems impossible as Pak is nuclear state
: if war is not possible then at least cut it off.. how long to
prolong the problem
: Same hal wid China...dey think we cannot retaliate....n will bow b4 we hv bowed several times in Sino india border issues..n nvr
hv cnfronted dem sternly...coz...we r Indians...peace loving..
: What r u saying Vivek. If we deal with our people sternly, outsiders
won't dare
: But what abt nuclear weapons? they have more than India has
: and they won't think twice to use headed
25/07/16, 1:21 AM - Himanshu Aspi: Our people are only controlling
: Hmm.. but world doesnt think that these are OUR people
: Ye India he jo sirf pellet gun tk he...kisi dusre mulk me ye hua goli mar dete sabko
: especially our Media, IAS Faisal..they add oil in fire

: Well...d wrld also thinks dat US is a peace mediator b/w India n

Pak...,but asli me US he kya ?? @ Vivek
: People like faisal should be kicked out of service, it's like sc st
category. They enjoy in their category and even in general category.
If Indians can't live in kashmir, kashmiris shouldn't work in Indian
civil services
: USA has 10 thousand nuclear weapons.. its one can argue
even if they occupy kasmir themeselves like they have occupies Afgan,
Iraq etc
: Xactly...d wrld shares US opinion..bcozmits powerful...nt bcoz it
is right
: MIGHT is always RIGHT.
25/07/16, 3:16 AM - +91 87968 89782: Forget Kashmir, our
Great Politicians had marred even the most critical Defence Sector
(for more reference and facts read *Wings of Fire by Abdul Kalam* how
his innovative projects like Hovercraft were thrown into dustbin by
corrupt politicos/ red tapism to favor foreign deals)
: Why this Kyoto Protocol/ UNFCCC is so much hyped, especially by
1. Penalty for not meeting target is just increasing target in next
2. In 2008 assessment, 20 out of 37 countries didn't meet targets at
3. Second largest polluter US hasn't signed it.
4. Largest polluter China has no targets!
5. Canada has withdrawn from it.
6. Japan, New Zealand, Russia have declined to take targets for 2nd
7. Doha agreement is not even into effect by as all countries are not
signing it while we are way past halfway through deadline of 2020.
and so on.
Why are they themselves damaging environment by wasting paper to print
10000s of pages of these protocols and conventions when those who are
supposed to care don't give a damn? Why UPSC has gone mad about it? I
think all in the world only UPSC Students care about them the most and
its a conspiracy against them
: Paris Agreement is one step ahead!: doesn't even have any binding
system or even name sake penalties as previous!! Only "Name and
Shame" as they say.
As if countries are standing in marriage bazzar to worry about Izzat
ka sawal
: Bhut ho gaya kashmir kashmir...mujhe lagta hai ab pure pakistan ki
ghar wapasi honi chaiye....

: *Geostationary satellites* have a geostationary orbit (GEO), which

is 35,786 kilometres (22,236 mi) from Earths surface. This orbit
has the special characteristic that the apparent position of the
satellite in the sky when viewed by a ground observer does not change,
the satellite appears to "stand still" in the sky. This is because the
satellite's orbital period is the same as the rotation rate of the
Earth. The advantage of this orbit is that ground antennas do not have
to track the satellite across the sky, they can be fixed to point at
the location in the sky the satellite appears.
: With two launch pads, Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) (or
Sriharikota Range SHAR) at Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh, is the
Spaceport of India that carries out all operations related to the
ISRO proposes to establish a third launch pad at Sriharikota to
support increased launch frequency and also to support launching
requirements of advanced launch vehicles.
25/07/16, 9:00 AM - Indu Aspi: *The Foreign Contribution Regulation
Act (FCRA)*:
The Ministry of Home Affairs is mandated to administer the Foreign
Contribution (Regulation) Act, 2010.
Political party or its office bearers are prohibited from accepting
foreign contribution under the Act, except in some specific situations
as mentioned in the Act.
: *The National Human Rights Commission*....1) It is a statutory body
established in 1993...2)Its recommendations are just advisory and not
binding in nature..
3)It submits Annual report to the Central government and to the
concerned state governments.
25/07/16, 9:07 AM - Indu Aspi:
: Sorry if this offends someone. It is very easy to brag while sitting
on your cosy couches and air conditioned rooms. When people die and
loose their eyesight why would you all care because you haven't lost
any of your closed ones and friends. I wonder that this group is
leaning more towards Maoism than our own 'Democracy'. Democracy gives
you freedom to utter whatever you think but within the frontiers of
sanity. The pioneers of freedom of speech didn't include right to hurt
others feelings because they thought users of free speech would use it
with maturity and great sense responsibility. But nowadays what hurts
me the most is not that what happened in the past because of prejudice
in the name of religion, region, caste and creed but that the new
generation even after witnessing the horrors of conflicts want to
follow the same dreadful path. Hate, bloodshed and to crush the voice
of the dissenter is not the answer to present problem. Please
eventually you all are going to share a great responsibility, a stroke
of your pen will make or break a life. A life is not a number it
reflects whether humanism us dead or alive. I am greatly distressed
to read from good people who want to replace pellet guns with AK47.

Please don't take patriotism too far that only a select few can
exercise it, don't give it a jingoistic hue.
: @ safwan u r correct .....pellet guns shud not b replaced by ak47
: Guys please tell me national Calamity's in India
: If China and USA are our role models to keep dissent at bay, we are
doomed for sure.
: @safwan becoming a part of administration sometimes entails taking
hard and unpopular decisions for long lasting benefits. My views
aren't against islam per se, i didn't talk of killing muslims or
throwing out muslims. It's just to say that no kashmiriyat is not
superior to bharatiya and no u can't speak ill against the nation that
feeds u
: He is a terrorist and has met the right fate. Agitations happening
against his execution is totally wrong but just to bog down the
agitators we can't use unrestrained brute force. The people are after
all Indian citizens though not accepted by us (i.e. rest of Indian
citizens) wholeheartedly, they are oppressed since decades they
shouldn't be dealt with force but with empathy and compassion. I pains
me to make this statement, but why we use such brute force only
against Kashmiri, if just measures are justified why weren't they use
in patidar or jat stirs they were even more violent and no one
questioned their patriotism even though they took siege of government
machinery. Why don't we talk to separatist of kashmir when we can do
the same with NSCN(IM) who have Independence as their main agenda and
collect parallel taxes on essential commodities. We hail their leader
for their resoluteness their love for their own region. Isn't this
hypocrisy on our part!
: @ safwan u r taking the words of mr. Ghulam nabi azad by
giving examples of jat agitation nd patidar agitation
: @Himanshu, it doesn't last for long. You think China has been
successful in crushing dissent permanently? A revolution is brewing
there for long, as and when it erupts it will be too violent. You
can't compel people to love your country by force. It has to happen
from within. That is why no matter what party comes to power they try
to use confidence building measures instead of eliminating the
: That's the biggest problem which have, I never used Islam in any of
my statements. I am not empathising with Kashmiri because of being a
Muslim but because I am a human who has got feelings, who considers
those lying on streets, hungry as one of the members of my extended
family. I don't want to join civil services only to make India greater
but to make life of people living India in particular and world as a
whole, worthful.
: Bt u cannot mix up the things like jat agitation nd kashmir issue
: We have separate views brother. From my judgement of world history i
can safely conclude India attained independence just because we were
ruled by liberals. If japan or Germany had annexed us, we wouldn't
have been talking all this today.
: Talking about pellet guns is good but how will one justify stone
pelting ?
: Shah Faisal said it right and I fully agree with him. He said "
India is that father who sends money but doesn't visit".

: Safwan I'll be interested if u talk about throwing flowers on police

force instead of stones, then we can talk about alternatives to
: Guys tell me one thing, what are your views on Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev
and others who preached violent over throw of Britishers? Were they
terrorists or freedom fighters?
: They were terrorists to British government.
But freedom fighters for us... for Indians
: @prasad how can u even compare them. At one side was a colonial
state forcefully occupying half of the world, at another side is a
country who have the history of only giving never occupying that never
was ours
: @Shashwat
Why can't we mix up the Jat agitation and Kashmir agitation ?
: @Vaibhav, same is the case in Kashmir today. Their freedom fighters
are terrorists to you. They will be agitated when you kill one of
their freedom fighters
: A Country is made up of its residents.... not the lands itself
r: @Himanshu, in a Kashmiris eyes we are the Britishers who are
forcefully occupying their land. Of course they want to over throw us
: We are a colonial state
: We should remember these were the very people who helped Indian army
in driving out militants from Pakistan in 1947 war. They stood
shoulder to shoulder with the Indian army, they were secular people
who owed allegiance to India. They were compelled by us to take to
separatist movement because of our oppression.
: @prasad britishers drained and bled us economically but in
kashmir's case we are oversupplying them with money... if you have
read the today's newspaper there was a article which states 10% of
total aid goes to kasmir despite of them having just 1% no comparision between british rule and indian rule.
: I am saying all this doesn't mean I support secession of Kashmir
from India. I am against use of force to suppress dissent. It should
happen through confidence building measures through peace.
If it happens violently, today's generation might assimilate with
India but the next generation won't.
: Himanshu just said we were ruled by liberals (British)
Aren't we liberal enough ready to discuss the problem with separatists
We r killing them as BritishERS kill our fredom fighters
: @prasad there is no force, it was afterall an Indian territory. We
are not draining them economically, we are over supplying them
instead. We aren't restricting them in any way, instead we are
restricting 90 percent of our people from disturbing them in their
@safwan u r wrong to say we don't think of them as indians. I passed
out from jamia millia islamia. Around half of my batch was from
kashmir and we treated them good. They were the ones to maintain lines
not us

: If your "kind" neighbour nation funds for proxy war and

instability...would you just sit and let them spread hatred and fear
or would you fight them?
: Prasad
: Diplomacy has an expiry date mates, once diplomacy loses war settles
the matter for good.
: We give them what they deserve. It's not something like we are doing
: So they should be grateful in this way
: 10% for 1% population is legit?
: @Vaibhav I am not against suppressing militants or terrorists I am
against use of force to make Kashmiris as Indians
: @himanshu Like slaves I suppose. Saying thanks 'mai baap'
: I don't think being grateful to the nation is slavish trait. What r
u even saying. Aren't u grateful to ur parents?
: They should be grateful for many things. No state is before the
nation. Anyway opinion differ.
: South indian states must be really crying their hearts
out.....they are the ones who should seccede first...they are the
engines of indian economy and their money is being wasted on northern
states for nothing.
: Kashmir secession is anyways moronic
: A nation is built by its people. If it differentiates between its
people it's not a nation!
: India was built on the foundation of equality, fraternity and
compassion towards downtrodden. Alas, we have lost all!
: @himanshu Then kill NSCN(IM), ULFA,
: @Himanshu you are talking the Churchill way.
: Agree with safwan............we want kashmir with
kashmiris.....wat is the use of land withot there people...
: Well yes it's illegal to have allegiance with enemies of India and
after that staying in its land and indulge in anti national
activities. So yes killing or barring them from freely associating
with indians should be the first criteria towards maintaining peace.
: govt is biased and that's why I'm against these favours that the
centre provides the separatists of j&k
: Be it any other state, they'll be behind bars or executed before
they saw the next daylight
: Democracy is for Indian citizens not for those who doesn't agree to
our democratic principles
: You remove one Geelani hundred Geelanis will take birth. So next
kill all hundred also?
: So majority Kashmiris don't want to be Indian citizens, so kill all
of them and Make Kashmir ours?
: Start with one atleast. The problem with Indian intellectuals is
they spend so much time thinking that it effects the situation
: Well if they don't want, they have no business here. Get it
: Do u support what russia did with cremia?
: @himanshu ...although you say it democracy...but it hear to me like
aristocracy........and by your defination ruling india by bristish is
also democracy

: If they are fed up with AFSPA then why they had highest voter turn
out of 70% in recent elections and they elected same party who favour
: Kashmiris didn't elect BJP
Jammu elected BJP
: PDP is not separatist
But they are always against AFSPA
: this is what EU said:
The EU in its message said that, "The high voter
that democracy is firmly rooted in India. The EU
congratulate India and its democratic system for
elections, unmarred by violence, in the state of
: @Himanshu, let's discuss Crimea after prelims
: Consider the following statements

turnout figure proves

would like to
conduct of fair
Jammu and Kashmir"

1. Under LAF, banks are required to keep securities with RBI

2.Under MSF, Banks do not have to keep securities with RBI
Choose the correct options:
A. 1 only
B. 2 only
C. Both 1 and 2
D. Neither 1 nor 2
: 4000 Questions Solved 1979 to 2015 IAS Prelims Previous Year
Question Subject Wise
: The Central Statistical Office which is one of the two wings of the
National Statistical Organisation (NSO) is responsible for
coordination of statistical activities in the country and for evolving
and maintaining statistical standards. Its activities include:
compilation of National Accounts; conduct of Annual Survey of
Industries and Economic Censuses, compilation of Index of Industrial
Production, as well as Consumer Price Indices. It also deals with
various social statistics, training, international cooperation,
Industrial Classification etc.
: The Ebola River, also known as the Legbala, flows through
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaire)
: Vachana Sahitya or Vachana Literature:
Vachanakaras consisted of members from the upper and lower
strata of society.
The Vachana movement flourished in
the 12th century C.E.
It consists of brief paragraphs, often invoking Lord Shiva or offering
Him Pooja.....
Kalburgi, a Sahitya Akademi award winner and an authority on Vachana
literature, was known for his sharp criticism and questioning of
superstitious beliefs, and received a death threat from the leader of
a fringe right-wing group last year.

: *Project Mausam* :- A project for re-establishment of

Indias ancient maritime routes with its traditional trade partners
along the Indian Ocean.
: Less dew is formed on cloudy nights because
: What events considered as national calamity and disaster in India
anyone please?
: Because in cloudy nights the clouds prevent surface albedo from
escaping leading to warm ground surface and less condensation
: Is viceroy a single officer of the British govt or is different for
different regions?
: Single officer of the British Govt
: Viceroy to just India or all colonies?
: Viceroy when dealing with British-India states , gov-gen wen dealing
wid princely states
: *VICEROY* Word itself has Indian relations... *Vice* means Semi or
Assistant .. *Roy* means King... As Gov General was second to Queen of
England reg Indian Matters, he is called as Viceroy. All other small
chieftains of small states were called *Princes* to show their
subordinate position wrt Queen.
: * Upanishads are
(a)Religious books of hindus
(b) Books dealing with ancient hindu Laws
(c) Books on social behaviour of man
: A....Vedas r cnsidered religious books.....
: B.....Smritis n Dharmasutras r d ones which contain ancient Hindu
: *The Public Liability Insurance (PLI) Act, 1991* is administered
by:Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change
: *the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)*:
It is a statutory organization under the Ministry of Environment and
Forests (MoEF).
It is also entrusted with the powers and functions under the Air
(Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.
: *the Public Accounts Committee*: The Chairman of the committee is
appointed by the Speaker of Lok Sabha.
A Minister is not eligible to be elected as a member of the Committee.
Public Accounts committee is constituted by the Parliament of India.
: The Constitution, under the *Sixth Schedule*, contains special
provisions for the administration of tribal areas is..Assam,Mizoram,
: What is Bearer Bond Scheme ?
: One man serves 2 offices. He is governor general of British India
and communicates with native States as viceroy of India.
: In USA sometimes they use Sound Guns to disperse mobs.

: Pentagon has unveiled Microwave gun to heat up skins of people and
make them run away
: Anything could be lethal. A south Indian actor uses a banana to slit
the necks of villains
: We should provide our Armed Forces with some bananas
: Pellats have been an alternative to rubber bullets which contrary to
public belief, were more harmful
Got this info from today's editorial
: Can cess be imposed by executive action or does it require
Parliament's approval?
: Any tax needs parliaments approval
: But cess is not a tax
: It's proceeds are not shared with the states
: It's kind of a tax
: In Anycase it is a money will always be passed
: Although krishi kalyan cess was introduced in the budget this year
: @Vaibhav agree. But I just wanted to know if the govt can impose a
cess like it hikes excise duty
: I dont think permission from parliament is required
: Hiking a cess and imposing a cess are two different things
: One can hike by executive action
: Not impose
: But this was a new cess
: I dont remember it getting passed in parliament
: I think it was executive action.
: Krishi Kalyan cess was part of budget
: Krishi kalyan cess was introduced in this year's budget, so it must
have been passed
: So it was passed of the money bill I guess
: Can a part of budget be subjected to voting ?
: Yes
: There is a term i don't remember, it's used to pass the budget
without discussion
: Guelotine
: Yes
: Cess is mentioned in article 270 and it authorises Govt to levy and
abolish cess
26/07/16, 2:36 PM - +91 96220 63613 changed to
+91 86999 64213
: Can reservation be increased by 50%
: It has been increased in Tamil nadu to 63%
: Constitutional amendment needs to be done before hand for the
: They need to include it in 9 th schedule to give protection

: Hmm it's 69 percent though

: Protected from judicial review by placing it in 9th schedule
: So there are limitations to judicial review too
: The Ministry of Urban Development has come out with a Smart National
Common Mobility Card (NCMC) model to enable seamless travel by
different metros and other transport systems across the country
besides retail shopping and purchases. Minister of Urban Development
Shri M.Venkaiah Naidu has approved the EMV Open Loop Card with
stored value in this regard.
: Supreme Court in 1991 has said that reservations in general ought
not to exceed 50% of the posts/seats if the right to equal opportunity
to all without discrimination guaranteed under Article 16 is to be
respected. Hence they will struck down such amendment to increase
: But why. If SC can upturn the limitation on judicial review in 10th
schedule, then why not do the same in 9tg schedule? Is it all about
judicial mood and whim to interfere?
: Vivek Tamil nadu reservation act is an exception
: But only tamil nadu reservation act can't be changed through review
as of now. Others will be removed as and when judiciary is in the mood
: In Maharashtra they were planning to add 16% extra for marathas. But
somehow SC was in good mood and has stopped them.
: 9 th schedule was created for the very purpose of protection against
judicial review.
: But SC has also said that Judicial Review is basic structure?
: As and when SC wants it will interpret to remove that protection
26/07/16, 3:42 PM - +91 87968 89782: Right.
: Why is there a biasness between OBC at one end and SC/ST on the
other end?
: Creamy Layer only for OBC
: means obc kids are capable of progress but not sc st
: Yes judicial review is a part of basic structure. But, art. 31B
makes it an exception
: Can't the court allow equal protection of laws concept here?
: Yes, there should be creamy layer like provision in SC and STs also
: Same privileges for people in similar circumstances
: Reservation System need massive changes, but who will bell the cat?
All parties thrive on vote banks. SC is in its own world and keeps
changing stands.
26/07/16, 3:48 PM - +91 87968 89782: 1992 judgment in the Indra
Sawhney case ruled that reservations in promotions are
unconstitutional , but allowed its continuation for 5 years as a
special case.
: Who gave them authority to allow something which is
: Hmm though a PIL can be moved by any individual, not necessary from
political party
: The Union Cabinet recently approved a new policy for the auction of
small and marginal oilfields. -> Both, private as well as foreign
companies can bid for these blocks..
->Unlike before, it provides for a unified license for extraction of
different hydrocarbons.

->Companies selling gas will not be bound by the governments

allocation policy
: * Law Commissions* ..
The first such
Commission in British-India was established in 1834 under the Charter
Act of 1833
Its major function is to work for legal reform
: *King Tides*..
1)It occurs during a Supermoon
2)They are also known as Perigean Spring Tides
3)When King Tides coincide with surface gravity waves, coastal
flooding and erosion usually occurs
: *Dengue* = There are four dengue virus serotypes... Dengue is a
mosquito-borne viral infection.
: 8 Hottest Biodiversity Hotspots in the world:

Western Ghats/SL
Indo Burma

6. Brazil Atlantic Forest

7. Caribbean Islands
8. Coastal forests Tanzania/Kenya
: *The Saansad Gram AdarshYojana*. The Project was launched on the
occasion of birth anniversary of LokNayak Jai Prakash Narayan.
: Recently questions related to this have been asked in CAPF and CDS:
From Soft to Hard--1. Talc
2. Gypsum
3. Calcite
4. Fluorite
5. Apatite
6. Feldspar
7. Quartz
8. Topaz
9. Corundum
10. Diamond
(1 is softest and 10 is hardest)
: Yes. Aedes Aegypty mosquito is responsible for
1. Dengue,
2.chikun gunya,
3. Yellow Fever
4. Zika
: Freedom Fighter Bagha Jatin ........ He was associated with Jugantar
He is one of the founders of the Anushilan Samiti.

: The Law Commission of India is a non-statutory body constituted by

the Government of lndia from time to time.
: Group of 20 (G-20):
It engages with non-member countries
Its member nations together represent about two-thirds of the world
: Reflecting its nature as an informal political forum, the G20 does
not have a permanent secretariat. Instead, the G20 president is
responsible for bringing together the G20 agenda in consultation with
other members and in response to developments in the global economy.
: Red Panda is state animal of Sikkim
: Q. Can a citizen of India holding an office of profit under the
state, accept a title from a foreign govt?
: No
: Why
: Art. 18 clearly says citizens can't take title from any foreign
state. If they want to take, have to give up Indian citizenship
: Foreigner holding office of profit under GOI also cannot take
foreign titles without obtaining permission by President of India for
the same
: There's one anomaly though, a it says a foreigner holding office of
profit can't accept title without permission of president, citizen
holding office of profit can't accept employment or present from
foreign govt but nothing about title of a citizen holding office of
profit under state
: Only exceptions are academic and military titles. They can be
: Though it says normal citizens cant accept title from foreign govt
: Can we differentiate citizens and citizens holding office of profit?
Article 14 allows this distinction
: It isn't allowed to both
: But it's not written
: Only for citizens
: It is understood in art. 18(2)
: I said its only for citizens not for citizens holding office of
: Certain provisions are deliberately kept vague so as to have a wider
: Art 14 differentiates between the two categories
: Citizens there means both with and without office of profit
: Then why not in art 14
: Why president and gov are given exemptions
: Why diplomats are provided immunity
: Such exemptions should be against right to equality before law
26/07/16, 5:00 PM - Safwan Aspi: You are getting confused between
awards given to eminent persons and titles. Both are very different,
knighthood and lordships are banned and not civilian awards
: But some people holding office of profit are given exemptions and
categorised in a different class
: I think this can be an anomaly. Such class distinction recognised in
art 14 can be used as a pil in court to escape with a title

: Well fundamental rights are written in a negative sense, like state

shall not deprive citizens so and so rights
: FRs are restrictive. But that's the way it is. We can't do anything
for that.
: Immunity to President and governors is copied from the Britishers
where Queen is above law.
: Some of the provisions have been just blindly copied from the West.
Eg. Position of VP. Even Dr. Ambedkar acknowledged that....
: *The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)* are the world's time-bound
and quantified targets for addressing extreme poverty in its many
dimensions-income poverty, hunger, disease, lack of adequate shelter,
and exclusion-while promoting gender equality, education, and
environmental sustainability. They are also basic human rights-the
rights of each person on the planet to health, education, shelter, and
Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Hunger and Poverty
Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education
Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women
Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality
Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases
Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability
Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development
26/07/16, 5:53 PM - +91 96017 16393:
: MDG have been replaced with SDG i think
: Yup Right Bro_
Sustainable Development Goals.
: *UN Sustainable Development Goals*
What is sustainable development?
The United Nations defines sustainable development as development
that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability
of future generations to meet their own needs.
Earlier we focused less on climate change and environmental issues,
but the new concept of sustainability, includes all efforts towards an
inclusive, sustainable and resilient future for people and the planet.
Three elements of sustainable development:
1. economic growth,
2. social inclusion
3. environmental protection.
Member States of the United Nations have agreed upon the text of a new
document entitled, Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for
Sustainable Development. This agenda contains 17 goals and 169
targets and is popularly known as Sustainable Development Goals.

What are the sustainable development goals?

The sustainable development goals (SDGs) are a new, universal set of
goals, targets and indicators that UN member states will be expected
to use to frame their agendas and political policies over the next 15
years till 2030.
The SDGs follow and expand on the millennium development goals (MDGs),
which were agreed by governments in 2001 and expired in 2015.
Why do we need another set of goals?
This agenda builds on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which
were adopted in 2000 and were to be achieved by 2015. With 2015
ending, it was time for a new set of goals.
The eight MDGs reduce poverty and hunger; achieve universal
education; promote gender equality; reduce child and maternal deaths;
combat HIV, malaria and other diseases; ensure environmental
sustainability; develop global partnerships failed to consider the
root causes of poverty and overlooked gender inequality as well as the
holistic nature of development.
The goals made no mention of human rights and did not specifically
address economic development.
While the MDGs, in theory, applied to all countries, in reality they
were considered targets for poor countries to achieve, with finance
from wealthy states. Conversely, every country will be expected to
work towards achieving the SDGs.
What are the proposed 17 goals?
1) End poverty in all its forms everywhere
2) End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and
promote sustainable agriculture
3) Ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages
4) Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote
lifelong learning opportunities for all
5) Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
6) Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and
sanitation for all
7) Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern
energy for all

8) Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full

and productive employment, and decent work for all
9) Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable
industrialisation, and foster innovation
10) Reduce inequality within and among countries
11) Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and
12) Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
13) Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
(taking note of agreements made by the UNFCCC forum)
14) Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources
for sustainable development
15) Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial
ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification and
halt and reverse land degradation, and halt biodiversity loss
16) Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable
development, provide access to justice for all and build effective,
accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
17) Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalise the global
partnership for sustainable development
Note: Within the goals are 169 targets.
: they have increased thr number..there were 8 MDG its 17 SDG
with many sub goals
: These SDGs were adopted at a UN summit in New York in September
2015, and have become applicable from January 2016. The deadline for
the SDGS is 2030.
: This is the way one should fight for rights in civilized society.
Not by breaking everyone's (including one's own) heads by stone
: 37 Years Past Papers - Sufficient to Clear Prelims
: Gross domestic product at market price ?
: Included indirect tax and subsidy...
26/07/16, 8:13 PM - +91 98999 37711:
: includes indirect taxes but excludes subsidies.
: Yup...or we can say net indirect tax...

: Anyone knows reason why India has not ratified International Labor
Organization's 1999 *Convention on Worst Forms of Child Labour?*
Kailash Satyarthi was the man behind it and ironically India is the
only major country which haa not ratified.. Why?
: For economic reasons If it ratifies, it won't get business if it
violates it's clauses
: But i think they would ratify soon. Gov has now passed Child Labor
Bill which prohibits complete ban on employment for children below 14
year except in helping family after that too after school hours. I
think this is in sync with ILO.
: Bhai....m Batman.....I wrk @ night...
: Slave dynasty: Mameluke style
Khilji Dynasty: Seljuk style
Tughlaq dynasty: Battar Architecture
Lodi Dynasty: introduced double domes
Jaunpur School: Sharqi style
: Himanshu don't lol man, I'm betting heavily on art and architecture
: Battar is inclined slopping wall for improved strength and support
: Double domes used to decrease the height of roof
: Forgot sharqi style
: One feature of Mameluke was nakli darwaza?
: Don't know that. Not mentioned in Singhania
: Dude the irony is the trend of questions that are appearing are
totally random from this section
: Like asking a particular posture of buddha in a painting, where is
it located and all
: I'm sure of one question though
: Thiruvalluvar statue
: Heard of it?
: He's a Tamil poet
: He's in haridwar now
: Second is of the khilji tomb
: That is being discoloured
pi: Not exactly an architecture question but it's dome is getting
green, reason could be asked
: Well answer is shit of some kind of insect
: ASI is working on it
: Hmm but conservation of heritage is an important topic
: hey thiruvalluvar statue is in Kanyakumari right???
: Thiruvalluvar statue is in Kanyakumari... 1330 ft..
: Yeah the latest one has been installed in haridwar
\: There's one in Bengaluru too. But the one in Haridwar was in news
recently as it was lying around due to some issues.
: Kanyakumari statue is different.. 1330 ft Bcoz of 1330 Thirukurall..
: Haridwar Journey.. not due to some issues Prasad... the actual plan
was to made and send Thiruvalluvar golden statue from here Tamilnadu
to Haridwar for Pilgrim purpose... but later in Uttarkhand issues
started abt his Caste.. but later its resolved
: Even dead are not spared from caste discrimination, I wonder where
are we headed
: Only place where you feel totally alone even if you are surrounded
by people whom you know is... Examination hall

: Well there u can see their hidden faces

: *Tejas fighter jet* It is a Multi-Role Supersonic Fighter Aircraft
It is inducted into the Indian Air Force
: Indias Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) together with its variants, is
the smallest and lightest Multi-Role Supersonic Fighter Aircraft of
its class. This single engine, Compound-Delta-Wing, Tailless Aircraft
is designed and developed by ADA with HAL as the principal partner
along with DRDO, CSIR, BEL, DGAQA, IAF & IN to meet diverse needs of
the Indian Air Force (IAF) and Indian Navy (IN).
: *Triacetone triperoxide (TATP) * It was used by ISIS to make
improvised explosive device in recent Brussels attack.....
TATP and the other explosive forms of acetone peroxide belong to the
few high explosives that do not contain nitrogen, and so can pass
undetected through explosive detection scanners designed to detect
nitrogenous explosives. Because of its high susceptibility to
accidental detonation (and resulting workplace accidents in
bomb-making shops), TATP has been referred to as the Mother of
Satan.It is used by terrorists for its ability to evade detection
aimed at nitrogenous explosives, and due to its low cost and the ease
with which its precursors can be obtained. It has been described in
popular media as easily prepared from readily available retail
ingredients, such as hair bleach and nail polish remover.
: World Bank announced $ 1 billion in support of Indias ambitious
solar generation plans. With reference to this loan and the project,
for It will be used to install 40 GW of Grid Connected Rooftop Solar
Photovoltaic (GRPV) across India
India is the largest recipient of loans from the World Bank in the
: Its implemented by SBI
India is the largest recipient of loans from the World Bank, amounting
to $102.1 billion, between 1945 and 2015 (as on July 21, 2015),
according to the Banks lending report.
While the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
(IBRD), a part of the World Bank group, has lent $52.7 billion, the
International Development Association (IDA), a multilateral
concessional lender of World Bank, has loaned $49.4 billion to India
over the last 70 years.
: India has improved its ranking in the World Bank Groups bi-annual
*Logistics Performance Index 2016*, jumping from 54th in 2014 to
35th in 2016. This was announced by the World Bank Group in its recent
launch of the report. In the latest ranking India has gone past
countries like New Zealand, Thailand, Saudi Arabia, Iceland, Latvia
and Indonesia who were ahead of it in the index.
: The Model Shops and Establishments (Regulation of Employment and
Conditions of Service) Bill, 2016, consider 1) The women will be
permitted during night shift... 2)The Bill aims at improving the
working conditions of workers 3)It allows malls to operate 247 for
365 days
: The *Sri Rama Sagar Project*, which is described as lifeline for a
large part of Telangana, is constructed across * River Godavari*

: *Babli Project*is a disputed project between *Maharashtra and Andhra

: Law Commission of India is an executive body established by an order
of the Government of India. Its major function is to work for legal
reform. Its membership primarily comprises legal experts, who are
entrusted a mandate by the Government. The Commission is established
for a fixed tenure and works as an advisory body to the Ministry of
Law and Justice.
Its chairman need not be Chief Justice of Supreme Court.
: The Medium Range Surface to Air Missile (MRSAM) which was
successfully launched recently by India ..It is jointly developed by
India and Israel.
It is also known as Barak 8.
It is part of Indias air defence system.
MRSAM is the land
version and LRSAM (Long Range) is the navy version. Both are the
varients of Barak 8.
: Godavari is upsc's fav topic.
: Can speaker be charged with defection?
: But it is unclear who decides in that case
: Then why this brouhaha of giving the power to speaker for voting
when their is deadlock
: He can't decide his own defection
: Of course he will vote for the ruling party
: India and Cyprus are poised to sign a new tax treaty which, like in
the case of a similar pact with Mauritius. WIth reference to this new
tax treaty,India will impose capital gains tax on companies investing
in India from Cyprus.
The treaty is basically the Double Taxation Agreement for the
Avoidance of Double Taxation. Mauritius and Cyprus have almost zero
taxation, hence they will not incur tax loss.
Treaty is not retrospective i.e. not applicable to past investments.
: Well getting him elected by a absolute majority is meaning less. He
will always favour the party or coalition which elected him
:I think the law of defection came after the commencement of
constitution thats why speaker still has this power....they have
forgotten to amend this
: And certify all the bills as money bills whichever the coalition
wants and it will be unchecked since it is immune from judicial review
: Yes, it was enacted when Rajiv Gandhi was in power
: In UK the speaker has to resign from the party to make the post
: We too have a provision for this
: In India case too anti defection law can't be applied if speKer
: We still have a long way to go before we are a matured democracy
: There is law regarding speaker that he will not preside when there
is a resolution for removal of speaker in the house then how come in
uttrakhand speaker disqualified MLAs
: He can't preside after it is passed I suppose
: He can't preside when a resolution is under consideration
: Has the final judgement been delivered?

: President rule has been revoked and the mla's have been disqualified
: Also speaker cannot be charged for defection as he is the authority
who decides cases of defection. If he is indeed found defecting, then
he will obviously be removed through a motion, since a speaker has to
enjoy the trust the house at all times
: One reform can be to add a provision of removal of candidature of
the speaker from the majority party
: To make his vote more neutral since at a deadlock, he votes for his
: I think the speaker should be made from the independent candidates
not from the majority party
: The Five hundred meter Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST), became
the worlds largest radio telescope built to explore space and help
in looking for extraterrestrial life. It is built in CHINA
i: Provision to make speaker a partyless member by default on taking
: An exception in 10th schedule
: It should be compulsory for speaker to give up the party membership
: I think they should go for consensus rather than election
: Is it necessary that there should be atleast one minister from rajya
: Even if one party doesn't agree the person should be ruled out
: There is no hard and fast rule
: But there won't be a leader of the house if at all everyone is from
lower house
: Will a normal MP be made a leader of house in such a case?
: Usually leader of the house is from Council of ministers
: I think member of executive should be made so that he may answer
about the working of govt properly
: He has to defend the policies of the govt and he influences the
house's business to a large extent, making an MP leader of the house
makes no sense
: Then there has to be necessarily someone in council of ministers
from rajya sabha.
: In fact he should be a cabinet minister not just minister
: Why the thinning of ozone was occurring mainly over Antarctica,
Because of the extreme cold and large amounts of light that helped
produce Polar Stratospheric Clouds.
Polar stratospheric clouds help in creating conducive environment for
chlorine radicals to act on ozone molecules.
27/07/16, 5:39 PM - +91 86501 67736 left
27/07/16, 4:07 PM - Indu Aspi: *Kiribati*
It is an island nation in the central Pacific Ocean made up of coral
reefs and atolls.
Its capital city is South Tarawa.
Its 33 islands are spread over at the intersection of equator and 180
degree meridian.
This island republic which gained freedom from UK, is threatened by
rising sea levels.
: *New India Assurance Company Ltd*

Indias first insurance policy covering public liability to an

atomic power plant operator has been issued to Nuclear Power
Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL).
The insurance policy was issued by the countrys largest non-life
insurer New India Assurance Company Ltd.
The Central government had announced in June 2015 the setting up of
the Rs. 1,500-crore India Nuclear Insurance Pool to be managed by
national reinsurer GIC Re.
: Failure will never overtake me if my determination to success is
strong enough - Abdul Kalam
: Agency and their report
1) UNEP - global trends in renewable energy investment report
2) UNEP- Global waste managment outlook
3) UNESCAP- Disaster without borders
3) IEA - World energy outlook -2015
4) WB - Shock waves : managing the impacts of climate change on
5) WWF- Protecting people through nature
: Can anyone explain the definitions of terms used in article 72
: Brother I mean pardon reprive
: Pardon means to remove all sentences
: Commutation means to change character of sentence like death to life
life to term etc
: Do you have the list of national Calamity's AND hazards according
: Like what they considered Calamity for example does it includes heat
wave cold wave and what else
: Search properly, I remember finding them in their website
: Only hazards list there
: Heat wave and cold wave are national Calamity's???
: That is decided by the govt based on the extent of damage
: So each year it change??
: If someone have time.. wld u plz share some new and important
government schemes with us...
: I don't have PDF but vision IAS special book on schemes is best
out there
: Like Name of d scheme.. When and Why that scheme came
: *AMRUT* Scheme Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban
Transformation. The focus is to improve infrastructure in an efficient
and effective manner in both rural and urban areas.
: *PMJDY* Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana.
The purpose is to open more bank accounts, spread banking all across
India especially in rural areas.
: *Smart City Mission* This project aims to provide good
infrastructure, better services, enhance the quality of living,
environmental improvement as well as economic growth.
: *Skill India Mission* The principal focus is to develop the
talent of Indian youth segment by providing industrial training and
thereby creating 500 million job opportunities by 2020.

: *Digital India* The main aim to transform India into a digitally

empowered society and knowledge economy.
: *Atal Pension Yojana* The pension scheme primarily aims at
helping Indian citizens who are working for unorganised sectors.
: *Mudra Bank Yojana* Micro Units Development and Refinance
Agency. It provides a loan at low rates to small entrepreneurs.
: Indu really no words to praise u, u r doing a great job , Thanks a
lot .
: *PMSBY* Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana. This scheme is for
accident insurance in India. Eligibility is from 18 70 years. The
premium is Rs 12 per annum (excluding service tax) and the maximum sum
insured is 2 lakhs.
: *PMJJBY* Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana. This is also
insurance scheme. Eligibility is from 18 50 years. In this scheme,
a person has to pay Rs. 330 annual premium excluding service tax. If
insurance holder died due to any reason, the nominee would receive two
: *Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana* The focus of this scheme to encourage
parents to save fund for the education and future expenses of their
girl child.
: *Accessible India* This scheme is also known as Sugamya Bharat
Abhiyaan. The focus is to provide equal opportunities to persons with
: *Start Up India, Stand Up India* The main aim of this scheme is
to help and encourage women entrepreneurs.
: *Housing for All* The primary focus is to provide an affordable
house to urban poor ranging from Rs. 1,00,000 to 2,30,000 per house
and promote slum free cities by 2022.
: *IAF & SMILE * India Aspiration Fund (IAF) and SIDBI Make in
India Loan for Small Enterprises (SMILE). The main aim is to provide
funds to start-ups in India and for the development of small
: *Gold Monetisation Scheme* The scheme is designed to help you to
earn interest on your unused gold lying idle in bank lockers.
: Guys 15 schemes I sent.. I donno whether v have only 15 or more thn
that..I took this from if anything I miss or anything is
wrong plz update us.. it will b very useful
: Thank u Himanshu and Ashok... saying that MDG have replaced SDG..
: *Batesian mimicry* Its a form of biological resemblance mimicked
by an harmless organism similar to its predator to avoid being preyed
: *Mllerian mimicry* Its a form of biological resemblance
mimicked by two dangerous predators to avoid their common predator
: *Himachal Pradesh* in one only one in India to run paperless
legislature sessions
: JAM ( Jan Dhan - Aadhaar-Mobile) Tritiny..
* 20.8 crore Jan Dhan Accounts opened
*75.8% population coverage through Aadhar
*79.78%Mobile Teledensity
: All of us will be toppers one day ... Insha Allah!! To serve this
great nation of ours!!
: Architecture, dance, religion, philosophy, cultural heritage,
calender, music

: Read architecture, dance and philosophy

: 14 famous sarees in Indian
*Kanjeevaram saree from kanchippuram
*Dhakai sarees from Dhaka and now in West Bengal..
*Paithani from Maharashtra (real gold thread border).
*Sambalpuri from Orissa (place Sambalpur) silk as well as cotton.
*Pattu Saree from Kerala white and gold border.
*Assam Saree from Assam( threadwork)
*Banarasi Saree North India Bridal saree
*Gota saree from Rajasthan and UP. *Chanderi from MP(tissue silk).
*Bomkai from Orissa.
*Tant from bengal(stiffed. Cotton saree).
*Kota saree is cotton from place Kota in Rajasthan.
*Kotki from Orissa
: Current Account Deficit was negative does it mean a situation of
trade surplus?
: Yes
: More exports
: Or current account surplus
: CAD = Negative = More Exports.
: Anyone has a list of important indexes published worldwide? I've
heard they are 15-20 that are important.
: *Janani Suraksha Yojana* (JSY) is a safe motherhood intervention
under the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) being implemented with
the objective of reducing maternal and neo-natal mortality by
promoting institutional delivery among the poor pregnant women.
i: Dear Aspirant, Now you can download topic wise Vision IAS PT365
current affairs at queries
8468022022 Vision IAS
27/07/16, 11:31 PM - +91 87968 89782: Culture notes
are best *only for those who haven't done anything regarding culture
till now.* Do visit.
: The Union Cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi
has given its in-principle approval for setting up Indias
13th Major port at Enayam near Colachel. It is located in *TamilNadu*
28/07/16, 12:20 AM - Indu Aspi: *Pharmaceutical industry*
The Indian pharmaceutical industry is the largest supplier of cost
effective generic medicines to the developed world.
India is heavily dependent on countries like China for the raw
materials used in the pharma products.
Indias pharma products exports have moved ahead of China in all
important markets such as US, European Union and Africa.
: NH - 58--the National Highway connecting Rudraparayag-Joshimath-Mana
Pass was subjected to numerous landslides due to cloudburst.
28/07/16, 12:22 AM - Indu Aspi: Cape Canaveral from where NASA has
sent many space probes, is located in which US state *Florida*

: *Syama Prasad Mukherjee* was the Minister for Industry and Supply in
Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehrus first cabinet.
He served as Minister for Industry and Supply in Prime Minister
Jawaharlal Nehrus cabinet. After falling out with Nehru, Mukherjee
quit the Indian National Congress and founded the right wing
nationalist Bharatiya Jana Sangh (which would later evolve into BJP)
in 1951.
: * Citrus Indica or the Indian Wild Orange*
A rare, endemic and endangered species of wild citrus fruit having
medicinal properties which was so far reported only from Meghalaya,
has now been found in a remote village of Manipur. The species is
considered to be the most primitive and ancestors of all cultivated
citrus fruits in the world and endemic to north-east India. Earlier
the species was reported only from Nokrek Biosphere Reserve in the
Garo Hills of Meghalaya, said lead researcher and environmentalist
R K Birjit Singh. The species is known to local villagers as
Biurengthai and is known to have medicinal properties.
: The recently released National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP),
This is the first ever national plan prepared in the country.
The plan is based on the four priority themes outlined in the
Sendai Framework
: Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi released the National Disaster
Management Plan (NDMP). This is the first ever national plan prepared
in the country. It aims to make India disaster resilient and
significantly reduce the loss of lives and assets. The plan is based
on the four priority themes of the Sendai Framework, namely:
understanding disaster risk, improving disaster risk governance,
investing in disaster risk reduction (through structural and nonstructural measures) and disaster preparedness, early warning and
building back better in the aftermath of a disaster.
: This years theme of the World Environment Day is *Go Wild for
: *French Space Agency (CNES)* The key to effectively implementing
the Paris Agreement lies in the ability to verify that nations are
fulfilling their commitments to curb greenhouse gas emissions. Only
satellites can do that. Invited to New Delhi by ISRO and CNES on April
3, 2016, the worlds space agencies decided to establish an
independent, international system to centralise data from their
Earth-observing satellites through the New Delhi Declaration
that officially came into effect on May 16, 2016.
: The cyber theft from Bangladeshs central bank and recent
disclosures of other similar fraud attempts have brought scrutiny
on the SWIFT messaging system. SWIFT is a cooperative of global banks
formally known as the *Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial
Telecommunication*, and its transaction system was used as a conduit
for one of the largest cyber bank heists in history.
SWIFT stands for the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial
Telecommunications. It is a messaging network that financial
institutions use to securely transmit information and instructions
through a standardized system of codes.

: *Glacial Retreat* - means Lesser ice formation each year than its
current rate of melting.
: Gaumukh, the snout of the Gangotri glacier, named after its shape
like the mouth of a cow, has retreated by over 3 kilometres since
1817, says glaciologist Milap Chand Sharma of Jawaharlal Nehru
: Example) River Originating Glacier
Alakananda Satopanth
Brahmaputra Chemayungdung
Bhagirathi Gaumukh
Yamuna Yamunotri
Satluj Rakas lake
i: The International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural
Resources has listed the Eurasian Otter (Lutra Lutra) Based on
indirect evidences and ancient records, Eurasian Otter is believed to
be found in the Himalayas and in some parts of the Western Ghats.
These records of the Eurasian otter from the Satpura Tiger Reserve and
Kanha-Pench Corridor not only extends their geographical range to
central India but also provides the first-ever photographic evidence
of the species in India. The Eurasian otter has a wide distribution
covering Europe, Africa and Asia. The species is listed as Near
Threatened as per the IUCN Red List (2004, 2008).
: The Afghan-India Friendship Dam or Salma Dam, which was
recently inaugurated, dams the river-Hari Rud.
Afghan-India Friendship Dam is a Multipurpose project planned for
generating 42 MW of power, irrigating 75000 hectares of land, water
supply and other benefits to the people of Afghanistan. Salma Dam is a
landmark infrastructure project undertaken by Government of India on
river Hari Rud , in Herat province of Afghanistan. The project was
executed and implemented by WAPCOS Ltd., a Government of India
Undertaking under Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and
Ganga Rejuvenation.
i: The Long Range Forecast Update for the 2016 Southwest Monsoon
Rainfall predicts rainfall over the country as a whole is most likely
to be Above Normal. This means that the rainfall range as a
percentage of the Long Period Average will be
104-110% of long period Average (LPA)
28/07/16, 12:58 AM - Indu Aspi: Union Minister for Science &
Technology and Earth Sciences, Dr. Harsh Vardhan led the Indian
delegation at the 7th Clean Energy Ministerial(CEM7) and the Inaugural
Mission Innovation Meet at San Francisco, held on 1st and 2nd of June,
2016. India has been a member of CEM since its inception and has
joined 8 out of 13 CEM initiatives... However, according to the CEM
Website, there are 10 initiatives running at present of which India is
a participant in 8, and leads/supports two of these 8.
CEM initiatives does India lead and/or support.
*Super-Efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment
*21st Century Power

: *Birsa Munda*
The Jharkhand governments order that Birsa Munda should not
hereafter be represented in chains is another instance of the BJPs
unnatural obsession with history. Munda, who led an Adivasi rebellion
against the colonial administration in the 19th century, died in
prison at age 25. His iconic image has been that of a youth in chains,
raging against all forms of exploitation and urging his people to
stand up and fight. It keeps alive a fiery memory and recalls the
quest for freedom. Birsa in chains, in the context of modern Jharkhand
and Adivasi iconography elsewhere, is a powerful and disturbing image
that is representative of a people who have been failed by independent
-*His movement initially was aimed at urging the Mundas to give up
drinking liquor and cleaning their villages.
-*He saw Christian missionaries and Hindu landlords as outside forces
that were ruining the Munda way of life.
-*Birsa Munda has hitherto been depicted as an image of a youth in
: *The Hague Code of Conduct *
The HCOC is the result of international efforts to regulate access to
ballistic missiles which can potentially deliver weapons of mass
destruction. The HCOC is the only multilateral code in the area of
disarmament which has been adopted over the last years. It is the only
normative instrument to verify the spread of ballistic missiles. The
HCOC does not ban ballistic missiles, but it does call for restraint
in their production, testing, and export.
It is a legally non-binding multilateral body aimed at preventing the
spread of ballistic missiles that can deliver weapons of mass
: What is Ballistic Missiles?
28/07/16, 11:59 AM - +91 77382 63036: For the speaker it is
written that he doesn't vote in the first instance and votes only when
there is 'equality' of votes... so does that mean he won't vote in the
cases when there is a need of special majority?
: Yes. But there is a probability of a tie in absolute majority, there
he might vote.
: Some facts about Mountbatten Plan:
Its also called as 3 June Plan or Indian Independence Act 1947
It was approved by British Parliament on 18 July and declared 15
August to be partition date.
1. Jawaharlal Nehru
2.Vallabhbhai Patel
3. Acharya Kripalani

1.Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Gov Gen of Pakistan)

2.Liaqat Ali Khan (PM)
3. Sardar Abdul Rab Nishtar
1.Sardar Baldev Singh
Pakistan: East Bengal, West Punjab, Sind, and Chief Commissioners
Province of Baluchistan.
1. *North* *West Frontier Province*: referendum
2. *Bengal*:East Bengal to Pakistan and West Bengal to India.
3. *District Sylhet* (Assam): referendum.
4. *Punjab*: West Punjab to India & East Punjab to Pakistan

It got Repealed in the article 395 of the Constitution of India.

: *Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action* The Iranian Nuclear Deal
reached between Iran, the P5+1 nations and the European Union.
The agreement (Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action or JCPOA) between
Iran and P5+1 on Irans nuclear programme and the corresponding
easing of sanctions, concluded last July, has provided the longawaited opening.
: Indias foreign relations, Agenda for Action 2020 is
A common roadmap to jointly guide and strengthen the India-EU
Strategic Partnership.
The Agenda for Action-2020, which emerged from the March 30 talks
in Brussels and sets the strategic agenda between India and EU for the
next five years, emphasises sub-national and business-to-business
: Section 357A of CrPC Victim compensation scheme: Every State
Government in co-ordination with the Central Government shall prepare
a scheme for providing funds for the purpose of compensation to the
victim or his dependents who have suffered loss or injury as a result
of the crime and who require rehabilitation.

The Bench issued notice to the Centre, States and UTs on the
question of effective implementation of Section 357 A of the Cr.PC.
This provision mandates States to co-ordinate with the Centre to
prepare a scheme for providing funds to compensate and rehabilitate
victims or dependents. Setting up of Nirbhaya Fund is not enough
The Union of India must ensure that adequate relief is being provided
to the victims of sexual offences, the Bench observed orally.

: After Russia was suspended from the Group of 8 or G8 forum following

the annexation of Crimea.
Japan, France, UK, Canada, Italy, Germany and USA are the nations now
are a part of G7.
: *The traditional Gond Art*
Traditional paintings, particularly in Gondi and Mithila art have many
artistic and respectful representations of snakes.
Of late, villagers in Maoist areas are documenting their stories on
memorial plaques in this art form.
: The North Eastern Council (NEC):
*It is the nodal agency for the economic and social development of the
North Eastern Region
*The North Eastern Region as defined by the NEC consists of the seven
sister states and Sikkim
*It is a statutory body
: About NEC: The North Eastern Council is the nodal agency for the
economic and social development of the North Eastern Region which
consists of the eight States of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur,
Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura. The North Eastern
Council was constituted in 1971 by an Act of Parliament.The
constitution of the Council has marked the beginning of a new chapter
of concerted and planned endeavour for the rapid development of the
: **
The government has the responsibility of notifying the inflation
rate that it wishes to achieve. This rate is to be set every five
years. The inflation target in the MPFA chosen by government and the
RBI was 6 per cent by January 2016 and then 4 per cent for 2016-17 and
thereafter (with a band of 2 per cent). This sudden jump down in the
inflation rate appears at odds with the stated intent outlined in the
Urjit Patel Committee report of setting a glide path to inflation. A
glide path in the case of other countries such as Chile and the Czech
Republic, cited in the report, was slower and smoother and a lowering
of the target was done when the existing target was achieved and
: The *Genetic Engineering* Appraisal Committee is constituted under
Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
: The Indian railways,A one rupee investment in railways has a
multiplier of about five rupees in the Economy
: Masala bonds are Indian rupee denominated bonds issued in offshore
capital markets. These will be offered and settled in US dollars to
raise Indian rupees from international investors for infrastructure
development in India. IFC will convert bond proceeds from dollars into
rupees and use the rupees to finance private sector investment in
IFC has named these Masala bonds as masala is a globally
recognized term that evokes the culture and cuisine of India. This is
not the first time that a bond has been named after the food or

culture of a country. Chinese bonds, for example, are called Dim sum
bonds, and Japanese ones as Samurai bonds.
This is a 10-year bond with a yield of 6.3% and a AAA benchmark
rating. This is not the first rupee denominated offshore issuance to
be settled in dollars. IFC had earlier issued offshore rupee bonds
with maturities up to seven years. Though there are other offshore
rupee bonds, this issuance will be the first to be listed on a stock
* IFC-International Finance Corporation
: Keshavananda Bharati case ruled that ambiguous provisions of the
Constitution can be interpreted with the help preamble. GoI v. LIC
case reiterated that preamble is the integral part of Constitution.
Hence, judiciary can interpret it.
: Judiciary can interpret it but does it help judiciary in any manner
in interpreting the constitution?
: New Census data indicate that the preference for a male child
persists in India.
*The male-gender has a genetic and biological advantage under
natural circumstances, the number of boys born are more than girls
*China has a worse sex ratio at birth than India
*Southern Indian states have reached replacement levels of fertility
: the 12th century social reformer *Basaveshwara*
The firm and final goal of Basavanna was to establish a democratic set
up of society. Hence he fought against all types of inequalities which
were existing in the rigid society at that time. He raised his
voice against untouchability, which was in practice since
ages. Anubhavamantapa, which was established by him was a common
forum for all, including downtrodden, untouchables and women to
discuss about the prevailing problems of socio, economic and
political strata including religious and spiritual principles along
with personal problems.
: Basaveshwara gave two important and innovative concepts called
Sthavara and Jangama, the meaning of which is
Static and Dynamic- respectively. Both of these
concepts are the main foundation stones of the revolutionary ideology
of Basavanna. By ridiculing the physical structure of temple and God;
which are perishable, Basavanna gave a new dimension to the human body
and soul (inner spirit), by which the self-respect of all human
beings was boosted.
He gave two more very important socio-economic principles. They
are- Kayaka (Work-Divine work) and Dasoha (DistrubutionEqual distribution). According to this, every individual of the
society should take up the job of his choice and perform it with all
sincerity. There is no discrimination in vocations. Kayaka must be
followed by an accurate income. The income should not be more or
less. There must be an equal income for equal work. The worker
(Kayakajeevi) may lead his day-today life by his hard earned income.
But he should not preserve the money or property for tomorrow. He must
utilise the surplus money for the society and poors. This concept is
called Dasoha.

: Upper limits of investments in plant and machinery under the

manufacturing sector.
*micro enterprise, if investment in plant and machinery does not
exceed twenty five lakh rupees;
*small enterprise, if investment in plant and machinery is more than
twenty five lakh rupees but does not exceed five crore rupees; or
*medium enterprise, if investment in plant and machinery is more than
five crore rupees but does not exceed ten crore rupees;
: In case, the enterprise is engaged in *providing or rendering of
services*, it is classified as:
*micro enterprise, if investment in equipment does not exceed ten lakh
*small enterprise, if investment in equipment is more than ten lakh
rupees but does not exceed two crore rupees; or
*medium enterprise, if investment in equipment is more than two crore
rupees but does not exceed five crore rupees.
: The Blue Growth Initiative was launched by the *Food and
Agriculture Organisation*
The concept of a blue economy came out of the 2012 Rio+20
Conference and emphasizes conservation and sustainable management,
based on the premise that healthy ocean ecosystems are more productive
and a must for sustainable ocean-based economies. To support a shift
to this new approach, launched the Blue Growth Initiative, through
which it will assist countries in developing and implementing blue
economy and growth agendas.
: The global focus is now expanding to plan for the replacement of
trivalent OPV (tOPV) with bivalent OPV (bOPV) in all OPV-using
countries. With at least one dose of IPV in place as a risk mitigation
measure, OPVs will be removed in a phased approach, beginning with
removal of the type 2 poliovirus strain in a switch from tOPV to bOPV.
bOPV contains types 1 and 3, and therefore will continue to protect
against transmission of WPV1 and WPV3. Once all wild polioviruses have
been fully eradicated, then all OPVs will be withdrawn.
Why cant countries eliminate the use of OPV entirely, rather than
switch to bOPV?
Because IPV is an inactivated vaccine and not a live attenuated
vaccine, it carries no risk of VAPP. However, in contrast to OPV,
since it does not replicate in the gut, IPV induces lower levels of
intestinal immunity and does not confer protection to others. IPV is
also less effective than OPV in reducing fecal-oral transmission.
Using both vaccines together provides the best form of protection.
When is it expected we will cease all use of OPV?
The goal is to cease all use of OPV by 2020. Depending on the timing
of the switch and the detection of further transmission of
polioviruses, countries may be able to cease all use of OPV as early
as 2019.

: India launched an International Solar Alliance (ISA) at the CoP21

Climate Conference.The new body, which has invited all countries
located fully or partly between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn to
join, is to function from the National Institute of Solar Energy in
India, Gurgaon.
: The National Innovation Foundation is an autonomous body of the
Department of Science and Technology.
National Innovation Foundation and IIM-Ahmedabad, has given a
global identity to the Indian model of social innovation.
: The principle of *Nai Talim* was propounded by *Mahatma
The constituents of Nai Talim are the 3-H: heart, hand and head.
: The Global Innovation Index, a leading benchmarking tool for
anyone seeking insight into the state of innovation of a country, is
co-published by
*Cornell University
*INSEAD (European Institute of Business Administration)
*The World Intellectual Property Organization, an agency of the United
Despite focused attention on innovation in recent years, India lags
behind many countries on this front. At 81st position in the Global
Innovation Index 2015, we have much ground to cover.
: Who will take incharge of Vice-president vacant office in case of
: No one. Chairman, Rajyasbha role will be performed by his deputy and
elections to Vice Presidents office should be held within 6 months
: The *ebird* platform has been designed for Documentation of
the presence or absence of bird species, as well as their abundance.
*eBird is a platform for birdwatchers to upload their data and
keep track of their sightings.
5o most important concepts without which your preparation for Prelims,
2016 is incomplete
Concept no. 27: Tropical Cyclones:
What is a tropical cyclone?
A tropical cyclone is an intense low pressure area or a whirl in the
atmosphere over tropical or sub-tropical waters, with thunderstorm
activity and winds at low levels, circulating either anti-clockwise
(in northern hemisphere) or clockwise (in southern hemisphere). From
the centre of a cyclonic storm, pressure increases outwards.
How do they form?
Warm, moist air derived from tropical oceans with surface temperature
near of 27 degrees Celsius or above. Winds blows from different
directions and converge, causing hot air to rise and form storm

Winds with no big variation in height (low wind shear) allows the
storm clouds to rise vertically to high levels. With the spin induced
by the earth's rotation, clusters of storm clouds rotate, resulting in
a tropical depression and If it continues, the depression becomes a
tropical storm, cyclone or super cyclone depending on its intensity.
Climatic conditions necessary for the formation of Tropical Cyclones
1. Tropical Cyclones only develop over warm waters. Water temperature
above 27 C for a considerable depth is thus required.
2. Cyclone formation also depends on Coriolis Force that must be
strong enough to initiate the cyclone's rotation.
3. Pre-existing low-pressure system or a slight weather disturbance.
Effects of tropical cyclones:
1. Destructive in nature. Cause heavy rainfall and landslides.
2. Coastal business like shipyard, ports, oil wells, etc. gets
3. Effect human lives and cause sprout of water borne pandemic
4. Harmful effect on ecosystem
5. Agricultural land and crops get effected.
Why cyclones are named?
Cyclones are named to provide ease of communication between weather
scientists and people. As tropical belt is prone to cyclones, names
prevent the confusion.
Do all cyclones have names?
The usual practice for a storm to be named when it reaches tropical
storm strength (winds speed of 62 kmph)
How cyclones are named?
Within the North Indian Ocean, tropical cyclones are named by the
India Meteorological Department (IMD/RSMC New Delhi).
There are eight lists of names submitted by eight countries and they
are used in sequence.

The names of cyclones in Indian seas are not allocated in alphabetical

order, but are arranged by the name of the country which contributed
the name.
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5o most important concepts without which your preparation for
Prelims, 2016 is incomplete
Concept no. 31 : The Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)
What is the MTCR?
The Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) is an informal political
understanding among states that seek to limit the proliferation of
missiles and missile technology.
When was the MTCR established?
The regime was formed in 1987 by the G-7 industrialized countries
(Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the UK, and the United
Who belongs to the MTCR?
There are currently 35 countries that are members (Partners) of the
MTCR. India is the latest addition.
What is the purpose of the MTCR?
1. The MTCR was initiated by like-minded countries to address the
increasing proliferation of nuclear weapons by addressing the most
destabilizing delivery system for such weapons.
2. In 1992, the MTCRs original focus on missiles for nuclear
weapons delivery was extended to a focus on the proliferation of
missiles for the delivery of all types of weapons of mass destruction
(WMD), i.e., nuclear, chemical and biological weapons.
3. Such proliferation has been identified as a threat to international
peace and security. One way to counter this threat is to maintain
vigilance over the transfer of missile equipment, material, and
related technologies usable for systems capable of delivering WMD.
What is the relationship between the MTCR and the UN?
While there is no formal linkage, the activities of the MTCR are
consistent with the UNs non-proliferation and export control
Is the MTCR a treaty?

1. No. The MTCR is not a treaty and does not impose any legally
binding obligations on Partners (members).
2. Rather, it is an informal political understanding among states that
seek to limit the proliferation of missiles and missile technology.
What are the main objectives of the MTCR?
The MTCR seeks to limit the risks of proliferation of weapons of mass
destruction (WMD) by controlling exports of goods and technologies
that could make a contribution to delivery systems (other than manned
aircraft) for such weapons.
How does the MTCR achieve its objectives?
1. Export Controls: The Regime rests on adherence to common export
policy (the Guidelines) applied to an integral common list of items
(the MTCR Equipment, Software, and Technology Annex.)
2. Meetings MTCR Partners regularly exchange information about
relevant missile non-proliferation issues in the context of the
Regimes overall aims.
3. Dialogue and Outreach The MTCR Chair and MTCR Partners undertake
outreach activities to non-Partners in order to keep them informed
about the group's activities and to provide practical assistance
regarding efforts to prevent the proliferation of WMD delivery
Indian membership to the regime and its implications:
First, Indias admission will make it easier for other MTCR members
to justify transferring sensitive technology to India.
Second, India can also sell its missiles like Brahmos to other
Thirdly, India is seen as a responsible sate.
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UN plans to end AIDS threat by 2030 (analysed from The Indian Express,
relevant for Prelims, GS II & III, Topic: International Organizations,
UN Resolution:
At the UN meeting, member states adopted a new political declaration,
to end the AIDS epidemic as a public health threat by 2030, within
the framework of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

India at UN:
Mr. Nadda, Indias Health Minister proposed a five-point strategy to
end AIDS. He stated that India was committed to enforcing TRIPS
flexibilities to make drugs affordable. The low cost generic medicines
produced by the Indian pharmaceutical industry have been instrumental
in scaling up access to HIV treatment not only in India but in other
parts of the world. More than 80% of the antiretroviral drugs used
globally are supplied by the Indian pharmaceutical industry.
The five-point strategy includes:
1. Adoption of the fast track target i.e. reaching 90% of all people
in need with HIV treatment.

Commitment to maintain the TRIPS flexibilities.

3. Creating an inclusive society with programmes that work towards

restoring the respect and dignity of individuals.

Prevention must be the primary goal.


We need to increase investments.

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs):

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a proposed set of targets
relating to future international development. They are to replace the
Millennium Development Goals once those expire at the end of 2015.
This agenda contains 17 goals and 169 targets. The goals are to be
achieved by all member countries within the next fifteen years,
thereby giving it the moniker of Agenda for 2030.

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5o most important concepts without which your preparation for
Prelims, 2016 is incomplete
Concept no.32 : UN Sustainable Development Goals
What is sustainable development?
The United Nations defines sustainable development as development
that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability
of future generations to meet their own needs.

Earlier we focused less on climate change and environmental issues,

but the new concept of sustainability, includes all efforts towards an
inclusive, sustainable and resilient future for people and the planet.
Three elements of sustainable development:
1. economic growth,
2. social inclusion
3. environmental protection.
Member States of the United Nations have agreed upon the text of a new
document entitled, Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for
Sustainable Development. This agenda contains 17 goals and 169
targets and is popularly known as Sustainable Development Goals.
What are the sustainable development goals?
The sustainable development goals (SDGs) are a new, universal set of
goals, targets and indicators that UN member states will be expected
to use to frame their agendas and political policies over the next 15
years till 2030.
The SDGs follow and expand on the millennium development goals (MDGs),
which were agreed by governments in 2001 and expired in 2015.
Why do we need another set of goals?
This agenda builds on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which
were adopted in 2000 and were to be achieved by 2015. With 2015
ending, it was time for a new set of goals.
The eight MDGs reduce poverty and hunger; achieve universal
education; promote gender equality; reduce child and maternal deaths;
combat HIV, malaria and other diseases; ensure environmental
sustainability; develop global partnerships failed to consider the
root causes of poverty and overlooked gender inequality as well as the
holistic nature of development.
The goals made no mention of human rights and did not specifically
address economic development.
What are the proposed 17 goals?
1) End poverty in all its forms everywhere
2) End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and
promote sustainable agriculture
3) Ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages

4) Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote

lifelong learning opportunities for all
5) Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
6) Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and
sanitation for all
7) Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern
energy for all
8) Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full
and productive employment, and decent work for all
9) Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable
industrialisation, and foster innovation
10) Reduce inequality within and among countries
11) Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and
12) Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
13) Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
(taking note of agreements made by the UNFCCC forum)
14) Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources
for sustainable development
15) Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial
ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification and
halt and reverse land degradation, and halt biodiversity loss
16) Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable
development, provide access to justice for all and build effective,
accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
17) Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalise the global
partnership for sustainable development
Note: Within the goals are 169 targets.
When did the new goals come into force?
The SDGs were officially adopted at a UN summit in New York in
September 2015, and have become applicable from January 2016. The
deadline for the SDGS is 2030.
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5o most important concepts without which your preparation for

Prelims, 2016 is incomplete
Concept no.32 : UN Sustainable Development Goals
What is sustainable development?
The United Nations defines sustainable development as development
that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability
of future generations to meet their own needs.
Earlier we focused less on climate change and environmental issues,
but the new concept of sustainability, includes all efforts towards an
inclusive, sustainable and resilient future for people and the planet.
Three elements of sustainable development:
1. economic growth,
2. social inclusion
3. environmental protection.
Member States of the United Nations have agreed upon the text of a new
document entitled, Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for
Sustainable Development. This agenda contains 17 goals and 169
targets and is popularly known as Sustainable Development Goals.
What are the sustainable development goals?
The sustainable development goals (SDGs) are a new, universal set of
goals, targets and indicators that UN member states will be expected
to use to frame their agendas and political policies over the next 15
years till 2030.
The SDGs follow and expand on the millennium development goals (MDGs),
which were agreed by governments in 2001 and expired in 2015.
Why do we need another set of goals?
This agenda builds on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which
were adopted in 2000 and were to be achieved by 2015. With 2015
ending, it was time for a new set of goals.
The eight MDGs reduce poverty and hunger; achieve universal
education; promote gender equality; reduce child and maternal deaths;
combat HIV, malaria and other diseases; ensure environmental
sustainability; develop global partnerships failed to consider the
root causes of poverty and overlooked gender inequality as well as the
holistic nature of development.

The goals made no mention of human rights and did not specifically
address economic development.
While the MDGs, in theory, applied to all countries, in reality they
were considered targets for poor countries to achieve, with finance
from wealthy states. Conversely, every country will be expected to
work towards achieving the SDGs.
What are the proposed 17 goals?
1) End poverty in all its forms everywhere
2) End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and
promote sustainable agriculture
3) Ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages
4) Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote
lifelong learning opportunities for all
5) Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
6) Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and
sanitation for all
7) Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern
energy for all
8) Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full
and productive employment, and decent work for all
9) Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable
industrialisation, and foster innovation
10) Reduce inequality within and among countries
11) Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and
12) Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
13) Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
(taking note of agreements made by the UNFCCC forum)
14) Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources
for sustainable development
15) Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial
ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification and
halt and reverse land degradation, and halt biodiversity loss

16) Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable

development, provide access to justice for all and build effective,
accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
17) Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalise the global
partnership for sustainable development
Note: Within the goals are 169 targets.
When did the new goals come into force?
The SDGs were officially ado
5o most important concepts without which your preparation for
Prelims, 2016 is incomplete
Concept no. 31 : The Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)
What is the MTCR?
The Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) is an informal political
understanding among states that seek to limit the proliferation of
missiles and missile technology.
When was the MTCR established?
The regime was formed in 1987 by the G-7 industrialized countries
(Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the UK, and the United
Who belongs to the MTCR?
There are currently 35 countries that are members (Partners) of the
MTCR. India is the latest addition.
What is the purpose of the MTCR?
1. The MTCR was initiated by like-minded countries to address the
increasing proliferation of nuclear weapons by addressing the most
destabilizing delivery system for such weapons.
2. In 1992, the MTCRs original focus on missiles for nuclear
weapons delivery was extended to a focus on the proliferation of
missiles for the delivery of all types of weapons of mass destruction
(WMD), i.e., nuclear, chemical and biological weapons.
3. Such proliferation has been identified as a threat to international
peace and security. One way to counter this threat is to maintain
vigilance over the transfer of missile equipment, material, and
related technologies usable for systems capable of delivering WMD.
What is the relationship between the MTCR and the UN?

While there is no formal linkage, the activities of the MTCR are

consistent with the UNs non-proliferation and export control
Is the MTCR a treaty?
1. No. The MTCR is not a treaty and does not impose any legally
binding obligations on Partners (members).
2. Rather, it is an informal political understanding among states that
seek to limit the proliferation of missiles and missile technology.
What are the main objectives of the MTCR?
The MTCR seeks to limit the risks of proliferation of weapons of mass
destruction (WMD) by controlling exports of goods and technologies
that could make a contribution to delivery systems (other than manned
aircraft) for such weapons.
How does the MTCR achieve its objectives?
1. Export Controls: The Regime rests on adherence to common export
policy (the Guidelines) applied to an integral common list of items
(the MTCR Equipment, Software, and Technology Annex.)
2. Meetings MTCR Partners regularly exchange information about
relevant missile non-proliferation issues in the context of the
Regimes overall aims.
3. Dialogue and Outreach The MTCR Chair and MTCR Partners undertake
outreach activities to non-Partners in order to keep them informed
about the group's activities and to provide practical assistance
regarding efforts to prevent the proliferation of WMD delivery
Indian membership to the regime and its implications:
First, Indias admission will make it easier for other MTCR members
to justify transferring sensitive technology to India.
Second, India can also sell its missiles like Brahmos to other
Thirdly, India is seen as a responsible sate.
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5o most important concepts without which your preparation for
Prelims, 2016 is incomplete

Concept no. 30: Monetary policy:

Monetary policy is the macroeconomic policy laid down by the central
It involves management of money supply and interest rate. It is the
demand side economic policy used by the government of a country to
achieve macroeconomic objectives like inflation, consumption, growth
and liquidity.
In India, monetary policy of the Reserve Bank of India is aimed at
managing the quantity of money in order to meet the requirements of
different sectors of the economy and to increase the pace of economic
While exercising monetary policy to manage money supply Indian economy
RBI considers two conflicting objectives:1. Inflation which is undesirable
2. Economic growth which is desirable
At times of high Money supply, both inflation and economic growth
rise. Inflation rises because increase in money supply leads to
increase in availability of funds with people and correspondingly
higher demand of commodities.
When inflation rate is low, then the main focus of RBI is to
facilitate an increase in economic growth. The increase in economic
growth can be attained by increasing money supply. This is called as
Cheap money Policy of RBI.
When inflation rates are high, then the primary objective of RBI is to
reduce inflation. Then, the economic growth is side-lined and the
interest rates are increased or kept at the prevailing rate. This is
called as Dear money Policy of RBI.
How does the RBI exercises Monetary Policy:
There are various means through which RBI can exercise monetary
1. Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR):
CRR refers to the amount of funds which the commercial bank is
required to keep with RBI. It is calculated as percentage of total
deposits received by commercial banks.
If RBI wants to increase money supply then it can reduce CRR and if
RBI wants to reduce money supply then it can increase CRR.

According to Banking Laws, RBI can keep CRR in between 3 and 15

CRR is a long term measure and thus RBI resorts to change in CRR when
the prevailing economic condition are expected to remain for long
period of time such as minimum of 1 year.
2. Statuary Liquidity Ratio (SLR):
SLR is the ratio calculated on total deposits received by a commercial
bank. The commercial bank is required to maintain these deposits with
itself in form of liquid assets.
Liquid Assets refers to those assets which can be converted into cash
without any significant risk.
SLR can range from 15% to 40% of total deposits.
3. Bank Rate:
Bank Rate is the rate at which RBI lands money to commercial banks
over long time period.
Commercial banks prefer to receive deposits from public than to borrow
money from RBI because rate of interest offered to depositors is for
lower than the Bank Rate charged by RBI.
4. Repo:
Repo refers to repurchase agreement or option under repo RBI lends
funds to commercial banks and commercial bank in turn deposits
security with RBI.
The Rate at which RBI gives Funds to Commercial banks is called as
Repo Rates.
If RBI increases the Repo rate then commercial bank reduces demand for
funds and vice versa
5. Reverse Repo:
When a commercial bank with surplus funds approaches RBI to park to
excess funds with RBI. RBI gives security to the commercial bank.
The Rate charged by commercial bank to RBI is called as Reverse Repo
Relation between Repo Rate and Reverse Repo Rate:
I. The Repo rate is always higher than the reverse repo rate.
II. When both the rates are increased then liquidity in the economy

III. If Repo rate increases then commercial bank world borrow less
fund from RBI and in case Reverse Repo rate is increased then
commercial bank would like to park more funds with RBI.
IV. In case both Repo and Reverse Repo rate are reduced then it
facilitates the liquidity in the economy. If Repo Rate is reduced,
then commercial banks would borrow more money from RBI. If Reverse
Repo rate is reduced then commercial bank would not like to park fu
nds with RBI.
6. Marginal standing Facility (MSF):
MSF is the rate at which the commercial bank borrow money from RBI for
very very short time period. Usually a day or two.
MSF rate is usually 3% higher than repo rate.
7. Open Market Operation:
It refers to sale or purchase of government securities including bonds
by RBI to the public.
Sales of bond to public facilitates reduction of money supply in the
economy but at the same time makes funds available to the government
to meet its expenditure.
On the other hand when RBI purchases bond on behalf of government then
it increases money supply in the hands of public.
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5o most important concepts without which your preparation for
Prelims, 2016 is incomplete
Concept no.29: Plate Tectonics Theory
The theory of plate tectonics was formed on continental drift theory
and sea floor speeding theory.
Account to this theory, the lithosphere is broken into number of
plates or sections. Each plate is capable of independent movement over
the aesthenosphere, which is in partially molten form.
There are 6 major plates and 20 minor ones. The major plates are
American, Eurasian, African, Indo-Australian, Pacific and Antarctic.
The thickness of these plates is nearly 100 Kms. The oceanic plates
(SiMa) are relatively thinner than the continental plates (SiAl +

Plate Tectonics explain various interaction of plate and the result of

this interaction. There are 3 ways in which plates can interact with
each other.
1. Divergent edge/Constructive edge:
Divergent edge refers to when plates move away from each other. Such
movement is on account of magma released on the surface of the earth.
This movement lead to formation of ridges and thus is also referred to
as constructive edge. Eg. Mid-Atlantic ridge in Atlantic ocean.
2.Convergent edge/Destructive edge:
Convergent edge refers to a condition when plates converge with each
other. Two possible scenarios can result in such conditions.
1. Head on collisions of two continental plates may result in
formation of maintains. Eg. Collision of Eurasian plate and IndoAustralia plate has led to formation of himalayas.
2. When continental plate and an ocean plate collide then ocean plate
experiences subduction. On account of subduction, ocean plate melts in
asthenosphere. The molten material erupts in the form of volcano.
Moreover, the subduction of oceanic plate causes pressure to build
over continental plate leading to earthquakes. E.g. Pacific ring of
fire along coast of Japan is on account of subduction of Pacific Ocean
plate under Eurasia continental plate.
This theory explains earthquake sensitive zones of India.
1. Northern /Himalayan states Indo Australian and Eurasian plates.
2.Gujarat Indo Australian and Arabian plates.
3. Andaman Indian subcontinent merges with minor plate.
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Concept No. 1: Highly Probable to appear in CSP, 2016
1)What is project loon?
Project Loon is R and D project developed by Google X .
Two-thirds of the worlds population does not yet have Internet
Aim of the project is to provide Internet access to rural and remote
areas of world using network of balloons traveling on the edge of
2) How it works?

Project Loon balloons travel approximately 20 km above the Earths

surface in the stratosphere.
Winds in the stratosphere are stratified, and each layer of wind
varies in speed and direction.
Project Loon uses software algorithms to determine where its balloons
need to go,
then moves each one into a layer of wind blowing in the right
By moving with the wind, the balloons can be arranged to form one
large communications network.
3)How to use?
Users of the service connect to the balloon network using a special
Internet antenna attached to their building.
The signal travels through the balloon network from balloon to
then to a ground-based station connected to an Internet service
provider (ISP), then onto the global Internet.
4)Balloons Height:
Balloons will fly in the stratosphere well above commercial air
traffic and
weather events, at around 18 - 27 km or 60,000 - 90,000 feet.
5)1st person to use Google Balloon:
The first person to connect to the "Google Balloon Internet" after the
initial test balloons were
launched into the stratosphere was a farmer in the town of Leeston,
New Zealand, who was one of 50
people in the area around Christchurch who agreed to be a pilot tester
for Project Loon.
The New Zealand farmer lived in a rural location that couldn't get
broadband access to the Internet
6)First Experimentation:
The project was officially announced as a Google project on 14 June

On 16 June 2013, Google began a pilot experiment in New Zealand where

about 30 balloons were launched.
7)Countries Involved:
On 28 July 2015, Google signed an agreement with officials of (ICTA)
Sri Lanka, to launch the technology on a mass scale.
As a result, Sri Lanka will be the second country in the world to get
full coverage of internet using LTE, after Vatican City.
Google Loon is also in talks with India to provide
affordable internet access in the remote areas of the country.
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Concept no.2 : All you need to know about Indian Regional Navigation
Satellite System (IRNSS)
What is the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS)?
Its a GPS-like regional satellite-based navigation system developed
by India.
Comparison with other navigation systems:
Unlike the US-operated Global Positioning System (GPS), or
GLONASS, the EUs Galileo or Chinas Beidou Navigation
System (BDS), which have global coverage, IRNSS will focus
region up to 1,500 km beyond Indias boundaries, between
40 E and 140 E, and latitude 40.

the Russian
on the

The project has costed around Rs 1,420 crore.

How many satellites are part of it?
IRNSS is a constellation of seven satellites. Three will be placed in
geostationary and the other four in geosynchronous orbit .
Difference between Geostationary and Geosynchronous orbit:
The three geostationary satellites will appear fixed in the sky, while
the four geosynchronous satellites will appear to move in the figure
of 8 when observed from the ground.
What will be its ground infrastructure?

A total 20 stations for generation and transmission of navigation

parameters, satellite control and monitoring, mostly at airports,
along with Indian GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) ground
What is GAGAN ?
GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation System (GAGAN) is jointly developed
by Indian Space Research Organisation and Airports Authority of India.
It's main use is give enhance navigation signals so that even pilots
will be to an extent able to fly in bad weather conditions. At
present, air traffic in India depends upon GPS ( American Navigation
System) which is heavily burdened.
GAGAN as the name suggests is GPS aided (IRNSS) and not independent in
How accurate will the coverage be?
IRNSS will provide positional accuracies of 10 m over the Indian
landmass, 20 m over the Indian Ocean.
IRNSS will provide a more accurate restricted service for the Indian
armed forces and other special authorised users.
The regional navigation satellite system will provide accurate
position information service to users in India and the region,
extending up to 1,500 km from its boundary, which is its Primary
Service Area.
What are the applications of IRNSS?
Terrestrial, aerial and marine navigation, disaster management,
vehicle tracking and fleet management, integration with mobile phones,
mapping and geologic data capture.
Also, terrestrial navigation aid for hikers; visual and voice
navigation for drivers.
The most crucial use will be for Indian armed forces, who can rely on
assured positional data during hostilities. Most modern weapon systems
like guided missiles and bombs use navigation systems for targeting.
An indigenous system like the IRNSS will ensure reliable development
and execution of such capabilities.
Why is IRNSS so critical to the military?
IRNSS is a strategic requirement for modern war-fighting. Because
access to foreign government-controlled navigation satellite systems
such as the American GPS or EUs Galileo is not guaranteed during
hostilities, as was experienced by India during the Kargil war .

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Concept no.3 : The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP)
The Trans-Pacific Partnership is a free-trade agreement (FTA), a
treaty intended to remove certain barriers in order to promote
international trade.
It involves 12 countries:
1. US,
2. Japan,
3. Malaysia,
4. Vietnam,
5. Singapore,
6. Brunei,
7. Australia,
8. New Zealand,
9. Canada,
10. Mexico,
11. Chile and
12. Peru.
The 12 countries have a collective population of about 800 million.
The 12-nation would-be bloc is already responsible for 40% of world
Aims and Objectives:
1. The pact aims to deepen economic ties between these nations,
slashing tariffs and fostering trade to boost growth.
2. Member countries are also hoping to foster a closer relationship on
economic policies and regulation.
3. The agreement eventually seeks to create a new single market
something like that of the EU.
Impact on India:
1. In 2014, total India-U.S. trade was $96.7 billion, up over 400
percent from $23.9 billion in 2003. Of this total, U.S. exports to
India were $35.7 billion and imports were $61 billion, producing a
bilateral trade deficit of $25.4 billion in 2014 in favor of India.US
is the largest trading partner of India.

2. According to economists, TPP will erode existing preferences for

Indian products in established traditional markets such as the US and
the European Union (EU).
3. It is likely to develop a rules structure which might be burden of
compliance on India's manufacturing and services standards for access
to the markets of the participating countries.For example, products
produced by paying low wages might be restricted by TPP countries.
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Concept no.4 :

Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)

RCEP is among the proposed three mega FTAs in the world so far
other two being the TPP (Trans Pacific Partnership, led by the US)
the TTIP (Trans -Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership between
US and the EU).

The RCEP is free trade agreement linking the economies of 16 AsiaPacific countries. The grouping includes more than 3 billion people,
has a combined GDP of about $17 trillion.
The RCEP was conceived in 2013 and is being negotiated between the 10
member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
plus regional trading partners including Australia, China, India,
Japan, New Zealand and South Korea.
ASEAN is a regional organization established on August 8, 1967, that
comprises Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand,
Brunei, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar and Cambodia.
Aims and Objectives:
The RCEP aims to establish deeper economic cooperation between ASEAN
and its regional trading partners, with a focus on trade in goods,
services and investment. If signed, the regional free trade agreement
will create an economic bloc with a combined population of 3.4 billion
and trade volume of $10.6 billion, accounting for nearly 30 percent of
the world's trade.
There have been 12 Rounds of discussion so far with last one being in
Australia in April,2016. Two more rounds are slated to be held in New
Zealand and Laos in 2016 to conclude the agreement.

Features of RCEP:
1. The RCEP will have broader and deeper engagement with significant
improvements over the existing ASEAN and TPP, while recognising the
individual and diverse circumstances of the participating countries.
2. The negotiations aims to achieve the high level of tariff
3. The RCEP will be comprehensive, of high-quality and consistent with
WTO rules and all service sectors will be subject to negotiations.
4. Negotiations will cover the four pillars of investment. These are
promotion, protection, facilitation and liberalisation.
RCEP and India:
The trade negotiators from the other RCEP members, were upset over
Indias protectionist stance which they say is focusing only on the
export of its manpower and not on liberalising trade in goods and
services, as well as investment.
India has been told to either agree to eliminate tariffs on most
products quickly or leave the talks on the proposed Free Trade
Agreement (FTA), being negotiated by the Regional Comprehensive
Economic Partnership.
RCEP and China:
China has been seen as the key driver of the regional trade pact,
which is viewed as an alternative to the U.S.-led TPP agreement, from
which the world's second-biggest economy was excluded.
Within the RCEP, seven countries - Australia, Japan, Malaysia, New
Zealand, Singapore, Vietnam and Brunei - are part of the 12-nation TPP
How is the RCEP different from the Trans-Pacific Partnership?
1. The TPP includes the United States and seeks to link Pacific
countries in the Americas and the Asia Pacific.
2. The TPP requires much deeper economic liberalization from its
members. Whereas RCEP includes provisions to protect labor rights and
environmental standards, reform state-owned enterprises, strictly
protect intellectual property, and boldly eliminate tariffs
3. Critics of the TPP argue that its high standards dissuade
developing countries from joining the grouping, and they position the
RCEP, which seems to make fewer demands for economic change, as a much
more attractive alternative.

4. Additionally, ASEANs central role in the RCEP is starkly

different from the TPP, in which all partners are technically equal.
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Concept no. 5: President's rule
The President's rule refers to the imposition of Article 356 of the
Constitution of India on a State whose constitutional machinery has
failed. It is an emergency provision and has to be used in extraordinary circumstances.
In the event that a State government is not able to function as per
the Constitution, the State comes under the direct control of the
central government known as President's rule. The executive authority
is exercised through the centrally appointed Governor.
In the state of Jammu and Kashmir, failure of constitutional machinery
results in Governor's rule, imposed by invoking Section 92 of
Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir. The proclamation is issued by the
state's Governor after obtaining the consent of the President of
The article was used for the first time in up 1951 in state of Punjab.
In all, there are at least 120 recorded instances of imposition of
Presidents rule.
Article 356 is inspired by section 93 of the Government of India Act,
1935, which provided that if a Governor of a province was satisfied
that a situation had arisen in which the government of the province
cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the said
Act, he could assume to himself all or any of the powers of the
government and discharge those functions in his discretion.
Article 356 decodified:
According to Article 356, Presidents rule can be imposed in a state
if a situation has arisen in which the government of the state cannot
be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.
Breakdown of constitutional machinery:
The expression breakdown of constitutional machinery has not
been defined in the Constitution. It can happen due to political
reasons such as hung assembly, the government losing majority in the
assembly, failure of any political grouping to form a government,

defections and break-up of coalition or because of insurgency etc.

Whatever may be the reason, the President has to be satisfied about of
breakdown of constitutional machinery in the state.
Governors report or otherwise:
Generally, the governor sends a report in this regard to the Centre
and its his/her report that forms the basis for the Union
Cabinets recommendation to the President for invoking Article 356
to impose Presidents rule.
However, the provision also says that the President can take such a
decision even otherwise (i.e. even in the absence of
governors report). But in any case, the President has to be
satisfied that the constitutional machinery has broken down in the
Governors discretion:
While sending a report to the Centre, the governor is not supposed to
go by the advice of the state cabinet and is exercises his or her own
discretion. On the contrary, the President has to go by the advice of
the Union Cabinet. But he can seek clarifications from the council of
Revocation of Presidents Rule:
1. On the advice Union govt., the President can revoke the President
2. The proclamation of President Rule has to be passed by both houses
of the Parliament within 2 months or else proclamation ceases to
3. It cant last for more than six months unless its extension (6
months) is approved by Parliament (maximum of 3 years ,considered from
1. If National Emergency is in place, the Presidents Rule will
2. If the Election Commission certifies that there are difficulties in
holding general elections to the Legislative Assembly of the State
Implications of Presidents rule:
Once Presidents rule is imposed, the assembly ceases to function
and the state comes under the Central governments direct control.
The assembly is generally kept in suspended animation. The powers of

the state assembly become exercisable by or under the authority of

Parliament. The executive power shifts from the council of ministers
to the governor.
SR Bommai case:
In the SR Bommai case, the Supreme Court ru
led in 1994 that courts cant question the Union Cabinets advice
to the President but they can question the material behind the
satisfaction of the President regarding breakdown of constitutional
machinery. It also said that the use of Article 356 was justified only
when there was a breakdown of constitutional machinery and not that of
administrative machinery.
1. This is one of the articles that gave the Indian constitution some
amount of unitary character. Thus, it is seen by many as a threat to
the federal state system.
2. Though the purpose of this article is to give more powers to
central government to preserve the unity and integrity of the nation,
it has often been misused by the ruling parties at the center to
dissolve state governments ruled by political opponents.
The Sarkaria Commission Report on CentreState Relations 1988 has
recommended that Article 356 must be used "very sparingly, in extreme
cases, as a measure of last resort, when all the other alternatives
fail to prevent or rectify a breakdown of constitutional machinery in
the state."
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Concept no. 6:

The Panama Paper Leaks:

The Panama Papers are an unprecedented leak of 11.5 million files from
the database of the worlds fourth biggest offshore law firm,
Mossack Fonseca. The records were obtained from an anonymous source by
the German newspaper SddeutscheZeitung, which shared them with the
International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ).
What do they reveal?
It reveals that for at least the past 40 years, more than 140 of
famous and/or politically powered people have hidden their fortunes in

anonymous, offshore (and legal) shell companies, allowing them to

abuse tax laws and make major money moves in the shadows. These
include President of Argentina, President of Ukraine, Iceland PM, King
of Saudi Arabia, aides of Xi Jinping and Vladimir Putin among a few.
What is Mossack Fonseca?
Mossack Fonseca is one of the world's largest Panama-based law firm,
with more than 40 officers and 500 workers worldwide. It has
franchises around the world. The firm specializes in setting up shell
companies for its clients, and therefore is used to keeping a low
profile. The Panama Papers leak springs from emails and internal
documents taken from Mossack Fonseca.
Mossack Fonseca operates in tax havens including Switzerland, Cyprus
and the British Virgin Islands.
Whats the kind of secrecy that the Panama agent offered?
The offshore entity need not appoint natural persons as directors or
have individuals as shareholders. The Registered Agent, Mossack
Fonseca in this case, offers its own executives to serve as
shareholders or directors. Sometimes, an intermediary law firm or a
bank acts as a director or a nominee shareholder. So the real
beneficiary remains hidden.
The registered agent provides an official overseas address, a mail
box, etc, none of which traces back the entity to the beneficial
Whos on the list:
These include Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko, Saudi Arabian
monarch King Salma, former Prime Minister of Iraq Ayad Allawi and
Iceland Prime Minister Sigmundur David Gunnlaugsson, Pakistan PM,
Nawaz Shariff and many more.
The Indian Link:
The Indian Express reported that over 500 Indians could have links to
secret firms in overseas tax heavens.
The Indians on the list include:

Amitabh Bachchan
K.P. Singh of DLF
Sameer Gehlaut of India Bulls

They have all said that all the money they transferred was legal and
according to Indian laws.

Response of Centre govt.:

The Centre has formed a multi agency group comprising of Central Board
of Direct Taxes, the Financial Intelligence Union , Foreign Tax and
Tax Research and the RBI to look into leaks.
So whats the next step once these names are out?
The Income Tax department will have to probe if there has been
round tripping happened and refer the cases to the Enforcement
Directorate. It will also have to see if the offshore entities have
declared all their incomes and assets to the Income Tax department.
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*Concept no. 7: El Nino and La Nina*
The top layer of the tropical Pacific Ocean (about the first 200
metres) is warm, with water temperatures between 20C and 30C.
Underneath, the ocean is colder and far more static. Between these two
water masses there is a sharp temperature change known as the
thermocline. The interaction between these two layers leads to two
weather phenomenon known as El Nino and La Nina which have impact on
weather conditions globally.
*La Nada*:
In normal times trade winds over the tropical Pacific blow from east
to west piling the warm top layer water against the east coast of
Australia and Indian Sub-continent. These bring normal rainfall to the
*El Nio*:
El Nio means The Little Boy, or Christ Child in Spanish. El Nio
was originally recognized by fishermen off the coast of South America
in the 1600s, with the appearance of unusually warm water in the
Pacific Ocean.
The term El Nio refers to the large-scale ocean-atmosphere climate
interaction linked to warming in sea surface temperatures across the
central and east-central Equatorial Pacific (near Peru and Chile).
El Nino Weather effects:
1) In an El Nio the trade winds weaken, so some of the warm water
flows back toward the east towards the South America. The relocating

warm water decrease rainfall over Australia and India where they will
have a dry year.
2) warmer-than-average temperatures over western and central Canada.
3) over the western and northern United States conditions are wetterthan-average
4) The warming of sea near Peru and Chile limits the amount of
nutrients (by cold water) brought to shallower depths by upwelling
processes greatly reducing the year's fish crop.
*La Nia*:
La Nia means The Little Girl in Spanish. La Nia represent periods
of below-average sea surface temperatures across the east-central
Equatorial Pacific (near Peru and Chile).
La Nia impacts tend to be opposite those of El Nio impacts
La Nina Weather effects:
1) In an La Nina, the trade winds strengthen resulting in formation of
rain-producing clouds over the eastern equatorial Pacific region while
at the same time enhancing rainfall over India, Indonesia, Malaysia
and northern Australia.
2) Above-average precipitation across the northern Midwest USA , the
northern Rockies, Northern California, and the Pacific Northwest's
southern and eastern regions.
3) Meanwhile, precipitation in the southwestern and southeastern
states is below average.
4) There is upwelling of cold water near east-central Equatorial
Pacific (near Peru and Chile) which brings the nutrients to shallower
depths thus having favorable fish crop.
El Nio and climate change:
1) It is not yet clear how climate change will affect El Nio and La
Nia. The events may get stronger, they may get weaker or they may
change their behaviour in different ways.
2) Some research is suggesting that Super El Nios might become
more frequent with climate change, while others suggest that the
recent increase in El Nio is due to present day climate change
effects .
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Concept no. 8: Indian Monsoon
The monsoon is the seasonal reversal of wind direction that cause most
of the rainfall received in India and some other parts of the world.
It is derived from an Arabic word mausim meaning season.
What causes the Indian monsoon?
1. The primary cause of monsoons is the difference between temperature
trends over land and sea.The Thar desert and adjoining areas of the
northern and central parts of the Indian subcontinent heat up during
the summer. Because of the rapid solar heating, mainly between April
and May, a low-pressure zone develops over the subcontinent. To fill
up this void, the moisture-laden winds from the Indian Ocean rushes
What is the monsoon season in India?
1. Monsoon or rainy season: lasts from June to September. The season
is dominated by the humid southwest summer monsoon. The monsoon season
starts with the arrival of the rains on the southern Kerala coast
around June 1. Its progress triggers planting of summer crops.
2. The Retreating of S.W. Monsoon Season: This season lasts through
October to December. The temperature in the Northern Plains begins to
decrease as the Suns rays no longer fall directly at the Tropic of
Cancer. In September, the Sun shine directly at the Equator. The low
pressure over the Northern Plain is no longer strong enough to attract
the Monsoon Winds into the heart of India. By the end of September,
the Monsoon winds are drawn only upto Punjab, by mid-October upto the
Central India and by the early November upto Southern India.
3. North East Monsoon: Starts in December-January when the sunshines
directly over the Trophic of Capricorn. The landmass of Asia,
including the sub-continent, cools down very rapidly. There is a high
pressure over the continent. The Indian Ocean, being warmer, has a
relatively low pressure. N.E.Trade Winds blow during this time and
bring moisture from Mediterranean Sea in NW India which is most
beneficial to the rabi crop.
Different Models to predict monsoons:
1. Statistical model:
It tries to match prevailing conditions with historical records to see
how the monsoon had behaved in years when similar conditions had
2. Dynamical model:

This model makes continuous observation of some selected physical

phenomena, and notes how the conditions for monsoon behave over a
period of time. It then follows those changes to predict for the
future, and comes up with a forecast.
In a normal monsoon year, does the entire country get normal rainfall?
No according to IMDs Climate Services Division. Even in a year of
excess rainfall, there can be pockets that experience drought. In a
bad monsoon year, some areas may get good rain. Rainfall is not evenly
distributed across regions.
An average or normal monsoon means rainfall between 96 and 104 percent
of a 50-year average of 89 centimetres during a four-month season from
June, India's weather office says. Rainfall below 90 percent of the
average is considered a drought.
Monsoon and Indian Economy:
1) The monsoon rains are vital for farm output and economic growth in
India, the world's second-biggest producer of rice, wheat, sugar and
2) India is largely self-sufficient in major foodgrains such as rice
and wheat, but drought can send the country to global markets. In
2009, India had to import sugar, sending global prices to record highs
and pushing up inflation.
3) Higher farm output would rein in food prices and help the
government to take steps to cut the fiscal deficit and farm subsidies.
4) Monsoon rains replenish reservoirs and lift ground-water levels,
allowing better irrigation and more hydropower output.
5) Higher rainfall can cut demand for subsidized diesel, which is used
to pump water from wells for irrigation and makes up for about 40
percent of India's oil products demand.
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All advances given by banks are termed assets, as they generate
income for the bank by way of interest or installments. However, a
loan turns bad if the interest or installment remains unpaid even
after the due date turn into a nonperforming asset, or NPA, if it
remains unpaid for a period of more than 90 days.

According RBI, all advances where interest and/or instalment of

principal remains due for more than 90 days, would be classified as a
nonperforming asset. In case of overdraft or cash credit, if the
outstanding balance remains continuously in excess of the sanctioned
limit/drawing power for more than 90 days, it would be classified as
an NPA.
1. Standard assets :- An assets which is generating regular income to
the bank
2. Sub-standard assets :- An asset which is overdue for a period of
more than 90 days but less than 12 months
3. Doubtful assets :- An asset which is overdue for a period of more
than 12 months.
4. Loss assets :- Assets which are doubtful and considered as nonrecoverable by bank, internal or external auditor or central bank
* Sub-standard assets, Doubtful assets and Loss assets are NPA.
Causes of NPA:
1. Default

- One of the main reason behind NPA is default by

2. Economic conditions - Economic condition of a region affected by

natural calamities or any other reason may cause NPA.
3. No more proper risk management - Speculation is one of the major
reason behind default. Sometimes banks provide loans to borrowers with
bad credit history. There is high probability of default in these
4. Mis-management - Often ill-minded borrowers bribe bank officials to
get loans with an intention of default.
5. Diversion of funds - Many times borrowers divert the borrowed funds
to purposes other than mentioned in loan documents. It is very hard to
recover from these kind of borrowers.
Implications of the NPAs on Banks :
The most important implication of the NPA is that a bank can neither
credit the income nor debit to loss, unless either recovered or
identified as loss. If a borrower has multiple accounts, all accounts
would be considered NPA if one account becomes NPA.
The Problems caused by NPAs:

NPAs do not just reflect badly in a banks account books, they

adversely impact the national economy.
Following are some of the repercussions of NPAs:
1. Depositors do not get rightful returns and many times may lose
uninsured deposits. Banks may begin charging higher interest rates on
some products to compensate Non-performing loan losses
2. Bank shareholders are adversely affected
3. Bad loans imply redirecting of funds from good projects to bad
ones. Hence, the economy suffers due to loss of good projects and
failure of bad investments.
4. When bank do not get loan repayment or interest payments, liquidity
problems may ensue.
The Securitization and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and
Enforcement of Security Interest (SARFAESI) Act has provisions for the
banks to take legal recourse to recover their dues.
When a borrower makes any default in repayment and his account is
classified as NPA then the secured creditor has to issue notice to the
borrower giving him 60 days to pay his dues.
If the dues are not paid, the bank can take possession of the assets
and can also give it on lease or sell it, as per provisions of the
Asset reconstruction company (ARC):
They buy NPA (Bad loans) from Banks. These sales are only on Cash
Basis and the purchasing bank/ company would have to keep the accounts
for at least 15 months before it sells to other bank. They purchase
such loans on low amounts and try to recover as much as possible from
the defaulters.
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*Concept no. 13: WHAT IS FRACKING?
Fracking is the process of drilling down into the earth before a
high-pressure water mixture is directed at the rock to release the gas
Water, sand and chemicals are injected into the rock at high
pressure which allows the gas to flow out to the head of the well.

The process can be carried out vertically or, more commonly, by

drilling horizontally to the rock layer and can create new pathways to
release gas or can be used to extend existing channels.
reserves of shale gas have been widely exploited in USA.
Advantages of fracking:
1. Fracking allows drilling firms to access difficult-to-reach
resources of oil and gas.
2. In the US it has significantly boosted domestic oil production and
driven down gas prices.
3. future energy needs.
Why is it controversial?
1. Fracking uses huge amounts of water, which must be transported to
the fracking site
2. Environmentalists say potentially carcinogenic chemicals used may
escape and contaminate groundwater around the fracking site.
3. Fracking process can cause small earth tremors.
4. Another big problem is that fracking enlarges the world's supply of
fossil fuels at a time when there is universal scientific agreement
that we need to bring about a "substantial and sustained reduction" in
global carbon dioxide emissions
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What are gravitational waves?
Gravitational waves are disturbances in the fabric of spacetime. If
you drag your hand through a still pool of water, youll notice that
waves follow in its path, and spread outward through the pool.
According to Albert Einstein, the same thing happens when heavy
objects move through spacetime.
After decades of effort, physicists have finally succeeded in
detecting gravitational waves from the violent merging of two black
holes in deep space. This confirms a key prediction of Albert
Einsteins General Theory of Relativity.

Who detected?
These waves were detected by the scientists working with the gigantic
optical instruments in the U.S. called LIGO [Laser Interferometer
Gravitational-wave Observatory].
Signals of gravitational waves emanated from two merging black holes
located 1.3 billion light years away. These were detected by LIGO.
What does that mean?
That is to say, the event of two black holes merging occurred 1.3 b
yrs ago, when multi-cellular organisms were just beginning to form on
the Earth, the gravitational waves from which are being received now
on the Earth.
Why they are useful?
These waves will be particularly useful for studying black holes (the
existence of which was first implied by Einsteins theory) and other
dark objects, because theyll give scientists a bright beacon to
search for even when objects dont emit actual light. With this,
mapping the abundance of black holes and frequency of their mergers
could get a lot easier.
Why it is difficult to detect these waves?
The reason that gravitational waves have been so difficult to detect
is that their effects are tinier than tiny. In fact, the signals they
produce are so small that scientists struggle to remove enough
background noise to confirm them.
Einsteins prediction:
Albert Einstein predicted gravitational waves in his general theory of
relativity a century ago. When objects with mass accelerate, such as
when two black holes spiral towards each other, they send waves along
the curved space-time around them at the speed of light, like ripples
on a pond. The more massive the object, the larger the wave and the
easier for scientists to detect.
The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) is a
large-scale physics experiment and observatory to detect gravitational
waves.[1] LIGO is a joint project among scientists from several
colleges and universities.
Features of LIGO-India Project:

India will establish a high-tech gravitational wave observatory in

India in collaboration with the LIGO Laboratory in the USA that is run
by Caltech and MIT.
It will involve constructing an 8KM long beam tube at ultra-high
vacuum on a levelled terrain.
The project will help scientists and engineers to dig deeper into
the world of gravitational wave and take global leadership in this
The project will motivate Indian students and young scientists to
explore cutting edge science, and will add to scientific research in
the country.
Department of Atomic Energy and Department of Science and
Technology (DST) will be handling the project.
It is seen as an international collaboration between the LIGO
Laboratory and three lead institutions of the IndIGO consortium.
The three lead institutions are - Institute of Plasma Research
(IPR) Gandhinagar, Inter University Centre for Astronomy and
Astrophysics (IUCAA), Pune and Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced
Technology (RRCAT), Indore.

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*Concept no. 15: Paris Climate Change Agreement
174 countries and the European Union have signed up the Paris Climate
Change Agreement in New York on April 22 to fight against global
Here are some of the key elements of the Paris deal:
The objective of the agreement is to keep the global temperature rise
"well below" 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) compared with
pre-industrial times. At that level, scientists believe the worst
effects of climate change can be avoided. The agreement also includes
an aspirational goal of limiting the temperature rise to 1.5 degrees C
(2.7 degrees F). Temperatures have already risen by almost 1 degree C
(1.8 degrees F) since the industrial revolution.

Countries are required to set national targets for reducing or reining

in their greenhouse gas emissions. Those targets aren't legally
binding, but countries must report on their progress and update their
targets every five years. The first cycle begins in 2020. Only
developed countries are expected to slash their emissions in absolute
terms. Developing nations are "encouraged" to do so as their
capabilities evolve over time.
There is no penalty if countries miss their emissions targets.
Instead, the agreement relies on transparency rules to motivate
countries to fulfil their pledges. All countries must report on their
efforts to reduce their emissions. But some "flexibility" is allowed
for developing countries that need it, which was a key demand from
The agreement says wealthy countries should continue to offer
financial support to help poor countries reduce their emissions and
adapt to climate change. It also encourages other countries to pitch
in on a voluntary basis. That paves the way for emerging economies
such as China to contribute, even though it doesn't require them to do
so. Actual dollar amounts were kept out of the agreement itself, but
wealthy nations had previously pledged to provide $100 billion
annually in climate finance by 2020.
In a victory for small island nations threatened by rising seas, the
agreement includes a section recognizing "loss and damage" associated
with climate-related disasters. The U.S. long objected to addressing
the issue in the agreement, worried that it would lead to claims of
compensation for damage caused by extreme weather events. In the end,
the issue was included, but a footnote specifically stated that loss
and damage does not involve liability or compensation.
India has to sharply cut emissions per unit of GDP by 2020. A small
reduction was achieved between 2005 and 2010, and the effort now
should be to maintain the trend. Energy, transport and infrastructure
are key areas where sound national policies are needed. The doubling
of the cess on coal in the Budget, and the general policy to keep fuel
prices high using taxation are welcome, but they must translate into
funding for green alternatives.
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*Concept no. 16: WTOs Tenth Ministerial Conference Nairobi (15
to 19 December 2015)
Highlights of the Declaration:
1. Developed Members will eliminate their remaining export subsidy
entitlements after adoption of this decision. Developing country
Members will eliminate their export subsidy entitlements by the end of
2. The members of the global trade body agreed on a commitment for
giving the developing nations a right to protect their farmers, which
was a long-standing demand of India.
3. Developed Members will eliminate their subsidies on cotton
immediately, while developing countries by January 1, 2017. India has
expressed disappointment over this decision.
4. The Bali Conference, 2014 decision on public stockholding of food
stocks (National Food Security Act of India) protection to farmers has
been reaffirmed.
The Tenth Ministerial Conference in Nairobi saw a clash of Interests
between developed and developing Countries.
Contention of the Developing Countries (India):
1. India, China and Indonesia and 47 other developing countries
demanded comprehensive and balanced outcomes that would help poor
farmers in all the three core areas like agriculture, non-agricultural
market access and services.
2. Least Developed Countries (LDC) package, has been agreed upon by
all the members during the Nairobi meet. It will include duty-free,
quota-free market access for to these countries.
Contention of Developed Countries:
1. The US and its supporters want a limited number of commitments in
which they do not have to undertake any fresh commitments.
2. The US and EU wants to start new negotiations while leaving
unresolved issues in agriculture and other areas outside.
3. The biggest demand of the developed countries is to abolish
agricultural export subsidies, so as to allow developing countries to
better integrate themselves into the global market.

About Doha Conference (2001):

1. Doha Development Round was an ambitious effort to make
globalization more inclusive and help the world's poor, particularly
by removing barriers and subsidies in farming.
2. The agenda comprised of trade liberalization and commitments to
strengthen substantial assistance to developing countries.
3. The developed countries (US) feel that developing economies (India)
are trying to be protectionist, while developing countries only wish
to safe guard the domestic interests of its agrarian society.
About World Trade Organization (WTO):
WTO is an organization, which was established to deals with regulation
of trade between participating countries by providing a framework for
negotiating and formalizing trade agreements and a dispute resolution
process .
General Agreement on Trade and Tariff (GATT)
1. GATT, which was the predecessor of WTO. It was formed to facilitate
post World War reconstruction and rehabilitation and promotion of
economic development in the new states.
2. GATT continued as a multilateral international trade governing
body from 1946 to 01 January 1995, when it was replaced by the World
Trade Organisation (WTO).
Member Countries and Headquarter:
A total of 162 members and 24 observers; EU is also a member. The
location of the General Council of WTO is at Geneva, Switzerland.
Organisational Structure:
The highest decision making body of WTO is the Ministerial
Conference. The General Council of WTO is headed by a Director
General ( Mr Roberto Azevedo of Brazil.)
Ministerial Conferences:
The Ministerial Conference of WTO happens once in two years. The
inaugural conference took place in Singapore in 1996. Since, then
regular meets have been held.
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Concept no. 17 : India seeking NSG membership
India is seeking membership of Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG). In 2015,
India reached out to many other NSG members, including those such as
Ireland and Sweden that are members of the pro-disarmament group, the
New Agenda Coalition, and have traditionally been opposed to its
Possible outcomes:
1. India will have to reckon with the possibility that NSG members
could object to an India-specific ruling, and that other non-NPT
countries, including Pakistan and Israel, may also benefit from any
flexibility that is shown in Indias case.
2. There is a possibility that India could receive a second
class membership, and not be considered a nuclear weapons
state by the NSG.
3. The third, and most important, point is that membership of the NSG,
a body set up specifically in response to Indias nuclear test in
1974, will eventually require India to curtail its nuclear weapons
Non-Proliferation Treaty:
Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose
objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons
technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear
energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament.
Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG):
Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is a 48 nation multinational body
concerned with reducing nuclear proliferation by controlling the
export and re-transfer of materials that may be applicable to nuclear
weapon development and by improving safeguards and protection on
existing materials.
Other nations stand on Indias bid for NSG membership:
Chinas announcement that it intends to oppose Indias membership
of the Nuclear Suppliers Group unless it agrees to sign the NonProliferation Treaty (NPT).
Reason for Chinas stand:
1. Chinas worn out relations with India.
2. Its support to all-weather friend Pakistan

Several major countries including the U.S., Russia, Germany, the U.K.
and Australia have openly backed India, despite the fact that India is
not a signatory to the NPT which is widely considered to be a key
criterion for NSG membership.
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Concept no. 18: Fixed Drug Combinations (FDC):
A fixed-dose combination (FDC) is that which includes two or more
active pharmaceutical drugs combined in a single dosage form, which is
manufactured and distributed in fixed doses. There is single tablet
instead of two or three. Eg. Single tablet will have dual salts for
diabetes and blood pressure.
There were arguments in favour of the ban and against it.
Arguments in favor:
1. The rationale behind banning FDCs is the fact that there
are some irrational combinations.
2. Combining two drugs is not possible as both of them require
opposite mode of action in body. Eg. sulphonylurea (diabetic drug)
needs to be given before food and metformin (diabetic drug) after
food. This combination which was available in market which makes it
becomes difficult for doctor to recommend the drug -before or after
3. Unregulated drug market exists in India and number of drugs
in different combinations available, which makes it difficult to check
if the drugs and their various combinations have indeed been cleared
for safety and efficacy.
Arguments against:
1. In many everyday multiple drug regimens for different
diseases like diabetes and blood pressure the FDCs managed to
achieve excellent results.
2. It improves compliance of patient. Instead of taking 5
different drugs in a day at different times they have to take only two
tablets of FDCs.
3. For a person diagnosed with diabetes, there are multiple risk
factors like metabolic disorder, cholesterol, blood pressure, heart
disease. So combinations help to a great extent by bringing down the
number of drugs that a patient takes.

4. The FDCs are also cost effective for patients ad they have
to take them life long.
5. There was dissatisfaction from a vibrant pharmaceutical
industry as it reduces their revenues.
The Way forward:
Instead of blanket ban the Central Drug Standards Control
Organisation, should specify inclusion criteria based on clear
scientific evidence for FDCs.
All the FDCs that do not fulfill the criteria should be banned.
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Concept no. 19 : Bharat Stage norms
1. Bharat Stage emission standards, introduced in 2000, are emission
standards that have been set up the Central government to regulate the
output of air pollutants from internal combustion engine equipment,
including motor vehicles. The different norms are brought into force
in accordance with the timeline and standards set up by the Central
Pollution Control Board which comes under the Ministry of Environment
and Forests and Climate Change.
2. The Bharat Stage norms are based on European regulations. In 13
major cities, Bharat Stage IV emission standards were put in place in
April 2010. BS-IV norms were supposed to come into effect nationwide
from April 2017.
3. Implementation of the BS V standard was earlier scheduled for 2019.
This has now been skipped.
4. BS VI, originally proposed to come in by 2024 has been now advanced
to 2020, instead.
Why is it important?
1. Cities such as Delhi are already being listed among those with the
poorest air quality in the world. The national capitals recent oddeven car experiment and judicial activism against the registration of
big diesel cars shows that governments can no longer afford to relax
on this front.

2. With other developing countries such as China having already

upgraded to the equivalent of Euro V emission norms a while ago, India
has been lagging behind.
3. The experience of countries such as China and Malaysia (which is
currently grappling with haze) shows that poor air quality can be bad
for business. Therefore, leapfrogging to BS VI can put India ahead in
the race for investments too.
Why should we care?
Health is wealth. When BS VI norms are implemented, we can look
forward to breathing in cleaner air in cities. New vehicles sold from
2020 will have to be equipped with engines compliant with the new
Why the industry is resisting:
1. There are two major industries which now face problems: first is
the oil refineries that will need a substantial investment to upgrade.
These upgrades will allow the refineries to supply fuel types that can
match the BS-V and BS-VI standards.
2. Second, the automobile manufacturers also need to progress
gradually and skipping a step like BS-V might put extra pressure on
the manufacturers to produce compliant vehicles.
3. The shift of technology from BS-IV to BS-VI is likely to cost
anything between Rs 50,000 crore to Rs 80,000 crore to petroleum
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Concept no. 20: International North-South Transport Corridor (INSTC)
It is a multi modal transportation established in 12 SEP 2000 in St.
Petersburg, by Iran, Russia and India for the purpose of promoting
transportation cooperation among the Member States. This corridor
connects India Ocean and Persian Gulf to the Caspian Sea via Islamic
republic of Iran, then is connected to St. Petersburg and North
European via Russian Federation.
It is a ship, rail, and road route for moving freight between India,
Russia, Iran, Europe and Central Asia. The route primarily involves
moving freight from India, Iran, Azerbaijan and Russia via ship, rail
and road.
Members :

In addition to Iran, Russia and India , the INSTC was expanded to

include eleven new members, namely: Republic of Azerbaijan, Republic
of Armenia, Republic of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Republic of
Tajikistan, Republic of Turkey, Republic of Ukraine, Republic of
Belarus, Oman, Syria, Bulgaria (Observer).
1. The primary objective of the NSTC project is to reduce costs in
terms of time and money over the traditional route
2. Increase in trade connectivity between major cities such as
Mumbai, Moscow, Tehran, Baku, Bandar Abbas, Astrakhan, Bandar Anzali
and etc.
Recent Developments:
Dry runs of two routes were conducted in 2014, the first was Mumbai to
Baku via Bandar Abbas and the second was Mumbai to Astrakhan via
Bandar Abbas, Tehran and Bandar Anzali. The objective of the study was
to identify and address key bottlenecks. The results showed transport
costs were reduced by $2,500 per 15 tons of cargo.
Advantage India:
1. From Indias point of view, this corridor would not only help
India bypass Pakistan and China but also reach out to Central Asia and
Russia, and enable it to transport goods at cheaper cost to the
European markets.
2. In addition, Indian exports could potentially get a competitive
advantage due to lower cost and less delivery time.
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Concept no. 21: Coriolis Force and its effect
The Earth's rotation means that we experience an apparent force known
as the Coriolis force. The earth rotates faster at the Equator than it
does at the poles, this is because the Earth is wider at the Equator.
This causes an apparent deflection of all matter in motion like wind
and ocean currents known as corilolis effect. Coriolis effect is the
result of Earth's rotation on weather patterns and ocean currents
Winds blow across the Earth from high-pressure systems to low-pressure
systems. However, winds dont travel in a straight line. The
Coriolis force deflects the direction of the wind and ocean currents

to their right in the northern hemisphere and to their left in the

southern hemisphere.
The Coriolis effect strongly affects the large-scale oceanic and
atmospheric circulation, leading to the formation of robust features
like jet streams and western boundary currents.
The cyclones and hurricanes also move in circular motion due to
coriolis effect.
The horizontal deflection effect is greater near the poles and
smallest at the equator. Hence no cyclones are seen at equator.
The Earth completes only one rotation per day hence the Coriolis force
is quite small, and its effects generally become noticeable only for
motions occurring over large distances and long periods of time, such
as large-scale movement of air in the atmosphere or water in the
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Concept no. 22: International Monetary Fund (IMF) Reforms:
What is the International Monetary Fund?
The IMF, or International Monetary Fund, is an intergovernmental
agency that works to keep exchange rates and the international system
of payments stable.
It also provides support to countries that run into economic trouble
and pose a global economic threat.
It was founded in 1945 following a United Nations conference in
Bretton Woods, New Hampshire. The 44 nations attending the conference
conceived of the Fund as an international economic agency that could
prevent economic crisis like the Great Depression.
Headquarters and members:
It is based in Washington, D.C. IMF currently has 187 nations as
What does it do?
The IMF works as both an advisor and lender to nations in need of
economic assistance.

Member countries contribute to a pool of money which is used for loans

to countries facing dire economic circumstances.
The loans are made based upon assurances that certain economic
policies and goals will be met by the borrowing nation. These include
budgetary reforms, tax enforcement, and market-oriented currency
The IMF is generally controlled by Western nations. The number of
votes on its executive board is determined by a country's economic
influence so as a result its policies tend to support existing U.S. or
European interests.
What is the Special Drawing Rights (SDR)?
1. The SDR is a type of international reserve currency that the IMF
created in 1969. Back then, countries could use gold holdings as
widely accepted currencies to buy their local currencies overseas in
order to maintain their exchange rates.
2. But the supply of gold and the dollar could not keep pace with the
growth in world trade or new developments in financial markets. So the
IMF created an asset that could be exchanged for freely usable
3. Countries are allocated SDRs in proportion to the IMF quotas they
pay. They can use SDRs to make payments for future quota increases or
to settle debts they owe to the IMF or to rebalance their reserves.
4. Currently, the value of an SDR is based on a basket of four
currencies: the euro, Japanese yen, pound sterling, Chinese renminbi
(from 1 October, 2016) and the dollar.
Why is the IMF important?
1. The IMF has waged a number of high-profile campaigns to revive
struggling sovereign nations.
2. One of the most notable instances was the Funds involvement with
Argentina amid the countrys 2001-2002 debt crisis.
3. It also provided financial assistance to India in its 1990-91
economic crisis and also helped Argentina during its 2001-2002 debt
IMF Reforms:
1. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has announced implementation
of its long-pending quota reforms, which will give more voting rights

to emerging economies such as India and China in the functioning of

the organisation.
2. Indias quota in IMF would rise to 2.7 per cent, from the
existing 2.44 per cent.
3. The voting share of India in IMF would increase to 2.6 per cent
from 2.34 per cent. Chinas, voting rights to 6 per cent from 3.8.
4. Now the four emerging market countries of the Bric bloc Brazil,
China, India, and Russia will be among the 10 largest members of
5. The combined quotas or the capital countries contribute has now
doubled to about $659 billion from earlier $329 billion.
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Concept no. 24: What is the silk route?
1. The Silk Road or Silk Route is an ancient network of trade and
cultural routes that were central to cultural and economic interaction
through regions of the Asian continent connecting the West and East by
merchants, pilgrims, monks, soldiers, nomads, and urban dwellers from
China and India to the Mediterranean Sea.
2. It is now included in the World Heritage List of UNESCO.
3. There are 33 historical sites are along the road in total and 22 of
them distribute in Shaanxi, Henan, Gansu and Xinjiang of China.
Why is it important?
1. From the second century BC to the end of the fourteenth century AD,
a great trade route originated from Chang'an (now Xian) in the east
and ended at the Mediterranean in the west, linking China with the
Roman Empire.
2. It has economic, geographical, historical and cultural relation
amongst the region silk route passed.
Where did the silk road begin?
1. From the time Zhang Qian opened up the world-famous Silk Road
during the Han Dynasty, until the collapse of the Yuan Dynasty, it
enjoyed a history of about 1,600 years. The network was used regularly
from 130 BCE to 1453 CE, when the Ottoman Empire boycotted trade with
the west and closed the routes.

2. The Silk Road is a historically important international trade route

between China and the Mediterranean. Because silk comprised a large
proportion of trade along this road, in 1877, it was named 'the Silk
Road' by Ferdinand von Richthofen, an eminent German geographer.
The Route:
1. This ancient road begins at Chang'an (now Xian), then the Hexi
Corridor, and then it reaches Dunhuang, where it divides into three,
the Southern Route, Central Route and Northern Route.
2. The three routes spread all over the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous
Region, and then they extend as far as Pakistan, India and even Rome.
New Initiatives:
1. President Xi Jinping of China in 2013 envisaged a revival of the
ancient Silk Road network, through improved road, rail and air
transport networks as part of the One Belt, One Road initiative.
2. The main aim of Chinas One Belt, One Road initiative is to
develop its landlocked western provinces and enable them to access the
markets of Southeast Asia and the Middle East by exercising economic,
cultural and political influence.
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Concept no. 25
What is antibiotic resistance?
Antibiotic resistance occurs when an antibiotic has lost its ability
to effectively control or kill bacterial growth; in other words, the
bacteria are "resistant" and continue to multiply in the presence of
therapeutic levels of an antibiotic.
Why do bacteria become resistant to antibiotics?
The evolution of antibiotic resistance is a natural phenomenon that
occurs when microorganisms replicate themselves continuously or when
resistant traits are exchanged between them.
The use and misuse of antibiotics drugs accelerates the emergence of
drug-resistant bacteria. Poor infection control practices, inadequate
sanitary conditions and inappropriate food-handling encourage the
further spread of antimicrobial resistance.

Example: Not following full course of TB medication program (DOTS) in

India, has led to emergence of Multi-drug resistant TB which is very
difficult to treat.
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Concept no.26: Money Bill
Under Article 110(1) of the Constitution, a Bill is deemed to be a
Money Bill if it contains only provisions dealing with all or any of
the following matters:
(a) the imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of
any tax;
(b) regulation of borrowing by the government;
(c) custody of the Consolidated Fund or Contingency Fund of India, and
payments into or withdrawals from these Funds;
(d) appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of India;
(e) declaring of any expenditure to be expenditure charged on the
Consolidated Fund of India or the increasing of the amount of any such
(f) receipt of money on account of the Consolidated Fund of India or
the public account of India or the custody or issue of such money or
the audit of the accounts of the Union or of a State; or
(g) any matter incidental to any of the matters specified in subclauses (a) to (f).
But a Bill shall not be deemed to be a Money Bill by reason only that
it provides for the imposition of fines or other pecuniary penalties,
or for the demand or payment of fees for licences or fees for services
rendered, or by reason that it provides for the imposition, abolition,
remission, alteration or regulation of any tax by any local authority
or body for local purposes.
Who decides whether its a money bill or not?
1. Article 110 (3) lays down that if any question arises whether a
Bill is a Money Bill or not, the decision of the Speaker of the House
of the People thereon shall be final.

2. This means that once the Speaker has certified a Bill as a Money
Bill, its nature cannot be questioned in a court of law, in the Houses
of Parliament, or even by the President.
1. Under Article 109 (1), a Money Bill cannot be introduced in Rajya
2. Once passed by Lok Sabha, it is sent to Rajya Sabha
Speakers certificate that it is a Money Bill.

along with the

3. However, Rajya Sabha can neither reject nor amend the Bill, and
must return it within 14 days, after which Lok Sabha may choose to
accept or reject all or any of its recommendations.
4. In either case, the Bill is deemed to have been passed by both
5. Under Article 109(5), if Rajya Sabha fails to return the Bill to
Lok Sabha within 14 days, it is deemed to have been passed anyway.
Non-Money Bills cannot become law unless agreed to by both Houses. In
case of a deadlock (if, for example, Rajya Sabha, where the government
does not currently have a majority, continues to block legislation
indefinitely), Article 108 provides for a joint sitting of both
Houses. The Lok Sabha Speaker presides, and the Bill is passed if it
is backed by a majority of the total number of members of both Houses
present and voting.
The introduction of Aadhar bill as Money Bill:
Aadhar bill has been recently introduced as money bill in Lok Sabha to
give it a legal status.
View of the govt:
Govt. considers Aadhar bill as money bill because issue of Aadhar
involves expenditure from consolidated fund of India.
View of Opposition:
Opposition argues that govt wants to consider Aadhar bill as money
bill because the passage of money bill gives more powers to Lok Sabha
over Rajya Sabha and the govt has majority in LS but not in RS.
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Concept no. 27: Tropical Cyclones:

What is a tropical cyclone?
A tropical cyclone is an intense low pressure area or a whirl in the
atmosphere over tropical or sub-tropical waters, with thunderstorm
activity and winds at low levels, circulating either anti-clockwise
(in northern hemisphere) or clockwise (in southern hemisphere). From
the centre of a cyclonic storm, pressure increases outwards.
How do they form?
Warm, moist air derived from tropical oceans with surface temperature
near of 27 degrees Celsius or above. Winds blows from different
directions and converge, causing hot air to rise and form storm
Winds with no big variation in height (low wind shear) allows the
storm clouds to rise vertically to high levels. With the spin induced
by the earth's rotation, clusters of storm clouds rotate, resulting in
a tropical depression and If it continues, the depression becomes a
tropical storm, cyclone or super cyclone depending on its intensity.
Climatic conditions necessary for the formation of Tropical Cyclones
1. Tropical Cyclones only develop over warm waters. Water temperature
above 27 C for a considerable depth is thus required.
2. Cyclone formation also depends on Coriolis Force that must be
strong enough to initiate the cyclone's rotation.
3. Pre-existing low-pressure system or a slight weather disturbance.
Effects of tropical cyclones:
1. Destructive in nature. Cause heavy rainfall and landslides.
2. Coastal business like shipyard, ports, oil wells, etc. gets
3. Effect human lives and cause sprout of water borne pandemic
4. Harmful effect on ecosystem
5. Agricultural land and crops get effected.
Why cyclones are named?

Cyclones are named to provide ease of communication between weather

scientists and people. As tropical belt is prone to cyclones, names
prevent the confusion.
Do all cyclones have names?
The usual practice for a storm to be named when it reaches tropical
storm strength (winds speed of 62 kmph)
How cyclones are named?
Within the North Indian Ocean, tropical cyclones are named by the
India Meteorological Department (IMD/RSMC New Delhi).
There are eight lists of names submitted by eight countries and they
are used in sequence.
The names of cyclones in Indian seas are not allocated in alphabetical
order, but are arranged by the name of the country which contributed
the name.
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Concept no.28 : Coral Bleaching
What are corals?
1. Small (0.25-12 inches), soft-bodied marine organisms called polyps
that live in spectacular colonies called reefs that they build using a
limestone skeleton (calicle) lying at their base.
2. A polyp may live for 2 to several hundreds of years . It starts
building a reef by fixing itself to a sea-floor rock, and then budding
into innumerable clones that fuse into each other to create a colony
that acts as one organism.
3. The colonies grow over thousands of years, and fuse into other
colonies to become reefs. Some of todays coral reefs started
growing over 50 million years ago.
4. The reefs host zooxanthellae algae, which gives corals a range of
dazzling colours.
5. The algae have a symbiotic relationship with the polyps, capturing
sunlight and carbon dioxide to make sugars that feed the polyps.
6. The corals also feed on zooplankton and small fish.

What is coral bleaching?

Warmer water temperatures can result in coral bleaching. When water is
too warm, corals will expel the algae (zooxanthellae) living in their
tissues causing the coral to turn completely white. This is called
coral bleaching. When a coral bleaches, it is not dead. Corals can
survive a bleaching event, but they are under more stress and are
subject to mortality.
Coral Bleaching reasons:
1. Warmer water: If the temperature of the ocean is just 1 degree C
higher than the average summer maximum for 4 weeks, bleaching can
2. Strong sunshine: Excessive sunlight adds to the impact of rising
ocean temperatures. It is made worse by calm seas and low tides.
3. Heat or pollution stresses the symbiotic relationship between the
polyps and the algae. As the algae turn toxic, they are expelled by
the coral, resulting in the corals white skeleton.
4. Without enough plant cells to provide the coral with food, it soon
starves or becomes diseased. With time, the tissue of the coral
disappears altogether, and the exposed skeleton is covered with algae.
How common is coral bleaching?
1. It is becoming increasingly common as a direct result of warming
oceans, which are now significantly warmer than they were 50 years
ago. Some bleaching has been reported every summer in recent years, a
very visible indicator of climate change.
2. In the northern section of the Great Barrier Reef, site of the
largest bleaching, only 4 of 520 individual reefs are now healthy.
Damaged or dying reefs have been found from Runion, off Madagascar,
to East Flors, Indonesia, and from Guam and Hawaii in the Pacific to
the Florida Keys in the Atlantic.
Why do corals matter?
1. Coral reef ecosystems are less than 0.1% of the ocean area but
provide food and shelter to 25% of all marine species.
2. They support fish stocks on which some 500 million people are
dependent globally, including an estimated 30 million smallscale
fishermen and women whose livelihoods depend directly on the reefs
3. Losing a coral reef can have catastrophic consequences for local
food, fisheries and livelihoods.

Bleaching Facts:
1. With rising ocean temperatures, bleaching is now reported in summer
from across the world. In mass or global bleaching events, entire reef
systems, and not just a few individual corals, bleach. This was first
recorded in 1979.
2. The 2015-16
and longest El
dominated reef
a process that

mass bleaching has come along with possibly the worst

Nio event ever. Mass bleaching can turn a coral
to an algae dominated one in the space of a few months,
can take decades or longer to reverse.

3. The reefs in the Galapagos Islands, where mass bleaching and

mortality were first documented, lost over 95% of their coral during
the 1982 event. It is estimated that global warming, pollution and
sedimentation could kill off more than 30% of the worlds reefs well
before we are in the second half of this century.
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5o most important concepts without which your preparation for Prelims,
2016 is incomplete
Concept no.

: Fiscal Policy

Fiscal policy is the use of government spending and taxation to

influence the economy. Governments typically use fiscal policy to
promote strong and sustainable growth and reduce poverty.
The role and objectives of fiscal policy gained prominence during the
recent global economic crisis, when governments stepped in to support
financial systems, jump-start growth, and mitigate the impact of the
It is related to expenditure and income (revenue of the government).
Fiscal policy is composed of several parts. These include, tax policy,
expenditure policy, investment or disinvestment strategies and debt or
surplus management.
Fiscal Policy is exercised by government on basis of two parameters:1. Deficit or shortage of fund
2. Economic growth
In case the government engages in more expenditure than the collection
of revenue, then it faces the problem of shortage of funds. But at the
same time rate of economic growth is higher.

If government incurs less expenditure than revenue collected, then the

economic growth is slow. But government is able to manage surplus
Working of Fiscal Policy:
In case the Fiscal Deficit of government is high then government
reduces the expenditure and increases the collection of revenue.
On the other hand if the growth rate in economy has reduced (slowdown
of the economy), then government increases the expenditure and reduces
tax collection. This action of government is also called as stimulus
Measures of government deficit:
Revenue Deficit: It is the difference between the revenue expenditure
and Revenue Receipts
R.D = Revenue Expenditure Revenue Receipts
Fiscal Deficit: It is equal to the total expenditure
both revenue and capital minus total receipts by the
Revenue and Capital, except borrowings
Fiscal Deficit reflects borrowing by the government.
revenue deficit and other measures are calculated as

by the government
government. Both
Both fiscal
percentage of

Primary Deficit is equal to Fiscal deficit minus interest payments.

Interest payments are on account of borrowings made in the previous
year. Therefore by deducting interest payments from fiscal deficit,
present year results are evaluated.
Effective Revenue Deficit: The assistance given by central government
to states is included by the revenue expenditure of the government.
However the part of this assistance is used by state govt. for capital
The amount used by states for capital purposes should not constitute
part of revenue expenditure of the central governments as a result the
new term was coined in budget 2012-13 namely effective Revenue
Effective Revenue Deficit = Revenue Deficit Funds used by state
govt. for Capital purposes out of
central assistance.
Combined Working of Monetary and Fiscal Policy
Both the Monetary and Fiscal Policy are complementary in nature and
are exercised in coherence on the basis of three main factor: Economic Growth
Inflation Rate

Deficit Level
Note:- Fiscal Policy is exercised by Government of India whereas
Monetary Policy is exercised by RBI. Some section demands that
monetary policy should also be handed to Government of India.
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Saina clinches second Australian Open title (analyzed from The Indian
Express, relevant for Prelims ,GS , Topic: Current afairs)
Indian ace Saina Nehwal received a huge boost ahead of the Rio
Olympics as she clinched her second Australian Open title after
defeating Chinas Sun Yu in a thrilling three-game final of the
Super Series badminton tournament here on Sunday.
The 26-year-old from Hyderabad eked out a 11-21 21-14 21-19 over the
World No. 12 Sun in a fighting summit clash that lasted an hour and 11
minutes here.
First title this season:
She clinched her maiden title of the season and pocketed a cheque of
USD 56,250.
About Saina:
1. London Olympics bronze medallist.
2. It is Sainas second Australian Open victory, having clinched the
title in 2014 as well.
3. She is also the first Indian afterPrakash Padukone and the first
Indian woman to become world number 1 badminton player.
4. She is the first Indian to win the World Junior Badminton
5. She was also the first Indian to win a Super Series tournament, by
clinching the Indonesia Open on 21 June 2009.
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5o most important concepts without which your preparation for
Prelims, 2016 is incomplete
Concept no.35 :Chabahar port

The Chabahar port is situated in South Eastern part of Iran. It is

surrounded by Afghanistan in the North, Pakistan in the North-East and
India in the East.
The location of the Chabahar port is of strategic importance to India
in linking trade routes from the Indian Ocean to Afghanistan, Central
Asia and also to Europe; thereby avoiding a land route through
At present, majority of Irans seaborne trade is handled by the
Bandar Abbas port. Chahbahar has much higher trading and shipping
capacity than Bandar Abbas.
The decision of the Indian government to invest in the Chahbahar port
marks high trade prospects for both the countries.
The importance of the Chabahar port:
1. The port will allow India to bypass Pakistan and reach out to the
global markets.
2. It would counter China's growing influence on the Indian Ocean.
China is currently developing the Gwadar Port in Pakistan which is
also 100 kms away from the Chabahar port.
3. This port would help in evolving bi-lateral investments with Iran.
4. The railway line to be set up by IRCON International will help
transport good to Afghanistan.
5. The rail line would also link India to Iran's railway network.
6. Help India to gain access to the Middle East and Central Asia.
The Chabahar project the port, the rail network, and the road
systems it would help India tap into Iran and would give dramatic
access to economic opportunities in regions it has been cut off from
for centuries.
Current Position:
Prime Minister Narendra Modi signed a deal with Iran to develop the
Chabahar port for which India will extend $500 million. The historic
pact makes Chabahar the first foreign port which India is involved in
developing to such a large extent.
Delaram-Zaranj Highway:
1. DelaramZaranj Highway, also known as Route 606.
2. Its length is about 200km

3. It connects Delaram (border city of Afghanistan) to Zaranj (Capital

of Nimruz province of Afghanistan).
4. India totally financed this project. (about 600 crore rupees).
5. Border Roads Organization (BRO) of India, has constructed this
6. Afghanistan is a land-locked country. Most of its international
trade is done through Pakistani sea-ports. Therefore, India wished to
connect to Afghanistan via an alternative route (through Chabahar,
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5o most important concepts without which your preparation for
Prelims, 2016 is incomplete.
Concept no.36 :String of Pearls
What, exactly, is the string of pearls?
The phrase is meant to denote a series of ports/bases,mostly under
contruction, stretching from Sudan in Africa to mainland China via
subcontinent.The term has been in the news these past days due to
China Pakistan Economic Corridor which culminates in Gwadar,one of the
'pearls' of the string.
Various Chinese bases are
a.Pakistan (Gwadar),
b.Sri Lanka (Hambantota - The first phase was completed in 2014 before
elections, talks are on for the second phase),
c.Bangladesh (Chittagong),
d.Myanmar (Kyaukpyu).
e.Maldives (Maroa)
The need?
China like India, is heavily dependent on sea routes to import the
lion's share of its oil needs. Major part of this comes through the
Strait of Malacca, where 40 percent of the worlds trade and more
than 80 percent of Chinas oil imports pass through.China is keen to
explore more options to alternate trade ways. The Chinese plan to use
Pakistan's Gwadar as the transit hub for its energy and other imported
resources, especially from Africa.
A threat to India?
Upon cursory examination one feels that China has successfully
encircled India.These bases,although commercial in nature as of

now,but can be used to challenge Indian naval aspirations in its own

India's Response1. Chabahar Port- Prime Minister Narendra Modi pledged up to $500
million to develop the Iranian port of Chabahar during his maiden
trip,less than 100 Km away from Gwadar port of Pakistan.
2. Sittwe Port- India is developing Sittwe port under Kaladan
Multimodal Transit transport Project in Mayanmar.
3. Project Mausum - It is transnational program aimed to restore
India's ancient maritime routes and cultural links with republics in
the region.
The Maritime Silk Road vs The String of Pearls ?
Maritime Silk Road - was initially mooted as an ASEAN-centered
project. The intention then was to enhance connectivity and cultural
links in Chinas strategic backyard the South China Sea. Sri
Lanka,with aim of getting investment joined in and Beijing later
expanded the scope of the project to include the Indian Ocean region.
The construction of ports under 'String Of Pearls' is part of larger
'Maritime Silk Road' project of China.
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New Civil Aviation Policy (Adapted from Various Newspapers, Relevant
for GS Prelims; GS Mains Paper III, Topic: Civil Aviation)
First National Civil Aviation Policy emphasizes on three
1. Allowing new domestic airlines to fly abroad quickly.
a 2004 norm, which is also known as the 5/20 rule,
airline is allowed to go international only after flying
years to domestic destinations and operating at least 20

According to
a domestic
for five

New airlines, such as Vistara and AirAsia, will no longer have to wait
for five years before starting operations on international routes.
Start-up airlines can now fly abroad after operating at least 20
planes or 20 per cent of their total flying capacity, whichever is
higher, on domestic routes.
View of Airline industry on introduction of 0/20 rule:
a. Old airlines feel that they have been brought at power with new
airlines by scrapping 5 year condition.
b. New airlines said that replacement of 5/20 with 0/20 was a nonevent. It is not going to benefit new players as they cannot scale up
immediately to be eligible to fly international. It should have been
2. India will have an open-sky policy for countries beyond the 5,000km radius from Delhi on a reciprocal basis. This means that airlines

from European or SAARC countries will have unlimited access, in terms

of number of flights and seats, to Indian airports, leading to
increased flight frequencies with these countries.
3. Enhancement for regional connectivity:
a. As a part of its regional connectivity scheme, passengers will be
charged Rs. 2,500 for an hours flight on regional routes by the
airlines. The ceiling on airfares will be proportionate to the flying
hour. For instance, airlines will charge passengers around Rs. 1,200
for a 30-minute flight and around Rs. 1,800 for a 45-minute journey.
b. Domestic airlines will be required to provide more flights to the
north-eastern region, Jammu and Kashmir, Andaman and Nicobar Islands
and Lakshadweep as the route dispersal guidelines have been amended to
add six more sectors to the metro routes. As per the guidelines, on
such north-eastern and other routes, airlines are mandated to fly 10
per cent of their total capacity they deploy on metro routes.
c. The government has grand plans to revive 50 airports in the next
two years through the regional connectivity scheme.
Views of airline Industry on Airfare ceiling and increase of flights
to non-profitable routes:
With so many regulations in place, it has defeated the very purpose of
privatisation. The restriction on airfares will lead to losses for
airline industry.
Moreover, the government is trying to promote air connectivity between
tier-3 cities, but airline will find find it difficult to carry assets
(aircraft, manpower and equipment) to loss-making routes.
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Brexit (Relevant for GS paper II)
What is 'Brexit'?
It's the issue of whether Britain should exit the European Union or
not a question that will be decided in a historic referendum on
June 23. Polls show Brits split almost evenly between the "Remain" and
"Leave'' camps, with more than 10 percent undecided.
Britain's most influential lawmakers and business leaders have broken
into two warring sides, with Prime Minister David Cameron, who wants
Britain to remain in the EU, facing a stinging rebellion within his
own Conservative Party.
When did Britain join the EU?

In 1973, though not without much hand-wringing beforehand. As an

island that's always had a literal and psychic separation from the
rest of Europe, Britain has been a largely unenthusiastic member of
the EU. In fact, it has maintained a semidetached relationship,
refusing to sign on to the single Euro currency or the Schengen
Agreement on passport-free travel throughout the Continent.
What are the pros of a Brexit?
Economically, Britain would immediately save $12 billion a year in EU
budget payments. Freed from famously cumbersome EU regulations, Brexit
supporters say, Britain would attract greater investment and become a
more dynamic economic hub particularly if it still had full access
to the EU's tariff-free single market. But that's a big if, and would
rely on Britain renegotiating a new trade deal with the EU's remaining
27 member states many of whom, post-Brexit, would want to make a
bitter example of the U.K., to discourage other members from fleeing.
What about immigration?
This is one of the biggest issues for Euroskeptics. Since it didn't
embrace fully open borders with Europe, Britain can already demand
that visitors present a passport when entering the country. But under
the EU's labor rules, any citizen of a member state has the right to
live and work in another member state a rule that has allowed some
942,000 Eastern Europeans to move to the U.K. as the EU has expanded
its borders. Brexiters say these migrants have overwhelmed the housing
system and abused Britain's generous in-work benefits. At least 34,000
of them are getting child benefits for children who do not even live
in the U.K. and sending that money totaling about $42 million a
year back to their home countries. Leaving the EU would allow
Britain more control over how many migrants are allowed to enter.
That's become a big selling point after the influx of 1 million
refugees into EU countries.
What would happen if Britain left?
A "Leave" vote would trigger Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty, starting
a step-by-step, two-year withdrawal process. Britain's Parliament
would have to repeal all the laws that bind the country to the EU and
come up with new trading and travel agreements with the remaining 27
What about the wider consequences?
There could be many. Scotland, which sends half of its international
exports to the EU, strongly favors the Remain side, and has threatened
to hold a snap referendum enabling it to break away from the U.K. if
there is a Brexit. Without a seat at the EU table, Britain might find
itself more isolated and its already diminished status as a world
power weakened. The EU would lose its second-largest financial
contributor, and might find itself crumbling at the edges

particularly if other member states decide to follow Britain's lead.

But given that no country has ever left the EU, it's impossible to say
with any confidence what might happen.
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50 most important concepts without which your preparation for
CSP,2016 is incomplete.
Concept no. 38 Aaadhar Act
The Aadhar Act was passed with twin objectives of enhancing
availability of benefits to people of govt schemes and maintaining
privacy of people.
Key features of the Act:
Authorises govt. to use Aadhar for purpose of identifying the
beneficiaries of various schemes.
Proposes strict penalty for disclosing of core biometric
Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) UIDAI to take
all steps to ensure privacy of information remains secured.

Information is to be stored in the Central Database Repository.

In case of a national security, an officer not below joint
secretary can authorise access of data
Oversight committee, headed by the Cabinet secretary, to review
each decision before the information is disclosed.
Concern of the opposition:
Aadhar bill has been passed deliberately by govt as money bill.
In case of passage of money bill, RS has limited role in passage of
the bill.
Opposition also argues that the bill has certain loopholes. To
avoid these loopholes amendment were introduced in RS but were
rejected by LS.
These amendments were (a). Block sale of database to individuals (b).
Prevent Disclosure of database in interests of national security which
is defined loosely. (c). A mechanism for aggrieved people to move
courts directly. (d) Clarification that benefits, subsidies cannot be
denied to those who have not yet enrolled for an Aadhar Number.
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5o most important concepts without which your preparation for

Prelims, 2016 is incomplete.
Concept no.39: Refugee Crisis
More than a million migrants and refugees crossed into Europe in 2015,
sparking a crisis as countries struggled to cope with the influx, and
creating division in the EU over how best to deal with resettling
The vast majority arrived by sea but some migrants have made their way
over land, principally via Turkey and Albania.
What has spurred this sudden exodus of people from the Middle East,
Africa and Asia?
Most of the fleeing refugees come from Syria, where a civil war has
been raging for over four years.The ongoing violence in Afghanistan
and Iraq, abuses in Eritrea, as well as poverty in Kosovo, are also
leading people to look for new lives elsewhere.
Where are migrants going?
Most of the migrants are putting over in neighbouring states of Syria
in UN camps.However a large number of people are moving to Europe with
hope of better future. Although not all of those arriving in Europe
choose to claim asylum, many do. Germany received the highest number
of new asylum applications in 2015, with more than 476,000.Hungary
moved into second place for asylum applications, as more migrants made
the journey overland through Greece and the Western Balkans. It had
177,130 applications by the end of December.
How do migrants get to Europe?
The EU's external border force, Frontex, monitors the different routes
migrants use and numbers arriving at Europe's borders and put the
figure crossing into Europe in 2015 at more than 1,800,000.
The International Organization for Migration (IOM) estimates that more
than 1,011,700 migrants arrived by sea in 2015, and almost 34,900 by
Most of those heading for Greece take the relatively short voyage from
Turkey to the islands of Kos, Chios, Lesvos and Samos - often in
flimsy rubber dinghies or small wooden boats.
How dangerous is the journey?
According to the IOM, more than 3,770 migrants were reported to have
died trying to cross the Mediterranean in 2015.

Most died on the crossing from north Africa to Italy, and more than
800 died in the Aegean crossing from Turkey to Greece.
The summer months are usually when most fatalities occur as it is the
busiest time for migrants attempting to reach Europe.
But in 2015, the deadliest month for migrants was April, which saw a
boat carrying about 800 people capsize in the sea off Libya.
How has Europe responded?
Tensions in the EU have been rising because of the disproportionate
burden faced by some countries, particularly the countries where the
majority of migrants have been arriving: Greece, Italy and Hungary.
In October 2013, migration turned into a complex European political
crisis as the Italian government launched the Operation Mare Nostrum.
This operation conformed with international maritime law and
humanitarian duties, but did not agree with other EU governments that
subsequently blamed Italy for encouraging illegal migration towards
In September 2015, EU ministers voted by a majority to relocate
160,000 refugees EU-wide, but for now the plan applies to those who
are in Italy and Greece.
Another 54,000 were to be moved from Hungary, but the Hungarian
government rejected this plan and will instead receive more migrants
from Italy and Greece as part of the relocation scheme.
Prime Minister David Cameron has said the UK will accept up to 20,000
refugees from Syria over the next five years.
It is indeed a crisis for the countries handling migrants as well as
the asylum seekers who are facing difficulties despite undertaking
life threatening journeys to western world.
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5o most important concepts without which your preparation for
Prelims, 2016 is incomplete
Concept no.39: Democracy in Myanmar
National Democratic League (NDL)
NDL is a democratic socialist and liberal democratic political party
in Myanmar (Burma) are currently serving as the ruling party in
Parliament. Myanmar military still holds a couple of key ministries.

In the 2015 general election, the NLD won an absolute majority in

both houses of the Assembly, bringing in democracy after decades of
military rule.
About Ang San Suu Kyi
She is a Burmese social democratic stateswoman, politician noble
laureate (Noble Peace Prize 1991) and chairperson of Myanmar's
National League for Democracy (NLD) party.
She remained under house arrest for almost 15 years between 1989 to
2010, and has been one of the world's most prominent political
What is the Constitutional Stricture against her?
Myanmars Constitution, drafted by the military that ruled for 53
years, prohibits Ms. Aung San Suu Kyi from becoming president because
her children are British citizens, as was her husband.
As a result, the president of the new government in Myanmar is U Htin
Kyaw. Aung San Suu Kyi has created the post of a State Counselleor for
herself to oversee the affairs of the government.
The new democratic government headed by U Htin Kyaw is the most
democratic government in Myanmar since 1962 when the military seized
The democratic government faces two more challenges :
Military still weeds enormous influence in administration of

One quarter of seats in both houses of Parliament are reserved

for military. Constitutional amendment in Myanmar requires support of
more than 75% strength of Parliament thus no constitutional amendment
can be passed without militarys approval.

The military also has a direct control of three key ministries

namely, defense, home and border affairs.
2. Recent actions of military further indicate that it is still not
ready to reduce its role in administration.
Firstly, refusal to let Suu Kyi become the President. It is believed
that if Su Kyi hugely popular at home becomes President, it would
expedite countrys transition to full democracy.
Secondly, Myintswe, a controversial retired General who served in
previous Junta (military government) has been appointed as Vice
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Bid for Indias membership for Nuclear Suppliers Group (Relevant for
GS Prelims, GS Paper Mains II, Topic: Indias membership of NSG)

India has been pushing for membership of the bloc for last few years
and had formally moved its application in May, 16. The grouping will
take up Indias application in its plenary meetings on June 24 in
Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)
Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is a group of nuclear supplier countries
that seek to prevent nuclear proliferation by controlling the export
of materials, equipment and technology that can be used to manufacture
nuclear weapons. As of now, the NSG has 48 nations as its members.
What will India get by becoming member of NSG?
India will get easy access of nuclear fuel and technology from other
countries. This access is crucial for development of civilian nuclear
energy programme in India.
Past dealings of India with NSG
It is said that NSG was set up in response to nuclear test by
India in 1974.
India got an exemption from the NSG for nuclear imports in 2008,
following the civil nuclear deal with the U.S.
In 2010, the Obama administration declared its support for
Indias full membership of the group, but things have not
moved far since.
Instances in favour of India getting NSG membership
Countries such as US, France, Germany support India for
membership of NSG.
India has a clean record in context of nuclear proliferation and
is considered a peaceful nation.
Instances against India getting membership of NSG
China, acting in concert with Pakistan, has thrown a spanner in
the works for India, by linking New Delhis candidacy to
NSG operates by consensus and all its current members are
signatories to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. However, India is
not a signatory of Nuclear Non-proliferation treaty.
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5o most important concepts without which your preparation for
Prelims, 2016 is incomplete.
*Concept no.40: Fourth Industrial Revolution*
Klaus Schwab,founder and executive chairman of World Economic Forum
opened up the annual event at Davos this year by discussing Fourth
Industrial Revolution.The term has garined currency since then.
*What is fourth industrial revolution?*

Industry 4.0 or the fourth industrial revolution, is the current trend

of automation and data exchange in manufacturing technologies. It
includes cyber-physical systems,the Internet of things and cloud
computing.Industry 4.0 creates what has been called a "smart factory".
*So what were the first three revolutions?*
The first Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the last quarter
of the 18th century with the mechanisation of the textile industry,
harnessing of steam power, and birth of the modern factory.
The second revolution began roughly a century after the first and
peaked at the beginning of the 20th century,embodied in Henry Fords
creation of the moving assembly line that ushered in mass
production.Factories,powered by electricity, could produce countless
numbers of identical products quickly and cheaply.
The third industrial revolution, beginning from 1970, was digital
and applied electronics and information technology to processes of
production.Mass customisation and additive manufacturing the socalled 3D printing are its key concepts, and its
applications, yet to be imagined fully, are quite mind-boggling.
*Has the 3rd revolution ended ?*
The fourth industrial revolution is conceptualised as an upgrade on
the third revolution and is marked by a fusion of technologies
straddling the physical, digital and biological worlds.
Three things about the ongoing transformation mark it out as a new
phase rather than a prolongation of the current revolution:
1. Velocity
2. Scope
3. Systems impact
The speed of change is utterly unprecedented, it is disrupting almost
every industry in every country, and it heralds the transformation
of entire systems of production, management, and governance.
*When will it happen?*
The fourth industrial revolution builds upon the third, which is
primarily digital in nature.There were no bubbles during the first two
industrial revolutions, but there have been far too many in the third.
A lot of the models are just not sustainable or are waiting for a
big disruptor to come along. For instance, the music industry turned
on its head with the Apple iPod, and the chances are the smartphone
industry could be wiped away by the next big thing in tech, which
could be just about anything.

With device and product cycles being so short, it is becoming

increasingly difficult to predict anything which has anything to do
with technology. _The currently buzzy fourth industrial
revolution could be a very short interlude before the fifth one
comes along._
The current expectation is that driverless cars will be the disruptor
that will put millions of drivers out of work and change everything
from the taxi sector to the automobile industry. But what if
technology makes the daily commute itself redundant?
1. Can lift global incomes and improve lives worldwide
2. Supply-side miracles due to technological innovation
3. Efficiency and productivity will be greatly perfected.
1. Could increase inequality in the world as the spread of machines
increases unemployment and disrupts labour markets.
2. India, with a very large low-skilled or unskilled youth population,
will likely face major challenges.
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New Chinese system named worlds top supercomputer, Sunway
TaihuLight (Relevant for GS Prelims)
A new Chinese computer system called Sunway TaihuLight that can make
93 quadrillions calculations per second (93 Petaflops) has claimed the
top spot on the list of the worlds most powerful supercomputers.
Sunway TaihuLight has been developed by the National Research Centre
of Parallel Computer Engineering and Technology (NRCPC) entirely using
processors designed and made in China.
Displaces Tianhe-2
Sunway TaihuLight displaced Tianhe-2, an Intel-based Chinese
supercomputer that has claimed the top 1 spot on the past six TOP500
lists. The closely watched list is issued twice a year.
Sunway TaihuLight is twice as fast and three times as efficient as
Tianhe-2, which posted a performance of 33.86 quadrillions of
calculations per second.
Titan now third

Titan, a Cray X40 system installed at the US Department of Energys

(DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is now at the third position,
with 17.59 quadrillions of calculations per second.
Nationwise positions
With a surge in industrial and research installations registered over
the last few years, China leads with 167 systems and the U.S. is
second with 165.
China also leads the performance category, thanks to the top two
systems on the list.
India has no supercomputer in top 500 list.
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5o most important concepts without which your preparation for
Prelims, 2016 is incomplete.
Concept no.41: Wilful Defaulter
A "wilful default" is deemed to have occurred if any of the following
events is noted:a) Default in repayment obligations by the unit to the lender even
when it has the capacity to honour the said obligations.
b) Default in repayment obligations by the unit to the lender and has
not utilized the finance from the lender for the specific purposes for
which finance was availed of but has diverted the funds for other
c) Default in repayment obligations by the unit to the lender and has
siphoned off the funds so that the funds have not been utilized for
the specific purpose for which finance was availed of, nor are the
funds available with the unit in the form of other assets.
d) Default in repayment obligations by the unit to the lender and has
also disposed off or removed the movable fixed assets or immovable
property given by it for the purpose of securing a term loan without
the knowledge of the bank/lender.
Penal Measures
The penal measures are applicable to any wilful defaulter with an
outstanding balance of Rs. 25 lakh or more. This limit of Rs. 25 lakh
may also be applied for the purpose of taking cognizance of the
instances of 'siphoning' / 'diversion' of funds.

List of wilful defaulters (non-suit filed accounts) and list of

wilful defaulters (suit filed accounts) are forwarded to SEBI by RBI
and Credit Information Bureau (India) Ltd. (CIBIL) respectively so as
to prevent the access to the capital markets by the wilful defaulters.
Banks and FIs are required to initiate penal measures against the
identified wilful defaulters as under: No additional facilities should be granted by any bank / FI to the
listed wilful defaulters.
The entrepreneurs / promoters of companies where banks / FIs have
identified siphoning / diversion of funds, misrepresentation,
falsification of accounts and fraudulent transactions should be
debarred from institutional finance from the scheduled commercial
banks, Development Financial Institutions, Government owned NBFCs,
investment institutions etc. for floating new ventures for a period of
5 years from the date the name of the wilful defaulter is published in
the list of wilful defaulters by the RBI.
Initiation of legal process including criminal proceedings,
wherever necessary, against the borrowers / guarantors and foreclosure
of recovery of dues expeditiously.
Banks and FIs should adopt a proactive approach for a change of
management of the wilfully defaulting borrower unit, etc.
Banks and FIs should put in place a transparent mechanism for the
entire process so that the penal provisions are not misused and the
scope of such discretionary powers is kept to the barest minimum. It
should also be ensured that a solitary or isolated instance is not
made the basis for imposing the penal action.
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Evaluation of FDI in Civil Aviation (Adapted from The Hindu Editorial,
Relevant for GS Paper III, Topic: Civil Aviation)
FDI in Civil Aviation
With the latest round of reforms in the foreign direct investment
(FDI) policy, the Centre has boasted that most sectors would now be
eligible for automatic approvals, making India the most open economy
in the world for FDI.
Raising the FDI limit for airlines (including regional operators for
whom FDI of 49 per cent was only allowed last November) to 100 per
cent, with automatic approvals for foreign ownership up to 49 per
cent, sounds good on the face of it.

But it is more likely to bring relief for domestic carriers looking to

raise capital or forge an alliance with a global airline than attract
many new players into the fray.
This is because global airline players continue to be hemmed in by the
49 per cent ownership limit set by the United Progressive Alliance
government in 2012, following which ventures such as AirAsia India and
Vistara took off.
In theory, a foreign airline could tie up with other institutional
investors like private equity funds to form a 49:51 joint venture and
tap Indias double-digit air traffic growth.
Even if a strategic airline investor agrees to be a junior partner,
securing a scheduled operator permit still requires an airlines
chairman and at least two-thirds of its directors to be Indian
citizens, and substantial ownership and effective control to be vested
in Indian nationals. There need to be swift changes in the small
print, if the skies are to be as open as hoped for in the aviation
Global Position on FDI in Civil Aviation
While the U.S. originally barred foreign control of airlines in 1926
so that its military could take charge of civilian aircraft in times
of strife, most countries adopted a similar stance following World War
II, citing security concerns and the need to protect the turf of
national airlines. The U.S. now allows around 25 per cent foreign
ownership in airlines, South Korea permits 49 per cent and Chile a
full 100 per cent, even as it has done away with national control and
ownership norms. Australia has now scrapped limits on airline
ownership for aircraft flying within its airspace a model that
could very well serve Indias aviation policy objectives of tripling
passenger traffic by 2022 and developing regional connectivity. To
stay at the forefront of FDI reforms in a slowing global economy,
India could have proposed a bolder reform in airline ownership norms
and dovetailed that with its vision of an open sky policy within the
SAARC region and beyond. That would have been a global game changer.
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5o most important concepts without which your preparation for
Prelims, 2016 is incomplete
Concept no.42: Alpha Go
Alpha Go
It is a super computer based on AI. Alpha Go defeated worlds top Go
player Lee-Se-Dol from South Korea.

Go is a game played since ancient times in Korea, Japan and

China. It is considered one of the most complex games, with infinite
possible moves.
Go involves two players who undertake moves in alternate turns
and it is played on a black and white chequered board appearing like a
grid 19 x 19 lines. The winner is a person who manages to secure most
of the territory.
Significance of the contest between Alpha Go and Lee:
The most famous AI victory till date came in 1997 when the IBM
developed supercomputer Deep Blue defeated the world Chess champion
Garry Kasparov.
Alpha Go victory over Lee is considered significant of inherent
complexities involved in the game Go.
Artificial Intelligence (AI)
What does Artificial Intelligence (AI) mean?
Artificial intelligence (AI) is an area of computer science that
emphasizes the creation of intelligent machines that work and react
like humans. Some of the activities computers with artificial
intelligence are designed for include:
Speech recognition
Problem solving
Explanation: Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science that aims to
create intelligent machines. It has become an essential part of the
technology industry.
Research associated with artificial intelligence is highly technical
and specialized.Knowledge engineering is a core part of AI research.
Machines can often act and react like humans only if they have
abundant information relating to the world. Artificial intelligence
must have access to objects, categories, properties and relations
between all of them to implement knowledge engineering. Initiating
common sense, reasoning and problem-solving power in machines is a
difficult and tedious approach.
Machine learning is another core part of AI. Learning without any kind
of supervision requires an ability to identify patterns in streams of
inputs, whereas learning with adequate supervision involves
classification and numerical regressions. Classification determines
the category an object belongs to and regression deals with obtaining
a set of numerical input or output examples, thereby discovering
functions enabling the generation of suitable outputs from respective
inputs. Mathematical analysis of machine learning algorithms and their
performance is a well-defined branch of theoretical computer science
often referred to as computational learning theory.

Machine perception deals with the capability to use sensory inputs to

deduce the different aspects of the world, while computer vision is
the power to analyze visual inputs with few sub-problems such as
facial, object and speech recognition.
Robotics is also a major field related to AI. Robots require
intelligence to handle tasks such as object manipulation and
navigation, along with sub-problems of localization, motion planning
and mapping.
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Madras, Bombay HCs to reflect city names (Relevant for Prelims, GS
Mains Paper II, Topic : Renaming of cities)
Two decades after the city of Madras became Chennai and
Bombay became Mumbai, the High Courts in both the cities
will finally adopt the names by an act of Parliament during the
upcoming monsoon session.
The Law Ministry has prepared a Cabinet note on a Bill changing the
names of the High Courts.
According to senior Ministry sources, not only State governments but
also the HCs have to concur with the name change as it involves
technical issues regarding statute books and the fact that the courts,
especially the three presidency courts of Madras, Bombay and Calcutta,
were established under the Indian High Court Act of 1861.
Other pending name changes
1. The third presidency High Court in Calcutta, however, will have to
wait a while for its own name change to Kolkata High Court as
the court is yet to give its concurrence. The West Bengal
government has asked for a name change but the honourable high court
has not responded to our letters yet.
2. With the change in the official spelling of Odisha from
Orissa, there have been demands that the States high court
too changed its name, which still goes by the old spelling.
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5o most important concepts without which your preparation for
Prelims, 2016 is incomplete
Concept no.43: ISROs new achievements

1. Technology demonstrator of the indigenously made Reusable Launch

Vehicle (RLV): The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has taken
a baby step in building a vehicle that can be reused multiple times to
launch satellites into orbit. The hypersonic flight, that lasted about
770 seconds from lift-off to splashdown in the Bay of Bengal, reached
an altitude of about 65 km before re-entering the atmosphere at nearly
five times the speed of sound. Many more such successful launches have
to be undertaken before the RLV becomes a reusable launch system to
put satellites into orbit.
Reusable Launch Vehicle enables use of same launch vehicle for
multiple launch of satellites. Reusable launch vehicle will play a
pivotal role in cutting down by as much as 80 per cent the cost of
launching satellites into orbit. Currently, the bulk of the launch
cost comes from building the rocket, which can be used just once, as
the rockets get burnt on re-entry into the atmosphere.
2. Multiple Satellite Launch in a single mission: ISRO launches 20
satellites in single mission.They include two student satellites from
Indian universities and 17 of four foreign countries. Cartosat-2 is
the largest of all the satellites.
About Cartosat-2
The 725.5 kg Cartosat-2 would be used for Earth observation. According
to ISRO, the imagery sent by the satellite will be useful for
cartographic applications, urban and rural applications, coastal land
use and regulation and utility management like road networking.
Past missions involving multiple launch
It may be recalled that ISRO, in 2008, launched 10 satellites in a
single rocket. In 2008, PSLV-C9 launched a Remote Sensing satellite
CARTOSAT-2A along with Indian Mini Satellite (IMS-1) and eight
In 2014, Russia launched 37 satellites in a single mission..
3. Air breathing propulsion system: Air breathing propulsion system
utilises oxygen available in the atmosphere upto height of 50 km from
the earths surface to burn the fuel stored in the rocket.
Earlier, Liquefied oxygen was carried by rockets along with the fuel.
Air breathing propulsion system would enable the launch vehicles to
carry heavy satellites since liquefied oxygen need not be carried on
board the vehicle.
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Concept no.44: Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)

The NPT, 1986 is a landmark international treaty whose objectives are:

1. prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology
2. to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy
3. to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general
and complete disarmament.
NPT recognizes 5 nations namely S, Russia, France, K, China as nuclear
weapon states. It mandates :
1) Nuclear weapon state(NWS) cannot transfer nuclear weapons and
technology to non NWS.
2) Non NWS cannot develop nuclear weapons nor can seek assistance from
nuclear weapon states in developing nuclear weapons.
3) All international trade in nuclear fuel and technology will be for
peaceful purposes and under supervision of International Atomic Energy
Agency (IAEA).
India, Pakistan, Israel and South Sudan have never joined NPT.
North Korea joined NPT but later on withdrew from it.
India has not signed the treaty because of following reasons:
1) India considers NPT as discriminatory
possessing nuclear weapons to 5 nations

because it gives right of

2) India argues that it has a border dispute with China which is

recognized as NWS under NPT.
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Impact of Brexit vote for India (Relevant for GS Prelims, GS mains
Paper II, Topic: Impact on India)
Possible concerns of India
1. Brexit may reduce global trade and consequently, growth of all
economies around the world.
Mr. Jaitley reiterated the governments growth forecast for the
economy, and said it would push for the passage of the GST Bill.
Introduction of GST is believed to facilitate the growth of economy.
2. India is less exposed to the external sector as compared to many
other countries.
To some extent India is not a significant commodity exporter. The
economy itself is on a stronger growth path than elsewhere and after

the initial concern of Brexit, people will look around for places that
are relatively less affected.
3. The rupee initially weakened past 68 a dollar before RBI
intervention though state-owned banks smoothed the volatility and
helped the Indian currency close 71 paise lower at 67.96.
4. In a separate statement, the RBI chief said the Indian economy has
good fundamentals, low short-term external debt, and sizeable foreign
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NSG meet ends without any decision on India (Relevant for GS Mains
Paper II, Topic : India not given NSG Membership)
The annual plenary session of the Nuclear Suppliers Group ended
without taking any decision on Indias application for membership.
While the 48-member grouping held two lengthy closed-door sessions on
the subject of new memberships, several countries expressed concerns
over the entry of members who are not signatories to the NonProliferation Treaty (NPT), that India has refused to sign.
International Reponse to Indias membership
1. Chinas attempts to block any discussion, countries like Brazil
and Turkey calling for a criteria-based process to be put in
place first, and others like Austria, Ireland, New Zealand and
Switzerland raising the NPT question, Indias chances were scuttled.
2. Government officials held that at least 32 countries had made
positive interventions on Indias behalf, but the NSGs actions
are governed by consensus and not by majority.
3. One of Indias strongest backers during the session, Japan,
however, said that while no agreement had been reached during the
current session, their efforts will continue.
Prospects of India and Pakistan
India and Pakistan were the only non-NPT applicants, and according to
several diplomats privy to the consultation, Pakistans case, was
not even discussed, indicating Indias case was the only one
under consideration during the special sessions.
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5o most important concepts without which your preparation for
Prelims, 2016 is incomplete

Concept no.44: ISIS

The Islamic State, also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham
(ISIS), is a Jihadist militant group predominant in Iraq and Syria
influenced by the Wahhabi movement. Al- Sham (also called as Levant or
Greater Syria) comprises of modern day Syria, Cyprus, Israel, Jordan,
Lebanon, Palestine and Turkey.
It aims to establish a caliphate, or Islamic state in Sunni majority
regions of Iraq and Syria. ISIS has seized control of large
territories in Iraq and Syria.
The group has gained a reputation for brutal rule in the areas that it
controls and has claimed responsibility for various terrorist
activities across the world.
IS claims to have fighters from the UK, France, Germany and other
European countries, as well as the US, the Arab world and the
Initially, the group relied on donations from wealthy individuals in
Gulf Arab states, particularly Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, who supported
its fight against President Bashar al-Assad.
Today, IS is said to earn significant amounts from the oil fields it
controls in eastern Syria, reportedly selling some of the supply back
to the Syrian government. It is also believed to have been selling
looted antiquities from historical sites.
Major Causes of the rise of ISIS
Certain factions of the Islamic world believe in imposing an Islamic
form of governance a Caliphate led by a Caliph (a political and
religious successor to Prophet Muhammad). Since democracy is primarily
a Western concept, ISIS have focussed a lot of their war on the
Western world.
In 2003, the USA, with its allies, invaded Iraq with the intention to
free the Iraqi people from the despotic rule of Saddam Hussein.
What followed was a state of war in Iraq, giving religious fanatics in
the country a perfect platform to fight America and other western
countries. Aside from foreign factions creating chaos in Iraq, a
battle broke out between the Shias and Sunnis (Jihadists). Under such
circumstances, an Al Qaeda affiliate, the fanatical Al Qaeda in Iraq
(AQI), merged with other fundamentalist groups under a new name, The
Islamic State of Iraq or ISI.

In 2011, a protest for democracy against President Bashar al-Assads

government arose in Syria as a result of the Domino Effect of the
Arab Spring in the Middle East. The protest led to a conflict
between the groups supporting Assad and against him. Gradually, it
evolved into a battle between the Shias (Alawite) & Sunnis and
eventually turned in civil war, destroying the socio-economics of
Syria. Like in Iraq, the civil war gave the ISIS and Baghdadi with the
perfect opportunity to establish its agenda in Syria.
A large part of the global community blames US foreign policy makers
for the rise of the ISIS. While the US justified their invasion of
Iraq by calling for a change in regime, all it did was provide a
platform for fundamentalists to propagate their agenda through
After several years of penury, the cash has started flowing again to
the militants. It is coming from wealthy donors, from extortion, from
kidnapping and from seized resources such as oil fields and smuggling
Study Relevant, Study Smart!
5o most important concepts without which your preparation for
Prelims, 2016 is incomplete
Concept no.44: ISIS
The Islamic State, also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham
(ISIS), is a Jihadist militant group predominant in Iraq and Syria
influenced by the Wahhabi movement. Al- Sham (also called as Levant or
Greater Syria) comprises of modern day Syria, Cyprus, Israel, Jordan,
Lebanon, Palestine and Turkey.
It aims to establish a caliphate, or Islamic state in Sunni majority
regions of Iraq and Syria. ISIS has seized control of large
territories in Iraq and Syria.
The group has gained a reputation for brutal rule in the areas that it
controls and has claimed responsibility for various terrorist
activities across the world.
IS claims to have fighters from the UK, France, Germany and other
European countries, as well as the US, the Arab world and the

Initially, the group relied on donations from wealthy individuals in

Gulf Arab states, particularly Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, who supported
its fight against President Bashar al-Assad.
Today, IS is said to earn significant amounts from the oil fields it
controls in eastern Syria, reportedly selling some of the supply back
to the Syrian government. It is also believed to have been selling
looted antiquities from historical sites.
Major Causes of the rise of ISIS
Certain factions of the Islamic world believe in imposing an Islamic
form of governance a Caliphate led by a Caliph (a political and
religious successor to Prophet Muhammad). Since democracy is primarily
a Western concept, ISIS have focussed a lot of their war on the
Western world.
In 2003, the USA, with its allies, invaded Iraq with the intention to
free the Iraqi people from the despotic rule of Saddam Hussein.
What followed was a state of war in Iraq, giving religious fanatics in
the country a perfect platform to fight America and other western
countries. Aside from foreign factions creating chaos in Iraq, a
battle broke out between the Shias and Sunnis (Jihadists). Under such
circumstances, an Al Qaeda affiliate, the fanatical Al Qaeda in Iraq
(AQI), merged with other fundamentalist groups under a new name, The
Islamic State of Iraq or ISI.
In 2011, a protest for democracy against President Bashar al-Assads
government arose in Syria as a result of the Domino Effect of the
Arab Spring in the Middle East. The protest led to a conflict
between the groups supporting Assad and against him. Gradually, it
evolved into a battle between the Shias (Alawite) & Sunnis and
eventually turned in civil war, destroying the socio-economics of
Syria. Like in Iraq, the civil war gave the ISIS and Baghdadi with the
perfect opportunity to establish its agenda in Syria.
A large part of the global community blames US foreign policy makers
for the rise of the ISIS. While the US justified their invasion of
Iraq by calling for a change in regime, all it did was provide a
platform for fundamentalists to propagate their agenda through
After several years of penury, the cash has started flowing again to
the militants. It is coming from wealthy donors, from extortion, from
kidnapping and from seized resources such as oil fields and smuggling

Study Relevant, Study Smart!

5o most important concepts without which your preparation for
Prelims, 2016 is incomplete
Concept no.48: US Presidential Elections
U.S. Constitution Requirements for a Presidential Candidate:

President must:
Be a natural-born citizen of the United States
Be at least 35 years old
Have been a resident of the United States for 14 years


Step 1: Primaries and Caucuses:
An election for President of the United States occurs every four
years. Before the election, most candidates for President go through a
series of state primaries and caucuses. These are done to elect the
Presidential Candidate for both the parties. The Democrats and The
Republicans hold their own primaries and caucuses to elect the
Presidential candidate among number of hopefuls.
Primaries are a preliminary election to appoint delegates to a
party conference. These delegates further select the candidates for
the presidential election.
Caucuses are meetings where members of political parties divide
themselves into groups according to the candidate they support, with
undecided voters forming into a group of their own. Each group then
gives speeches supporting a candidate and tries to persuade others to
join their group. At the end of the caucus, party organizers count the
voters in each candidate's group and calculate how many delegates each
candidate has won.
Step 2: National Convention:
After the primaries and caucuses, most political parties hold a
national convention to select their presidential and vice presidential
Step 3: General Election:
The presidential candidates participate in debates and general
election campaigns throughout the country to explain their views and
plans to the general population and win the support of potential

Step 4: Electoral College:

When people cast their vote for president, they are actually voting
for a group of people known as electors. They are part of the
Electoral College, used to elect the U.S. President and Vice
Number of Electors:
There are a total of 538 electors. A candidate needs the vote of more
than half (270) to win the presidential election.
Each states number of electors is equal to the number of its
U.S. Senators plus the number of its U.S. Representatives. Washington
D.C (national capital), is given a number of electors equal to the
number held by the smallest state.
When a candidate receives the majority of votes, he or she
receives all of the states electoral votes. (It is possible for a
candidate to receive the majority of the popular vote but not of the
electoral vote and lose a presidential election.)
To watch an interesting video explaining US Presidential elections,
click on the link
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5o most important concepts without which your preparation for
Prelims, 2016 is incomplete
Concept no.49: Important Publications by various agencies
Name of Report: Organization
1. World Investment Report : UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on
Trade and Development)
2. Human Development Index, Gender Inequality Index and Human Poverty
Index: UNDP (United Nations Development Programme)
3. Millennium Development Goals: UNO (United Nations Organization)
4. World Development Report, Ease of Doing Business: IBRD (World Bank)
5. The Energy Report & Living Planet Report: WWF (World Wildlife Fund)

6. Carbon Emission Index : UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention

on Climate Change)
7. Human Rights Report: Amnesty International
8. Global Money Laundering Report : FATF (Financial Action Task Force)
9. World Economic Outlook: IMF (International Monetary Fund)join
10. Global Competitive Index, Environmental Performance Index, Global
Information Index: WEF (World Economic Forum)
11. Corruption Perception Index: Transparency International
12. Red List on status of various species: International Union on
Conservation of natural resources (IUCN)
13. Economic Survey: The Finance Ministry of India presents the
Economic Survey in the parliament every year, just before the Union
Budget. It is the ministry's view on the annual economic development
of the country. It is compiled by Department of Economic Affairs.
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5o most important concepts without which your preparation for
Prelims, 2016 is incomplete
Concept no.50: Bharat Stage Norms
Bharat Stage norms or Bharat Stage Emission Standards were introduced
by Central Government in 2000 to regulate the amount of emissions from
motor vehicles.
The different norms are brought in accordance with the time line set
by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) which functions under MoEF.
The Bharat Stage norms are based on EU norms to regulate pollution.
Presently BS-IV emission standards were introduced for 13 major cities
in April, 2010. BS-IV norms are expected to come into force by nationwide by March 31, 2012.
Central Government has decided to implement BS-VI norms from April 1,
2020 in order to curb vehicular pollution.
Government will directly switch over to BS-VI emission norms from
present BS-IV norms and skip BS-V stage.

Resistance by Industry:
Two major industries are resisting direct introduction of BS-VI norms:
1. Oil refineries will need to invest substantially to upgrade the
refining process. The shift from BS-IV to BS-VI demands approximately
Rs. 50,000 crore Rs. 80,000 crore from oil refineries.
2. Automobile industries will also be required to make high
investments to produce vehicles with lower emission levels.
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5o most important concepts without which your preparation for
Prelims, 2016 is incomplete
Concept no.50: World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR)
Composed of 669 biosphere reserves in 120 countries, including 16
transboundary sites, the WNBR of the MAB Programme promotes
collaboration among biosphere reserves and represents a unique tool
for international co-operation through sharing knowledge, exchanging
experiences, building capacity and promoting best practices.
1. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organisation), a sub organization of UN introduced the concept of
World Network of Biosphere Reserves.
2. This World Network of Biosphere Reserves consisting of 669
biosphere reserves are expected to undertake research on biodiversity
and share the results among each other.
3. The World Network of Biosphere Reserves is under Man and Biosphere
(MAB) Programme. The programme recognizes man as an integral part of
nature. Thus, it promotes human beings as stakeholders in protection
of nature.
The UNs cultural body, UNESCO has added 20 new sites to its network
of protected Biosphere Reserves (Man and Biosphere Reserve Programme)
in year 2016.
Ten of the eighteen biosphere reserves in India are a part of the
World Network of Biosphere Reserves, based on the UNESCO Man and the
Biosphere (MAB) Program list.
List of 10 Biosphere reserves under MAB Programme
1. Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve in Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka
2. Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve in Tamil Nadu

3. Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve in West Bengal

4. Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve in Uttarakhand
5. Nokrek Biosphere Reserve in Meghalaya
6. Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve in Madhya Pradesh
7. Simlipal Biosphere Reserve Odisha
8. Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve Chhattisgarh, Madhya
9. Great Nicobar Andaman and Nicobar Islands
10. Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve Kerala and Tamil Nadu
Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve in Kerala and Tamil Nadu is the latest
entry in 2016.
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Tree varieties
Endangered species
Coal varieties and gassification
Biosphere Reserves, National Parks and Wildlife sanctuaries

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Important concepts without which your preparation for Prelims,
2016 is incomplete
Concept no.51: *Carbon sequestration*

Carbon sequestration: Also known as carbon capture and storage (CCS)

refers to techniques to capture carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and
keeping it stored over a long period of time.
In other words, Carbon sequestration describe long term storage of
carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon to either mitigate or defer
global warming.
*Techniques of carbon sequestration*These can be discussed 3 main categories1) Ocean sequestration- It refers to storage of carbon in oceans.
2) Geologic sequestration- It refers to storage of carbon inside the
earth. It is further of 3 types.
i) Hydrodynamic trapping- It refers to trapping of carbon dioxide
within successive layers of rocks. This is done by mixing carbon
dioxide in water and then pushing water inside the layers of rocks.
ii) Solubility trapping- Carbon dioxide can be stored by dissolving it
in water or some other liquid.
iii) Mineral carbonation- Carbon dioxide can be used to form mineral
carbonates such as Limestone (Calcium Carbonate).
3) Terrestrial sequestration- Carbon can also be captured in the
surface of the earth. For eg. large amount of carbon is stored in soil
and Vegetation. Increasing carbon fixation through photosynthesis or
reducing decomposition of organic matter can reduce carbon in
Decomposition of organic matter increases carbon emissions in 2 ways

1) Bacteria engaged in decomposition consumes oxygen to release Carbon

2) Decomposition of organic matter frees carbon stored in organic
matter into the atmosphere.
Carbon sink- It refers to area that absorbs carbon. Carbon sinks can
be both natural as well as man made.
1) Natural sinks such as soil, forests, oceans etc.
2) Artificial sinks constitute depleted oil resources, abandoned mines
etc. The oil and gas industries have push carbon inside oil wells to
enhance oil and gas recovery. (Oil and gas comes on surface and is
easier to recover.)
Green Carbon Sink- It refers to carbon removed by photosynthesis and
stored in plants and soil. Plants have short lives and thus release
carbon at the end of their lives but soil stores carbon in form of
organic matter over decades and centuries.
Blue Carbon Sink- It refers to coastal and aquatic ecosystem acting
as sinks of carbon. Coastal ecosystems constitute large variety of
plants and huge amount of sediments which act as storage of carbon.

Coastal ecosystem are very efficient at storing carbon. Each square

mile of ecosystem can store carbon more than the rate at which mature
forests can store carbon.
When carbon sinks are lost, then they stop absorbing carbon from
atmosphere. Moreover, the carbon which was absorbed earlier is also
released into the atmosphere.
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Important concepts without which your preparation for Prelims,
2016 is incomplete
Concept no.53 : *Important Threatened Species*
*Marine Mammals*
1) Gangetic Dolphin
It is recognized as National Aquatic animal
Found in Ganga & Its tributaries.
It presence indicates the pollution level in Ganga.
Fresh water dolphin are rare.
2) Sea Cow/ Dugong Dugong
Found in Gulf of Mannar (Tamil Nadu)
The front side has an appearance of cow.
Sea cow survives on marine flowering plant called as sea grass.
1. Bengal floricam
It is a bustard species known for its mating dance.
It is prevalent in grasslands
Males attract females through dance for mating purpose.
In India, Bengal Floricam is found in UP, Assam & Arunachal
2. Siberian Crane
Migrates from Siberian Region to keoladeo Ghana national Park,
Rajasthan during winter months.
Also called Siberian white crane or snow crane due to whitish
However, because of destruction of its habitats, its population has
disappeared in India.
3. Flamingo
These are also migratory birds.
Flamingos arrive in western ghats from various places.
They are reddish in appearance.

4. Pelican
Also a migratory bird
It is a bird which prefers water bodies such as large lakes.
1) Ghariyal
Uniquely evolved crocodile that prefers fresh water, clean rivers
for its habitat.
Found in India in Chambal sanctuary spread across UP, MP & Rajasthan.
2) Olive Ridley Turtle
Olive Ridley is a sea turtle.
It has a nesting site in Bhitarkanika, Orissa. On account of
interference in coastal environment, fewer turtle are arriving at
coast of Orissa to lay eggs.
3) Salt water Crocodile
It survives in marine environment.
Found In India in Sunderbans, Bhitarkanika & Andaman and Nicobar
To read important concepts from from 1 to 53, click on the link
Study Relevant, Study Smart!
Important concepts without which your preparation for Prelims,
2016 is incomplete
Concept no.54 : Important tree Varieties of each State and UT
State Common name
1. Andhra Pradesh - Neem
2. Arunachal Pradesh - Hollong
3. Assam - Hollong
4. Bihar - Sacred fig
5. Chhattisgarh - Sal
6. Goa - Asna
7. Gujarat - Mango
8. Haryana - Sacred fig
9. Himachal Pradesh - Deodar

10. Jammu and Kashmir - Horse chestnut

11. Jharkhand - Sal
12. Karnataka - Sandalwood
13. Kerala - Coconut
14. Madhya Pradesh - Banyan
15. Maharashtra - Mango
16. Manipur - Toona
17. Meghalaya - White teak
18. Mizoram - Iron wood
19. Nagaland - Alder
20. Odisha - Ashwatha
21. Punjab - Indian Rosewood
22. Rajasthan - Khejri
23. Sikkim - Rhododendron
24. Tamil Nadu - Palmyra palm
25. Telangana - Jammi
26. Tripura - Agar
27. Uttar Pradesh - Ashoka
28. Uttarakhand - Burans
29. West Bengal - Alstonia
Union territory Common name Image
30. Lakshadweep - Bread fruit
31. Puducherry - Bael fruit tree

To read important concepts from from 1 to 53, click on the link

Study Relevant, Study Smart!

Important concepts without which your preparation for Prelims,
2016 is incomplete
Concept no.55 : Israel Palestine conflict and territories occupied by
Israel-Palestine Conflict
For centuries there was no such conflict. In the 19th century the land
of Palestine was inhabited by a multicultural population
approximately 86 percent Muslim, 10 percent Christian, and 4 percent
Jewish living in peace.
In the late 1800s a group in Europe decided to colonize this land.
Known as Zionists, they represented an extremist minority of the
Jewish population. Their goal was to create a Jewish homeland, and
they considered locations in Africa and the Americas, before settling
on Palestine.
At first, this immigration created no problems. However, as more and
more Zionists immigrated to Palestine many with the express wish
of taking over the land for a Jewish state the indigenous
population became increasingly alarmed. Eventually, fighting broke
out, with escalating waves of violence. Hitlers rise to power,
combined with Zionist activities to sabotage efforts to place Jewish
refugees in western countries, led to increased Jewish immigration to
Palestine, and conflict grew.
UN Partition Plan
Finally, in 1947 the United Nations decided to intervene. Under
considerable Zionist pressure, the UN recommended giving away 55% of
Palestine to a Jewish state despite the fact that this group
represented only about 30% of the total population, and owned under 7%
of the land.
1947 - 1949 War
While it is widely reported that the resulting war eventually included
five Arab armies, less well known is the fact that throughout this war
Zionist forces outnumbered all Arab and Palestinian combatants
combined often by a factor of two to three. Moreover, Arab armies
did not invade Israel virtually all battles were fought on land
that was to have been the Palestinian state.
By the end of the war, Israel had conquered 78 percent of Palestine;
three-quarters of a million Palestinians had been made refugees; over
500 towns and villages had been obliterated; and a new map was drawn
up, in which every city, river and hillock received a new, Hebrew
name, as all vestiges of the Palestinian culture were to be erased.

1967 Occupation
In 1967, Israel conquered still more land. Following the Six Day
War, in which Israeli forces launched a highly successful surprise
attack on Egypt, Israel occupied the final 22% of Palestine that had
eluded it in 1948 the West Bank and Gaza Strip.
Current Conflict
There are two primary issues at the core of this continuing conflict.
First, there is the inevitably destabilizing effect of trying to
maintain an ethnically preferential state, particularly when it is
largely of foreign origin. The original population of what is now
Israel was 96 percent Muslim and Christian, yet, these refugees are
prohibited from returning to their homes in the self-described Jewish
state (and those within Israel are subjected to systematic
Second, Israels continued military occupation and confiscation of
privately owned land in the West Bank, and control over Gaza, are
extremely oppressive, with Palestinians having minimal control over
their lives.
To see video explaining the issue, click on
Study Relevant, Study Smart!
: The oral polio vaccine (OPV) was developed in 1961 by Albert Sabin.
Also called trivalent oral polio vaccine or Sabin vaccine,
OPV consists of a mixture of live, attenuated (weakened) poliovirus
strains of all three poliovirus types.
Type-2 strain of Poliovirus is responsible for most of the VaccineDerived Poliovirus cases.
: The remaining three satellites in the IRNSS constellation (Indian
Regional Navigation Satellite System) are targeted for launch during
January 2016 to March 2016. With reference to the IRNSS
constellation, The satellites are located in
geosynchronous/geostationary orbits but all are launched on-board the
Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle.
: The space segment consists of the IRNSS constellation of seven
satellites. Three satellites will be located in suitable orbital slots
in the geostationary orbit and the remaining four will be located in
geosynchronous orbits. All the satellites of the constellation are
being configured identically. The satellites are configured with I-1K
Bus to be compatible for launch on-board PSLV
: MADAD-..In pursuance of good governance initiatives, the
Ministry of External Affairs has launched an online Consular
Grievances Monitoring System, named MADAD, on 21 February 2015, to
extend a helping hand to Indians abroad requiring consular assistance.

The Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) and the Ministry of Overseas

Indian Affairs (MOIA) work together to address complaints received
through MADAD
: Labour participation of Women in India is 20%.
: *Project Arrow* A scheme by the Department of Posts to restructure
its core operations.
: Guess all the satellites of the IRNSS constellation have been
launched already.
: Guys heard severe flood in Delhi. Gurgaon Assam Bangalore places...
hope u and ur family members r safe..
: Types of missiles:
: Finance Commission of India
1. Article 280 provides for the appointment of a Finance Commission at
five year intervals.
2. The Finance Commission is appointed by the President and consists
of a chairman and four other members.
3. The First Finance Commission was constituted vide Presidential
Order dated 22.11.1951 under the chairmanship of Shri K.C. Neogy on
6th April, 1952.
4. Fourteen Finance Commissions have been appointed so far at
intervals of every five years.
5. The Fourteenth Finance Commission has been set up under the
Chairmanship of Dr. Y.V.Reddy (Former Governor Reserve Bank of India).
6. The Fourteenth Finance is required to give its report by 31st
October, 2014. Its recommendations will cover the five year period
commencing from 1st April, 2015.
: Functions of Finance Commission
It is the duty of the Commission to make recommendations to the
President as to:
1. the distribution between the Union and the States of the net
proceeds of taxes which are to be, or may be, divided between them and
the allocation between the States of the respective shares of such
2. the principles which should govern the grants-in-aid of the
revenues of the States out of the Consolidated Fund of India;
3. the measures needed to augment the Consolidated Fund of a State to
supplement the resources of the Panchayats in the State on the basis
of the recommendations made by the Finance Commission of the State;
4. the measures needed to augment the Consolidated Fund of a State to
supplement the resources of the Municipalities in the State on the
basis of the recommendations made by the Finance Commission of the
5. any other matter referred to the Commission by the President in the
interests of sound finance.
: This s the reason of gurgaon water logging Unintentional Man made
: What is the present status of HUF ?
30/07/16, 10:15 AM - Indu Aspi: *President of India*

The President of India is the first citizen of India and he is the

head of the Indian State. The President is the supposed to act as the
symbol of the unity, integrity, and solidarity of the nation.
: 1) What is the eligibility for being the President of India?
For occupying the post of the President, a person must fulfill the
following criteria:
a) He should be a citizen of India.
b) He should have completed 35 years of age
c) He should be qualified for election as a member of the Lok Sabha.
d) He should not hold any office of profit under the Union government
or any state government or any local authority or any other public
authority. (However, a sitting President, Vice-President, Governor of
any state and a minister of the Union or any state is not deemed to
hold any office of profit and is thus qualified as being a
Presidential candidate)
: 2) What are the main components of the Oath taken by the President
of India?
Prior to his admission in the office the President has to take an
oath, which has the following chief components:
a) The President swears to faithfully execute the office
b) The President swears to preserve, protect and defend the
Constitution and the law
c)The President swears to devote himself to the service and well-being
of the people in India
The President must take his oath under the administration of the Chief
Justice of India (CJI) , and if he is absent, then it has to taken
under the administration of the senior-most judge of the Supreme Court
: 3) Who directly participates in the election of the President of
The election of the President takes place not directly by the people
of India but by their following representatives:
a) the elected members of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha
b) the elected members of the legislative assemblies of the state
c)the elected members of the legislative assemblies of the Union
Territories of Delhi and Puducherry
4) Who does NOT participate in the election of the President of India?
Following members do NOT participate in the election of the President:
a) Nominated members of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha
b) Nominated members of State legislative assemblies

c) Both elected and nominated members of the State legislative council

d) Nominated members of the Legislative Assemblies of Delhi and
5) What is the process of election of the President of India?
Article 55 of the Constitution details the procedure of electing the
The nominations for the Presidential election must be subscribed by at
least 50 electors as proposers and another 50 electors as seconders. A
system of 'Proportional Representation' and a method of 'single
transferable vote' are used to elect the President.
Each of the electing members are granted different number of votes
depending different electoral formulas.
It is the Supreme Court alone which reserves the right to adjudicate
on matters regarding the election of the President.
30/07/16, 10:17 AM - Indu Aspi: ) What is the term of the President's
office in India?
The term of the President's office is 5 years. Unlike the American
President who can only be elected at most two times, the President of
India can be elected any number of times.
So far, only Dr Rajendra Prasad has occupied the post of President for
two consecutive terms
7) Can the President of India be impeached? If yes, how?
So far, no President has been impeached, but in theory he can be
impeached. If he is found to be in violation of the Constitution. The
process of his impeachment can begin either in Lok Sabha or Rajya
Sabha, and if both the Houses agree on the impeachment, the President
is removed from his post.
30/07/16, 10:18 AM - Indu Aspi: 8) What are the important Executive
Powers of the President of India?
1) The Government of India takes all its Executive decisions in the
name of the President
2) The President appoints the Prime Minister, other ministers,
attorney general of India, comptroller and auditor general of India ,
chief election commissioner, chairman and members of UPSC, governor,
3) The President can appoint a commission to investigate into the
conditions of SC's , ST's and OBC's.
9) What are the Military Powers of the President of India?
1) The President is the supreme commander of the defense forces of

2) Depending upon the approval of the Parliament, the President can

declare war or peace.
3) He appoints the chief of Army, Navy, and Air Force.
10) What are the important Legislative Powers of the President of
1) With regards to a Bill sent to him, the President can either:
a) give assent to the bill
b) withhold his assent
c) return the Bill (unless it's a money bill) for reconsideration, but
he is obliged to give his assent if the Bill returns again after
2) The President nominates 12 members of Rajya Sabha according to
their fields of expertise
3) The President can dissolve the Lok Sabha and summon or prorogue the
4) The President's prior recommendation is necessary for the
introduction of a money Bill
30/07/16, 10:19 AM - Indu Aspi: 11) What are the 3 veto powers granted
to the President of India? Explain them in short.
Veto is the Latin word for 'forbid'. For different situations and
different Bills, the President is granted with different Veto powers.
They are:
a) Absolute Veto
b) Suspensive Veto
c) Pocket Veto
The one Veto which is NOT granted to the President is the 'Qualified
a) Absolute Veto: This Veto grants the President the power to reject a
bill passed by the Parliament.
b) Suspensive Veto: This Veto grants the President the power to return
the Bill for reconsideration, but if that bill returns, the President
must give his assent.
c) Pocket Veto: This grants the President the power to withhold his
decision, and thus the Bill, for an indefinite period of time. This is
possible because the Constitution does not grant any time-limit for
him to take the decision.
12) Can the President of India also Veto an Amendment Bill?

No. As per the 24th Constitutional Amendment Act of 1971, the

President's assent to constitutional amendments bill is made
13) What is an Ordinance?
An ordinance can be deemed as a temporary law that have the same power
as that of a Bill. The President is given the power to issue
ordinances and this could be said to his most important power.
The President is granted the power to issue ordinances according to
the Article 123 of our Constitution.
14) Ordinance-making power of President of India is subject to which
limitations and conditions?
The issuing of an ordinance is subject to various limitations and
conditions. Some of these limitations are:
a) Ordinance can be issued only when both Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha
are not in session or only one of them is in session.
b) The President's decision to promulgate an ordinance is subject to
judicial action in case it is found to be malafide
c) The President can issue ordinances subject to the advice of Prime
Minister and his council of Ministers
d) The scope of the ordinance is limited to the subjects on which the
Parliament itself is allowed to make laws
e) An ordinance is not superior to the Constitution has must follow it
too. For example, an ordinance cannot breach Fundamental Rights.
: 15) What are the 5 Pardoning Powers of the President of India?
Explain them in short.


a) Respite: in presence of a special circumstance, like physical

disability, the President can award a lesser sentence than the one
that was originally granted
b) Remission: in above case of 'respite', there was a change in the
very nature of the punishment. But, in remission, the basic punishment
remains the same but the duration is shortened

c) Commutation: The President can substitute one harsher punishment

with some lighter form, like changing a death sentence to a life
d) Reprieve: This grants a temporary stay on the execution of the
sentence, allowing some time for the convict
e) Pardon: This completely absolves the person from all types
punishments and disqualifications
16) Who are the only 2 Indian Presidents to have died during their
term of office?
a) Dr Zakir Hussain (3rd President of India / 8 February 1897 3 May
b) Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed (5th President of India/ 13 May 1905 11
February 1977)
: *Vice-President of India*
After the President who occupies the highest ranked office in India,
it is the Vice-President who occupies the second-highest office. Dr.
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was the first Vice-President of India, and
the 14th and current Vice-President of India is Mohammad Hamid Ansari.
After Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, it is only Mohammad Hamid Ansari
who has been elected for the post of Vice-President for two
consecutive terms.
1. How is the Vice-President of India elected?
The post of the Indian Vice-President can be said to be analogous to
that of the American Vice-President in many ways.
Vice-President of India is elected in a similar way to that of the
President, by the system of Proportional Representation by means of a
single transferable vote using secret ballot.
Unlike the election of the President, only the elected and nominated
members of both Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha participate in the voting
process. The members of the State Legislative Assemblies do NOT
participate participate in the voting process like they do for the
Only the Supreme court has the last word on any disputes arising on
the election process of the Vice-President
If the Vice-President's election is found to be invalid, then any acts
done by him prior to this date of invalidation are NOT considered
30/07/16, 11:29 AM - Indu Aspi: Vice-President of India - General
studies questions and answers
Topics >>Civil Services >>Questions on Indian polity and Governance

Vice-President of India - General studies questions and answers (01-52015)
Vice-President of India - General studies questions for Prelims
After the President who occupies the highest ranked office in India,
it is the Vice-President who occupies the second-highest office. Dr.
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was the first Vice-President of India, and
the 14th and current Vice-President of India is Mohammad Hamid Ansari.
After Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, it is only Mohammad Hamid Ansari
who has been elected for the post of Vice-President for two
consecutive terms.
1. How is the Vice-President of India elected?
The post of the Indian Vice-President can be said to be analogous to
that of the American Vice-President in many ways.
Vice-President of India is elected in a similar way to that of the
President, by the system of Proportional Representation by means of a
single transferable vote using secret ballot.
Unlike the election of the President, only the elected and nominated
members of both Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha participate in the voting
process. The members of the State Legislative Assemblies do NOT
participate participate in the voting process like they do for the
Only the Supreme court has the last word on any disputes arising on
the election process of the Vice-President
If the Vice-President's election is found to be invalid, then any acts
done by him prior to this date of invalidation are NOT considered
2. What is the eligibility for being the Vice-President of India?
Following are the necessary qualifications for being the VicePresident of India:
a) He should be a citizen of India
b) He should have completed 35 years of age
c) He should be qualified for election as a member of the Rajya Sabha
(since his primary function is to be an ex-officio Chairman of Rajya
d) He should not hold any office of profit under the Union or state
government or under any local authority of any public authority.

However, a sitting President of Vice-President, governor, or a

minister for the Union or state, are not deemed to hold an office of
profit and are thus qualified contesting the Vice-Presidential
3. What are the necessary conditions imposed upon the office of the
Vice-President of India?
There are two necessary conditions:
a) The Vice-President cannot hold any other office of profit
b) If a member of either Lok Sabha or Rajya Sabha is elected to be
Vice-President, then he is declared to have vacated his seat as a
member of Lok Sabha or Rajya Sabha starting from the date he enters
the office of Vice-President
4. What are the Powers and Functions of the Vice-President of India?
a) The Vice-President acts as the ex-officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha,
and thus his scope of powers and duties is analogous to that of the
Speaker of Lok Sabha.
b) Another important purpose of the post of Vice-President is that in
the absence of the President due to any reason, the Vice-President
acts as the President.
c) But the Vice-President can act as President only for a maximum
period of 6 months only, after which the newly appointed President
must take his charge.
c) The Vice-President acts as a temporary President when the latter
can't fulfill his duties due to absence or illness or any such reason
5. What is the process of removal of Vice-President of India?
a) The Vice-President can be removed by a formal resolution passed by
the Rajya Sabha which must be passed by an absolute majority. This
means that the majority of the total capacity of the Rajya Sabha is
needed in order to remove the Vice-President.
b) The above resolution must then be agreed to by the Lok Sabha too.
c) The primary power of removing the Vice-President of India is rested
in the hands of the Rajya Sabha because the Vice-President is
primarily concerned with the Rajya Sabha
d) Apart from removal, the Vice-President may also forward his
resignation to the President.
6. What are the emoluments provided to the Vice-President of India?

a) According to the Salaries and Allowances of Officers of Parliament

(Amendment) Act, 2008, the salary of the Vice-President is fixed at
1.25 lakh rupees per month.
b) Along with the above salary the Vice-President is also entitled to
the following facilities: free furnished residence, medical, travel,
daily allowances, etc.
c) Whenever the Vice-President is acting as the President, he will
draw his salaries and benefits according to the[truncated by WhatsApp]
: Anyone have the List of important places recently in news for
: Prasad thnx for sharing my favourite topic's link missiles
: Adopted from other County -USAPreamble,
Fundamental Rights
Judicial Review separation of Power,
Independence of judiciary
Office of Vice-president
Impeachment of President
Supreme Court and
High court judges .
: -CANADAAll federal government with strong centre Goi Act 1935,
Office of Governor, judiciary power Division, Service commission.
: @ Himanshu: Very true. I have seen some people extremely
depressed a week before exam and some of them did clear it!
In fact tense situation only can make a Kohli or Zidan out of you!
: -BRITAINParliamentary Systems,
Rule of Law( Dicey Principle) ,
Single Citizenship ( except J&K),
Office of CAG, Legislation, Cabinet of government ( emergency laws),
: Proper preparation is the key to success. People like Kohli n zidan
do a alot of hardwork in their preparation b4 execution
: -GERMANYEmergency provision Including suspension of Fundamental Rights during
: Emergency provision is borrowed from GOI 1935.
: -USSRFundamental Duties ( Art 51A IV A)
: @varun it's from Germany
: Not the whole emergency provision
: It's only suspension of fr during emergency
: - Australia -

Concurrent List, Commerce and Interstate Trade, Freedom of Trade,

joint sitting of Parliament.
: Noted Himanshu.. if any error plz correct..
: Including Suspension or only Suspension Only
: - South AFRICA Amendment & indirect election of Rajya Sabha
: -JAPANProcedure established by Law
Indirect election process of President
Nomination of members by President ( 2 members for LS, 12 for Rajya
: -FRANCEFrench Revolution
Liberty, Equality and Fraternity.
: -RUSSIARussian Revolution
Justice, Social, Political and Economic
: Forgot fundamental duties
: Not Russia... USA
: Duties are from russia
: Rights are from US
: Emergency from Germany
: Fundamental duties are jointly borrowed from Russia and Japan
: That will be a big list I guess. It should be rather who is not
: Q. Are Fundamental Duties enforceable by law?
: Means they can be enforced by parliament through law
: People can be punished
: For violation of duties
: But only after the law has been enforced
: The same can be said about DPSPs too
: Dpsp not enforceable
: What if an article similar to 32 is also added to enforce DPSPs?
: In case of duties constitution allows, in case of dpsp constitution
prohibits punishment. 31c is for constitutionality over violation of
article 14 and 19 by a law which is implementing any dpsp related to
article 39b and c. Other dpsps are not above FR.
: 42nd amendment tried what u r saying, in minnerva mills case SC made
the change unconstitutional.
: Q. Can members of legislative assembly be indirectly elected?
: Yes
: Anglo indian representation
: Yes. In Nagaland that process is followed
: Not talking about nominated members
: In sikkim too
: Q. For how long is Attorney general appointed?
: Appointed by president
: No term
: Pleasure of the definite trrn
: Q. If the legislative council rejects a bill passed by the assembly
2 times in a row, what happens to the bill?

: Bill gets passed automatically

: What if the same happens in rajya sabha?
: Joint sitting can be called in case of an ordinary bill
: Or the bill may be repealed
: Ok i don't think Bill will be repealed
: Not as a rule....but as a solution in case of no concurrency
between both houses
: Joint sitting is a better alternative with the govt
: As joint sitting is sparingly used
: Why is it sparingly used?
: Only 3 times has a joint sitting been invoked
: Because it is a clear advantage for lok sabha and it is like
subverting the powers of rajya sabha.... for only very imp bills it is
: *Hindu rate of growth*
It is a term referring to the low annual growth rate of
the plannedeconomy of India before the liberalisations of 1991,
which stagnated around 3.5%.
It is actually Nehruvian Rate of Growth as Low Growth is attributed to
Nehru's socialist policies and has nothing to do with Hinduism.
Term was coined by Raj Krishna.
This term contrasts with South Korea's Miracle on the Han River and
the Taiwan Miracle. While these Asian Tigers had similar income
level as India in the 1950s, exponential economic growth since then
has transformed them into developed countries today.
India's growth rate was low by standards of developing countries. At
the same time,
Pakistan grew by 5%,
Indonesia by 6%,
Thailand by 7%,
Taiwan by 8% and
South Korea by 9%.
01/08/16, 12:47 AM - +91 87968 89782: *4 Asian Tigers*
South Korea
Hong Kong,
xceptionally high growth rates (in excess of 7 percent a year) and
rapid industrialization between the early 1960s.
Now all four have developed and high-income economies.
: Which is the hottest place in the world?
: It's in Libya
: In the world, not earth

: So including atmosphere?
: Yeah it's actually irrelevant. Ignore it
: *National Minority Status to Religions*
1. Muslims
2. Christians
3. Sikhs
4. Jains
5. Buddhists
6. Parsis
: The literacy rate taking the entire population into account is
termed as *"crude literacy rate"*,
and taking the population from age 7 and above into account is termed
as *"effective literacy rate"*
i: Is it important to remember different types of ocean currents?
: yes. very imp. see video on reg this topic. very easy .
u might even remember it in first view.
: *Habeas corpus* - the arrested person must be brought before the
court, that holds the right to set the person free if the grounds of
arrest are found to be faulty.
*Writ of Prohibition*- it is issued by higher courts when they find
that lower courts have made judgments beyond their powers of
*Mandamus*- it is issued when an office holder is found to misuse his
*Quo warranto*-it is issued when the court finds that the office
holder is illegally holding that position
*Certiorari*-it is issued when a court wants to order a lower court or
similar authority to transfer some matter pending before it to other
courts or other authorities.
: These kanvadiyas have no right to disturb the law and order of our
country. Why is the govt giving them special privileges and making
special arrangements for them. Kanvads breaking law should be kicked
and put behind bars. Drug addicts, rapists and goons hide behind the
mask of kanvad and break all state laws wherever they go. They have
created a nuisance in Delhi.
: Pass lewd gestures on seeing girls
: The loud music, processions all are so common it's seen as
intolerance if we protest against such things
: Most of them will be sleeping late till afternoon after smoking
drugs, late in the night, they disturb the peace of others through
loud music.
: If it's on a daily basis you should rather file a complaint
: What are the posts of chief commissioner, Lt governor and
administrator ?
\: Who are kanvads? Can anyone explain
: @muhammad kanvads are shiv bhakts who travel on foot to
haridwar(uttrakhand) to fetch ganga water and come back and distribute
it in the local shiv temples. As the journey is long For their
convenience there are many pandals(tent houses) so that they can rest

: I admire those faithful devotees, there are some hooligans

everywhere, in every community. Facilities should be provided by the
government under strict code of conduct to prevent hooliganism.
: Executive and legislature
: And individuals tok
: Limitations on powers of individuals also?
: An individual does not have power. FRs are limitations on individual
liberty in my opinion
: Article 15 second clause, no citizen should be subjected to any
disability restriction on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex
or place of birth, with regard to access to public shops, restaurants,
places of public entertainment, use of wells, tanks, roads etc
prohibits discrimination both by state and private individuals
: I get what you are saying. My point being, an individual does not
hold power, as and when he does he is considered to be part of
: Timeline of Indian History ......
HomeIndiagkIndian History Timeline
2800 BC
Indus Valley Civilization begins in the
northwestern region of India
2600 BC
Mohenjo-daro and Harappa phase of the Indus
Valley Civilization begins, in Punjab and Sindh. Other cities like
Lothal, Mehrgarh also emerged during this period.
1600 BC

India is invaded by the Aryans from the west

1400 BC

The Vedas, the Hindu scripture, was written

600 BC

The Upanishads written

599 BC

Mahavira, 24th Tirthankar of Jainism is born

563 BC

Gautam Buddha, founder of Buddhism is born in

527 BC

Nirvana of Mahavira

492 BC
in Magadha Empire

Bimbisara dies and is succeeded by Ajatashatru

483 BC

Death of Gautama Buddha in Kushinagar

326 BC
Alexander the Great moved into India, King
Porus who ruled parts of the Punjab, fought Alexander at the Battle of
the Hydaspes River.
321 BC
defeating Dhana Nanda

Chandragupta Maurya established Mauryan dynasty

305 BC
the Seleucid Empire.

Chandragupta Maurya defeats Seleucus Nicator of

300 BC
Chola dynasty establishes his kingdom over
southern India with capital in Thanjavur
269 BC
Ashoka the Great, grandson of Chandragupta
Maurya, becomes the emperor of India
261 BC
Kalinga War takes place between Magadha Empire
and the kingdom of Kalinga.
232 BC

Death of King Ashoka

185 BC
The Mauryan Empire, collapsed after its emperor
Brihadrata was assassinated by his general Pusyamitra Sunga who then
established the Sunga dynasty
50 AD
Establishment of the Kushan empire by Kujula
Kadphises, first Buddhist stupa is
constructed at Sanchi

The Pallava dynasty is established in Kanchi

The Gupta dynasty founded by Maharaja Sri
Gupta, reunited northern India initiating
the "golden Age" of India
and expands the empire.

King Samudragupta ascends the Gupta throne

the Gupta Emperor.

Chandragupta II, Samudragupta's son becomes


Invasions by the Huna.


Harshavardhana crowned Monarch.


First Muslim, Md. Bin Qasim defeats Raja

annexes Punjab

Mahmud Ghazni defeats Tarnochalpal and


Qutb ub-din Aybak establishes the Delhi


Genghis Khan invades Punjab

sultanate at Delhi

Razia Sultana, only lady ruler of Delhi

Jalal ud-Din Firuz establishes the Khilji
Marco Polo visits India

Vijayanagara Empire established by Harihara I
and his brother Bukka Raya I
Timur conquered India resulting in the
decline of the Delhi Sultanate

Birth of Guru Nanak Dev

Vasco de Gama's first voyage from Europe to
India and back (to 1499)

Babur established the Mughal Empire

and regains India

Mughal king Humayun comes to fight Sher Shah


Humayun dies, and is succeeded by Akbar

Queen Elizabeth I granted a charter to the
East India Company established trading posts in Bombay, Calcutta, and

Akbar dies, and is succeeded by his son


British arrives India

ruler Shah Jahan

Taj Mahal construction initiated by Mughal

Shah Jahan completes Taj Mahal. Shah Jahan
dies, and is succeeded by his son Aurangzeb.
Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Guru of Sikhs is
executed in Delhi. Guru Gobind Singh becomes tenth Guru of Sikhs.
Shivaji dies at Raigad, Sambhaji bec
: Whether the president has the power to dismiss the prime minister
or ?
: Not by his own choice.
: only If PM looses majority in LS or No confidence motion is passed
against him.
: Difference b/w A bill &,,ordinance

: Ordinance is equal in standing as a normal law, which is enforced

like a normal law but a bill is just a draft of a proposed law, which
cannot be enforced without it being passed by legislature
: What is the force behind counter equatorial current?
: Coriolis force?
: Doesnt counter equatorial current move from west to east... wheras
coriolis works east to west? Correct me
: Nope
: 1972- Wildlife protection act
1973- Project Tiger
1974- Water act
1980- Forest Conservation act
1981- Air act
1986- Environment protection act
1991-92 Project Elephant
: Add to it, Prevention of Cruelty to Animals act, 1960.
It has been in news because of Jallikattu
: 1) Geostationary satellite- INSAT Series, GSAT Series, EDUSAT and
2) Earth observation satellite- IRS series, CARTOSAT, RESOURCESAT,
3) Navigation satellite- GAGAN, IRNSS.
4) Space mission- MOM, Chandrayaan.
5) Small satellite- Jugnoo
: I asked yesterday the reason of counter equatorial current, people
said coriolis force. It's wrong
: What is it?
: Convergence of north equitorial and south equitorial currents
: How do converging North and South equatorial currents give rise to
equatorial counter current?
: The currents converge in the west leading to piling of huge amounts
of water in the western region. This leads to rise in the level of
water in the west. To maintain equilibrium, a surface current flows
from west to east and an under current flows from east to west.
: Is that piling up of water on the west is due to coriolis force? The
water current moves west cause of coriolis r8 ?
: Thats why it accumulates isint it? So the force should be coriolis
: It's indirectly
: That's due to no coriolis force
: So you can't say it is because of Coriolis force
: If there was any coriolis effect there, the counter equatorial
current would have deflected
: Not even indirectly prasad
: At the equator the coriolis force is 0
Yep thats r8, but why do the waters accumulate to the west?
: Because there's no force present to shift them
: Coriolis force comes to picture only when ocean currents change
: Although the counter territorial current do go through some
deflection, it's not due to coriolis. Its due to mid atlantic ridge
: Can a private member introduce a money bill?

: Can a member of Raja sabha
: Take part in loksabha
: Only ministers
: In mountains the temperatures is generally low.... after sunset
earth radiates off the heat in the valley And as the cold air is dense
it flows down in the valley making it cooler as compared to air above
: But then temp inversion should be with respect to the valley no?
: Hmmm....yes it should be wrt valley
: Under these circumstances, D seems a better option. Though I chose C
because Clouds blocks dissipation of radiated heat from earth. So the
atmosphere above earth will become hot and will cause an inversion.
: No the immediate air would be heated first
: That's why we feel hot on a humid day more
: It's up-to the state legislature to decide which posts can be held
that not violative of the provision of office of profit
: Delhi govt wasn't allowed that rightful right by the centre
: I suppose it was done because the govt tried to pass the act
: Actually they can do that since they enjoy majority in legislature.
: They first appointed then tried to make law. Which means
appointments were unlawful.
: But some procedures follow legislative precedents and this was one
of them
: The main thing why their legislation was kind of vetoed was, there's
a cap on number of ministers in the Constitution which is not the case
with Parliamentary Secretaries.
: Yes they are allowed 7 ministers
: 7 ministers and 21 parliamentary Secretaries that's almost 40% of
Delhi assembly strength
: Those many people will not hold the govt accountable as they are
part of it
: Aren't parliamentary secretaries part of council?
: Too much overlapping of executive and legislature.
: But as they were working free of cost with zero expense to
exchequer, should they be considered holding an office?
: Why cant GST be passed as a money bill?
: because it is a constitutional amendment
: Because it includes legislative matters outside article 110
: Working Free of cost is not the only criteria
: But still one of them
: And a mandatory criteria
: No...all conditions must be true if you have to prove its not an
office of profit
: How can it be out of Art 110?
: All conditions must be true for proving office of profit not vice
r: @Himanshu, there are 67 AAP MLAs, there's no cap on number of
Parliamentary Secretaries of all 60 of them are appointed as
Parliamentary Secretaries? What happens?

: @varudh article 368 for instance

: Check the above screenshot any imposition of new tax can be passed
as money bill r8 @himanshu
: @prasad but that's a different matter. We can't assume
: Varudh there are legislative matters also not just imposition of tax
: It is a possible scenario in the present legal setup, isn't it?
: Its actually politics.. 15% rule... appeasing all Aap members by
giving ministership or secretary role..
: Even if you use basic facilities like phone connection and rented
room and a car without taking salary it will be considered
: Whwn there is no legislature & everyone is executive there is no
one to be answerable to
: And our constitution given equal protection of law by which if there
is a perfect wherein such parliamentary secretaries were functioning
in a similar manner, similar privileges or opportunities should be
granted to anyonr else in similar situation
: There is a situation*
: Imagine everyone is excitive & no legislature....
: Don't imagine let interpretation be the role of judiciary
: Well i was giving example.. & no doubt Judiciary will echo the
: @Himanshu, I'll just conclude with this one point.
There's no problem in Delhi govt appointing parliamentary Secretaries,
but they should make a law defining who shall appoint them, what their
role will be, how many of them will be appointed, who can sack them,
who will be disqualified. Then there won't be a reason to make it an
: This should be decided by the centre on a resolution passed by
states so that it could be followed uniformly in every state.
: And until that isn't decided, there's no harm in the current
: Having a power is also an offfice of profit....not only
salary....and if the 40% of legislature is in whome the
govt. Is accountable to...its defeat the basic principle of sepration
of power and check and balances..
: But parliamentary system doesn't deal with separation of powers.
Govt will always be accountable to the legislative assembly. Now if
the majority belongs to a single party, it can't be it's fault. Since
the anti defection law already checks any kind of freedoms of going
against the party by a member, what change can an office make. Even
without an office the defection law prevents party members for anti
party actions. As far as the opposition is concerned, it's still
intact and will do everything in its power to control the govt.
: In India we can safely assume, the govt is accountable to the
opposition and no one else
: Zero hour , question hours , parliamentry standing comitee,
calling attention.motion, and many other procedure are irrespective of
party...there is no whip on such processes...anti defection do not bar
any individual legislature to exise its duty...what you say is only on
prespective of legislative bussiness...

: But all this are conventionally utilised by the opposition to seek

answers from the govt
: No even ruling party legislature also ask question...raise zero attention of minister....and part of standing comitee which
may direct or recomend govt.
: it's the hidden will of the govt
: I don't following rstv since long....and did'nt
observe such thing ..
i: *Himmat* is women safety app of Delhi police.
*Nirbhaya* is women safety app launched in Noida by Noida police..
Uttar pradesh police also planning same app called Nirbhaya..
*iSafe* launched by kerala police..
Railway launched *m-indicator* app for women safety.
: What is issue price in food management ?
: Cost per kg in mandi set as per production
a: Was confused between procurement price n issue price
: Why water surface doesn't lose heat easily?
: Heat is transferred to the water below the surface also. Where as in
the case of land it accumulates on the surface
: High specific heat capacity?
: Actually I'm not sure about it. In both the cases, there's no reason
to conclude that heat lose will be late. Both show late gain of heat
but losing is not explained
: But these factors and many others explain late gain of heat
: @Himanshu, it is just relative. Land gains heat faster than water
and loses easily
: Both heat gain And loss can be explained
: As water being liquid both convective and conductive forces come
into play whereas in land only conductive forces.... for water to get
cooled by 1 degree much of the water below the top layer has to be
cooled but in case of land only the top layer
: The basic factor is the intermolecular space between the solid and
: As land being the solid
: Nd water being the liquid
: But it can also be said as both conductive and convective transfers
are working, it should lose heat much faster. Secondly due to current
formation as cold water subsides below hot water, loss of heat in case
of water should be faster
: Warmer water will come up and heat is lost during contact with cold
water as well as cold air
: It's reducing with every current formation
: If only conduction force were there more significant drop in
temperature could be noticed
: I think it should depend only on the depth up-to which heat has
reached but if u r comparing, u should compare heat loss from an equal
volume of land
: By vol i mean if heat depth is less in land, surface area should be
more for comparison
: What is GST ?
The Rajya Sabha today has begun to debate a
constitutional amendment to bring about a

system of Goods and Services Tax (GST) in

India. It is perhaps the most important economic
reform item on the Narendra Modi governments
agenda. This is one reform which affects all of
It also happens to be a complicated reform as
most taxation matters usually are. This blog
attempts to present an overview on GST and
explain why it is expected to make a difference
to all of us.
How is Indias tax system structured today?
The constitution divides taxation powers between
centre and states. Both levels of government
have some exclusive areas where they can levy
tax. Income tax, which includes tax on company
profits, is the exclusive domain of central
government. These taxes are referred to as
direct taxes.
Indirect taxes are taxes levied on manufacture of
goods, provision of services and consumption. In
India, generally speaking, indirect taxes levied on
manufacture of goods or provision of services
are the exclusive domain of central government.
Taxes on consumption are the exclusive domain
of state governments.
What is the problem with this arrangement?
There are two important problems with the
current arrangement.
First, keep in mind that some good such as a
shirt has to first be manufactured before it is
consumed. The central government, therefore,
levies its indirect tax called central excise at the
factory gate. Subsequently, a shirt reaches a
retail outlet and is bought by a consumer. The
state government, at this stage, levies a tax on
consumption dubbed value added tax (VAT). So,
we have a tax at the factory gate which adds to
the cost of the shirt and another tax on the final
Since states have their exclusive domain on
consumption tax within their borders, they treat
goods coming from other states as imports.
For example, if a shirt maker in Uttar Pradesh
buys dye in Bihar, he would have paid central
excise and Bihars state taxes on the product.
On this cost, Uttar Pradesh government would
levy its tax if the shirt is sold in the state. If the
shirt is sent across Uttar Pradeshs border and
sold in Delhi, an export tax called central sales
tax is collected by UP.
As the example suggests, India is politically one
country, but economically it is fragmented. There

are multiple taxes when there is commerce

across state borders. Consequently, it increases
costs for everyone and makes economic activity
within India for Indians complicated.
How will GST help?
Goods and Services Tax (GST) is an indirect tax
reform which aims to remove tax barriers
between states and create a single market. For
that to happen the constitution first needs to be
amended to remove different layers of
governments exclusive powers to levy taxes.
Once this step is taken, the tax barriers between
states, and centre and states will disappear.
How will it help consumers?
Today consumers have no idea about the extent
of taxes they pay on goods. If you get a bill after
buying merchandise which gives the extent of
VAT you have paid, it is an understatement of
the actual tax you have paid. Remember, well
before merchandise reached the retail outlet, the
central government has collected excise duty.
The extent of excise duty is not mentioned in
the bill.
Therefore, today it is reasonable to assume we
pay well over 20% tax for most merchandise we
In GST, consumers should benefit in two ways.
First, all taxes will be collected at the point of
consumption. It means that if a shirt is taxed at
18%, it will include both central governments
taxes and state governments taxes.
Transparency in taxation should deter
governments from indiscriminately increasing
taxes as there is bound to be public backlash.
Second, once barriers between states are
removed, we as consumers will not end up
paying tax on tax which is what happens when
goods move across state borders.
If this is the case why will GST not kick in the
moment both houses of parliament clear the
constitution amendment bill?
The constitution amendment bill only changes
the overarching principle of indirect taxation in
India in order to create a common market.
Details of GST have yet to be worked out. It is
only after details have been worked out can the
final GST rates be fixed. Therefore, after the
constitution is amended, the centre and states
have to pass a separate legislation which fleshes
out the details of GST. Eventually, this will be
followed by subordinate legislation which details

In short, the constitution amendment is just the

beginning of the legislative journey.
04/08/16, 11:04 AM - +91 74559 33399: *All about GST*
Constitution Amendment Bill for GST passed by Rajya Sabha...
Paves way for Implimentation for GST w.e.f. 01.04.2017

1) *BANKS* - Current service tax 15% now after


GST 18%

2) *CONSUMER STAPLES* current tax rate 22% know after GST it's 18% .
Positive for - Asian paints,Dabur,HUL,EMAMI
3) *CONSUMER DISCRETIONARY* current 15% after GST 18%
4) *MEDIA* - current Tax 15% service tax and 7% entertainment Tax by
State's know After GST it will be 18%
5) *TELECOM* current Tax 15% After GST 18% may see marginal dip in
consumption as tax rise from 15% to 18%
6) *AUTO INDUSTRIES* current Tax 27% after GST it will be 18% .

7) *METALS* - current TAX 18% after GST 18% no major impact

8) *CEMENT* - current Tax 27% altogether after GST it will be 18%
9) *PHARMA* - current Tax 15% after GST it will be 18% .
10) *REAL ESTATE* - 15% to 16% Stamp duty, Current duty approx 7%.
NEGATIVE for real estates.
11) *TRANSPORTATION* - majorly benefits to logistics sector no impact
of GST
9.27 pm: Wow. It has now increased to 205.What's happening in Rajya

Live update-

: "Happy Last 3 days of Prelims Studies! Just Be relaxed. Keep head
cool. Ultimately only 30-40 questions will come directly from what you
have studied and remaining 60 will need your cool head to make
intelligent guesses! Hence don't be stressed in any condition now
onwards. Be Happy and Enjoy!!"
--- Message from Rajendra Bharud, IAS 2014
But it has to be taken positively. Because after 30-40 questions, it
will depend on how much concepts one has digested instead of
rattafication!! No need to worry about memorising too many things if
concepts are clear!!!
: Yeah kuch na kuch toh karenge hi. Every knowledge acquired till
birth will be useful
: The maximum number of foreign institutional investors registered
with SEBI comes from ?
: In the grasslands,trees do not replace the grasses as a part of an
ecological succession because of
insects and fungi
b)limited sunlight and paucity of nutrients
c) water limits and fire
: Hope the grp could evolve into a fresh mains oriented grp very soon
and all of us make it
: All d best to all frnd... fod ke ayenge sbb........ without any
fear without any pressure just silently give the
exam..................... CSE GROUP WILL ROCK EVERYWHERE.....
: Link for Answer Key with questions:
: Upsc made sure that those who took paper 2 for granted, pay their
Don't think this will happen again. UPSC surprises each year. Last few
years they asked too many questions from Art Culture, Environment
theory.. we did so much study..but all proved useless!
: most senior players are in trouble as they focused on traditional
NCERTs. Most new players are happy as they just read Vision Current
and went for exam!
: Lol yeah can't ignore language
: There was one from spectrum

: Satya shodhak samaj

: Actually 3 from spectrum
r: Keshab Chandra sen too was from spectrum
: Hindu+hindustan+indianexpress+ dainik jagran+navbharat times+ amara
ujala+.......+.+.+.+.+ = guaranteed selection
: Lol newspaper ki dukaan hi khol lo
+91 81214 16133: Getting around 92.. 3rd attempt fail again... :(
08/08/16, 12:45 AM - +91 87968 89782: Hey Varudh, don't worry.
Cut offs are not declared yet. And one of my friend failed 5
consecutive prelims and in last and 6th attempt he became IAS. Never
loose hope man. That's the only thing which keeps us alive. Your
study, hard work, knowledge will never go waste and u will crack some
or other exam sooner!! Keep spirits Up!!
08/08/16, 12:46 AM - Himanshu Aspi: Yeah u don't see me complaining
failing my final attempt. Keep ur hopes alive buddy. Best of luck next
08/08/16, 12:47 AM - +91 87968 89782: @ Himansu, is this your
final attempt?
08/08/16, 12:47 AM - Himanshu Aspi: Was this. Yes
08/08/16, 12:47 AM - +91 87968 89782: hey..but u will clear this
08/08/16, 12:48 AM - Himanshu Aspi: No making near 80 so i know my
08/08/16, 1:10 AM - +91 72909 46682: Yr Vivek Himanshu nic lines
said by u both .. .... hop cut of wil les as much u required ..ur
selection wil b done Himanshu.......m u r really gr8 one for al of us
for such nic group
08/08/16, 1:11 AM - +91 72909 46682:
08/08/16, 1:14 AM - Himanshu Aspi: Appreciate it bro
08/08/16, 1:15 AM - Himanshu Aspi: The group is only as good as the
members herein and god damn we have some amazing people down here
08/08/16, 1:17 AM - +91 72909 46682: Yaaa
08/08/16, 2:04 AM - +91 97815 23513: All the best everyone. What
you want to become is future but what you are is that really counts.
08/08/16, 8:03 AM - +91 98685 59901: Brave words Himashu
08/08/16, 8:49 AM - +91 98685 59901: If anyone get cl answer
keys please share
08/08/16, 9:39 AM - Sunil Sharma Aspi: Good morning everyone. I would
like to thank each and everyone for helping in learning. It has been
great 9-10 months of learning & debating. You all have been awesome,
stay awesome. All the best to all for their future endeavours.
08/08/16, 9:47 AM - Shashwat Aspi: Grt people.
08/08/16, 9:48 AM - Shashwat Aspi: Followed the prescribed preamble of
the group. ...
08/08/16, 10:21 AM - Safwan Aspi: Yeah, thanks a lot...
08/08/16, 11:28 AM - +91 98914 46410: Yaar.....
It was my third attempt
And I failed again in Paper I
Getting 75-80 only
CSAT.... it was easy
Getting more than 150 for sure..... but for no use

Really disheartened
It's so tough to keep in touch with all current affairs while in job

08/08/16, 11:28 AM - +91 98914 46410: But Himanshu, Vivek and

all of u guys...
People like u..... those words....keep us inspiring
Thanks for the group
08/08/16, 12:10 PM - Sunil Sharma Aspi: Vaibhav hum sab ek hi naav
main hain. Mera bhi 3rd attempt tha.
08/08/16, 1:18 PM - +91 72909 46682: Apne group me kiske 90 se
upar aya he bhay GS me
08/08/16, 1:21 PM - Prasad Hebsur: Is vision answer key out?
08/08/16, 1:51 PM - +91 81214 16133: What r these messages r u
closing the grp?
08/08/16, 1:51 PM - +91 81214 16133: We need this grp Himanshu
08/08/16, 1:51 PM - +91 81214 16133: U have given me motivation
& what is this now?
08/08/16, 2:00 PM - +91 98914 46410: Nobody is going to close
the group brother......
08/08/16, 2:10 PM - +91 98685 59901: I'm getting 128
08/08/16, 2:11 PM - Sunil Sharma Aspi: <Media omitted>
08/08/16, 2:11 PM - +91 98685 59901: Answer keys AlS and KSG
08/08/16, 2:12 PM - +91 98685 59901: These key have different
answer in only two questions
08/08/16, 2:12 PM - +91 98685 59901: From what I have attempted
08/08/16, 2:12 PM - Sunil Sharma Aspi: I reckon with 128 you are on
safer side.
08/08/16, 2:12 PM - +91 98685 59901: Still waiting for cl answer
08/08/16, 2:12 PM - +91 98685 59901: I hope so too
08/08/16, 2:13 PM - Sunil Sharma Aspi: I'm getting just 80, so
officially for me the race ends here.
08/08/16, 2:13 PM - +91 98685 59901: Some guys claiming cut off
will be around 125-140
08/08/16, 2:14 PM - +91 98685 59901: You didn't read current
08/08/16, 2:14 PM - Prasad Hebsur: @Chunni lal, the next one you come
across, shoot him between the eyes, seriously
08/08/16, 2:15 PM - Sunil Sharma Aspi: I did bro, I should have been
more cautious while eliminating.
08/08/16, 2:15 PM - +91 98685 59901: Bhai unka confidence dekh
kar dar lag jata hai
08/08/16, 2:15 PM - Sunil Sharma Aspi: Bhai yeh upsc hain SPSC nahi,
spsc log toh 200 main se 170 bhi rakh dete hain cut off
08/08/16, 2:16 PM - Sunil Sharma Aspi: Trend ke hisab se 110-115 safe
zone lagta hain.
08/08/16, 2:16 PM - +91 98685 59901: Correct
08/08/16, 2:17 PM - Sunil Sharma Aspi: Mera toh patta saaf ho gaya,
3rd attempt bhi waste gaya :|

08/08/16, 2:17 PM - +91 98685 59901: Because a lot of student

didn't focused much on current
08/08/16, 2:18 PM - +91 98685 59901: Koi baat nhi Bhai next time
sab kuch cover karna
08/08/16, 2:18 PM - +91 98685 59901: Because it's upsc always
08/08/16, 2:18 PM - Sunil Sharma Aspi: 2 years se lag raha hoon, ab
break lena padega. Time to unlearn and learn from fresh.
08/08/16, 2:20 PM - +91 98685 59901: Bhai kuch bhi bhulne ki
jarurat nhi HAI upsc kaisa bhi paper bana de (basic + current) SE
bahar nhi ayega
08/08/16, 2:20 PM - +91 98685 59901: A lot of talented students
not clearing only because of current affairs
08/08/16, 2:21 PM - Sunil Sharma Aspi: I spent last one week on
Current Affairs before prelims.
08/08/16, 2:21 PM - +91 98685 59901: Both paper surprised me GS
as well as gs2
08/08/16, 2:22 PM - +91 98685 59901: Bhai Maine coaching ke
notes leker short me khud SE notes banaye + Internet too much helpful
08/08/16, 2:23 PM - Sunil Sharma Aspi: Maine toh Vision CA(December June) & PRS annual policy ka ratta maar liya tha
08/08/16, 2:24 PM - Sunil Sharma Aspi: Samay se pehle aur kismat se
jyada kisi ko nahi milta. Shayad mera samay abhi nahi aaya.
08/08/16, 2:24 PM - +91 98685 59901: Bhai vision SE kaphi
question aye hai
08/08/16, 2:25 PM - Sunil Sharma Aspi: Yes. Are you the same Chunni
Lal on ForumIAS ?
08/08/16, 2:25 PM - +91 98685 59901: No I'm not on forum ias
08/08/16, 2:25 PM - Sunil Sharma Aspi: Ok bro!
08/08/16, 2:26 PM - +91 98685 59901: This is the single group
for me
08/08/16, 2:26 PM - +91 98685 59901: And it's enough
08/08/16, 2:26 PM - Sunil Sharma Aspi: Now start with your mains
preparation bro. All the best! Puri taakat laga do.
08/08/16, 2:26 PM - +91 98685 59901: Yes bro
08/08/16, 2:27 PM - Sunil Sharma Aspi:
08/08/16, 4:18 PM - +91 87968 89782: Friends, One Humble
Don't worry about cut offs. We have written prelims and can't go back
and change now. Past is History, Future is Mystery,a what we have in
hand is present!! Results are at least 40 days away. Let's not waste
those days. Lets cool off for 5-6 days, go for some vacation and then
lets start answer writing practice from Insights etc till pre results
are out. Pass or fail, this practice will be extremely useful for this
year mains or next.
08/08/16, 4:22 PM - +91 72909 46682:
08/08/16, 5:01 PM - Himanshu Aspi changed the subject from CSE 2016
Group to CSE 2016 Mains Group
08/08/16, 4:23 PM - +91 96017 16393: ___..Nice
08/08/16, 7:01 PM - Indu Aspi: Some one share book list for Mains...

08/08/16, 7:14 PM - +91 87968 89782: Seeing recent few years

MAINS papers, u need TheHindu editorials more than standard books.
Still apart from Pre books,
These are some very imp sources:

Ethics: Lexicon
Indian Geography: Majid Hussain
World History: Normal Lowe.
ARC Reports from Internet
Mains study material from Vision IAS.

and lots of answer writing practice. That's it.

08/08/16, 7:15 PM - Indu Aspi: @ vivek
08/08/16, 7:19 PM - +91 87968 89782: Following are must read
books for PRE and more than sufficient as they cover all the concepts
and anyways as UPSC never directly asks anything from any book, best
is to revise these 10 times rather than referring 10 different books
for each topic.
1. All NCERTS of History, economy and Geography from 6 to 12
(no need of polity)
2. Modern History: Spectrum
3. Geography: GC Leong
4. Polity: Laxmikant
5. Environment: Shankar IAS
6. Current: Thehindu daily and Vision IAS Monthly compilation
7. Science and Tech: 11 & 12 NCERT
8. Economy: Sanjeev Verma + Articles + Economic Survey
9. Art & Culture: Nitin Singhania
Thats all.
08/08/16, 7:47 PM - +91 72909 46682: Ya its truee....its vry imp
to revis these books 10 times than referring othr 10 books.. nic
vivekk..really it mattes
09/08/16, 8:08 AM - +91 96017 16393 changed to
+91 94605 54040
09/08/16, 4:37 AM - +91 96017 16393: IAS:
2016 Prelims GS keys of 15 Institutes
1. Vajiram

2. Sriram
3. Shankar IAS
4. SuperPROF's
5. Shubham's IAS
6. Khan's Study Group
8. eten IAS
9. eMPSC katta
10. Drishti IAS
11. Cracking IAS
12. CL
13. BYJU's
15. Aditya Academy
2016 Prelims CSAT keys of 3 Institutes
1. Shankar IAS
2. Jagran Josh
3. CL

09/08/16, 8:23 AM - +91 98685 59901: Thanks smrat

09/08/16, 8:24 AM - +91 98685 59901: Anyone want to discuss
about the question on Panchayat election from upsc pre
09/08/16, 9:53 AM - +91 96220 63613 changed to
+91 90706 07330
09/08/16, 6:08 PM - +91 72909 46682: 25 yrs
09/08/16, 6:09 PM - +91 72909 46682:
09/08/16, 6:09 PM - +91 72909 46682: <Media omitted>
09/08/16, 6:09 PM - +91 72909 46682: About GST nuc video simplyy
09/08/16, 8:46 PM - +91 96503 93449: <Media omitted>
09/08/16, 8:47 PM - Shashwat Aspi: Awesome words @ harry!!!
09/08/16, 9:39 PM - +91 87590 37193: Nishant Shukla TM.vcf
(file attached)
09/08/16, 9:39 PM - +91 87590 37193: Add him in the group as
09/08/16, 9:41 PM - +91 90706 07330: Yaar jisko b add krwaana
hotta hai Na,admin ko personally msg kia kro
09/08/16, 10:07 PM - Safwan Aspi added +91 95340 13793
10/08/16, 12:51 PM - Messages you send to this group are now secured
with end-to-end encryption. Tap for more info.
10/08/16, 9:39 PM - +91 90706 07330 changed to
+91 96220 63613
10/08/16, 10:27 PM - Prasad Hebsur: <Media omitted>
10/08/16, 11:05 PM - +91 74559 33399: Complete Study Material
for GS 1 Mains : Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of
the World and Society.
1. Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms,
Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
Source - Art and Culture by Nitin Singhania (AIR 51)
Notes Link
Notes Link -
2. Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth
century until the present- significant events, personalities,issues
Source - From Plassey to Partition by Shekhar Bandopadhyay
Notes Link -
3. The Freedom Struggle - its various stages and important
contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.
Source - From Plassey to Partition by Shekhar Bandopadhyay
Notes Link -
4. Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the
Source - India Since Independence by Bipan Chandra

Notes Link

5. History of the world will include events from 18th century such as
industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries,
colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism,
capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society.
Source - The Story of Civilization - Volume 1
Source - The Story of Civilization - Volume 2
Notes Link - Volume 1
Notes Link - Volume 2
6. Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
Source - Social Problems in India by Ram Ahuja
Notes Link
7. Role of women and women's organization, population and associated
issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems
and their remedies.
Source - Social Problems in India by Ram Ahuja (See Index)
Source - Vision Material for Role of women and women's organization
Notes Link
Notes Link
8. Effects of globalization on Indian society
Source - Vision Material
Notes Link
9. Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.
Source - Chronicle IAS Academy Material
Notes Link -
10. Salient features of world's physical geography.
Source - All Geography NCERTs from class 6th to 12th
Notes Link -

11. Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including

South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the
location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in
various parts of the world (including India) Important Geophysical
phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone
etc., geographical features and their location- changes in critical
geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in
flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.
Source - All Geography NCERTs from class 6th to 12th
Notes Link -
10/08/16, 11:29 PM - Prasad Hebsur: Vision answer key
11/08/16, 12:57 AM - +91 78953 84640 changed to
+91 88173 06993
11/08/16, 12:42 AM - +91 87968 89782: Friends..Just for info:
cut off might be around 110 according to most coaching-wallahs and
11/08/16, 1:08 AM - +91 87968 89782: Please give up gas subsidy
so that money would be available to increase salaries of our poor
crorepati MPs.

11/08/16, 1:16 PM - Indu Aspi: Anybody s preparing for SSC
11/08/16, 1:20 PM - Prasad Hebsur: I'll be attempting this time but
not preparing for SSC separately
11/08/16, 1:21 PM - Indu Aspi: Ya same prasad.. thought to give few
mock test
11/08/16, 1:21 PM - +91 98914 46410: I am Income Tax Inspector
through CGL 2013 already
11/08/16, 1:21 PM - Indu Aspi: Wat s d procedure for selection
11/08/16, 1:26 PM - +91 98914 46410: Pre Mains and subjective
11/08/16, 1:27 PM - Indu Aspi:
11/08/16, 4:08 PM - +91 88173 06993 changed to
+91 78953 84640
11/08/16, 3:02 PM - Himanshu Aspi: <Media omitted>
11/08/16, 3:03 PM - +91 97815 23513:
11/08/16, 3:36 PM - +91 97162 12621: Ggjd
11/08/16, 3:36 PM - +91 97162 12621: Hk
11/08/16, 3:36 PM - +91 97162 12621: Xcvb
11/08/16, 4:30 PM - +91 98685 59901:

11/08/16, 6:15 PM - +91 87968 89782: SSC CGL is increasing age

limit from next year i.e. 2017..
Now it is 18-27 years , next year onwards it would be 20-30 years
11/08/16, 6:16 PM - +91 98914 46410: R u sure ??
11/08/16, 6:17 PM - +91 87968 89782: Yes
11/08/16, 6:17 PM - +91 87968 89782: Announcement available on
UPSC website.
11/08/16, 6:17 PM - +91 87968 89782: this year exam its till 27.
Next onwards 30.
11/08/16, 8:51 PM - Anjali CSE Group: Pls share standard links for CGL
mock tests.
12/08/16, 1:03 AM - +91 75060 61731:
12/08/16, 11:21 AM - Prasad Hebsur: IFC Masala bonds question, it
issues bonds only for the private sector right?
12/08/16, 11:55 AM - Himanshu Aspi:
Read this
12/08/16, 12:46 PM - +91 75060 61731:
12/08/16, 2:02 PM - Sunil Sharma Aspi: Anybody giving RPSC exam ?
12/08/16, 3:15 PM - Indu Aspi:
12/08/16, 5:43 PM - +91 87968 89782: Yes Prasad. Only for
private secotr. 100% sure.
12/08/16, 5:51 PM - Prasad Hebsur:
12/08/16, 5:54 PM - Prasad Hebsur: NTPC was issued bonds too, don't
know how it was construed as private sector
12/08/16, 5:55 PM - +91 87968 89782: Age limit will be reduced
but not immediately. At least for next 4 years age limit would remain
same for current candidates. Modi government has taken pro-rural
candidate decisions till now like removing 22 marks english, making
CSAT just qualifying etc. This time also they will make sure current
candidates don't loose out.
12/08/16, 5:55 PM - Prasad Hebsur: In the about page of IFC it is
clearly mentioned they desk only with private sector
12/08/16, 5:56 PM - Prasad Hebsur: Deal*
12/08/16, 5:57 PM - +91 87968 89782: yes. IFC only for private.
Others are private as well as Public.
13/08/16, 8:19 AM - Prasad Hebsur: Anyone with Anthropology optional?
13/08/16, 10:50 AM - Safwan Aspi:
13/08/16, 11:20 AM - Prasad Hebsur: @Safwan, will PM you.
13/08/16, 6:19 PM - Himanshu Aspi: Q. Which case led to the
abolishment of the jury system in India?
13/08/16, 7:16 PM - +91 98914 46410: K M Nanavati Case
13/08/16, 7:43 PM - +91 96220 63613: What is jury system?
13/08/16, 7:46 PM - Himanshu Aspi: Correct
13/08/16, 8:45 PM - Himanshu Aspi: Group of people who used to be
friends of the court and helped it decide on cases.
13/08/16, 8:55 PM - +91 97815 23513: There is a great movie on
jury system named *12 angry man* must watch.
13/08/16, 9:43 PM - +91 74559 33399: IAS:

What should be the 100 days strategy to crack UPSC Mains 2016? by
Debotosh Chatterjee
13/08/16, 10:53 PM - +91 98914 46410: Awesome movie

A must watch
14/08/16, 1:54 PM - +91 99143 20273: D
14/08/16, 1:46 PM - Himanshu Aspi: <Media omitted>
14/08/16, 2:40 PM - Manjula Gummal: One of my husbands close friends
got diagnosed with Dengue Fever and so urgently looking for AB+ve
donors in Hyderabad by evening today. Looking for help.
Please contact below
Uma: 9000306810
14/08/16, 3:39 PM - Himanshu Aspi: I'm ab+ but in Delhi
14/08/16, 4:19 PM - +91 78953 84640 changed to
+91 88173 06993
14/08/16, 4:17 PM - Manjula Gummal: Thank you Himanshu for you kind
14/08/16, 4:42 PM - +91 88173 06993 changed to
+91 78953 84640
15/08/16, 12:13 AM - +91 74559 33399: 2013, 2014 and 2015 GS
15/08/16, 8:25 AM - Prasad Hebsur: Best reply
Pakistan offers supplies to J&K; India asks it to stop sending
15/08/16, 9:18 AM - Safwan Aspi: Happy Independence day
15/08/16, 9:54 AM - +91 95037 10317: Happy independence
15/08/16, 10:05 AM - +91 83496 54576: Happy independence day to
all my friends....
15/08/16, 10:28 AM - Shashwat Aspi: <Media omitted>
15/08/16, 11:09 AM - +91 98914 46410:

15/08/16, 12:02 PM - Himanshu Aspi: Happy Independence Day friends
15/08/16, 1:40 PM - +91 97815 23513: Happy independence day guys

15/08/16, 1:55 PM - +91 98999 37711: Happy Independence Day

15/08/16, 2:38 PM - Himanshu Aspi changed this group's icon
15/08/16, 2:57 PM - Sunil Sharma Aspi: Anybody giving RPSC exam??
15/08/16, 3:09 PM - +91 94605 54040: Yes..I am.
15/08/16, 6:08 PM - +91 98685 59901: I want to know does Quality
improvement program (QIP) for mains helpful.
15/08/16, 8:24 PM - Himanshu Aspi: <Media omitted>
16/08/16, 8:07 AM - +91 96220 63613 changed to
+91 86999 64213
16/08/16, 5:43 PM - Indu Aspi: Guys whoever appearing SSC CGL.. got
Admit card?
16/08/16, 6:01 PM - Prasad Hebsur: Mine is on 9th September and it
will be made available on August 27th it seems
16/08/16, 6:02 PM - Indu Aspi: Oh southern region?
16/08/16, 6:02 PM - Prasad Hebsur: Karnataka-Kerala region
16/08/16, 6:03 PM - Indu Aspi: Any idea about Tamilnadu... wer to chk
16/08/16, 6:03 PM - Prasad Hebsur: It is not mentioned in Southern
region's website?
16/08/16, 6:04 PM - Indu Aspi: No prasad
16/08/16, 6:05 PM - Prasad Hebsur: Check out this link once:
16/08/16, 6:06 PM - Indu Aspi: Sure Prasad thank u
16/08/16, 6:06 PM - Prasad Hebsur: Np
16/08/16, 6:07 PM - Anjali CSE Group: yes.. mine is on 4th sept.
16/08/16, 6:11 PM - Indu Aspi: Its not working for me Prasad
16/08/16, 6:12 PM - Indu Aspi: Anjali u belong to which Region
16/08/16, 6:13 PM - Prasad Hebsur: Indu, it's a huge file you need to
wait for a while
16/08/16, 6:14 PM - Indu Aspi: K prasad
16/08/16, 6:18 PM - Anjali CSE Group: M.P
16/08/16, 6:18 PM - Anjali CSE Group: @indu
16/08/16, 6:18 PM - Indu Aspi: K Anjali
16/08/16, 6:33 PM - +91 98999 37711: Delhi..4th September...
morning shift
16/08/16, 6:34 PM - Indu Aspi: Oh good
16/08/16, 6:48 PM - Sunil Sharma Aspi: Mine is on 2nd Sept. KKR
16/08/16, 6:53 PM - Indu Aspi: K sunil
16/08/16, 6:59 PM - +91 99143 20273: Mine is on 2nd sep Punjab
16/08/16, 7:29 PM - Indu Aspi: Now I know d dates of all regions
except mine
16/08/16, 7:39 PM - Shashwat Aspi: Ha ha ha ha
16/08/16, 7:39 PM - Shashwat Aspi: Not to wory @ indu
16/08/16, 7:39 PM - Shashwat Aspi: U will get that soon!!
16/08/16, 7:50 PM - Indu Aspi: Thank u Kumar
16/08/16, 9:43 PM - +91 90751 73906: But for what about these
dates are.....
16/08/16, 9:44 PM - Sunil Sharma Aspi: SSC CGL.
16/08/16, 9:44 PM - Indu Aspi: Ssc cgl exam dates

16/08/16, 9:45 PM - +91 90751 73906: What is the matter of

region then
16/08/16, 11:42 PM - +91 78953 84640 left
17/08/16, 2:44 PM - Indu Aspi: Got Admit card...Sep 1st exam... Thanks
17/08/16, 2:45 PM - +91 90751 73906: Region ka matter batao
17/08/16, 2:46 PM - +91 90751 73906: Sorry I will find it
17/08/16, 4:55 PM - +91 87968 89782: A bit long article..but THE
BEST ONE to know everything about Kashmir Issue:

..Author Chetan Rattan (most followed author on Quora on Kashmir

India is not afraid to hold plebiscite in Kashmir.
The premise of the question is wrong Kashmir has no right on
it was and is an offer which was made to entire state of Jammu and
Kashmir as it existed on and before 22 nd October 1947, the day
Pakistan invaded independent and soveirgn state of Jammu and Kashmir
recognised by Pakistan by signing a STANDSTILL agreement with the
Maharaja of the state.
I have ANALYSED many discussion on the issue (which are available on
YouTube ) involving Pakistani commentators and Kashmiri sympathisers
arguing very passionately on the demand of Plebiscite and squarely
blaming India and describe the Pakistani sponsored terrorism as
freedom struggle .
I am always surprised by the lies propagated and partial explanation
of UN resolution despite being aware that original documents are
available on UNSC and UN website and can be downloaded by any one free
of cost and their LIES will be exposed.
The lies and untruths taught to generations of Pakistani students were
exposed by Prof. KK Aziz in his book murder of history.
Some truths which are not taught or discussed in Pakistan and ignored
by Kashmiri separatist (despite being aware of Truth) in their
enthusiasm to be on the right side of their masters in Pakistan are:
A. The division of India into Muslim majority Pakistan and India under
India independence act was applicable to BRITISH INDIA. Not to
B. State of J & K was a principality where india independence act was
not applicable.

C. Jinnah as Governor General of Pakistan signed STANDSTILL agreement

recognising independent and soveirgn state of J & K.
D. Pakistan under command of Brig. Akbar Khan invaded independent &
soveirgn state of J&K on 22nd Oct 1947.
E. The above fact was confirmed and is on record by PM of Pakistan
Liaqat Ali Khan in Feb 1948 in front of UN fact finding mission when
it visited Karachi .
F. As per

India independence act the soveirgn had right to decide on

to either domain but if the soveirgn belonged to community
from majority community of state the final decesion on
was taken after conducting Plebiscite in state .

G. The maharaja signed accession document to India on 26 October 1947

in Srinagar.
H. India airlifted its forces to Srinagar on 27 October 1947.
H. The UN resolutions clearly said :
1. Pakistan is aggressor in state.
2. Issue is between State of J & K and India.
3. Pakistan has to vacate all occupied territory in state and handover
the vacated territory to India.
4. India has to remove all its forces leaving aside enough to maintain
law & order.
5.. India to conduct plebiscite in state.
I. Pakistan asked for time to vacate its occupation but it never
complied .
J. As 1/3 state of J& K was under occupation of Pakistan and this was
taken as noncompliance of conditions leading to plebiscite, hence
India could never conduct plebiscite in state of J & K.
K. The state is defined as it existed on or before invasion of
Pakistan on 22 nd October 1947. And includes present territory of POK,
GIlgit, Baltistan , Jammu, Laddhak and Kashmir valley.
I have seen many replies on this answer many of them have been down
voted and in some my replies have been termed as insensitive and not
understanding a Kashmiri view point , issues like AFSPA and human
rights violation by security forces have been brought in which has
compelled me to write this addendum . I would like to place few facts
on records :

A. Historically The issue of state of. J & K has been confirmed in

international forum as LEGAL issue between India and State of J & K.
B. This question of legality has its origin in the India Independence
act where the decesion to merge with either India or Pakistan was
given to Soveirgn of the state but if he belonged to different
relegion than majority of population of state this accession was
considered as PROVISIONAL and need to be confirmed by a PLEBISCITE in
the state.
C. Again. It was in India Independence act that it was duty of
dominion to which the state merged to get the PLEBISCITE conducted.
D. There was no third party or independent or international agencies
role in the conduct of PLEBISCITE.
E. What happened in the state in 1947-48 has been explained in above
F. It is a fact on records that after the UNSC resolution was passed
PAKISTAN asked for time to vacate the occupied territory.
G. It is also a fact that in 1950 A DIXON plan was mooted which said
the territory occupied by India to remain with India and territory
occupied by Pakistan to remain in Pakistan and PLEBISCITE to be
conducted only in KASHMIR valley .
H. As nothing was moving and Pakistan had no intention to vacate its
occupation India started discussion on Completion of merger of India
occupied territory Into Indian Union.
I. This discussion resulted in article 370 of induan constitution.
J. Under article 370 a constituent assembly was elected in the state
in 1951 to finalise its constitution .
K. This constituent assembly passed a unanimous resolution in 1955
confirming the merger of State of Jammu and Kashmir with India.
L. There was always a silent minority in State which wished to merge
with Pakistan.
M. But presence and popularity of leaders like sheikh abdullah always
deterd them to come out in open.
N. Pakistan has always tried to to create and encourage separation in
Kashmiri leadership.
O. The separatist leadership has failed to venture beyond Kashmir
valley .

P. This leadership has forgotten that there is big Muslim majority in

dustricts like Kargil, DODA, POONCH etc.
Q. Just understand the progress of separatist movement from talking
about entire state of J & K to only talk about Kashmir Valley.
R. No militants, separatist, independence lover now talks about The
entire state all only talk about Valley.
S. Legally they have no case as the dispute is between state of J & K
and union of India and valley is just a small part of it.
T. They do not talk About POK or Gilgit or Baltistan and their status
under India independence act and UN SC resolution.
U. If you listen carefully the present discourse by separatist has an
undertone of idea that " Muslims cannot live as minority under a Hindu
majority " and as valley is now 98% Muslim it has right to ask for
V. And the discourse is emotional catering to the lowest possible
denominator but it has no LEGAL or HISTORICAL validity.
W. Thee separatist leadership has copied the Palestenian protests and
now days we see young boys on street pelting stones on slightest
instigation the latest being in support of Zakir Naik.
X. The separatist leadership just like in Palestine in an effort to
wean spotlight away from their insecurities and failure and
incompetence has brainwashed a generation of youth on false promise of
UMMAH, Independence, Etc. Which have no legal standing and no chance
of achieving ever.
Y. I would like any Kashmiri to explain what Zakir Naik, Salafi or
WAHABI system has in common with Kashmiriyat which ihas been exploited
to the hilt.
Z. Will the adherence RISHI order and the great saints remain in
Kashmir or in their enthusiasm to their narrow political goal they are
ready to kill Kashmir as it existed since centuries.
AA. It is my opinion that Indian state has accommodated kasmiri
dissident fir long and it is time for some plain speak and
articulating the legal positions very clearly.
AB. Regarding AFSPA and human rights these separatist call their
struggle JIHAD and in every language of the world JIHAD means WAR and
a WAR is fought to win and nobody has human rights when in war.
AC. And ever side uses its best mind and tactics to win a war so
nobody should grumble on AFSPA or human rights of terrorist or
collateral damage if any from both the sides.

AD. And a question to separatist , independence supporters their

supporters in India academia, NGO if it is JIHAD then fight FAIR and
SQUARE and accept the results even defeat gracefully .
AE.Kindly do not hide behind Nivedita Menins, Arundhati Roys and other
leftists of this world as they will ditch you as soon as they have
another cause.
17/08/16, 8:17 PM - Prasad Hebsur: So who appoints Chief Secretary?
Governor or the government?
17/08/16, 8:22 PM - +91 99143 20273: Nominal power is vests with
the president but actual power is with the ruling party
17/08/16, 9:25 PM - +91 95403 10034: <Media omitted>
17/08/16, 10:24 PM - Himanshu Aspi: The governor appoints him
18/08/16, 7:03 AM - +91 87968 89782: "There is a problem in
state particularly Kashmir valley where a sence of alienation is
propagated and regular violence and agitation are cited as proofs of
the same."
*The leaders and people propagating this line forgets following things
A. In the last general elections nearly 71% electorate voted .
B. The elections were declared free and fair by all international
observers .
So what is the solution :
A. A legal issue has legal solution.
B. As Indian constitution does not recognise right to accede from the
union than only constitutional way can be used to force their view.
C. The leaders encouraging and sustaining the agitations and stone
pelting or violence should contest elections.
D. Form the government.
E. Pass a resolution with more than 3/4 majority in assembly
nullifying merger passed by constituent assembly.
F. Propose a plebiscite to solve the impasse created by nullifying
merger resolution.
G. Than legally everyone across the globe will support and may force
Indian Parliament to take decision in favour of Plebiscite.
A. The above will not happen.

B. As the leadership is aware of their superficial support.

C. They cannot get 3/4 majority in state assembly as their support
base is Old Srinagar and few pockets in Kashmir Valley.
D. So they are exploiting emotional vulnerability of the Kashmiri.and
emotions do not get you anything.
E. These leaders do not have guts to articulate legal position and
raise public support on the same.
F. Most of the leadership of Kashmiri separatists sustains on
financial and moral support from Pakistan and Pakistan has still not
been able to create LEGALLY fair democratic system in Pakistan and
still all decision or their polity including foreign policy and
defence is run on emotional plank they cannot let their stooges to
take LEGAL view.
G. And most important as soon as LEGALLY correct view is taken
Pakistan's complecensy in KASHMIR will be out for the whole world to
see and it losses its moral stand and that moral stand since 1948 will
crash like a house of cards or sand.
18/08/16, 9:22 AM - +91 87968 89782: *Eye opener*
*As Valley kids suffer, separatists wards thrive in safe havens*
(Tribune News Service)
While the separatists want the children
on the roads to protest and leave their
cause, their own children and family
education in other parts of the country

of the common man to come out

studies for a bigger
members are getting the best
and even abroad.

The Tribune has a list of some of the senior separatist leaders whose
children and relatives are studying in other parts of the country or
Nayeem Geelani, son of the chairman of the hard line faction of the
All Party Hurriyat Conference (APHC) Syed Ali Geelani, who has been
spearheading the agitation for the past more than three months, is a
medical practitioner in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Nayeems wife is also
in the same profession there.
Geelanis second son, Zahoor Geelani, along with his family lives in
New Delhi. Izhaar Geelani, grandson of Syed Ali Geelani, is a crew
member of a private airliner in India, while his daughter Farhat
Geelani is a teacher in Jeddah and her husband is an engineer there.
Gulam Nabi Fall, a cousin of the octogenarian separatist leader, lives
in London.

Rabia Farooq, sister of chairman of the moderate faction of the

Hurriyat Conference Mirwaiz Umar Farooq, is a doctor and lives in the
USA. Jugnu, son of Ghulam Mohammed Sumzi, general secretary of the
Geelani faction, is a management student in New Delhi.
Abid Sehrai, son of Mohammed Ashraf Sehrai, another general secretary
of the Geelani faction, is a computer engineer in Dubai.
While for the past few years the education of the children of common
people in the Valley has suffered a severe blow due to the ongoing
unrest, separatist leaders in Kashmir have made it sure that their
children get quality education outside Kashmir.
: Plebiscite can still happen with a biased election commission. A
favourable view could be made even if support is not guaranteed but it
requires a secretive approach.
: Right. But as long as Pakistan is not following 1st point of UNSC
Convention (to back out of PoK completly and hand over it to India) ,
they can't blame India to follow other part of convention (to hold
: Remember: J&K was Independent Sovereign state even Identified by
Pak. They attacked it in Sept 1947 is itself in violation of
International Laws.
: Holding plebicite is possible only in while J& K ..not only in
Indian Kashmir.
: Q. If 3n+1 = 2^n, find the domain of n which satisfies the equation.
: N =0 and one other no. Between 3&4
: If n=3, fx will be 10, then 5, then 16, 8, 4, 2, 1, 4, 2, 1, 4...
: It's the famous problem of bouncing ball
: Whatever be the value of fx, change it into n
: Q. Given the recent HC judgement declaring prominence of the
authority of LG over administrative matters, explain the implications
of such a judgement on the functioning of the democratic machinery of
: #Diplomacy
Q. Discuss the implications of early implementation of the provisions
of the Trans Pacific Partnership on India's diplomatic future.
i: #Environment
Q. Does imposing taxes effectively cater to achieving the
environmental goals of a nation. Analyse the above wrt to the recent
policy actions of the state against agents of pollution.
: #Economy
Q. How do u think the merger of national banks cater to an increase in
financial inclusion?
: All for now. Will share more if i see people attempting
: Practice questions on One word Substitution..
set 1
set 2
set 3

: Foreign policy is mostly driven by economics

: While they don't care about complete Human Rights violations in
Yemen, Gaza-West Bank, Baluchistan etc and keep funding and
weaponizing aggressor countries like Israel, Saudi and Pak... their
pseudo organizations like Amnesty shout against India in India itself
trying to create anarchy in our country.
: India will be called a hypocrite too if we don't allow them to
report the ground realities. We need to take measure to address human
rights violations and also raise the issues of Yemen, Gaza and
Baluchistan in international fora
: Whenever USA has interfered with any country on this planet, they
have left it only after ruining it to pieces. We need to be careful of
it and not to get carried away in maintaining goody goody image in the
world. Ultimately might is always right. Humility-Tolerance are good
only on personal level but not much regarding International Relations.
: But do you think they will be unbiased in reporting?
: They want Kashmir issue to worsen so that area remains destabilized,
they can sell weapons to Pak to keep China away from them, have
pressure on India in international affairs, in future keep some
peacekeeping forces nearby ... Motives can be too many once they are
given free hand...they are capitalists ultimately.. they don't take a
step without seeing profit.
: All the civil and criminal laws are there in the IPC right?
: IPC and CrPC both I guess
: Poorly kept criterias lead to inefficient use of human resources
: Who knows an Einstein is working in a bank
: A person knowing the average depth of sea wouldn't risk going in
\: its ok in Army where strong physical training is impossible after
age 30 hence they have age limit. But IAS or IAF doesnt need that.
: Ok answer this
Why is a person required to be graduate for qualifying UPSC?
: If age of politics entry in LS is 25, no max limit there who
actually take all decisions, why for just UPSC candidate who are
rather mere executers?
: Almost all PSE under GOVT. have Age limit of 27 Years for General
: Vaibhav it's a way to let him experience college and enjoy failures
and success, the Prime motive should be gaining practical life
: One of The reason is that if not qualified for the exam the
candidate may get a suitable job and earn his livelihood
: @ Vaibhav: True. This lateral entry way needs to be chalked out to
improve efficiency and expertise inside civil services.
: If there is no age or attempt limit, none has to leave their job,
less stress on family
: People leave their job to reduce the risk of not clearing
: No age or attempt limit should improve the gdp too
40: Limiting age limit and Attempt are finding the most
Intellectual person from the Crowd..
: If u want to stop brain drain, be ready for a revolutionary change
in policies that lead to drain of talent

: I would like to suggest increase in upper age of women Aspirants

by 1 year i.e.Girls(27) =Boys (26)+1 that will be Better for Women
: The new surrogacy bill bans commercial surrogacy.
: It will promote illegal surrogacy coz mostly women with poor
economic background indulge in such things
: Clinics would be closed now.
: Wont it decrease?
: Few illegal ones would sprang up though
: I dnt think there's ethics involved coz main motive of surrogacy is
to earn women. As far as women indulged in these activities is
: Govt argues that poor women are robed in this profession for some
money....they dont give their true consent because of their poor is more of a compulsion than consent and also women health
issue comes.
: I agree wid u bt due to their poor status it is very easy to
convince them as compared to convincing a woman with sound economic
: Yes thats what i am saying
: But what about those who cant bear a child due to medical
: Only altruistic surrogacy is allowed
: There are other methods available like test tube baby, sperm
donation n so many others too
:All of these methods fail if mother is infertile
And also LGBT couples or single parent cant go for that option
: Than they cn go for adoption. There are so many options of single
parent taking care of his child effectively
: What is altruistic surrogacy?
: Altruistic surrogacy is surrogacy with the help of family member in
case you are medically unfit to bear a child
: Like phobe did in FRIENDS
: Ohh ok so sister was injected with sperm of her brother
: I think this is more unethical than commercial
: Not the sperm
: But the fertilised egg of his wife
: The egg containing her brothers sperm
: In his ideal state
: I have heard of a case when a mother bore a child for her daughter
: If this can be allowed why not commercial
: Because commercial is exploitation as per govt
: The consent of those women is not with free will
:Are women forced, i think they agree before the procedure
: These women are robed in using their poverty
: Similar is the case with prostitution, atleast this profession is
free from trafficking
: Even foreigners come to india for it
: Medical Tourism
: when on asked about paternity leave for men from maneka gandhi she
replied " It will be another holiday for men". Is paternal leave

: Ofcourse i fully support

: Me too
: What's the use of women sitting at home, when there's nobody to help
: She argued that men even dont use their sick leaves to take care of
i: Who is she to declare that, is she omnipresent
: What a judgemental statement
24/08/16, 9:24 PM - +91 77382 63036:
: A big fault of our administration and lack of an efficient sports
policy. Can't blame the athletes
: Yes totally
: Atheletes have done what beat they could do with these facilities
: You would see an increase in sports allotment in the budget the next
year to appease the angry sport lovers but it wont be followed even
the very next year
: This is what we are doing for ages
: It happened in 2013 too
: There are many faults apart from this, i can't even begin to think
from where to start
: If u begin to see what's different in China and the US where
sportsmen are showered with tremendous benefits such as world class
infra, Ivy League admissions, pro level training from a very young
age, scientific temperament towards their training, an autonomous
organization managing their track, we can begin to think what's wrong
: Sports culture is one that we are missing
: We are more concerned with politics, we should create an autonomous
Institute for fostering a sports culture in India and give it a
separate budget
: Merge all separate institutions with it
: And appoint sportpersons at important positions
: Currently only 1 out of 26 sports boards are headed by ex sportsmen
: Keep an internationally recognized model of selecting kids as per
their performance and kick the middle men out
: India have always overly glorified underperformers in Olympics like
PT Usha or Milkha Singh. If Phelps would have been Indian, I bet we
would have built temples and started worshipping his idols by now!
Not wrong on the part of the players though, they give out their best
despite poor facilities and government apathy. But surely its not
wrong to expect at least few gold medals from a country of 1.3
: For that youth should be able to perceive career in sports so that
they can dedicate from childhood. e.g. I used to play TT at state
level, but parents pulled me out of it and threw into engineering as
they said TT won't feed ur belly in long run. Need mindset and
overall structural changes if at all we want medals.
: I believe one solution ( of course not the only) to the problem of
inclusiveness of poors in economic, infrastructure or in any ither
field is to have small states rather than huge ones as we have today.

Panchayati Raj is not working much as they don't have major powers and
giving them major powers means making thrm like states!!
25/08/16, 8:11 PM - Prasad Hebsur: Having small States is not easy.
Lot of money is required to create small States and their capitals.
One lakh crore is required to divide a state, may not be for every
state, but at least that was the cost of splitting Andhra Pradesh.
Empowering Panchaythi Raj institutions is a better solution. But
States are unwilling to devolve power, a solution to this is to amend
the Constitution and make their powers explicit in the constitution.
i: The root cause for the failure of a structure is always a weak
foundation. In this respect, we can't afford to have a weak unskilled
or illiterate administration running the foundation of India aka small
rural areas. In this respect, bureaucracy should be given wide
political powers to rule the small rural areas of India, instead of
the panchayati raj. We should pull them forward as soon as possible.
: We should let go of the panchayati raj once and for all
: Disagree
: What we need to do is give PRIs more power, including power to raise
taxes. By that way they will have more sense of accountability towards
their electorate. In the present scenario they are completely
dependent on state govts for funds
: Bureaucrats undergo training for years, and political executive of
PRIs is hardly trained and that's why the functioning of PRIs is so
: Bureaucracy is not immune from failure either. Look at our citi
mucipal corporations. How well do they function? They are being run by
a commissioner who is an IAS only.
: After BrahMos row, China wants India to focus on border peace:
: Bombay HC allows womens entry into Haji Ali dargah:
: Multiculturalalism is the order of the just cant use
police to prevent people from exercising their right for long....
: France has always had an open culture, when the world closed its
doors and still closing, a few nations including France in the
eurozone open their gates to the illegal immigrants. It has reached a
point where muslims openly defy the established constitution and
demand it to be superseded by sharia. The same was happening in London
upto a point it is now called Londonistan, though after Brexit there
are changes of improvement.
: Multiculturism or not is decided by the state. Though there's no
harm in multiculturism, the established state culture is and should be
given supreme priority. U can't expect homogeneity after mixing a
centuries old backward culture with a purely modern culture dedicated
to scientific traditions.
: I accept the excesses of muslims in demanding the sharia run
law....which cant be accepted but i dont understand how does burkini
violate any of the law....what possible harm could it do to the

national security or secularism that the police had to ask the lady to
take off her burkini on the. Beach in front of everyone.
: It raises obvious doubts that a place where people are either
topless or in a two piece, what's the probable use of wearing
something top to bottom and soaking the sun? It's an irony. But it can
be dangerous because beaches are packed with young people and kids and
a person hiding a suicide belt under could escape detection.
: Just hiding behind ur culture and religion won't save u
: Hijab for Muslim and Turban for Sikhs need not be banned as they
don't possess any security threat
: Open Letter to The Hurriyat by A Young Kashmiri Woman
Thursday, August 11,2016
comments powered by Disqus
SRINAGAR: Respected Hurriyat Leaders,
I would like to ask you certain questions, I hope you wont mind
answering them.
Its been since 2008 when I had just passed Class 12 that these
questions struck me in my Heart, Mind and Soul, but I couldnt ask
you. I was a kid and thought whatever you leaders will decide is
better for us.
I found the same questions in my mind in 2010, and now again in 2016.
Before people start judging me Im born and bought up in Downtown
Srinagar, and I stand by the Idea of an Independent Kashmir, I have,
like everybody else lost my loved ones (not one but two), to state
The struggle for freedom demands Sacrifice, and Sacrifice we have
given. Yes, each one of us, each one of the people fighting on the
roads or staying inside their homes, we have sacrificed one thing or
the other, a friend or a relative, we have lost many, and have lost a
lot and YES, Kashmir is ready to do more. You know much more than I
do, you have seen things more closely than any of us have, that is why
you are the leaders. We respect and abide by the protest calls given
by you.
Kashmir was an Independent Kingdom, before Pakistan overtook and
Kashmir had to ask for help to India and then this good neighbor
turned bad and occupied our place. This is the bitter reality each of
us knows.
To make things clear for reader, it was Pakistan who CREATED this
Kashmir Dispute, who tried to FIRST ILLEGALLY OCCUPY Kashmir. And
India followed, because you see India cannot stay behind in anything
that Pakistan does.
Kashmir has been on the receiving end of a lot of mental, emotional
and physical abuse from both sides. Yes both sides. We do not hear
about Pakistans brutal behavior with PoK people for the same reason
why the people of India dont know about what Indian government and
Indian Army has been doing in this part of Kashmir. The news never
makes it on the TV screens and Newspapers.
History is witness, a freedom struggle is successful only if it is
neutral, only if the true essence of the Struggle is Freedom. Freedom
for us means Independence from India AND Pakistan, not from India

People will ask me as to why I decided to bring up this topic today,

because TILL NOW, it was the people, the crowd without a name who were
waving Pakistani flags during protests, who were shouting the proPakistani slogans, I couldnt blame them, I couldnt find them and
tell them what our struggle is about, they are nave kids, they need
to be guided, guided about what our freedom struggle is all about.
I dont know why some people want to give this freedom struggle a
communal touch, it was never our goal and we have witnessed, it has
never helped us ever. The people who think this is going to help us in
any way should ask themselves that is this really helping our
struggle, it this really worth the blood of more than 1 lac Kashmiris
and counting.
Why arent the young minds of Kashmir picking up the right flag in
their hands, our flag the most beautiful flag on earth for every
Kashmiri. More than 50% of the Kashmiri youth doesnt even know what
our flag is.
Isnt this your responsibility to make them aware about what the
Identity of Kashmir is, because you call yourselves the Hurriyat
Leaders, you will be the stars when the History of Kashmir will be
written, isnt it your responsibility to guide people on the right
Let me tell you what a common Kashmiri girl who has been under house
arrest for more than 34 days now thinks:
The crowd waves Pakistani flag during Protests, in-front of Indian
forces, what do you think will happen, more bloodshed than if they
have had waved Kashmiri flags, that by logic does define the right to
self determination.
The bloodshed will not be because People are waving the flag of a the
country involved in the Kashmir Dispute, Naa.. the bloodshed will be
because the fight between India and Pakistan is not only about
Kashmir, they are the US and USSR in the making, they will kill to
make each other feel inferior. And that is what is happening in
The people of Kashmir are getting killed not only because they are
asking for their right to self-determination, but also because the
waving of Pakistani flag is provoking the Indian forces to kill us.
This act of our children not only is the reason of more deaths but is
also responsible for the pushing away of the Kashmiri minorities from
this struggle for freedom, because when they logically think they
prefer to be better off in Indian control than to be in control of
This not only increases the number of people who die at the hands of
Indian forces but also makes our struggle unauthentic and illogical.
Today you, the leaders of this nation, the Hurriyat leaders we follow
blindly, you people issued a Protest Programme.
In that Programme August 15 is referred to as Black Day, it is no
doubt a Black Day for us. But the same stands for August 14. Why have
you named August 14 as Pakistan Day, it is their Day, let them
celebrate it, it is for us a Black Day like August 15.
With due respect, I try to remind you time and again in this open
letter that Pakistan is as much responsible for our situation as

India, why are you giving so much importance to them, they dont
deserve it.
Yes, Pakistani government is demanded the plebiscite of Kashmir now,
we as Kashmiris respect that, but that is that, we JUST respect that
like we respected Atal Jis take on Kashmir, we do not and we cannot
be a part of that country or this country.
It is time to leave the personal benefits that we get from being a
part of India and Pakistan and work on the freedom struggle of
Kashmir, and that is what Kashmiris are doing. I hope, you being the
leaders will understand your responsibility in controlling and
containing the role of communal forces in this struggle, I hope you
have understood the thought that strikes this common girls mind.
28/08/16, 10:23 AM - Shuaib Aspi: Found on net...
28/08/16, 12:40 PM - +91 87968 89782: *Dr Ramesh Ganesan asked a
Medico Legal Question.*


*Judiciary should also come under CPA (Consumer Protection Act)*
*"Every Body Must READ and SHARE this Article.*
*In the Salman Khan hit and run case the LOWER court judge and the
HIGH court judge had the SAME pieces of EVIDENCE to deal with.*
*They also had the SAME Indian LAW to abide by and most probably they
had similar education qualifications too.*
*Yet they INTERPRETED the situation in absolutely CONTRASTING manner
and gave verdicts which are poles apart.*
*Just imagine what would have happened if a YOUNG doctor sitting in a
GOVERNMENT hospital doctor catering to hundreds of patients in a day
had diagnosed a celebrity patient presenting with gastric discomfort
as GASTRITIS and another hospital had LATER on diagnosed that patient
to be having a MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. I am sure that doctor would have
been screwed and jailed.*
*A JUDGE gets YEARS to decide on a case unlike a DOCTOR who is
expected to diagnose and treat everything in the BLINK of an eye.*
*If a doctor making a wrong diagnosis can be prosecuted shouldn't a
judge giving wrong verdicts meet the same fate?*
*If hospitals can be sued for not admitting poor patients shouldn't
the courts be prosecuted for having lacs of impending cases?*
*Is it not appalling that a judge taking 12 years to give a wrong
verdict gets away unhurt and a doctor making one mistake is screwed by
our legal system?*

*Doctors practice medicine which is more of an art than an exact

science whereas law is absolutely 100% manmade, yet doctors are
expected to be right on all occasions.*
*If doctors and hospitals have a duty towards the society then does
the judiciary not have a responsibility towards the socitey.*
*If there is so much of hue and cry in media about doctors and
hospitals charging huge sums from patients then why do we not ever
hear a word on the fee that lawyers like Manu singhvi and Jethmalani
charge for their court appearances.*
*Government often talks about putting a capping on the fees doctors
charge for various procedures but their is no talk of putting a
capping on the fee that these lawyers charge to get justice for their
*If health is a citizen's right then so is justice. Shall we take our
minds off worshipping false heroes & think?*
*Please Share if you Agree.*
: @vivek, i disagree with the article. I'll mention out my frame of
thinking and it's totally my opinion
1) it's imperative for a diverse society to be ruled by a supreme
authority like a monarch for peaceful coexistence. But if it's not
possible, then there should be a supreme authority that should act as
a court of last appeal and so there is a Supreme Court.
2) Since the SC judiciary is an integral part of the Supreme Court,
it's imperative that the citizens should have blind trust and faith on
their impartiality and abilities or else the question of appeal will
become a joke.
3) The profession of doctors cannot be compared to judiciary since
medicine deals with just one domain whereas a judicial bench faces
questions from an infinitely large domain. That being said there are
professionals aka doctors, scientists or researchers, to guide the
judiciary. Questioning the judiciary is indirectly questioning them.
In return the judiciary is earning a meagre salary as compared to the
4) Judiciary has been ordered into hierarchies for the same reason
that they believe some form of error can still creep in and so on
appeal the more experienced judiciary of higher courts can sort that
5) I agree that law is costly and so is medical treatment. If u bar
small fevers, any major surgery or disease could cost u millions. That

is a mountain if u compare the small fee of lawyers as an average.

When u compare legends like jethmalani, also consider their status.
They are not people. in fact they are living institutions. Ofcourse
getting defended by the best should be costly as we deal in a market.
Secondly unlike doctors, people like jethmalani fight cases for free
which demands nationwide attention and effect him.
: @prasad, some things i noticed, others can comment.
1) not properly structured: i think the introductory part of the essay
has been stretched too much and instead in parts in between.
2) Too much focus on defense and security : The article was lacking a
general perspective. Must have been better if some 5 domains or fields
were chosen before and detailed in the essay on what's the
significance of that domain and how S&T is helping it.
3) Demerits of S&T lacking: Must have mentioned the fields where S&T
is either weak or have effected negatively.
4) I liked the advisory part about increasing R&D but if u did have
mentioned the area where it should be increased, it would have been
better. Gives a feel that the author knows what he's saying.
I'll give ur essay 9/20
Request from
Major Suresh Rana
Dear Citizens of
You are requested to Forward this message to a minimum of twenty
people on your contact list; and in turn ask each of them to do
In three days, most people in India will have this message.
This is one idea that really should be passed around.
*Reform Act of 2015*
01. No Tenure / No Pension: Parliamentarians collect a salary while in
office but should not receive any pay when they're out of office.
How can they get pension after 5 years of service when even in Army
they need to put thrice as much for minimum pension and 20 years for
full pension
02. Parliamentarians should purchase their own retirement plans, just
as all Indians do.

03. Parliamentarians should no longer vote themselves a pay raise.

Their pay should be linked to the CPI or 3%, whichever is lower.
04. Parliamentarians should lose their current health care system and
participate in the same health care system as the Indian people.
They are getting not only all in concession, and free, like travel,
ration, electricity, water, phone bill. Even they need Salary and
Is it not shame on their part. On what basis they ask... Bold
05. Parliamentarians with tainted records, criminal charges &
convictions, past or present should be summarily banned from the
parliament and fighting election on any pretext or the other.
06. Parliamentarians should equally abide by all laws they impose on
the Indian people.
07. All contracts with past and present Parliamentarians should be
void effective 1st January 2016
08. Retirement age should be 60 for politicians too.
The Indian people did not make this contract with them.
Parliamentarians made all these contracts for themselves.
Serving in Parliament is an honor, not a lucrative career.
The Founding Fathers envisioned citizen legislators, so ours should
serve their term(s), then go home and back to work.
No surrender of subsidies like LPG by citizens unless all subsidies
available to MPs and MLAs withdrawn including subsidised food in
Parliament canteen.

If each person contacts a minimum of twenty people then it will only

take three days for most people in India to receive this message.
Don't you think it's time to raise this issue?
If you agree with the above, pass it on.
If not, just delete.
: @,Himansu: Regarding Parliamentarians' salaries, I agree that its
morally wrong. But economically its it's not so much.

Even if salary if each MP is increased by 1 lakh a month, for 500 MPs

its 5 crore a month or 60 crore a year. Now that's really
insignificant in economic terms seeing Fiscal vastness of Central
Off course its morally wrong for them to call themselves followers of
Gandhi, who himself had lived extremely simple life exactly like
millions of compatriot poors live.
: May be Ambedkar and co thought that there will be 545 Gandhis in
Parliament, all willing to sacrifice everything.
: Some countries have pegged the salaries of MP with the average
income of the top business men of the country and revise salary
: Then in those countries they may not have subsided everything for
them. In India our mps and mlas are hugely living on subsidies
: In India. there is no end to it. Who can oppose them legally even if
they make salaries 10 lakh a month
: When u are hugely living on subsidies and are paid for all official
expenses, what for do u need a salary?
: They treat this as a profession
: In India only 3% pay taxes and majority of those 3% don't vote.
Remaining 97% those who don't pay taxes don't care how money is
getting wasted as its not out of their pocket!
: actually i don't support this concept of decreasing corruption with
high salaries
: There is a theory called maslows need theory
: Politicians spends hefty money for elections they would certainly
look for returns....if salary is paid hood enough people wont be going
for corruption
: but do u think even highest salaries are sufficient for them to
keep away from black money in elections
: There are 2 type of people who go for corruption
1. morally corrupt
2. Forced in corruption
We cant do anything for 1st case people but 2nd type corruption can be
: Even rajan recently said people at top arent paid sufficiently
: they have people's backing, no one forces them.
i: I believe the kind of burden and work bureaucrats go through, they
should be paid in equal terms of ceo of the most Indian companies
: Politics means to represent people to serve them. Who has forced
: Power and monry should be one hand you give god like
power and pay them peanuts
: Thats what i said earlier concept like payment should be pegged to
business class people
: then by this logic, why not give indian government to industrialist
to run... they would profit and do things as well
: selfless service and selfish profit are rather distanced concepts.
: Gandhi's idea of being in politics and in Parliament was to purely
serve the downtrodden.
: Not to get corrupt and demand huge salaries just because they are
shown huge power.

: Govt is for the people....if people there are sufficiently paid

they dont need to lick the asses of corporates.
: But this idea is mentioned in the preamble, which itself is not
: Greed has no limits
: Compare the salaries of US legislatures and indian and also the
corruption levels
: You will know what i want to say
: I support high salaries without subsidies and a mechanism to link
their performance to their salary
: Chagan Bhujbal is in Jail. He has 200+ flats, 100+ plots, mines in
Australia. Now do u think even if this man was pais 50 lakh salary,
would he stop being corrupt?
: @vivek some people cant be treated but majority can be
: Our system forces people to be corrupt
: @Vivek, that's extending one man's situation to entire group. It's
not fair
: Solution is people should stop seeing politicians as Gods and treat
them like our representative servants. That's the power in democracy.
: A lot goes on differently between the two countries
1) not a democratic way of selection of pres of us. Selection through
state representatives openly supported by huge businessmen
2) pres has overall veto power, India doesn't have
3) huge difference in gdp
4) huge differences in expectations of citizens
: But he may deny the officers like khemkha....why dont
: Like a earlier said look back to maslows need theory. As u progress
to a certain level, ur comparisons change. At mla or mp level, u
compare ur power salary and jurisdiction with the industry ceos. So
salary can never be linked to corruption. But if the diversity of
salary is reduced, corruption will end. Second way to end corruption
is to link performance or hard work with salary
: yes. but once stuck up in a web, most would find difficult.
: We need to reform our electoral process. We need to promote debate
prior to elections. We hardly see our political leaders debating on
issues concerning the electorates they just campaign and then directly
Another reform is right to recall. It needs to be brought, so that non
performing MPs can be recalled.
We can have one more election after the normal election where top two
vote getters will contest again, like in Maldives
: @himanshu diversity of salary as in what sense?
: Difference in salary. If u are an mp earning 1lac pm. You'll compare
urself with someone in the same position like google ceo. And will aim
to reach his income level

: @Vivek everybody has a choice, if he doesn't want to he can deny

bribes. It is just the Babu's take a easier way out
: My point is: Politics should not be treated as profession. Its
service to people. Let it be a part time job run by democratically
chosen Professionals without payment. I am sure there are thousands of
selfless Indians who would give their time and money to this job.
: Yes thats what i said....peg the salary with industrialists
: Participation in debates. Questions asked. Days attended in
parliamentary sessions. MPLADS finds spent
: Q. What is ur opinion on the SC ruling that air travel expenditure
incurred by a star campaigner to promote his political party cannot be
included in his election expenses?
: If the candidate himself is paying for his visit it should be
included and if the party is paying then not.
And I also think, notwithstanding cap on individual candidate's
expenditure there should also be a cap on how much a party can spend
on elections
: @himanshu it shouldn't be included because the limit provided per
person is 45lakhs and star campaigners have security issues hence they
use helicopters which will overshoot the budget easily
: BRICS convention on Tourism to be held in Khajuraho, Madhya
Pradesh on September 01-02, 2016 :
Ministry of Tourism is organising the
BRICS Convention on Tourism on September 01-02, 2016 in
Khajuraho Madhya Pradesh as a precursor to the The BRICS Summit to be
held in Goa on October 15-16, 2016. Delegation from the BRICS
Countries are expected to participate in the Convention.
The two day event will comprise of inter- Governmental exchange of
views and ideas, Panel discussions on Technology, Innovation in
Tourism, and Cooperation between the BRICS countries for promoting
intra-regional tourism.
B2B meetings between the India Travel Trade and their counterparts
from the BRICS countries will also be organised. Elements of Culture,
handicrafts and cuisine from different regions of India will be
showcased during the convention.
The Inaugural Ceremony and proceedings on 1st September 2016 is being
organised at the Convention Centre of Ramada Hotel, Khajuraho. Tourism
Ministers / Officials from BRICS countries will address on the
occasion. Madhya Pradesh Tourism is sponsoring a Gala Cultural evening
and dinner at Clarks Hotel Khajuraho on September 01, 2016 for the
delegates attending the BRICS convention. On September 02, 2016 Panel
discussions on the topics, Cooperation among the BRICS countries
for promotion of Tourism and Technology, Innovation in Tourism:
Adapting to change has been organised.

Post-convention Familiarization tours are also organised for the BRICS

delegates from September 03-06, 2016. The itineraries for the
familiarisation tour would cover important tourist destinations in
Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, which include VaranasiBodhgaya, Orchha / Agra, and Bhopal-Sanchi- Bhimbetka. The
familiarisation tours will be hosted by the respective State
(Source: PIB)
: Eighth Meeting of the Heads of SAARC Statistical Organisations
Accurate, reliable and timely information plays an important role
for effective decision making in almost every aspect of human
endeavor. It is an essential ingredient for decisions makers and
Policy planners.
The Statistics Ministry in India attaches considerable importance to
coverage and quality aspects of statistics released in the country and
is constantly working to achieve international standards. This was
stated by the Minister for Statistics and Programme Implementation,
Shri. D.V. Sadananda Gowda, while inaugurating the 8th Meeting of
Heads of SAARC Statistical Organizations (SAARCSTAT) in New Delhi
India is hosting the three-day meeting and delegates from SAARC Member
States and other international organizations viz., FAO, PARIS 21, and
ADB attended the Meet. The theme of this Meeting is Trade
Statistics Merchandise & Services.
While delivering the key note address, the Minister emphasized on
greater regional cooperation for mutual development, to accelerate
free trade in goods and services in the Region. It is essential to put
into operation simplified and transparent rules of origin;
implementation of trade facilitation measures; harmonization of
standards relating to Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and sanitary
and phyto-sanitary measures; harmonized, streamlined and simplified
Custom procedures; elimination of non-tariff and para-tariff barriers;
policy initiatives for comparable statistics and smooth & efficient
transit and transport facilities, which will provide an opportunity to
the SAARC Members countries to review the implementation of the
recommendations made in International Merchandise Trade Statistics
(IMTS) 2010 and Manual on Statistics of International Trade in
Services (MSITS) 2010 and help in better understanding of the existing
economic statistics frameworks and guidelines such as the System of
National Accounts (2008 SNA), Balance of Payments (BPM6) and the
Guidelines on Integrated Economic Statistics.
Reducing Asymmetry in Trade data amongst SAARC countries is one of the
topics for discussion in this Meeting. Reducing asymmetry in
bilateral trade data is an issue which requires serious attention from
the data compilers. Although India has taken up the issues of data

reconciliation with a few countries like China, Brazil, Vietnam,

Philippines, South Korea, Japan, South Africa, Sri Lanka but much more
needs to be done to bring down the asymmetry to an acceptable level
especially in the SAARC Region.
The Minister was hopeful that deliberations in the meeting will help
to transfer knowledge and good practices amongst the participating
countries that will help to improve the quality of official statistics
on international trade in goods and services. Shri Gowda, assured all
the Member countries that India, on its part, would be glad to share
its experiences and studies, if any, on the issue with other countries
of the Region.
It was also announced that India has decided to offer two slots to
SAARC Member countries in Training Programmes conducted by the
National Statistical Systems Training Academy.
The Minister informed the Meeting about the ambitious Digital India
programme towards evidence based and transparent decision making
process of the Government.
(Source: PIB)
: Union Home Minister reviews CCTNS and National Emergency Response
The Union Home Minister Shri Rajnath Singh reviewed the progress of
two projects, namely Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems
(CCTNS) and National Emergency Response System (NERS) today.
CCTNS is a 100% centrally funded project with an outlay of Rs. 2000
crore. The Project aims at providing pan India search on National
database of Crime and Criminal records and integrating all pillars of
Criminal Justice System, namely Police, Courts, Prisons, Fingerprints,
Forensics and Prosecution, for informed decision making.
The Home Minister was apprised that till date, 85% computerization has
been completed and 93 lakh FIRs have been registered using the CCTNS
System. 32 States/UTs are sharing data with National Data Centre
(NDC). It was informed that MHA is exploring alternative ways of
expediting the process from the remaining four States/UTs. The Home
Minister directed that concrete steps should be taken to overcome the
challenges and expedite the implementation of the Project. Shri
Rajnath Singh expressed satisfaction that the long pending issue of
establishment of National Data Centre has been resolved.
The Project, in its next phase, envisions to create a dedicated
information network for establishing high bandwidth connectivity
across all pillars of Criminal Justice System. Video Conferencing
facilities are proposed to be expanded to facilitate Court
proceedings, to harness savings of time and cost involved in security
and transportation of Prisoners.

The Home Minister reviewed the status of the NERS project which aims
at rolling out pan-India single emergency number- 112, for all kinds
of emergencies and distress calls from across the country.
Under the project, it is proposed to supplement the efforts of State
Governments and UTs through provision of Hardware, Connectivity,
trained call agents and other infrastructure. Centre for Development
of Advanced Computing (CDAC) has been engaged to provide cloud based
central application for Case Records Management (CRM), Geographical
Information System (GIS) and Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD).
MHA proposes to complete the project in two phases, taking up seven
States/UTs in first phase and the rest of the Country in the second
phase. Both the phases are expected to be completed by end of year
(Source- PIB)
: 5 Reasons Why India Agreed to a Logistics Agreement With the
United States?
One, For both India and the United States have concerns about
Beijings growing aggressiveness in the South China Sea and beyond.
New Delhi has not been very happy with Beijing of late. China has put
a technical hold on Indias attempts to designate the
Pakistan-based terror outfit Jaish-e-Mohammeds chief Maulana Masood
Azhar as a terrorist at the United Nations. At the same time, China
has been going all out to woo countries in Indias neighborhood like
Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Maldives. Beijings island building activities
in the South China Sea and its deployment of missile batteries on
Woody Island in the South China Sea have set it on a collision course
with the United States and its allies in the region, like Japan and
the Philippines.
Second, relations between India and the United States have
dramatically improved since the end of the Cold War. In 2015, U.S.
President Barack Obama became the first U.S. president to visit India
twice during his presidency when he was the chief guest at Indias
Republic Day celebrations on January 26. During his visit, the two
sides released a joint statement where they affirmed the importance
of safeguarding maritime security and ensuring freedom of navigation
and over flight throughout the region, especially in the South China
Sea. This in itself is very significant since New Delhi had
studiously avoided getting entangled in the South China Sea imbroglio.
In the recent years, India has become one of the biggest purchasers of
U.S. military hardware, a sea change from the times when the country
used to source the majority of its defense needs from Russia.
Third, maritime collaboration between India and the United States
has been increasing. The commander of U.S. Pacific Command, Admiral
Harry B Harris, went on record to say that that Beijing was building
a great wall of sand in the South China Sea. At the Raisina

Dialogue in India in March this year, Harris floated the idea of

cooperation between India, Japan, Australia, and Japan in the maritime
realm. This could be a throwback to the times when these four
countries had come together to form what was dubbed the
Quadrilateral Initiative, thought the project was rolled back in
the light of protests from Beijing, in a classic case of the baby
being thrown out along with the bath water. Besides, Indias ties
with U.S. allies in the region, like Japan and Australia, have also
improved by leaps and bounds since then.
Fourth, India now aspires to play a greater role in international
affairs. New Delhi is angling to be a permanent member of the United
Nations Security Council (UNSC). In addition, India, under Prime
Minister Narendra Modi, has rapidly moved away from its traditional
stance of non-alignment to one of multi-alignment. By signing the
logistics support agreement, New Delhi also stands to gain by gaining
access to U.S. military facilities.
Modi is scheduled to visit the United States later this year for a
state visit and many more significant announcements could be in the
works. Obama will be leaving office early next year and there are
increasing concerns in New Delhi that should a Republican
administration take office in Washington D.C., Indo-U.S. bilateral
ties could be hit, especially as the Republican frontrunner Donald
Trump has made his opposition to foreign entanglements and even
outsourcing quite clear. A Trump win may hit other aspects of the
bilateral as well. Given these trends,it makes perfect sense for New
Delhi to make hay while the sun shines. When all is said and done,
while it would be incorrect to dub India as a U.S. ally now, it seems
that there is a sufficient groundswell of public opinion and political
capital in the country to favor a revamp of its ties with the
worlds sole superpower.
i: Where exactly is ur hometown?
: Rabies is caused by
1) Dog
2) cat
3) monkey
4) virus
: Rabies virus k karan hota hai
: Rabdo virus
: When do we say that there is an excess demand for a commodity in
the market?
: When there is a rise in price?
: No
: Demand = Desire + Ability to pay (i.e., money or purchasing power) +
will to spend

If any of the above increases, demand of the commodity increase

: Each of the above are measured through economic indices
: or less production of commodity also create artificial increase in
: Less production is a factor of desire
: Game of big businesses today. Suffer losses for few years because
you can and destroy all competitors. OPEC does same which is one of
the reason of oil price fall, Amazon is doing it to destroy flipkart
etc and is Reliance the latest entry in the same game?
: ^vivek correct. But for this to happen reliance has to give service
at par with airtel for a long long time. Airtel is a marathoner
whereas reliance is just that 100m kid. It has no experience to run
marathons like airtel. Wait a few months, you'll see its customer
cares loaded with complaints
: UPSC itself does not know what the full syllabus is. Forget coaching
institutes covering it.
: Right to information
Legal right
Or fundamental right?
: Legal right.... Statutory right to be precise
: RTE IS also fundamental right i think
: How many articles in Indian constitution
: 465 at present
: But somewhere it is 448
: Ok thanks,
: Has EC reformed the criteria for national parties?
: CPI and bsp were on the verge of losing national party status but
did not because of the amended rules
: It is a state party in Tripura, Manipur and Arunachal Pradesh
: Complete Study Material for GS 2 Mains : (Governance,
Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations)

1. Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features,

amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
Source: D D Basu (1st 5 chapters)
Notes Link:
Current Affairs:
2. Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues
and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of
powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
Source: Laxmikant Chapters 12, 13 14.
Notes Link:
Source: ARC Report

Notes Link:
Current Affairs:
3. Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal
mechanisms and institutions.
Source: Vision Handout
Notes Link:
Current Affairs:
4. Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other
Source: Vision Handout
Notes Link:
Current Affairs:
5. Parliament and State Legislatures - structure, functioning, conduct
of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.
Source: Laxmikant
Notes Link:
Current Affairs:
6. Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the
Judiciary Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure
groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.
Source: Laxmikant (Union Executive, Parliament of India, Supreme Court
of India, Executive in the States, State Legislature, High Courts and
Subordinate Courts, Local Government: Urban and Rural)
Notes Link:
Source: Vision Handout
Notes Link:
Current Affairs:
7. Salient features of the Representation of People's Act.
Source: Vision IAS handout
Notes Link:
Current Affairs:

8. Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and

responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
Source: Part 7 of Laxmikant (Constitutional Bodies)
Notes Link:
Source: Vision IAS handout
Notes Link:
Current Affairs:
9. Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies
Source: : Part 7,8 and 9 of Laxmikant (Constitutional Bodies)
Notes Link:
Source: Vision IAS handout
Notes Link:
Source: Vision IAS handout
Notes Link:
Current Affairs:
10. Government policies and interventions for development in various
sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
Source: Vision IAS handout
Notes Link:
Current Affairs:
: *Syllabus*
CSE Mains General Studies Syllabus
Paper - I
(Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and
Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature
and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century
until the present significant events, personalities, issues.
The Freedom Struggle - its various stages and important contributors
or contributions from different parts of the country.
Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.
History of the world will include events from 18th century such as
industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries,
colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like
communism, capitalism, socialism etc. - their forms and effect on the

Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

Role of women and womens organization, population and associated
issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their
problems and their remedies.
Effects of globalization on Indian society.
Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.
Salient features of worlds physical geography.
Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including
South Asia and the Indian subcontinent); factors responsible for the
location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries
in various parts of the world (including India).
Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic
activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies and
ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.
Paper - II
(Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International
Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features,
amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and
challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers
and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal
mechanisms and institutions.
Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other
Parliament and State Legislatures - structure, functioning, conduct of
business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.
Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the
Judiciary Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure
groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the
Salient features of the Representation of Peoples Act.
Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and
responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.
Government policies and interventions for development in various
sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
Development processes and the development industry- the role of NGOs,
SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities,
institutional and other stakeholders.
Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the
Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms,
laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and
betterment of these vulnerable sections.
Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector or
Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
Issues relating to poverty and hunger.
Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, egovernance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and

potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability

and institutional and other measures.
Role of civil services in a democracy.
India and its neighborhood- relations.
Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving
India and/or affecting Indias interests.
Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries
on Indias interests, Indian diaspora.
Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their
structure, mandate.
Paper - III
(Technology, Economic Development, Bio diversity, Environment,
Security and Disaster Management)
Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of
resources, growth, development and employment.
Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
Government Budgeting.
Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country,
different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage,
transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and
related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.
Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum
support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning,
limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food
security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.
Food processing and related industries in India- scope and
significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply
chain management.
Land reforms in India.
Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy
and their effects on industrial growth.
Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways, etc.
Investment models.
Science and Technology - developments and their applications and
effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science &
technology; indigenization of technology and developing
new technology.
Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nanotechnology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual
property rights.
Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental
impact assessment.
Disaster and disaster management.
Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to
internal security.
Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role
of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges,
basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention.

Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of

organized crime with terrorism.
Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.
Paper - IV
(Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude)
This paper will include questions to test the candidates attitude
and approach to issues relating to integrity, probity in public life
and his problem solving approach to various issues and conflicts faced
by him in dealing with society. Questions may utilise the case study
approach to determine these aspects. The following broad areas will be
Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of
Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and
public relationships. Human Values lessons from the lives and
teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of
family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation
with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social
influence and persuasion.
Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service , integrity,
impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public
service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the
Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application
in administration and governance.
Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and
Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration:
Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and
private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience
as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical
governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance;
ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate
Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis
of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in
government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct,
Citizens Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery,
Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.
Case S[truncated by WhatsApp]
: Editorial in TheHindu today about Judicial Appointment Reform.
_Background : Total cases pending: 3 crore across all courts._
*Causes of Vacancies in Courts:*
1. Government delaying appointments even after recommended by CJI
2. Lack of great incentives for persons to take up judgeship
3. Arbitrary & non-transparent selection procedure used by collegium.

*Few Causes of Delays and pending cases:*

1. Strict Timelines not followed by courts as they are by Commercial
2. SC admits 41% of cases which come to it by means of appeal, which
is too high.
3. Alternative Dispute Resolution mechanisms not explored enough yet.
*Government-SC playing power game over Judicial Appointments*
_What Government Demanded from SC_
1. Have a Screening committee to select judges to ensure transparency.
2. Government to get Veto (of not selecting a judge) on the reason of
National Security.
_SC rejected both these demands._
SC neither wants NJAC nor accepts government's suggestions nor ready
to reform its own faulty collegium by introducing transparency.
Both SC and Government have been adamant on their stands.
*Both of them have to be accountable and transparent by making public
the future correspondence between them on this issue.*
: Justice Chelameswar opts out of collegium:
: Big embarrassment to the SC
: NJAC shall be there in place of collegium system which is perfect
: NJAC had its own flaws in my opinion
: Right but it is some how democratic than collegium system..which is
near to autocratic system
: NJAC was taking away judiciary's independence. And it would breed
nepotism. Though not a fan of collegium system, I'd want status quo
instead of NJAC
: Since the judiciary has no role in appointment of executive, the
executive should have no role in appointment of judiciary. So this
separation of powers and independence of each other should be given
more priority than making the institution Democratic. You can't make
an institution Democratic and expect it to be a court of appeal.
That's illogical.
Collegium is any day better than NJAC
: So whats wrong in this according to our constitution only people
are sovergine and not any organ of state..
: Judicary answerable to whom ? They are also human
: They are answerable to judiciary
: @Himanshu, I don't agree.
Govt is accountable to the people. Who is judiciary accountable to?
: How?

: They are answerable to collegium since it tracks their performance

in a very detailed manner
: Complete independence leads to extraordinary powes
: Only that way is not public
: Please go through Justice Chelmeswar's interview.
: There is hardly any scrutiny
: If they have nothing to hide why not come under RTI?
: Why double standards
: Any last court of appeal should have extraordinary powers. You can't
expect it to be a democratic institution dealing with India's largest
Democratic institution
: Collegium system is exposed failed another 3 cr cases pending...and
still judicary blaming executive organ
: Don't cripple a good institution
03/09/16, 11:32 AM - +91 80552 25741: Justice delay is justice
denay in our country both happens . Ur from delhi u know the fees of
SC and HC judge...I respect Judicary institution but just for case
study went to district court of my village this truth heart me a
: But collegium has veto power right now which it didn't want to lose
: Along with independence Indian Constitution also ensures checks and
balances, which the SC took away from executive with collegium system
: The collegiums recommendations have been made binding by various
judgements of the SC
: Didn't know there was an option for govt to sit on the file
\: Accountancy bahut tought ho jayega is se acha toh suicide karlo



_State of J&K Under India ( Area wise 101380 sq Km) Excluding POK._
_*Kashmir : 15%*_
: 26%*_
: 59%*_
*85,000 sq Km comprising 85% area are not Muslim Majority.*

- 1.25 Crores_

*Kashmir : 69 Lakhs.* _(Only 55 Lakhs speak Kashmiri. Rest 13 lakhs

speak Non kashmiri languages.)_
*Jammu : 53 Lakhs.*
_(Dogri, Punjabi, Hindi)_
*Ladakh :

03 Lakhs.* _(Ladakhi language)_

_This does not include 7.5 lakh people settled who do not have

There are 22 districts in J&K. Out of which *only 5 Districts where

separatists have the say ;*
_Srinagar, Anantnag, Baramullah, Kulgam and Pulwama._
*Other 17 districts are Pro India.*
_So separatist's writ runs in just 15% of the population which are
Sunni Muslim dominated._
_Interestingly these 5 districts are far away from Pakistan
*There are more than fourteen major Religious/ ethinic groups
comprising 85% of the population of J&K who are Pro India.*
_These include:_
_Shias ;_
_Dogras: (Rajputs, Brahmins & Mahajans);_
_Kashmiri Pandits;_
_Buddhists ( Ladakhis );_
_Christians & many more._
*Majority of the people in J&K do not speak Kashmiri as their mother
tongue. It's Dogri, Gujjari, Punjabi, Ladhaki , Pahari etc.*
_Only 33 % people in Kashmir speak Kashmiri & this group controls
narrative from Hurriyat to militants and from NC and PDP._
_This 33% controls *business, bureaucracy & agriculture*. This sunni
33% is opposed to India although population of all other muslims in JK
is 69 %._
*Shias (12%), Gujjars Muslims (14%), Pahadi Muslims ( 8%), Buddhists ,
Pandits, Sufis, Christians and Jammu Hindus/ Dogras ( aprox 45%) are
totally opposed to separatism and Pakistan.*
_Stone pelting , Hoisting of Pakistani flags & Anti India
demonstrations are held in just 5 Districts in Kashmir valley._

*Other 17 districts have never participated in such activities.*

*Poonch and Kargil have above 90% Muslim population. There has never
been an Anti India or separatist protest in these districts.*
_It is only the_ *Anti National Media and other Anti India forces*
_who with their own nefarious designs have_ *created an impression
that "WHOLE J&K" is against India.*
_*Whereas the truth is that just 15% of the Population comprising
Sunni Muslims inhabitating 5 Districts of Kashmir province are fanning
the separatist activities.*_
_*Forwarded as received.*_
: Yeah,Hindus r in minority
: Books for UPSC Civil Service Exam Preparation
The Wonder That Was India A.L. Bhasham. (Culture)
Indias Ancient Past R.S. Sharma. (Culture)
Indian Art and Culture Nitin Singhania. (Culture)
History Of Modern India Bipan Chandra. (History)
Indias Struggle For Independence Bipan Chandra. (History)
Geography of India Majid Husain. (Geography)
Oxford School Atlas Oxford. (Geography)
Certificate Physical and Human Geography Goh Cheng Leong.
Indian Polity for Civil Services Examinations M. Laxmikanth.
Indian Economy Ramesh Singh. (Economy)
Economic Survey. (Economy)
Science and Technology in India TMH. (Science and Technology)
Environmental Studies: From Crisis to Cure Rajagopalan.
Environment for Civil Services Prelims and Mains Khuller.
India Year Book (Current Affairs)
Manorama Yearbook. (Current Affairs)
Contemporay Essays by Ramesh Singh OR 151 ESSAYS For UPSC Mains(Essay
India After Gandhi Ramchandra Guha (History GS1)
Norman Lowe OR History of Modern World Jain and Mathur (World
History GS1)
Social Problems In India Ram Ahuja. (Indian Society GS1)
IAS Mains General Studies Paper 2 (Arihant Manual GS2)
Governance in India for CSE. (Governance GS2)
Pax Indica Shashi Tharoor. (Foreign Policy GS2)
India and the World by Surendra Kumar. (Foreign Policy GS2)
IAS Mains General Studies GS3. (Arihant Manual GS3)
Indias National Security: A Reader. (Internal Security GS3)
Challenges to Internal Security of India. (Internal Security GS3)
Lexicon for Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude. ( Ethics GS4)

IAS Mains General Studies Ethics. ( Arihant Manual GS4)

: What is tafwid and khula?
: @ Muhammad: Agree that out constitution makers were highly
educated. But were not constitution makers from America or any other
EU country educated? They also had many races and ethnic people as
citizens but they didn't keep these hundreds of special concessions
for different ethnicity and hence they stand united today.
: Imagine why Lincon didn't keep reserved quotas for Blacks in USA.
: Keeping special provisions for different religions anf castes is
outright stamping. People get divided forever legally and
constitutionally. Caste and religion comes before constitution and
nation. Then people want to create chaos in nation or change
constitution instead of giving up religious and castist demands.
Change of priorities.
: When Constitution of Western countries were made they had fairly
uniform population... At that time blacks weren't even considered
citizens .....
: If not for the special provisions we would have been as broken as
Africa. The special provisions have helped preserve the idea of India
: That's the reason Ramachandra Guha has mentioned in the preface of
his book 'we are an unnatural nation, a nation in the making'...
: But legally its not possible to ban AIMPLB. Their Fatwas are not
legal as declared by SC and even they say that those are not legal and
mere out of court settlements between disputing parties. Hence SC
can't do anything. Sharia Application Act 1937 allows Muslims to act
acoording to Sharia for marriage, divorce, inheritance and adoption.
: Only if a muslim couplr marries according to Indian Marriage Act
1954, then only it's protected by Indian Penal Code regarding
polygamy, divorce etc. If they marry according to Muslim Personal Law,
then constitution itself doesn't give them any right to be protected
by Indian Marriage Act.
: SC declared yesterday what can be termed as sedition. It referred
back to its 1967 judgement where it said wherever there is a chance of
violence or harm to national integration, sedition law could be used.
The same could be extrapolated for banning any body.
: But difficult for government to do like that. Nowadays anyone
arrested by Police is comapared to Bhagatsingh
: Tomorrow if someone loots train. they will compare themselves
Ramprasad Bismils and Ashfaqulla Khans.
: There was a very famous case recently. In a muslim family a father
in law raped his daughter in law. Sharia court ruled that now she
should marry and stay with father in law as his wife!
: This is very much expected from people who rely more on their own
interpretation of godly scriptures instead of science and evolution.
: But what about that poor woman? She can't go anywhere for justice.
Nothing has changed since Shah Bano 1986
: They also don't believe in evolution. As per them human beings have
born through Adam and eve

: Shah bano was a famous case for judicial supremacy of our courts and
cowardness of our executive
: Only when the political class stop cowering behind class votes, can
we expect some worthwhile reform
: The problem today is excessive over thinking. Appeasement of all is
never possible. Some concept or ethos of culture should be given
priority, before individual religion
: India can not only be the fastest developing economy but the
strongest too. It has everything what we need. But that everything is
sucked out of India.
: This system hasn't worked at all. People are still uneducated.
Census shows Only 8% Indians have graduate degrees (and we know how
many are of real quality). Of this 8%, majority don't vote. Remaining
are easy to emotionalize on petty issues. Parties have been doing it
successfully for 70 years. Only hope is when majority Indians will get
educated, and show power of democracy by electing right ones. Till
then things won't change no matter what SC does or Modi is PM or Rahil
is PM.
: Some steps i propose:
1. Ban religious bodies that take part in law making or form a uniform
Civil code
2. Stop all reservations except physically disabled reservation. Give
subsidy instead to socially disabled.
3. Remove all poor criterion that limits possibilities of an
individual to choose or change his career.
4. Demarcate an area parallel to the frontier exclusively for army and
remove special status of kashmir, include it into Indian constitution.
5. Allow every citizen to live and work anywhere in India, except VIP
: Also form other criterias for engineers doctors mbas etc to work for
a number of years in India before trying abroad. Or to go abroad only
for education and compulsory to return and work for a number of years
: Great solutions.
Only problem is who can bell the cat? Those who can do it are fearful
that they won't get votes in next election and everything would be
undone anyways by next government who has got power by appeasement. We
desperately need political reformers like Tilak, Gokhale, Nauroji etc
who will change mentality of public and favour strict reforms while
keeping appeasers away.
: Just 20% engineers in India employable, best from Delhi, BiharJharkhand: Study -
07/09/16, 4:23 AM - +91 87968 89782: Only long term solution to
remove vote bank mentality is to well educate people. In cities we
experience that casteism is not that severe amongst well educated
groups, especially today's city youth doesn't care much about it.
Whatever little is there that's because of media spreading news of
some small things happening in some corners.

At least I can vouch for it in case of Bangalore, Trivendrum, Kanpur

and Nasik where mostly people recently have chosen local leaders based
on development promises and removed some in next election if they were
not satisfactory. This is how democracy should work.
: In fact Subhash Bose had said- Democracy is a tool which should be
given only in the hands of educated. Lowly educated people would cause
more harm with it. Thats why he advocated 20 years of dictatorship for
India till people come to the level of handling democracy.
: We run into rapists, rowdies and killers every other time we step
out of our house?
: In a way yes, criminal law was amended after a spade of events, not
for a one in a decade event. Every other day there was some news of a
rape happening somewhere.
: Juvenile bill was also amended for similar reasons
: News these days have been so manipulated that even if two friends
were fighting over an extra chapati, media will sensationalise the
news by mentioning whether one of them was a dalit.
: Political class, bureaucracy and any other respectable position is
filled with reservations, they rule on people but when somebody
opposes their authority, then they suddenly remember what caste were
they from.
: As long as we are in denial,we are only aggravating the problem and
not addressing it.
: How about we streamline what happens in the group?
: Great spirits have always faced violent opposition from mediocre
minds. - Albert Einstein
: Prasad that s not fair... there shld b mixture of everything... v
all know how our group was before prelims and after prelims... if they
have some issues.. they shld have shared with us.. with everyone...
leaving grp is not healthy... its loss for them.. and as per my
knowledge who ever left r not active as others
: India under Viceroys
*** How to remember the sequence? TIP :)
Viceroys till 1905
Canning went to Lucknow & met Motilal Nehnu & Lala lajpat rai & became
Rowdy & Daring and Lost Control
Viceroys after 1905
MaHesh bhatt CRyIng With Lalu Without Mamata
Lord Canning (1858-1862)
[] Lord Canning was made the first Viceroy of India.

[] 5% income tax was imposed on all are links beyond Rs. 500 a year.
[] High courts were set up at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras under the
provisions of the Indian High Courts Act of 1861.
Lord Elgin Ist (1861-1863)
[] The most important event of his time over the suppression of the
Wahabi tribe of the fanatic Muslims inhabiting the North West
Lord John Lawrence (1864-1869)
[] An important event of this time was war against Bhutan in 1865.
[] The Punjab and Oudh Tenancy Act, 1860, was enacted.
[] Two famines hit India; first in 1800 in Orrisa and second in 186869 in Bundelkhand and Rajputana.
[] A Famine Commission was set up under the chairmanship of Sir Henry
Lord Mayo (1869-1872)
[] For the first time in my Indian history census was held in 1871.
[] The college was setup and Ajmer to impart suitable education to the
sons of the Indian princess. Subsequently, this college came to known
as the Mayo College.
Lord Northbrook (1872-1876)

Deposition of Gaekwad in 1874;

The Kuka movement;
Visit of Prince of Wales;
Abolition of income tax;
Famine in Bihar and Bengal in 1873-1874.

Lord Lytton (1876-1880)

[] Satautory Civil Service in 1879.
[] It was also laid down that the candidates had to appear and pass
the civil services examination which began to be held in England.
[] The maximum age for these candidates were reduced from 21 to 19
Lord Ripon (1880-1884)
[] Resolution in 1882 for institution of local self-government in
[] Constitution of the Hunter commission on education (1882).
[] The maximum age of admission to civil services raised to 21.
Lord Dufferin (1884-1888)

[] His period witnessed the third Anglo Burmese war which led to the
accession of upper Burma.
Lord Lansdowne (1888-1894)
[] Eenactment of second factory act;
[] Demarcation of the Indo-Afghan border (Durand Line);
[] Second Indian council Act (1892).
Lord Elgin II (1894-1899)
[] A bubonic plague in Bombay in 1896 and sever draught in Bikaner and
Hissar district were some of the important events of his period.
Lord Curzon (1899-1905)
[] The Punjab Land Alienation Act of 1900, prohibited the sale of
agricultural lands for its attachment in execution of a decree
[] In order to preserve and protect ancient monuments of India, he
passed the Ancient Monuments Protection Act, and Archaeological
Department was established in 1901.
[] The setup of Police Commission under the Chairmanship of Sir Andrew
Frazer in 1902.
[] A Criminal Investigation Department was opened in each district. In
1901 the Imperial Cadet Corps was set up.
Lord Minto II (1905-1910)
[] His stint as viceroy is famous for the Minto-Morley Reforms of 1909
which provided for separate electorate to Muslims.
Lord Hardinge II (1910-1916)
[] In 1911 the capital of country was announced to be shifted from
Calcutta to Delhi.
[] In 1912, Delhi became the new capital.
[] The First World War broke out in 1914.
[] In 1916, Lord Hardinge laid the foundation of the Benaras Hindu
University. Madan Mohan Malaviya was the Founder-Chancellor of this
Lord Chelmsford (1916-1921)
[] Enactment of the Government of India, 1919 (Montague-Chelmsfor
Reforms) which introduced dyarchy in the provincess;
[] Enactment of Rowlatt Act (1919);
[] The Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy (1919);
[] And the beginning of the Non-cooperation Movement
Lord Reading (1921-26)

[] Held of the Non-Corporation Movement (1922); arrival of the Prince

of Wales (1921); and outbreak of the Moplah Revolt (1921) was some of
the events of his period.
Lord Irwin (1926-3
[] Appointment of Simon commission in 1928.
[] Passing of the resolution for complete independence (purna
smarajya) in 1929.
[] Launching of the civil Disobedience movement.
[] Gandhi-Irwin Pact in 1931;
Lord Willingdon (1931-1936)

The second Around

Restarting of the
Third Round Table
The Government of

Table Conference, 1931 ;

Disbodience Movement, 1931
Conference, 1932
India Act of 1935;

Lord Linlithgow (1936-44)

[] Longest reign as viceroy of India
[] Beginning of the Second World War.
[] Coming into force of the Government of India Act 1935 with
provinces going to elections.
[] Beginning of the Quit India Movement
Lord Wavell (1944-1947)
[] His period is famous for the Shimla conference, 1945;
[] Arrival of the Cabinet Mission, 1946;
[] The Constituent Assembly boycotted by the Muslim League which
launched the heinous Direct Action Day on August 16, 1946;
[] The Interim Government is formed under Pt. Jawajarlal Nehrus
Lord Mountabatten, (March 1947-June 1948)
[] Declaration of third June, 1947;
[] Indian Independence Act, Partition of the country between two
independent states of India and Pakistan with Lord Mountbatten and Mr
M.A. Jinnah as thier respective Governor generals.
: *ISROs GSLV-F05 rocket carrying the INSAT-3DR to be launched*
The 29-hour countdown for the launch of Indian Space Research
Organisation (ISRO)s GSLV-F05 rocket, carrying the INSAT-3DR
advanced weather satellite, is scheduled to commence on 7th sept.
The rocket, with the indigenously developed cryogenic upper stage as
its fourth stage, would place the satellite, weighing 2,211-kg in the
Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO).
GSLV-F05 would be the tenth GSLV flight.

On being placed in the intended orbit, INSAT-3DR would use its own
propulsion system to reach its final geosynchronous orbital home and
will be stationed at 74 deg East longitude, ISRO said.
The advanced weather satelliteis expected to provide a variety of
meteorological services to the country.
: *The World Health Organisation declared Sri Lanka to be malariafree*
The World Health Organisation (WHO) declared Sri Lanka to be malariafree, after certifying that the life-threatening disease had been
completely eliminated here.
Sri Lankas achievement is truly remarkable. In the mid-20th
century, it was among the most malaria-affected countries, but now it
is malaria-free.
Sri Lankas road to elimination had not been easy. It demanded wellcalibrated, responsive policies.
For instance, after cases of malaria soared in Sri Lanka in the 1970s
and 80s, the country revised its strategy, intensively targeting the
parasite in addition to targeting the mosquito.
Sri Lanka has, despite the protracted civil war that ravaged the
country, set high standards in public health and sanitation in South
India is in the control phase with regard to malaria, but is
working to reach pre-elimination by 2017 and to complete elimination
thereafter, says a 2015 WHO report.
: Can anyone let me know how jio SIM used technology is different
from other sim's...??
: I am confused with the VOLTE and 4G
: I don't know the technical stuff, just some basic things.
Normal sims use different spectrum or bandwidth sort of thing for
calls and Internet. While in VoLTE the calls are routed through same
bandwidth as that of Internet. It will be kind of similar to WhatsApp
calls you used to make.
: In 2G and 3G when you make calls the internet usually gets
disconnected because both of them cannot be transmitted at the same
time while in 4G everything happens over the Internet itself. So when
you get calls your internet does not stop streaming
: I hope I did not confuse you
: And then why the Aritel and idea mobile companies are not took this
decision because they are already using the 4G networks..
: While the existing networks have 2G and 3G as well, Jio is
completely dependent on 4G
: *Sri Lanka is Declared Malaria Free by WHO*
_India can learn lessons even if scale and complexity may be
Strategy Followed:
1. Targeting both vector and parasite(plasmodium falciparum)
2. Active detection of cases and residual parasite carriers by
screening all people

Techniques Used:
1. house visits,
2. mobile clinics
3. real time monitoring by surveillance systems
4. community awareness
5. provided long lasting insecticide-treated bed nets
: This in my opinion seems to be the way out shown by the AIMPLB to
muslim men to avoid court proceedings.
: Todays Thehindu Article on FDI:
*FDI is not the solution for long term & sustainable employment
generation, better private domestic investment is.*
*1. Volatility:*
Ultimately foreign investors invest for profit, and in current
competitive environment globally countries are offering that India
might not in the long run.
e.g. Recently Nokia shifted out from India to Vietnam as it offered
them more profit.
*2. Not much technological benefits:*
Another claimed positive aspect with FDI is the technology that it
brings with it, but that's too is not certain.

*3. Sectoral Imbalances:*

FDI in India is mainly in Service Sector and it has reduced by 85% in
construction sector and also in other labour intensive sectors, which
is not beneficial for employment in that sector.
*4. Regional disparities:*
Current FDI is worsening regional disparities as almost 50% is
concentrated around Mumbai and Delhi. leaving behind other states like
1. More focus should be to increase domestic private investment as its
far lesser volatile and beneficial.
2. Increase public investment in health-education-environment to
create human and physical capital for long term sustained growth.
08/09/16, 4:12 PM - Himanshu Aspi: SEZs were formed to emulate the
successful Chinese model of SEZs. Though in the beginning it saw
interests from the industry, eventually their interests subsided. The
reasons are:
1. Loss of special status to the SEZs through providing incentives to
exporters outside them, such as duty drawback scheme under such which
they are reimbursed the duty paid by them on import of raw materials
which are then manufactured or assembled into products and exported.
This scheme was not extended to SEZs due to other subsidies enjoyed by

2. Disincentivising the SEZ aim of reduced duties by making Free Trade

Agreements with multiple nations. Who needs SEZs now, when they have
FTA with less to 0 duties. On top of that MAT is extended to the
transactions in SEZs.
So in short SEZs have lost the unfair advantage that they were
promised to bring over increased exports.
: Extending MAT and Dividend Distribution Tax to entities under SEZ
and lack of proper infrastructure to the nearest port from the SEZ
also contributed in their failure
1. Chief Election Commissioner of IndiaSyed Nasim Ahmad Zaidi
2. Chairperson, National Human Rights CommissionH.L.Dattu
3. Chief Commissioner, Central Information CommissionR.K.Mathur.
4. Chairman, National Commission for MinoritiesShriNaseem Ahmad
5. Chairman, National Commission for SCP. L. Punia
6. Chairman, National Commission for STRameshwar Oraon
7. Chairperson, National Commission for WomenLalitha Kumaramangalam
8. Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission Dr. Sekhar Basu
9. Chairman, ISROA S Kiran Kumar
10. Chairman, Union Public Service CommissionDeepak Gupta
11. Chairman, National Knowledge CommissionSam Pitroda
12. Chairman, University Grants CommissionVed Prakash
13. Chairman, Central Water Commission of IndiaAshwin B. Pandya
14. Space Applications Center, Administrator(Director)Tapan Misra
1. Governor of Reserve Bank of Indiaurjit patel
2. Chairman, 14th Finance Commission of IndiaY.Venugopal Reddy
3. Chairman, Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI)Upendra
Kumar Sinha
4. Chairman, Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of
IndiaT. S. Vijayan
5. Chairman, 7th Pay CommissionAshok Kumar Mathur

6. Chairman, SIDBIKshatrapati Shiaji

1. Cabinet Secretary of IndiaPradeep Kumar Sinha
2. National Security AdviserAjit Kumar Doval
3. Secretary-General of the Rajya SabhaShumsher K. Sheriff
4. Secretary-General of the Lok SabhaAnoop Mishra
5. Attorney General of IndiaMukul Rohatgi
6. Comptroller and Auditor General of IndiaShashi Kant Sharma
7. Solicitor General of IndiaRanjit Kumar
8. Principal Scientific AdviserR. Chidambaram
9. Permanent Representative of India to the United NationsSyed
10. Chairman, Railway BoardAK Mittal
11. Foreign SecretarySubrahmanyam Jaishankar
12. Union Home SecretaryRajivMehrishi
13. Finance Secretary Ashok Lavasa
1. Chief of Army StaffGeneral Dalbir Singh Suhag
2. Chief of Air StaffAir Chief Marshal Arup Raha
3. Chief of Naval StaffSunil Lanba
4. Chief of Integrated Defence StaffAir Marshal PP Reddy
5. Director General, Border Security ForceK.K Sharma
6. Director General, Central Reserve Police ForceK.Durga Prasad
7. Director General, Central Industrial Security ForceSurender
8. Director-General of Military IntelligenceLt. Gen K G Krishna
9. Director, Central Bureau of InvestigationAnil Kumar Sinha
10. Director, Intelligence BureauDineshwar Sharma

11. Director General, National Investigation AgencySharad Kumar

12. Secretary (Research)Rajinder Khanna
13. Member (Investigation CBDT)Atulesh Jindal
14. Director General of ITBPKrishna Chaudhary
_Nationalised Banks :_
1. State Bank of IndiaSmt Arundhati Bhattacharya
2. Allahabad BankRakesh Sethi
3. Andhra Bank Suresh N Patel
4. Bank of BarodaP.S. Jayakumar
5. Bank of IndiaMelwyn O Rego
6. Bank of MaharashtraSushil Muhnot
7. Bharatiya Mahila BankS.M.Swathi(ED)
8. Canara BankRakesh Sharma
9. Central Bank of IndiaRajeev Rishi
10. Corporation BankJ K Garg
11. Dena BankAshwani Kumar
12. IDBI Bank LtdKishore Piraji Kharat
13. Indian BankMahesh Kumar Jain
14. Indian Overseas BankR Koteeswaram
15. Oriental Bank of CommerceAnimesh Chauhan
16. Punjab And Sind BankJatinder Bir Singh
17. Punjab National BankUsha Ananthasubramanian
18. Syndicate BankArun Shrivastava
19. UCO BankR K Takkar
20. Union Bank of IndiaArun Tiwari
21. United Bank of IndiaP Srinivas

22. Vijaya BankKishore Kumar Sansi

_Private Banks :_
23. Axis BankSmt. Shikha Sharma
24. Catholic Syrian BankAnand Krishnamurthy
25. City Union BankDr. N. Kamakodi
26. Development Credit BankMurali M. Natrajan
27. Dhanalakshmi BankG. Sreeram
28. Federal BankShyam Srinivasan
29. HDFC BankAditya Puri
30. ICICI BankSmt Chanda Kochar
31. IndusInd BankRomesh Sobti
32. ING Vysya BankShailendra Bhandari
33. Jammu & Kashmir BankMushtaq Ahmad
34. Karnataka BankPolali Jayarama Bhat
35. Karur Vysya BankK. Venkataraman
~~~~Thank you~~~~
: How merger of SBI with state banks can help with financial
inclusion? What are the issues involved?
: 1.With the merger of banks the financial pool has increased i.e
the risk taking capability of bank is increased.
2.More professionalism will come in the bank.
3.The SBI's reach to people would have increased
4. The interbank cost would now be decreased.
5. Capital deficient banks can now be financed.
: 6. Overall efficiency will increase....
: 7. The SBI will be promoted to 45th rank in the world In terms of
all assets
: 8. As far as employees point if view is concerned the employees of
all other associated banks will get more benefits once the merger is
: But is there any advantage to the average customer, the common man?
: Employment would decrease
: Financial inclusion
: More loans are expected to be made available
: How will this aid in financial inclusion? Isn't it just a merger?
08/09/16, 11:23 PM - +91 77382 63036: Read my answer again

: Aren't there any issues involved with this merger?

: One more pro:
It would be easier for them to comply with BASEL norms now with
adequate capital and efficient management
One more cons:
According to some economists who oppose this merger, if this BIG SBI
somehow fails, (like Lehmann Bro) then there might be economic
earthquake. One of the reason India survived 2008 recession was Indian
Banks were not big enough on global scale.
: Issues are mainly with employees. As posts and positions are reduced
new recruitment would be stopped for a while.
: One doubt, since capital is increased, infra and liabilities have
also increased, how does then risk taking capability has increased?
: Con :
Competition in banking sector would reduce
: Also like previous mergers (e.g. IBP and IOCL), smaller org
employees feel that they are treated with bias in transfers,
promotions etc.
: Suppose i have a bank hqving 1000rs if i had to finance a project of
800 rs i would have some apprehensions whereas if i have 2000 rs it
would be easy for me to finance that project
: Basically 2 banks jointly supporting a project
: Yes correct.
: Simple: Economics of scale.
: Another cons: Lack of competition might reduce their customer
: This may happen if there is homogeneity of policy. Maybe criterion
for opening or maintaining may become tough
Or it may also become easy
Since risk has reduced
: Anyways, their real competition would be with private banks which
are growing at amazing rate. So they must improve customer service to
: I think a better option could have been JV with private sector
: Vision 2016 Mains Test Series Answer Paper Test 12
Vision 2016 Mains Test Series Question Paper Test 12
Vision 2016 Mains Test Series Answer Paper Test 13
Vision 2016 Mains Test Series Question Paper Test 13
Vision 2016 Mains Test Series Answer Paper Test 14
Vision 2016 Mains Test Series Question Paper Test 14

Vision 2016 Mains Test Series Answer Paper Test 15
Vision 2016 Mains Test Series Question Paper Test 15
Vision 2016 Mains Test Series Answer Paper Test 16
Vision 2016 Mains Test Series Question Paper Test 16
Vision 2016 Mains Test Series Answer Paper Test 17
Vision 2016 Mains Test Series Question Paper Test 17
Vision 2016 Mains Test Series Answer Paper Test 18
Vision 2016 Mains Test Series Question Paper Test 18
Vision 2016 Mains Test Series Answer Paper Test 19
Vision 2016 Mains Test Series Question Paper Test 19
Vision 2016 Mains Test Series Answer Paper Test 20
Vision 2016 Mains Test Series Question Paper Test 20
Vision 2016 Mains Test Series (All Tests - 1 to 20)
: 1. (Tests 1 to 3) Insights 2017 Prelims Test Series + Only Question
Papers without solutions also added.
2. Antropology Test Series - Vaid Sir - only test 2 - will add other
tests in future if i get
3. Indian Polity in Bullet form

4. Competetion POwer Magazine - June 2016
5. Sociology_some_article_by_VISION_IAS-2015
6. Sociology Material
7. Pub Ad Test Series - Various Institutes
8. Pub Ad Material
: As the system now will be more efficient the employees of regional
banks would be removed thats why they were protesting a few days back
: Right. And there would be just one organization now instead of 6,
posts are bound to get reduced. e.g. if there were 6 MDs for 6 banks,
now there would be just 1 in reality.
Also now technology could be used in even greater and efficient way
across all the branches as they can afford it now, it would reduce
requirement for human resources. e.g. cheque-passbook-deposit
machines, Core Banking Solutions has already reduced employment.
: Q. What is the reason for the presence of hot springs in some of the
coldest areas on earth?
: Q. Why do the western parts of continents face desert like
: The temperature difference between the core nd crust of the earth
causes the transfer of heat......
: In those cold areas where there is any source of water, more heat
transfer happens, as a result hot springs are evolved in the some of
the most coldest areas
: Only in tropical regions
: 1. Oceanic Cold currents moving from poles to equator are present
along western margins of continents. These create dry-moistureless
climate, hence lack of rain create deserts.
2. Most deserts are around 30 degree latitude on western margins. This
is because dry air flowing from equator towards poles (from Hadley
Cell) descends down around 30 degree. As this has no moisture,
desertification is favoured.
09/09/16, 12:19 PM - +91 77382 63036: ^3. in the tropical
regions winds blow from continent to water bodies in these regions
hence lack of moisture which leads to desertification.
: @vivek can you elaborate the oceanic current reason?
: Correct

: Oceanic currents flow due to temperature differences between pole

and equator. Colder polar waters flow towards equator and warmer
equatorial water towards poles in both continents. As current on
equator always flows from East to West, General flow of other currents
is clockwise in Northern hemisphere and anti clockwise in southern,
unless it gets obstructed by a landmass.
Hence if you see map, its always the case that colder currents are
along western margins of continents. e.g. Peruvian current, West
Australian current, Cannaries current(N Africa),
Benguela current (S Africa).
As these currents are colder, they don't allow cloud formation, which
makes the area arid causing desertification.
: Yes he's right, for deeper understanding read ocean currents topic
: Is anyone willing to do a math question, a simple 9th level
: Q. If ab+1 is a factor of a^2+b^2, show that (a^2+b^2)/ab+1 is a
perfect square.
: Bhai tumne simple kaha tha, ye to cheating hai
: Q what's the difference between waves and currents?
: *Waves* are caused by the force of wind on water.
*Current* are formed due to differential heating of earth.
: Waves are only surface phenomena while current are both surface and
: Vaibhav and prateek both are correct, but mainly one more
distinction should be that there is near to 0 displacement in waves,
but there is considerable displacement in currents.
: 1. (Tests 1 to 3) Insights 2017 Prelims Test Series + Only Question
Papers without solutions also added.
2. Antropology Test Series - Vaid Sir - only test 2 - will add other
tests in future if i get
3. Indian Polity in Bullet form
4. Competetion POwer Magazine - June 2016
5. Sociology_some_article_by_VISION_IAS-2015
6. Sociology Material
7. Pub Ad Test Series - Various Institutes
8. Pub Ad Material
: What makes western India dependent on hydropower for their energy
: 1. Lack of fossil fuels.
2. Hard starata of rocks which gives natural sites for electricity
3. In western India rivers are short and fast flowing, having
relatively steeper slope, hence hydro-power can easily be tapped.
4. Western part especially Western Ghats receive great Rainfall
through Monsoon, which makes hydro power available.
: Q. Why grasslands do not form an appropriate habitat for trees?
1. In western India rivers are short and fast flowing, having
relatively steeper slope, hence hydro-power can easily be tapped.
2. Western part especially Western Ghats receive great Rainfall
through Monsoon, which makes hydro power available.
: 1. Grasslands don't have sufficient rainfall for trees to grow and
2. They are at beginning of ecological cycle, which means soil is not
nutrient rich to sustain trees.
3. Soils are deep in grasslands which can support short rooted grass
but not deep rooted trees.
: correction: *soils are not deep in grasslands
: Sediment flow in these rivers is less so larger life
: Q. Can coal be used as a long term energy source for india?
: lIndia being a rich source of coal..but the coal found in india
: Is of bituminous type that is a low grade coal
: Inspite of being a coal rich country we import a lot of coal due to
lack of effecient mining technology
: Taking into consideration the environmental impacts..we can move on
different new forms of renewable and environment frndly technologies
: To go with environment friendly techniques is awesome and
sustainable but the requirement of coal is quite more and
industrialist minded people would not allow this
: Actually they would if they find renewable energy at competitive
price because mining coal in india is a big problem. Mines in india
overlaps with tribal areas and dense forest which means huge conflicts
with the local population.
: Like india has a good geographical location which receives a good
amount of solar insolation
: In last five years the price of solar energy are down by 2/3 of
original price
: things are going in right direction but still heavy capital is

: Problems with solar energy is panel acquire huge area and panel
maintenance problem so solar energy can't be use as primary source of
: Why call some area as Union Territory and let it have locally
elected representatives (which often can be from opposite parties)?
Either make it a state or keep it completely a UT. Such abnormal
Statuses like "UT of its own class" is the root cause of conflict.
Some services are in center's hand and others in UT Gov. People are
confused whom to blame for what, whom to demand what, and hence both
parties benefit by doing nothing.
: Cant be made a state and also cant be controlled by centre
: Need a unique solutio
: Historically, formation of UT was need of the time. Now there
doesn't seem to be. Except Capital, all UTs should be made into
states. Need to trust Local people, they deserve what other indians
: as per Latest DOPT Circular, Aur Ticket can be purchased from Any
Airlines, but Journey should be Undertaken in Economy Class at a Fare
Less than or Equal to LTC-80 Fare of Air India.
: In the current scenario, the elected govt should resign if the SC
verdict doesn't come in its favor
10/09/16, 12:49 PM - +91 77382 63036: I think you are not
getting the rationale behind was done because centre was
unable to control it so it needed a helping hand hence a elected govt
was formed. But delhi as a territory is not only for the delhitees
hence only delhi people cant decide the fate of delhi so central
control is necessary.
: We missed out puberty in getting degrees
And now missing young age
in clearing UPSC
Good there is higher age limit else some would have kept writing UPSC
till their graves
: As it has been seen that inspite of the early UNSC sanctions, NK
still was able to do its R&D and nuclear related procurement,
shouldn't the UNSC think of the major loopholes in its sanctions
: Gharka Bhedi Lanka Dhae
It's China who is helping all out to North Korea. China is NK's
biggest trading partner, and main source of food, arms and energy.
China gets cheap labour from NK.
China is also a member of UNSC with veto power. In fact last year
China and Russia had opposed UNSC meeting on NK issue.
: That's true because China doesn't want NK to get beyond their
control which they would after acquiring considerable nuclear power.
: Its all strategic politics. In similar way China is using Pakistan
to control India. So to Pak to completely fall into the hands of
China, USA is also helping Pakistan! Meanwhile recently Russia also
has promised Pak with advanced weapons as they also want to have say
in West Asia. This has what made Pak behave like an arrogant, adamant,
careless and pampered Prince from 70 years.

The only permanent solution to this is breaking up Pakistan into

Balochistan, Sindh, Punjab and NWFP. Bangladesh separation has solved
many problems already. May be recent developments by Modi government
indicate that India plans to do that.
: Fungus
A fungus (/fs/; plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of
the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes unicellular
microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as multicellular
fungi that produce familiar fruiting forms known as mushrooms. These
organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from
the other life kingdoms of plants, animals, protists, and bacteria.
One difference that places fungi in a different kingdom is that its
cell walls contain chitin, unlike the cell walls of plants, bacteria
and some protists. Similar to animals, fungi are heterotrophs, that
is, they acquire their food by absorbing dissolved molecules,
typically by secreting digestive enzymes into their environment.
Growth is their means of mobility, except for spores, which may travel
through the air or water (a few of which are flagellated).
: Bacteria
Bacteria (/bktri/; singular: bacterium) constitute a large
domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in
length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods
and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on
Earth, and are present in most of its habitats. Bacteria inhabit soil,
water, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, and the deep portions of
Earth's crust. Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic
relationships with plants and animals.
12/09/16, 10:30 AM - +91 96017 16393:
12/09/16, 10:30 AM - +91 96017 16393: Decomposer
Decomposers are organisms that break down dead or decaying organisms,
and in doing so they carry out the natural process of decomposition.
Like herbivores and predators, decomposers are heterotrophic, meaning
that they use organic substrates to get their energy, carbon and
nutrients for growth and development. While the terms decomposer and
detritivore are often interchangeably used, however, detritivores must
digest dead matter via internal processes while decomposers can break
down cells of other organisms using biochemical reactions without need
for internal digestion. Thus, invertebrates such as earthworms,
woodlice, and sea cucumbers are detritivores, not decomposers, in the
technical sense, since they must ingest nutrients and are unable to
absorb them externally.
12/09/16, 10:30 AM - +91 96017 16393:
12/09/16, 10:30 AM - +91 96017 16393: Decomposition
Decomposition is the process by which organic substances are broken
down into a much simpler form of matter. The process is essential for

recycling the finite matter that occupies physical space in the biome.
Bodies of living organisms begin to decompose shortly after death.
Animals, such as worms, also help decompose the organic materials.
Organisms that do this are known as decomposers.
12/09/16, 10:30 AM - +91 96017 16393:
12/09/16, 10:30 AM - +91 96017 16393: Information on Swine
Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses ...
Swine influenza (swine flu) is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by
type A influenza viruses that regularly cause outbreaks of influenza
in pigs.
What is swine flu? Swine flu, also known as 2009 H1N1 type A
influenza, is a human disease. People get the disease from other
people, not from pigs.
12/09/16, 10:30 AM - +91 96017 16393:
12/09/16, 10:30 AM - +91 96017 16393: Influenza A virus subtype
Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was
the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is
associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish Flu.
It is an orthomyxovirus that contains the glycoproteins haemagglutinin
and neuraminidase. For this reason, they are described as H1N1, H1N2
etc. depending on the type of H or N antigens they express with
metabolic synergy. Haemagglutinin causes red blood cells to clump
together and binds the virus to the infected cell.
12/09/16, 10:30 AM - +91 96017 16393:
12/09/16, 10:30 AM - +91 96017 16393: Avian influenza
Avian influenza known informally as avian flu or bird flu
refers to "influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds." The type
with the greatest risk is highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI).
"Bird flu" is a phrase similar to "swine flu," "dog flu," "horse flu,"
or "human flu" in that it refers to an illness caused by any of many
different strains of influenza viruses that have adapted to a specific
host. All known viruses that cause influenza in birds belong to the
species influenza A virus. All subtypes (but not all strains of all
subtypes) of influenza A virus are adapted to birds, which is why for
many purposes avian flu virus is the influenza A virus. (Note,
however, that the "A" does not stand for "avian").
12/09/16, 10:30 AM - +91 96017 16393:
12/09/16, 10:30 AM - +91 96017 16393: HIV/AIDS
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency
syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection
with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It may also be referred
to as HIV disease or HIV infection. Following initial infection, a
person may experience a brief period of influenza-like illness. This
is typically followed by a prolonged period without symptoms. As the

infection progresses, it interferes more and more with the immune

system, making the person much more susceptible to common infections,
like tuberculosis, as well as opportunistic infections and tumors that
do not usually affect people who have working immune systems.
12/09/16, 10:30 AM - +91 96017 16393:
12/09/16, 10:30 AM - +91 96017 16393: Ebola virus disease
Ebola virus disease (EVD; also Ebola hemorrhagic fever, or EHF), or
simply Ebola, is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other
primates caused by ebolaviruses. Signs and symptoms typically start
between two days and three weeks after contracting the virus with a
fever, sore throat, muscular pain, and headaches. Then, vomiting,
diarrhea and rash usually follow, along with decreased function of the
liver and kidneys. At this time some people begin to bleed both
internally and externally. The disease has a high risk of death,
killing between 25 and 90 percent of those infected, with an average
of about 50 percent.
: Japanese encephalitis
Japanese encephalitis (JE), formerly known as Japanese B encephalitis
to distinguish it from Economo's A encephalitisis a disease caused
by the mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV).
The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) itself is a virus from the
family Flaviviridae, part of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex of
9 genetically and antigenically related viruses, some which are
particularly severe in horses, and four known to infect humans
including West Nile virus.
Domestic pigs and wild birds (especially herons) are reservoirs of the
virus; transmission to humans may cause severe symptoms. Amongst the
most important vectors of this disease are the mosquitoes Culex
tritaeniorhynchus and Culex vishnui. This disease is most prevalent in
Southeast Asia and East Asia.
: Dengue fever
Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever, is a mosquito-borne
tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms include fever,
headache, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash that
is similar to measles. In a small proportion of cases, the disease
develops into the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, resulting
in bleeding, low levels of blood platelets and blood plasma leakage,
or into dengue shock syndrome, where dangerously low blood pressure
Dengue is transmitted by several species of mosquito within the genus
Aedes, principally A. aegypti. The virus has five different types;
infection with one type usually gives lifelong immunity to that type,
but only short-term immunity to the others.
: Zika virus

Zika virus is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae and the genus
Flavivirus. It is spread by daytime-active Aedes mosquitoes, such as
A. aegypti and A. albopictus. Its name comes from the Zika Forest of
Uganda, where the virus was first isolated in 1947. Zika virus is
related to dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile
The infection, known as Zika fever, often causes no or only mild
symptoms, similar to a mild form of dengue fever.
: Malaria
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other
animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled
microorganisms) belonging to the genus Plasmodium. Malaria causes
symptoms that typically include fever, fatigue, vomiting, and
headaches. In severe cases it can cause yellow skin, seizures, coma,
or death. The disease is transmitted by the biting of mosquitos, and
the symptoms usually begin ten to fifteen days after being bitten. If
not properly treated, people may have recurrences of the disease
months later.
: *:: Science and Technology ::*
Success of GSLV mission makes ISRO ready for the Chandrayan-2 mission
The space road to Chandrayaan-2 is now clear.
The significance of the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLVF05) missions success is that the rocket is now more than qualified
to put Chandrayaan-2 into orbit.
The interfaces between GSLV-Mk II and Chandrayaan-2 have already been
finalised, according to officials in the Indian Space Research
Organisation (ISRO).\
A GSLV-Mk II vehicle will put Chandrayaan-2 with a lander and a rover
into orbit in the first quarter of 2018. It will be a totally
indigenous mission the vehicle, the spacecraft, the lander and the
rover are all made in India.
The lander will have a throttleable engine for performing a soft
landing and four sites have been short-listed for this. After it
touches down on a flat surface on the moon, the 25-kg rover which
is a kind of a toy car will emerge from it.
It will have six wheels, made of aluminium, to move about on the lunar
soil. The wheels will interact in such a way that the rover does not
The rover will move at a speed of two cm a second. Its lifetime on the
moon is 14 earth days; it will have two payloads for analysing the
soils chemical properties.
: An artificial satellite orbiting around the earth does not fall
down.This is so bcoz the attraction of earth
a)does not exist at
such distance b)is neutralized by the attraction of moon
the necessary speed for its steady motion.
d)provides the necessary
acceleration for its motion
: C will not b there for sure
: D
: Even though it is at constant speed it produces acceleration in
circular motion

: Quora
What are the top five magazines that every UPSC civil services
aspirant must read?
For all those who have this question,
Will you prefer learning the same rhyme in 10 different rhythms or
prefer learning 10 Different rhymes?
If you belong to first category, then the above question of 5
different magazines stands relevant.
And if you belong to the second category, here is my advice.
In my view, Yojana is the most relevant magazine for IAS aspirants.
5 Reasons why Yojana is the best magazine for UPSC preparation
It is published by the Govt of India. It can give you data,facts,etc
which is accepted by Govt.
It has a balanced opinion -both pros and cons are given
Many toppers in the last three years have mentioned Yojana as the best
It is very cheap -Rs.10 per magazine and also available free online.
It covers a wide range of important topics like inclusive
governance ,federalism ,international relations ,budget ,ect.
Things to be kept in mind while reading the Yojana:
1. Read Yojana editions of one year previous to the Mains .
2.Understand its relevance for the exam .It is important for Mains and
Interview preparation only. Mostly Yojana is helpful for GS Paper 2 &
Paper 3 ,and Essay paper.
3.Read the Yojana only after you have finished reading the NCERTs and
basic study material .
4.The objective of reading Yojana is to gather important points on the
topics we have already read in the newspapers .
5.Keep the GS Mains papers and Essay papers of previous years before
you ,to understand how questions have been asked in Mains .
6. Maximum time you should spend on each issue shall be a maximum of 8
R.A.Israel Jebasingh,IAS
: GS Score - E-waste

GS Score - GM food and its implication
GS Score - Groundwater depletion
GS Score - Maternal mortality
GS Score - Polity-sample-notes
GS Score - S. Vandana - Topper Answer Booklet
GS Score - Science and Technology Contemporary Issues
GS Score - Scpecial Case Studies - 1-5
GS Score - Second green revolution and issues related to it
GS Score - Society - Contemporary Issues
12/09/16, 10:03 PM - +91 74559 33399: EPW Jan to September
A History of Ancient and Early - Singh Upinder
Yojna September 2016 Hindi
Yojna September 2016 English
Lukmaan GS Test Series 2016
12/09/16, 10:04 PM - +91 74559 33399: Vision 2014 Sociology
Optional Test Series
Vision 2015 Sociology Optional Test Series
Vision 2017 Prelims Test Series
IAS Baba 2017 Prelims Test Series
Baliyan History Optional Test 1 and 2
Back to Basics
Current Afairs 2016 MCQs
Essay Strategy
PSIR - Optional Study Materials Very Useful
Shankar academy political science test series
Shankar IAS Academy Geography optional Test
Union Budget Notes
Chief Justice - List as on (1.9.2016)
Constitution - P M Bakshi
IAS Baba PIB Compilation August
News Juice Monthly September 2016
Vajiram GS Mains Test 2 Questions only
Vajiram Psychology Optional Test Questions only
Indian Polity - Bullet form
13/09/16, 12:25 AM - Indu Aspi: <Media omitted>
13/09/16, 6:03 AM - Himanshu Aspi: Eid mubarak everyone
13/09/16, 6:03 AM - Himanshu Aspi changed the subject from CSE
Grp : Science to CSE Grp :Politics
: 1. We need to understand that Delhi is not a Union Territory nor a
full-fledged state. Delhi has a SPECIAL-STATE STATUS which it attained

after 69th constitutional amendment, which introduced article 239AA.

Unlike union territory Delhi has LEGISLATURE & COUNCIL OF MINISTERS.
2.Delhi Govt don't have to take prior approval of LG in implementing
any policy except in the matter of LAND, POLICE and LAW & ORDER. The
same has been written in Article 239AA of the Constitution. The same
article also states that LG can decide on LAND, POLICE and LAW & ORDER
on the advice of council of ministers( 239AA(4))
3. This one is very important point. In SHAMSHER SINGH VS STATE OF
PUNJAB case a 7-judge bench of Supreme Court held that LG & President
in India has the same right & powers that of a British King. Which
means both are just formal heads & will work on the AID & ADVICE of
councils of ministers.
So technically speaking there is no such department under
Delhi-LG except of that pertaining to Land, POLICE and LAW & ORDER
which are DDA, Police, ACB & MCD but even in these departments LG can
pass orders only on advice of COUNCIL OF MINISTERS. So it means Delhi
Govt have every department, except of the above, under its full
control but due to Central Govt notoriety LG is trying to prove its
jurisdiction over every department. This led to constant & continous
war between LG & Delhi Govt over various issues.
: As of now, the special status given to Delhi is hanging at a lose
rope since the Delhi HC decision.
13/09/16, 10:22 PM - Himanshu Aspi: But i agree with ur points.
Ethically u are correct. But since the courts justify their verdict
with a lose argument of "not a full fledged state", i have to wait for
the SC verdict. Hope they think of all the difficulties they are
making for the people of Delhi through their decision.
: What is National agricultural market(NAM) and explain briefly the
problems it is facing?
: NAM : Definite Integral (0-29) of APMCs all over India
Benefit : eQuotes by traders all over India
Problems: Poor Infra, different guidelines of markets all over India,
Multiple levy of mandi fees etc
Good info on NAM
: While is true that violence was predominant in Karnataka, it was
because they were the ones affected by the verdict.. So Chuck those
: It is a permanent solution
: In a water parched area they cultivate highly water consuming
agricultural crops
: South Karnataka has always been water deficit was a
predominantly ragi cultivating region.. Over the last 3 decades, the
pattern has changed owing to many reasons .. And add to it, the
'Bangalore IT spectacle' and the following boom of immigrants.. Where
do u go for the water ?
: Coastal region of Karnataka want to secede from Karnataka if West
flowing rivers are diverted
: Disturbing the natural course of a river can never be a sustainable
solution.. And add to it the secession issues of Coorg
r: Corrg is another matter

: Yep .. Kaveri originates in coorg Merely, there needs to be

discussion between the two states.. But political opportunism stops
them from doing that .. As simple as that.. And the opposition parties
in Karnataka know it's a win win for them now.. They are behind all
the turbulence now in Karnataka..
: Why there were so many estates auctioned in the late 18th century in
: Permanen Settlement by British government. If land owners failed to
pay taxes by a particular day, British used to takeover the land and
sell it to others by auctioning. (Sunset Rule)
: As most land owners always failed to pay taxes, British used to
takeover lands and auction, but as land owners were powerful, their
associates used to take part in those autions and purchase lands in
very low cost and even not pay that money sometimes, forcing British
to auction it again!
14/09/16, 9:27 PM - +91 87968 89782: Yes. Killing is taking life
of that living being forever. Dhol can just trouble someone one to
some extent only for few hours. Although I don't support those dhols
breaking permissible sound limits, still there cant be comparison
between death and 2-3 hours mental disturbance. (p.s: hardly 0.001 %
cases where some people have got permanent ear damage according to a
: After d 7th constitutional amendment act, there can b same governer
for 2 states.
Can anybody give an example?
: Till recently haryana and punjab
: Even Arunachal & Meghalaya.
: Any governer having charge of 3 states simultaneously??
: Bcz d act says of appointment of same person as a governer of 2 or
more states.
: I think there is currently no one having charge of 3 states
: Anyway article 153 clearly states that "There shall be Governor for
each State: Provided that nothing in this article shall prevent the
appointment of the same person as Governor for two or more States."
: ESL Narsimhan - Telangana and Andhra Pradesh
V Shanmuganathan - Arnachal Pradesh and Meghalaya
Om Prakash Kohli - MP and Gujarat
: Never heard of Japanese being majorly vegans. I was thinking is
there anything that they don't eat.
: Less than 4% of the Japanese are vegans
: Vegan and vegetarian are two different things friend
: I am talking of veganism.. And there is no category of lacto
vegetarianism in Japan
: Vegetarian is not even a term. A vegan is purely dependent on veg
items. There is no sea food or non veg included.
: In the us if u say, give me vegetarian food, they won't understand
: It's used only in India
: Vegans don't even drink milk.
: It's substituted by soya or cocinut milk
: Vegan = pure vegetable eaters
Vegetarian = vegetables+ animal products like milk and honey

: Or rather , I ll say it is so rare to even be taken into account..

And it isn't necessarily fish, but seafood that's consumed the most ..
Doesn't mean they don't consume red meat and chicken .. They do, more
than wat Indians do.. But relatively lesser as seafood is dominant
there.. Simple..
: So japanese are no vegans
: That is referred to lacto-vegetarianism friends
: * vegetarian is an Indian term which literally has no recognition
elsewhere.. Anyways.. We get the point yeah..
: Japan has some taboo about red meat because of some influence of
: In india we dont eat tiger,rhino,lion or even insects but we dont
see an outbreak.can you explain why?
: Apart from human beings themselves, China and Japan are literally
eating every living being. In some parts of China, even Foetus soup is
: It depends on the breed's breeding pattern
: Some breed like maniacs and some don't
: Every animal doesn't have the same pattern and intensity of breeding
: Obviously it depends on the demand and india the
demand of chicken is high hence there is a need of artificial
: But if the consumption will be low they wont be needing artificial
: Demand of chicken is worldwide
: Amd natural selection would kill them
: Yoi let them go unchecked and see what happens
: Smaller the animals, more crazier their breeding
: As i said we dont eat dogs in india but they are not booming
: Natural selection plays its role
: There was a research regarding ecological cycle and food chain
history. Conclusion was : Man is the only animal amingst more than 20
lakh species-subspecies of living beings who has caused harm to the
food chain, environment and ecology. Nature perfectly works on its own
laws unknown to us to balance number of entities in world. We need not
take responsibility on our own! They concluded that earth would be
better place if humans get extinct!
e.g. why there are innumerable incidences recently that tigers are
entering human settlements? One of the reasons is Their natural food
is taken away by humans. Plus biologically we are more near to
herbivores than carnivores.
: Basically, communists didn't follow their communism, hence Didi
acted like a pro-communist .. But now she is being portrayed as
Capitalist as she is calling back notorious Tata. General people don't
know legal details, they see Tatas as evil, which was advertised by
Didi herself.
: Actually didi never declared herself pure communist neither a pro
capitalist. She's basically pro people, whatever the conditions
: Q. What are masala bonds and what advantage do they possess?

: These are Rupee denominated bonds issued in offshore capital
markets. Indian companies can raise money directly in Rupees by
issuing these bonds in foreign countries. Name Masala has nothing to
do with spices!
: Advantages:
1. Foreigners would want to invest in that as they offer relatively
higher interest rates than they might get in their economy, owing to
greater rate of growth of
India. At the same time this rate(7%) is lower than what companies
have to offer in India!
2. It would internationalize Rupee, just like China has done.
3. step toward full currency convertibility
4. While selling, its sold in Rupees but while paying back amount its
paid in Dollars at the current exchange rate. Hence fluctuating
currency rate risk is not borne by the issuer, but by the investor.
5. help in building up foreign investors confidence in Indian
6. exposure of Indian companies to vast foreign capital
7. eventual Cleaning of balance sheets
: Q. Why are most of the jute industries in the eastern coast?
: climate suitable for jute.
: What kind of diet is best to tackle antibiotic resistance?
: Congrats Chunni Bhai
: 128
: What test series did u follow? Apart from this grp
: For pre
I didn't join any test series, but I solved at least 50-60 test from
: Mostly from cl and vision
: Vision pre365 for current really helped a lot
: 4 me & many of us in the group pre has bcome a major hurdle, i go
down every year with few marks.. can u share ur stratergy? Is it
solving more Q's or continuous study qith single test series? To get
good marks like u ?
: Bro from start I always prefer preparing for main , and this
include ncert basics + current affairs , and for everyone I suggest 3
1. Read and understand the basics first because without this it will
be hard to clear pre as well as mains
2. Current for mains ( but this year upsc ask something I could have
been missed but thanks to test series+ 365 for pre)
3. Solve at least 50 test series from major institute (and please
always try to make notes from test series because you gonna learn a
lot of things from them)
: And from my personal experience
Know what to read and what not
: Varudh bhai , if you read only 6 hours a day regularly, I believe
you can have your name on final list, but you should read not just
turning around pages

: Religion has not remained "A way to achieve God" now. Its just
become a filthy sociopolitical tool for politicians to play with
emotions of less intelligent public who get easily maneauvored by the
names of Allah or Ram or Christ or even Bhim. We need another
Renaissance to intellectually strengthen public to just stay away from
"this" brand of religion which teaches anything other than Loving God
and all His children.
: Neither Hindus are chanting names of Ram whole day nor Muslims are
following real Sharia in their lives nor Buddhists are staying away
from Killing animals and eating them nor other so called religious
people following their own religious rules. They suddenly become
religious only to kill and hate each other. This pseudo-religiosity is
useless and waste of time and people need to be dragged away from such
emotional blackmailing.
Have a read and let me know how is it.
: Is it about the deaths of children because of drug resistance?
: Everything about AMR and Superbugs
: What are some interesting case laws regarding indirect tax in India?
by Palkesh Asawa
: Read parachute coconut oil & McDonalds case very interesting.
: Vivek is running an NGO to help street children. He receives
government grant of Rs.2 lakh rupees for a project to teach the out
of school children, who work at tea-stalls, do boot-polishing etc.
A year passes, but Vivek managed to utilize only 50,000 rupees from
the grant. Despite his best efforts, he couldnt convince many poor
children or their families to join his NGOs program.
As per the grant rules, Vivek has to return all the unspent money back
to government by the end of March 31st. But his colleague Pran
suggests following:
If we honestly return Rs.1.5 lakh back, then government officials will
think we are amateur, ineffective NGOs and theyll substantially
reduce our grant for next year or even worse- theyll not give us
any project next time!We should take help of CA Prasad to manipulate
our account books and show majority of the grant was utilized for
education.Many other NGOs do the same thing- there is no problem
nobody will raise any objection, as long as we give 20% of the grant
to SDM in charge of this project.Although it sounds unethical but we
wont use this money for personal needs, well use it on street
children only. Hence our act is fully ethical and moral.
What should Vivek do with the money?
: If that Vivek is me, I would call up Vijay Mallya to take guidance
: Jokes apart: Vivek should return that money back to government. At
the same time he should present all the honest facts regarding why he

was not able to spend all the money, what were practical difficulties
and how he has prepared detailed plan to overcome those difficulties
next time. Lying is not a solution whatever may be the intention,
because lies do get caught at some point of time and everything gets
spoilt. And there is always risk of using so called Welfare Funds for
personal benefits as human mind can't be trusted in future. Hence best
is to be honest outright.
: Please tweet it to the Prime Minister's Twitter handle, he might get
some help for sure
: In my opinion, he should give it back to the govt. he should first
make sincere efforts to set up structure so that the money doesn't
remain unused
: Vivek has tried his best to attract the street children and teach
them. Despite his best efforts he failed to utilise fully the funds
granted to his NGO.
He should return the amount remaining to the govt. Though his
intentions are not bad and he won't use the money for himself if he
didn't return it to govt, fudging records and bribing SDM is not a
ethically correct way to retain funds.
He should not be worried about being tagged as amateur for not
spending the amount granted, for nobody is perfect. The next year he
could use ICT tools and electronic gadgets to attract the street
children, for kids are find of such things and mix the syllabus to
teach them. He could mention about this in the proposal so that his
NGO won't be excluded from being granted with funds.
: Vision 2016 Mains Test Series Answer Paper Test 12
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: Don't worry guys, neither Congress had nor this government has any
guts to take any direct or indirect action on Pakistan. That's why
whatever people may think of Indira Gandhi, her name is already in
Golden Letters of Indian history as Iron Lady as she dared all the
world and broke Bangladesh from Pakistan to forever solve a great

threat. Just imagine, if today Bangladesh would have been Pakistan,

could India have managed to deal on both frontiers with same
: The point is there's huge difference between the arsenal of both the
nations since then. There will be huge loss of innocent life and
property which won't be worth it. Better is to do similar militant
operations and isolate them internationally. Though i know, in case
there's a war, there's no doubt, pakistan will be finished from the
face of earth.
19/09/16, 12:52 PM - +91 87968 89782: True Himansu. today it can
be done but no one WILL DO IT. Indira's achievement is more worthy as
it created permanent solution. Bangladesh is not enemy to India now
and we are almost fearless on that frontier, my relative in Army on
Indo Bangla border says its quite cool and casual there and both sides
soldiers have dinner together many times. Is not due to 1971? Does
Modi has guts to do something similar which will have impact even
after 50 years?
19/09/16, 12:55 PM - Himanshu Aspi: But vivek we are already doing it
in Baluchistan since a decade. Raw is funding insurgents and
separatists there, even providing training. In case of Bangladesh it
was easy since India provided a huge barrier between Pak and Bengal.
Pak wasn't able to use it's full force against India at that point of
time. Doing a similar thing in PoK will lead to serious loss of life
and property.
19/09/16, 12:57 PM - +91 87968 89782: International isolation is
what we are trying from 70 years. It's never worked.
1. Pakistan is anyways not much Integrated with world that they would
fear isolation.
2. China is their main ally and its not going to stop providing Pak
all the necessities whatever dossiers and proofs we keep giving to
3. Due to strategic use and being a weapon selling country, USA is not
going to stop financing Pak any time soon. Rather historically they
have increased funding to Pak to eliminate terrorists whenever some
terror activities happened, despite fully knowing that Pak itself is
the sponsor.
Tell me then, what is International isolation for them?
19/09/16, 1:00 PM - +91 87968 89782: Also, what bad has happened
to North Korea even after complete international isolation? They have
only grown stronger.
19/09/16, 1:02 PM - Himanshu Aspi: Like i said earlier, two nations
probably help pakistan in times of its need. One is China and the
other is US. China's doing it to counter the emergence of India as a
world leader, US is doing it for practically the same reason but to a
lesser extent. The main reason for US is their lust for being the
world leader. Anyway so China can be attracted through investment
opportunities in India such as China Pak economic corridor. A similar
thing in India could have attracted them. Providing them access to
Arunachal with conditions. For US, we don't have to worry anymore
since the next Pres Trump will handle everything.

: One more point for Himansu:

If you see till late 19th century, majority of then developed
countries didn't allow even workers unions, no security was given to
workers, didn't give voting rights to all citizens, collected taxes as
and when wanted, didnt care about environment and exploited everything
in uncountable manner, made huge nuke weapons (us and russia have
15,000 nukes together, india has 110).
When they gave these rights to all, they were already rich countries
and hence could accommodate all this w/o affecting their growth.
Now, while 3rd world is developing at its own pace, how can they
interfere and preach moral values which they themselves didn't follow
while they were developing? In fact all the wealth they have today,
once belonged to 3rd world which they have looted!!!
Ulta chor kotwal ko daate!!
And now they are acting: So chuhe khake Billi chali haj.
To thik he, jaao haj, hum bhi jaenge huj, pehle hume bhi to Chuhe
khane do!
: So do u think India should sign NPT?
: Himansu, US is pure Capitalist and does only till it sees benefits.
Its USA who denied Supercomp to India, which later India's Vijay
Bhatkar designed. Its USA who denied its satelite uses to India in Pak
war, and now we have own NAVIC. Its USA who has ruined countries and
doing same till now. African story is not what media portrays. Africa
being tremendously resourceful has been kept in anarchy by US to
exploit. Its neo-Imperialism and it started from US - Monroe Doctrine.
Doctor can give dos and don'ts becoz its curing the patient, while US
doesnt cure anyone. This is the exact reason why Islamists like Laden
and now Bagdadi hate US, for runing nations for oil ans wealth. US
doesn't soeak morality when Saudi is ruining Yemen, but immediately
sends Amnesty and UNHCR to Kashmir and lectures India. Who will listen
to them then?
: Nuclear Proliferation Treaty itself is the proof that they don't
walk the talk and they juat want to dominate. They now have even
backed off from targets of Paris Environment Summit.
: 1) US isn't pure capitalist, infact in socialist terms US is
contributing better than India to its citizens social welfare (such as
unemployment allowance) and also grants other nations in times of
need. But if u talk of pure capitalism, think of saudi arabia.
2) Denied Supercomputer or Navigation satellite during war : Not sure
about it, though we have been using GPS since the tech was born. Even
internet, on which US had tha propriety, was shared with the world for
3) Story of Africa being resourceful : Agreed but then US is a
latecomer. If u talk of exploitation think the English, French and
Germans. See what they did to open up Africa to the world.

4) Reason why Islamists like Laden doesn't support US : Common they

are terrorists, they have their own filthy agendas of confusing the
innocent into terrorism, not for the sake of religion but for power.
Do u know, laden had his education completed in America. His brother
still lives there and don't agree with laden's principles.
5) In case of Saudi ruining Yemen : Yemen was already doomed after the
rebels got in and displaced the president. Infact US was involved into
breaking a ceasefire there through its talks with Saudi. Also if u
remember, just a few days ago there have been a ceasefire agreement
between US and Russia in Syria too. They are there fighting the IS,
India can't even think about getting it's troops to a foreign land and
6) Gaza case : I don't support killing of innocents but then the
adults need to understand. They should stop terrorism and the war will
automatically stop. Har ek ko apni aukad samajhni chahiye. Gazans know
they don't have the means to take on Israel, Why then they don't value
the credit, Why they through missiles in Israel which are then
intercepted by anti missiles in Israel. Later when Israel starts, they
start crying, preaching human rights. They have to understand Israel
is a no nonsense country. Aise nhi chalega.
7) US didn't dominate through NPT, instead it was the only country to
convince NPT members to give India a special consideration to trade in
nuclear technology with current NPT members. As per rules India cannot
do business with NPT members but just because of that consideration,
India is doing it, thanks to the US.
: Why burden of remaining 127 crore is always taken by already overburdened 3 crore tax payers? I mean many of them are not even in
organized sector, don't enjoy most benefits which agricultural sector
non-taxpayers enjoy. Can't government prioritize spending for most imp
issues? Can't they increase tax bracket to bring more of 123 crores to
pay taxes rather than putting sentimental pressure on those 3 crores
again and again through cess, give ups and such welfare funds? Above
all, there is not much accountability or they can't be prosecuted if
they waste our donations and there is no way we can can check that our
money reaches real beneficiary. See what happened in Adarsh Scam. If
we fight with autowallahs and paperwallahs to make sure that even Rs 1
is not wasted, why we give thousands of crores to government apart
from taxes?
: Recent CAG report said that education cess remains unused mostly.
: How everyone pays tax vaibhav? Direct taxes need to be most imp and
most prominent component of revenue and thats not even 3 crore people.
Acxotding to Economic Survey, 3 crore file tax returns and max 2 crore
fall into tax paying bracket. Which run everything in the country.
Even sponsor water or parasite/ bacteria research expeditions on moon
and mars. Its ok that such missions will be helpful for future
generations, but we are sacrificing current generation for that. Not
even High HDI countries do this.
: If people had the same thoughts as you have ,ISRO wouldnt have
become a profitable option or for that matter investment in metro or
mobile phones.
: why people from Norway, Switzerland Australia, Germany don't have
these thoughts? What they have lost?

: Defence research is altogether different from space research.

: Taiwan is communication giant, yet nowhere in space research
: And for the tax part yes direct tax should be the major contributor
but the ground reality is many in india are still dependent on farming
and farming remains as a very unstable option as of now hence cant be
: first educate and make healthy all citizens. Invest in human
capital is the most imp thing even according to economic surveys and
most economists
: if we invest heavily on space while neglecting investment in human
capital in already crunch situation of revenues, what about human
: I dont know why people complain about the sorry state of research
and technology when there is so much inhibition in investing in such
sectors.....we are bound to be backward
: Do you realise how difficult it would have been to have indegenous
Navigation system if we didnt have ISRO?
: When a nation doesnt invest in S&T it is deemed to stay poor.
: How significant is regionalism in India. Suggest measures to
tackle regionalism.
: Again, S&T research has nothing to do with Space Vaibhav. I already
gave examples of countries which are way beyond India in S&T yet not
interested in Space.
: The countries you talked about are either of EU or are allies of
US.... EU has a dedicated apace program and US allies get good deals
from US which is sadly not the case for us.....infact cryogenic engine
once completely operational would make ISRO almost self
sufficient....and yes i agree about your point of rationalisation of
the needs of the country
: Recall the kargil war when US denied the use of GPS. ISRO is
: Off course India's defense is incomplete without ISRO. All crux of
my points were just this: Efficient and prioritywise use of funds.
Rather than emotionally appealing people later for most imp things
neglected completely.
: Q.Mughal dynasty ruled india for a very long time but faced great
difficulties at the fag end. What were the reasons that led to their
downfall ?
: Weak rulers. Era of king makers started.
: + Aurangzeb's Deccan Policy, some extent of religious intolerance
towards Hindus, united Hindu rulers, especially Rajput.
: + Britishers took advantage of the same
: Just missed the point of nadir shah and ahmed shah abdali
: + internal conflicts in the later Mughals.
p: Anyone having substantial material or links on:
1. Casteism
2. Lingualism
3. Regionalism
4. Naxalism
: Even RAW is not like James Bond or Mission Impossible. They have
their own constraints. They generally don't go beyond intelligence
gathering. Very few times they have involved in direct action. Its not

like Mossad or ISI or CIA who have independence and financial power to
act on its own.
: Which gas was most lethal during World War 1 ?
: Phosgene and mustard gas
: Chlorine
: Q.Why kerala with a sex ratio of 1084 considered healthy although
it being the extreme opposite and what are reasons for this sex ratio?
1. Women being weaker and long neglected gender, higher sex ratios
increases their say in social-political-economic spheres improving
their well being.
2. Higher number of females is good for religious reasons as religions
like Islam are allowed polygamy.
1. High Literacy rate (94%+) which create atmospheres and awareness
about treating males and females equally.
2. Matriarchal society in which a girl is not seen as burden rather
blessing of Goddess Laxmi
3. Kerala always had more females than males even from 1901 census
4. Only 7% people in Kerala are below poverty line, 2nd lowest in
India (all India avg is 22%). Financial stability generally always
decreases female foeticide.
In reality, its not so high as it appears to be. Reason is Migration
of male workers to Middle east for jobs (child sex ratio is 960). But
as males migrate out, it also creates need in home state to have more
female workers which keeps the ratio high anyways.
: The centre appointed 3 external members into the 6 member monetary
policy committee, where 3 other members are represented by the RBI,
governor included. The decision will be taken by majority of 6 members
where governor will have casting vote in case of a tie. How is a tie
: MPC structure suggest 5 members. Guv, Dy. Guv, 1 RBI executive
director & 2 outside RBI.
: There are 3 outside rbi
: On Mrunals site it says 2 outside RBI.
: You missed the point of higher life expectancy in females
: And also some castes in kerala like nair follow matrilineal linkage
of progression which puts female on higher pedestal
: 3 from RBI & 3 from outside, then tie chances are very low.
23/09/16, 11:33 AM - Sunil Sharma Aspi: This is confusing abit, need
: Actually if the governor has a casting vote then he'll not vote in
normal circumstances, so 3 from govt and 2 from rbi. A tie is not
possible and the ball will always be at the govt's court. Strange
: Plz explain the difference between specific, effective and compound
: Specific tariff depends on the quantity of product. Eg Rs 5/kg of

Compound Tariff is a mixture of specific tariff and ad valorem tariff.

Ad valorem tariff is a certain percentage of value of product. Eg: Ad
valorem on potatoes be 10% of the value/kg
Compound tariff on patatoes be Rs 5/kg plus 10% of the value/kg
No idea about effective tariff
: Though the voting rights are skewed in favor of Govt in MPC, RBI
Governor's vote gains prominence when a member is absent or abstains
from voting.
: True
: Strangely, the present RBI governor had proposed the set up, so I
think it will not be a big problem.
: Thanks. But higher life expectancy in females is everywhere (india
avg: male 68, female 72) . Why then it doesn't contribute to higher
sex ratios?
: See if the natural births are allowed like in the case of kerala
they are bound to be all developed countries the ratio is
favourable to women but not as much as in kerala.
: If member is present he/she cannot abstain from voting.
: Absentism is not thought of while deciding commitee structures as
odd or even. Even SC benches generally have odd number of judges so as
to take decision by majority.
: India should treathen to withdraw from UN if there is no action
taken on Pak.
Media is to be blamed for the spreading things like this, recently one
of the website said India conducted surgical for which army denied any
such thing.
: As far as foreign relation is concerned we cannot dictate them what
to do and what not.
: Right. Depending on International pressure is of no use. Even a
child knows that what is International. Its nothing but USA. And USA
in no way going to act against Pak. Its for their strategic
importance. Rather now even China and Russia are showering Pak with
love! This is so called International Pressure created by India!
: Like there was editorial in Hindu recently, India should
internally grow strong rather than depending on FDI as thats too much
vulnerable. There is time now that we depend on nationalistic policies
even in this globalized world just like China and Russia are doing
: Officially indians cant invest in FOREX..but what about NRI?can
they invest in FOREX?having indian NRI account..????
: Why can't Indians invest in forex?
: Its RBI rule to avoid money laundering..
24/09/16, 5:25 PM - Himanshu Aspi: But we still can trade in foreign
currency against INR
: we can't trade in currencies against USD
: Only those currency which are regulated by rbi
: And through indian share market
: Usd, euro, jpy and gbp can be traded against inr
: Through indian share market..cant invest in forex
: These are called forex transactions
: Rbi has regulation..gone through it..cant invest

: I've been doing it a year ago through NSE. I don't think RBI has
banned it since. Can u share the regulation.
: laundering
2.india don't want money to get out of country
3.usually these things involve betting which is illegal in India
though legal in most of the countries
: It's perfectly legal to trade forex against INR for the 4 pairs
mentioned above
: Bro I've checked, i can still trade currencies against inr.
Ok..there is a catch..what about foreign currencies only..means I have
converted my INR into USD then trading against different currencies..
: We can trade in only 4 currencies against inr. Also we can't trade
in forex against a foreign currency.
: Reason being regulatory limitations and our weak currency
: That's exactly what I was asking..with an NRI account whose salary
comes in USD.but indian base NRI account..he can do that?
: It doesn't matter whether u r nri or Indian, it matters where u r
trading. Forex trading in India means trading in NSE, BSE or MCX
: An Indian can trade in forex through NYSE
: In India forex trading is allowed in 4 pairs usd-inr, euro-inr, jpyinr and gbp-inr
: But if u want to do usd-euro, u r not allowed
: But u can do it in nyse, sitting in India
: Whether Judiciary is state
: Yes
: State means an office under govt or parliament
: Judiciary is a part of government
: Judiciary, Legislature(Parliament) and Executive(Read as Govt.) are
the three organs of the state.
: Organs or Pillars, you can call anything
: Executive and judiciary can both be considered under government
: There is in constitution, is mentioned that judiciary is state
: Article 12
: Here is only other authority
: U can see that executive legislature and judiciary are three organs
of the government. Article 12 says any authority under govt is a part
of state, it by default means judiciary is a state
: Judiciary is generally not considered as a part of state
: When judiciary plays the administrative role it is called as STATE
but while dispensing justice they aren't
: But judiciary is the 3rd organ of govt
: Yes but that doesnt make them state.....the term state mainly
refers to administrative machinery
: So govt has an added role of dispensing justice
: Article 12 doesn't mention anything about administration But art12
nowhere mentioned anything about administration
: Meaning of the State
According to Article 12 of the Constitution of India, the term
State can be used to denote the union and state governments, the
Parliament and state legislatures and all local or other authorities

within the territory of India or under the control of the Indian

Over the period of time, the Supreme Court has explained the ambit of
State to include Corporation such as LIC and ONGC since they
perform tasks very close to governmental or sovereign functions.
In fact, the term State also accommodates any authority thats
created by the Constitution of India and has the power to make laws.
It need not perform governmental or sovereign functions
26/09/16, 10:29 PM - +91 77382 63036: this is taken from
26/09/16, 10:30 PM - +91 77382 63036: also if constitution
wanted to include judiciary in state it would have explicitly
mentioned like they have done for executive and legislature
26/09/16, 10:51 PM - +91 87968 89782: 1. Administration's role
was duel in British era i.e District Magistrates used to control
Administration as well as act as Judge. Now just name District
Magistrate remains, he doesn't perform judge role. Judiciary is
completely independent of executive in this way now.
2. Also when its mentioned in constitution "Directive Principles of
State Policy" its exclusively Administration as State. Because its
admin. who is going to imolement it, not judiciary.
These points show that judiciary is not considered as state.
: But I'm not talking about role of executive, I'm talking about role
of govt and judiciary is still the 3rd branch of government. As per
article 12 any authority under the govt or parliament, having the
power to make, amend law or pass orders is considered a state. From
various orders, we cannot say for sure that judiciary can be
considered as a state or not. It is still under dispute.
: Thats not pillar of Government Himansu. Thats pillar of Democracy.
Media is 4th pillar of Democracy. Which has nothing to do with other 3
: India has suspended the talks on Indus Water Treaty with Pakistan
and decided to maximise it's utilisation, can india also stop Pakistan
from accessing Indus waters, similar to what China can do in case of
: Right now we have not been using it to our potential. We are making
preparation for that. I don't think we can suspend Indus water treaty
that easily, because we have other neighbours with whom we have
traties to share river water and we should be careful not to
antagonise them.
: Actually as per article 64 of the vienna convention, sovereign
states can withdraw from any international treaty including this one
: Stopping the indus rivers would economically destroy pakistan in a
month or two. It has no other source. But the problem is drainage. How
to control that in the Indian area.
: What about stopping it first in winter season when the drainage is
low. And generally this is the time water is scarce.
: Not in the indus system
: The glaciers are permanent all through the year

: Before stopping we have to withdraw from the treaty, we can't stop

being in the treaty
: China's support to Pak is also conditional
: Its interests are only in protecting CPEC.
: and gwadar
: Pak is a naughty kid in a class where the monitor (china) just uses
it to show power without any real love towards it
: Pak is a rogue state I doubt any one would side with it against
: Would a nation whose GDP is less than maharashtra, risk raising a
finger against India and China?
: The problem is that how long in the name of nukes are we gonna
tolerate it.?
: They will dump Pak if Iran extends its hand with China.
: I think we are making a mistake China and Pakistan are not a new
allow and just allies for economic cooperation
: Himanshu, they won't survive, so they won't hesitate taking down as
many people with them as possible
: All's good but if we stop, how to control the drainage?
: China has a strategic alliance with pak.
: China'a investment in Pak is 20% of its GDP in other words we can
say Pak is just like any another province of China.
: It requires minimum of five years to create necessary infrastructure
to stop Indus
: Building multiple dams upstream to distribute water evenly through
our the length rather than at one place? Putting the water to canals?
: Just the talks have rattled the Pak.
: We can build dams, check dams, irrigation canals still it won't be
sufficient enough to halt Indus
: War with Pak would be costly affair. Because we are virtually
isolated to be honest.
: No we are not. Pakistan's media is overhyping everything
: They would lose hundreds of billions to protect their $46billion
CPEC. Hardly any RoI (Return on investment)
: If at all there is war, first to back off is US because of the
investment in China. China will anyway side with Pak.
: Never they will. It is just empty rhetoric to stop India from
: Islamic countries will support Pak.
: They won't
: Europe will be mute spectator.
: It is all economics buddy
: Not all Islamic country will support pak
: We have good relations with all Islamic countries including Iran and
: With oil crisis not seeming to end no one would support Pakistan
: Pak shared nuclear know-hows with north Korea.
: As per north korea there are only 4 countries in the world North
Korea, south korea,usa, Japan. They don't care about the rest
: There is Nexus between pak-china- north Korea.
: In 2011 Pak was bribed for sharing nuclear weapons by N Korea.
: And they expect to be inducted into NSG with such track record.

: They can expect because of China. Imagine if cpec fails China will
take very long to recover from shock.
: Even the father of their nuclear technology was a traitor and stole
tech from US
: I reckon that's the only thing they had since India has answer for
strings if pearls.
: That guy was novice. Jealous of appreciation Kalam used to get in
: Problem is we can just TALK of breaking Indus Water Treaty. CANT
IMPLEMENT. We have no infrastructure like dams and canals to stop or
divert water. Its huge process to acquire land, pay compensations,
build dams and canals w/o disturbing environment. India could never
forsee this option, hence is not prepared for it.
: Indus water treaty is very generous with 80% of water being left for
Pakistan's usage, we should review it.
: That's right. But immediate action is not possible. It will take 10
years to create infrastructure under Indian Red Tapism. And perhaps
whole work will just be abandoned due to relationship flip-flops due
to poor & confusing foreign relationship strategies of India. Might be
just huge wastage of money.
: In fact J and K assembly had passed a resolution to abrogate Indus
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28/09/16, 6:19 AM - Himanshu Aspi changed the subject from CSE Grp
- Politics to CSE Grp - History/Art
: Q.Ram mohun roy was the first indian leader in a true sense. Do
you agree?
: Perhaps yes but only in Modern India and In Social Reforms. Yes he
is pioneer of Indian Renaissance which was unprecedented though he
couldn't do much about Political or economic reforms, may be time for
those ideas had not come in India. Before that period, India generally

had Saints or Sufis like Kabir who had almost pan-India appeal about
social and religious issues. Real political and economic reformers can
be seen only after 1857 like Dadabhai Nauroji, Justice Ranade,
B.L.Tilak etc.
: Ram mohun roy was not restricted to social reforms.You missed the
point that Ram mohun roy spoke about all issues
political,education,social reforms.
: Political?
: Yes...he started the culture of political agitations in india...he
spoke unequivocally against restrictions of press
: He praised the new political system of british when it was due
: ya he did speak about freedom of press in sanvad kaumudi.. but i
never heard that it created any substantial influence amongst people
to have some political freedom..plz correct me if i m wrong
: thats why even in 1857 people were unsure of demands
: even revolutionary soldiers didn't know what to do and they forced
Bahadur Shaha to accept leadership
: Yes he couldnt connect with masses beacuse of lack of support
: i think concept of political freedom really got rooted into minds of
people only after works of moderates
: But surely he inspired the new generation to take uo reforms
*Temple Architecture and Sculpture*
The basic form of a Hindu structural temple consists of
1. Garbhagriha:
*It literally means womb-house and is a cave like sanctum.
*In the earliest temples, it was a small cubical structure with a
single entrance.
*Later it grew into a larger complex.
*The Garbhagriha is made to house the main icon (main deity) which is
itself the focus of much ritual attention.
2. Mandapa:
*It is the entrance to the temple.
*It may be a portico or colonnaded (series of columns placed at
regular intervals) hall that incorporate space for a large number of
*Dances and such other entertainments are practiced here.
Some temples have multiple mandapas in different sizes named as
Ardhamandapa, Mandapa and Mahamandapa.
3. Shikhara or Vimana:
*They are mountain like spire of a free standing temple.
*Shikhara is found in North Indian temples and Vimana is found in
South Indian temples.
*Shikhara has a curving shape while vimana has a pyramidal like
4. Amalaka:
It is a stone disc like structure at the top of the temple and they
are common in North Indian temples.
5. Kalasha:
It is the topmost point of the temple and commonly seen in North
Indian temples.
6. Antarala (vestibule):

Antarala is a transition area between the Garbhagriha and the

temples main hall (mandapa).
7. Jagati:
It is a raised platform for sitting and praying and is common in North
Indian temples.
8. Vahana:
It is the mount or vehicle of the temples main deity along with a
standard pillar or Dhvaj which is placed axially before the sanctum.
: Rhetoric over SAARC is almost useless untill this still happens

: I don't think SAARC is that significant at all. I mean for UPSC

answer wrtimg we can certainly write 200 words over its achievements
, but in reality not much useful.
see its participants apart from India and Pak..
Bangladesh: Powerless
Afgan: Terror Devastated
Bhutan: Not significant!
Nepal: Now almost pro china
Sri Lanka: Now pro china
Maldives: Just a honeymoon spot!
I mean who cares about such group? Even they don't care about each
(exaggerations are only to point to a fact that India needs A REAL
PERMANENT solution to Pak problem, not pseudo or just rhetorical.)
: None of these countries, not even one, helps India financially or
militarily or even in other ways. Rather they are getting lots of help
from India in disasters and many other ways. And now as they see China
is a powerhouse, they will sooner or later align towards China as
already being done by SL and Nepal. India should not sleep like an
innocent baby thinking these miniature neighbors will keep loving us
forever. There is nothing like Love in International Relations. All is
Power. India needs to really ACT EAST rather than just looking east.
: I saw the author in one of the Big picture discussions. He was an
ambassador to Turkey, so there is substance to what he says, but I
think he is being very sceptical.
: But the information regarding the grouping of terrorist in
launchpad was gained in last 7 days or so
: perhaps those were Same people who called for all out war are now
withdrawing money from share market, even they know that their actions
will create bad effects on indian economy

such duplicity and show off patriotism. Either they should not call
for war or now when soldiers are living on edge, should not take out
money to show solidarity with Nation.
: Bhai war is an opportunity for business men as is shown by many in
history. they are taking out money from the market to invest
: If UNO asks India why u crossed border, India should tell..
"Nothing much. We just saw few Pokemons there and went to catch them.
Not our fault."

: Uncle sam's country is sleeping let then wake up and hear the news
: MFN ki meeting cancel kar k surgical strikes.... Pakistan would be
like "Saala chhoti ganga bol k naale m kudaa diya"
: 'Don't take our peaceful intent for weakness'--- Pakistani P.M.
Hahaha...hum zara badmaash kya hue, puri Duniya hi 'SHARIF' ho gayi.
: Strategy of diplomatic isolation
: But what can be done? we are always in catch 22 situation with Pak.
If you love them, they hate you. If you hate them, they hate you even
more. If you don't do anything they still hate. And in all this we
always face some kind of damage economic or physical. Nuclear weapons
have complicated any direct action anywhere in the world. India's
foreign policy of restraint is apt for peace loving developing country
who dreams of becoming Super Power soon.
e.g. you can't engage in brawls daily with rowdy guys staying in
colony while you are preparing for UPSC. Your aim is higher. What you
do is always try for restraint no matter how painful.
: Pakistan is such an unique case it is not possible to have single
foreign policy towards it
: Ok in response to the video shared by prashant on intended
diplomatic isolation
Pakistan currently has many major international partners such as US,
China, UK, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Turkey. Let's talk about them.
1) US :
- For US, Pak is a major non NATO ally in its war against terror, this
means inspite of being outside of the realm of NATO, it enjoys
military protection.
- Also the terror sponsored premier military force of Pak called SGS
enjoys considerable funding from US and Saudi Arabia. FYI, SGS
currently is ranked the 8th most powerful and disciplined military
force in the world.
- Apart from the above Pakistan is a means for the US to maintain
considerable leadership in South East Asia through intermediary
measures. Also a means to hamper the growing trend of Indian
development levels.
2) UK:
- Both India and Pak are members of the commonwealth of nations and so
UK has no choice but to remain neutral to the arguments of the two

nations, since both enjoy considerable military trainings and fundings

from UK. So forget about UK isolating Pak.
- Also remember who's the new governor of London? Sadiq Khan a
pakistani origin man.
3) China:
- China being a major competitor to India always maintains a foreign
policy that's intended to hamper India's growth in the world. So, it
considers funding Pakistan and supporting it's businesses through
diplomatic ventures.
- If u guys know and about the CPEC and Gwadar port projects, China
has considerable influence and interests in pakistan, so forget about
china isolating pak. Though in case we attack pakistan, China won't
attack us. I can explain it but right now let's stick to the topic of
- Since Pakistan has economic passes to the long forgotten silk route,
China wants to use it for its new One Belt One Road project. Apart
from that there are considerable bilateral trade ties between the two
- Lastly Pakistan is also a member of Shanghai Cooperation
Organisation SCO.
4) Saudi Arabia
- Both the nations always enjoyed excellent diplomatic ties. It can
be understood from the fact that Saudi Arabia is a major sponsor of
terror against India in Pakistan and considerably funds education and
development of pak military.
- Also Saudi Arabia is the biggest contributor for pakistan's
petroleum needs.
5) Islamic Nations : Iran, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, UAE
- Each of the nations mentioned above enjoy very good relations with
Pakistan since they are the founding members of Economic Cooperation
Organisation ECO. Also not to forget the many bilateral ties with ECO
6) Member of UN
- Being a member of UN, it is secured by any trade related actions
taken by India or Russia.
- Since all members of UN subscribe to TRIPS pact, they have to follow
a non biased trade procedure with fellow TRIPS subscribers.
- China being a permanent member of UNSC can veto any intended actions
taken against Pakistan by other members.
- Pakistan being a member of Coffee Club, which is a club of member
nations who are against India getting a permanent seat in UNSC, enjoys
considerable support from them.
Lastly who are we dependent to support us against Pakistan in time of
need, our very old friend, Russia. Just a few days ago, russia
completed its joint military exercise with Pakistan irrespective of
knowing of the Uri attack.

The diplomatic world is very competitive, yaha koi kisi ka saga nahi
hota. Everyone looks for his own benefit and when those benefits need
to be secured, friends become foes and foes become friends
: Pseudo intellectuals today have got addicted to cozy and
comfortable lives. They are afraid. They don't have guts. So they
can't understand Nationalism which requires sacrifices.
: That is why in defence of their cowardice, they preach human
freedom, speech freedom, my choice etc. They don't have courage to
follow paths of great sacrificing freedom fighters.
: Nation is always greater than Individual.
: Is it necessary for an acting president or a sitting vice president
to resign when they contest election for the office of president?
: No
: All formalities are done before joining
: So a member of parliament can contest election to he would just have
to resign before he assume charges?
: I know this is written in dd basu but a VP can contest election for
president without resigning. No criteria calls him to resign
: Speaking of patriotism/nationalism, a quote by famous English poet
comes to my mind "Patriotism is the last refuge of the scoundrel".
No individual has an authority to question another's patriotism or
lack of it for his country. Just because he doesn't agree with your
point of view doesn't make him any less patriotic.
: A nation is an idea and is made of its people, it can never be
greater than its people, for, without it, it is just a piece of land.
: You're a better person than an illiterate because of the
intellectuals and authors, do keep that in mind too.
: without nationalism there is no identity
: Israel is alive today because of natiinalism
i have read better authors
: And that identity should not be thrust down someone's throat.
: yes. those who are not ready to identify with nation, they have no
right to stay in nation
: we pay taxes follow laws ..this meane we idntify with
simple as thay
: What should I do if I feel horny and distracted during my IIT-JEE
preparation? Should I watch by Himanshu Chowdhury
30/09/16, 7:44 PM - Himanshu Aspi: Do give a thumbs up if u feel the
post deserves
: I am no one. Do you believe in Constitution or not? Or should that
also be changed? Should All Indian Penal Code punishment to rape be
scrapped just because some people "think" its good to rape? Freedom of
expression and opinion is not ABSOLUTE right but its QUALIFIED as per
constitution. Whatever threatens NATION is considered ANTINATIONAL
even in most free country like USA. In fact they check people even
like Shahrukh naked on airport if they feel threatened, we don't do
that much anyways.

: Freedom of speech etc can be implemented only IN A NATION. NO

FREEDOM WITHOUT NATION. As long as Nation is safe, you have all
freedoms. Once Nation is gone, where you will get freedom? This is
what Nehru says in Discovery of India. And this is why they fought to
drive English out of India and also to almost force it to unite.
: When we can think of cutting trade relations, we can also think of
restricting pak citizens from earning through Indian demography
: Akshay Kumar got Canadian citizenship
: Yes. He has entered into Hotel Business there.
: So he's not an Indian anymore
: he is still into lots of charity and other good things in India
: Yeah those are ways to save tax through sec80g
: yes. very true. people evade taxes because they don't see
government using money responsibly. lack of trust.
: No that's an economist reason and i don't agree with it. People
don't evade just because of this particular doubt, it's because of
their own greed and stacking psychology
: Do u know there are ways to convert these donations to black money
and funnel it back to donators through hawala route
01/10/16, 11:36 AM - +91 87968 89782: Economic Survey 2016 this
reason is mentioned
: off of the reason..not the only.
: thay only big businessmen do Himansu..hawala... midele class man
like a shopkeeper doesnt do that... he simply evades taxes
: but at the same time he donates to religious temples, NGOs etc
: In my opinion donation shouldn't be to the government. Donation
should be an attitude of every individual wherein he instead of
donating in cash, do it in kind either directly to the victims or to
an agency directly in touch with victims. Read victims as those who
stay in a poor condition than you
: see in OCED countries, tax rate is avg 30%.. still almost 90% pay
taxes there.
: all developed countries
: bcoz they trust government.
: Yeah to increase tax payers we need revolutionary changes and those
changes shouldn't depend on trust. Think of a software industry where
the crackers and programmers trust each other than they will not
breach each other's domain. This is impractical and doesn't happen.
Whenever crackers break in, the security is tightened
i: So we need revolutionary ways to increase tax instead of making
people trust on the govt's ability to use the money wisely
: The strategy should be to continually close loopholes and make new
demanding techniques to prevent evading
: this will be possible when all transactions are recorded digitally.
will take time. till then?
: (e.g. i think Norway has gone 100% cashless now..only internet
Bhai there are ways to prevent evading. 1 Rs nahi bach paega. Agar
believe nahi toh tax collection and policy ki daudbhag private sector
ko deke dekho

: bhai ye log railway privatize nahi karne de rahe, forget tax

: Haha let the panama pages open, sabhi ke patte khulenge. Tax evasion
is even higher at their level
: Let me make it in one straight line.....if u become that straight
(liberal)...... then don't keep the army......
01/10/16, 12:17 PM - Shashwat Aspi: Wars nd soldiers are the things of
emotional patriotism
01/10/16, 12:18 PM - Shashwat Aspi: Even in the history u will find
that the authors or the poets or thr scholars use to praise those
warriors so that they may atleast get rewarded for their sacrifice in
terms praise
01/10/16, 12:32 PM - Himanshu Aspi: We live in a world of pseudo
equality. Pseudo equality in the sense that we award accolades on
sportsmen who are doing it for fame and money, shower crores in praise
for wrestler/shooter winning a so called medal in the Olympics, but we
forget to show the same kind of appreciation for a soldier who is
doing the same for the nation and in 100 times more difficult
conditions. Still i applaud the soldiers who still perform their duty
at those conditions which we living in our comfortable bedrooms can't
fathom about.
It's correct people will join and are standing in line to take up the
role in the army but how many of them actually reach those
levels/survive there. Have their presence become equivalent to the
chickens stacked together to be sacrificed later. They are human
beings for god's sake.
As we were talking of authors earlier, let me share one more quote of
a famous author :
"A soldier doesn't fight because he hates the enemy in front of him,
he fights because he loves what he left behind"
: Yes. We can serve in any position. Gandhi didn't do any job nor
gave any exam. He is still father of nation.
: [01/10, 1:17 p.m.] Himanshu Chowdhury: Felt bad hearing the story of
the torture incurred upon DG Corp Affairs Bansal. If something like
that can happen to a man at his level. Think about us.
The primary solution is networking with like minded people, trust to
help people in our network and earning more than averagr
: 1996-2015 GS Mains Solved
Sociology Optional Materials
: 3 Links for Anthro Optional Study Material

: How can low crude prices hurt the economy? Should the producers be
allowed to control production for raising the prices?
: When the whole economy is dependent on oil,yes lowering the prices
affect the economy
: A few months back the situation was so grim that the barrel of oil
costed more tham the oil itself
: Isn't it then a kind of monopoly at play, that a group of countries
responsible for supplying the whole world, manipulate the prices at
their own will, without any agreement with parties dependent on oil.
The economies of oil producing countries and oil dependent countries
develop an inverse relation for growth. Growth for one is loss for
: It was very hard for the countries of OPEC to arrive at the hiking
of price
: Why would someone want to lose its market
: But what is that got to do with monopoly
: If it were monopoly this step would have been taken long back
: But they didnt
: Because of mutual mistrust
: They were obviously competing with shale gas. But since the
competition effected their own economy, they thought of keeping the
prices at a respectable level
: Yes the sustainable level
: The current rate is far too low
: How can this not be a monopoly. Now that they've increased the
prices, the other part of the world not in agreement with the US, will
have to bear the prices and the brunt of high inflation
: Why would they care for other countries...they have to maintain the
sustainable levels
: Hence the monopoly
: No one can force producers to control production except in Communist
Countries. In free market they are independent to follow demand-supply
Low prices of crude:
1. Saving our dollars: 3 lakh crores this year
2. Keeping inflation low
3. Recovery for domestic oil companies
4. Subsidy savings from LPG
1. Loss of jobs for Indians in oversee oil economies, reducing
remittances and also FDI
2. Reduced exports due to global slowdowns
: This is clearly not monopoly
: This organisation hardly alters the price
: This is one of the rarest of rare cases.
: They have right. They have not opened Charity Oil Org. Its
: And what was the pump at will approach they followed to compete with

: Bhai i agree, but i think it isn't ethical. Not saying anything to

control them but too much dependence creates monopoly
: see.. USA doesn't need Saudi Oil now due to Shale.. so their
business was in bring it up they are playing another
business finish off competitors..they have leverage of
billions of dollars back in home to afford low prices for next few
: This strategy was not to compete with shale but to totally destroy
it.....even at increased prices they can compete easily with shale
: Like shale is at a nascent stage and production is costly and the
infra for production is too costly. Not many will be able to afford
these prices. Those countries would face high inflation now
: Saudis are travelling in Gold made cars. Huge money there. They can
do whatever they want with Oil. Just like USA threatens world every
now and then with its weapons, Saudi can with oil.
: A single group of countries shouldn't be allowed to manipulate world
: Who will Police them? Universal Police USA rather used them for
themselves till now. Now as they got shale, don't need them.
: They themselves get affected by rise in prices.
: They are not a self sufficient economy
: 1. Dramatic increase in prices would reduce the demand.
2. Inflation in other countries would carry over to their countries
in form of imports.
: Opec produces 81% of world oil. What r u saying
: The non opec countries don't have enough oil to affect demand
: Saudis have decreased import. India had lowest export of decade to
Saudis last year. Recently due to increased competition as sanctions
on Iran were lifted, Saudi situation is crunch, but they can afford it
to destroy others.
: Again hence the monopoly
: yes. i agree they want to create monopoly. but not in old world
monopoly sense where exclusive rights were given. Its Reliance Jio
kind of monopoly
: Yeah
: We should start our dependence on shale and nuclear power in this
: solar power has tremendous potential and needn't depend on these
goons. thats why India plans 100GW by 2022.
: It's quite an irony that an imperfect religion, having very few
followers following the scriptures point to point, has less to no
followers going in the direction of violence, but a perfect religion,
having more than 90 percent followers following scriptures top to
bottom, have so many extremists
Amazing and MUST READ FOR UPSC ASPIRANT write up on why Planning
Commission is scrapped by Modi.

: PM had started a voluntary black money declaration scheme and the

persons failing would be dealt severely. I had a doubt how can the
legislature now pass a law retrospectively for this criminal offence?
: Why retrospective law is needed? Already laws are in place from
ling. I think they are sufficient as crimes were committed while law
was in place.
: If the current laws were sufficient why was there a need of such a
: We could have confiscated all of the black money.
: problem is to identify black money... and then to prove in court
that its really black money...looking at India's population and amount
of black money,it would need years and years in court litigation to
impart actual punishments...hence to avoid all this litigation by law
enforcement, Government designed this scheme that you declare
yourself, we shall reduce your punishment... but now as deadline is
over, law enforcement agencies will start acting and file cases
against money launderers who haven't declared under this
will definitely not be easy for already overburdened judiciary..
: Black money was identified already that is why exclusive letters
were sent to such people i.e around 7 lakhs but only around 65k people
have submitted returns.
: yes . Indians are always hopeful till last moment of escaping
: Apart from this scheme must have also taken steps to limit the ways
in which black money could be used
: Then this scheme would have been more effectice
: In fact I am amazed to see how come 65k people are ready to loose
almost half of their black money by Declaring in IDS.. they had
amassed this money by not having fear of same law
: right. a better way that flooding all accounts with 15 lakhs
: I think in the Monetary Policy Committee, the RBI governor gets to
vote twice, one is normal/usual vote and another in case of a tie.
: Else with the new MPC in place, RBI governor will be a lame-duck.
: I dont understand the issue of outsiders and insiders....even the
RBI deputy governer is directly selected by govt then he must also be
considered my opinion the inclusion of greater variety
of voices will lead to better economic policy and the currently
appointed people are the best minds in the country.
: I think it is some kind of prejudice. Once appointed to RBI they
leave behind politics and take a professional approach. That's the
reason for outsider-insider tag.
: I read in Unacademy daily video on the hindu that article 262
allows a parliamentary law ( inter state water dispute act 195) to
forbid the sc from intervening in inter state water dispute.
: It also says section 6(2) of ISWD act gives the order of tribunal
has the same force as an order of SC
: Yes inter state water disputes have been kept out of the purview of
the Supreme Court.
: In the race between cat and mouse,
the Mouse mostly wins,
Coz the cat is running for the food & Mouse for its life!

Remember- Purpose is more important than the need.

Hope we all take UPSC Exam as our Life and not just another way to
earn Food. We'll be definitely successful- sooner or later.
: Looming threat! Automation risks 69 per cent jobs in India, says
World Bank
via The Economic Times App(Download Now):
: Government agency to take away RBI's debt management role
via The Economic Times App(Download Now):
: Hindi + English Vision Mains 2017 Test Series (1 to 20 Tests)
Test 1
Test 2
Test 3
Test 4
Test 5
Test 6
Test 7
Test 8
Test 9
Test 10
Test 11
Test 12
Test 13
Test 14
Test 15
Test 16
Test 17
Test 18
Test 19 (Solutions not available on Vision website yet)
Test 20 (Solutions not available on Vision website yet)
All 20 tests and remaining 4 tests will be uploaded in the below link
"With the greater Russian involvement in the region, they are also
interested coming into CPEC (China Pakistan Economic Corridor). Iran,
Turkey and Saudi Arabia has also expressed interest in joining CPEC".
Off course, a prostitute deserves more respect and attention than
: Follow this link to join my WhatsApp group:
: (Economy Anti-Dumping Duty)
Union Government extends anti-dumping duty on certain Chinese
The Union Government has extended anti-dumping duty on import of
certain Chinese products, used in garment, toys and footwear
manufacturing, for another five years i.e. till 2021. Decision in this

regard was taken by Central Board of Excise and Customs (CBEC) based
on recommendations of the Directorate General of Anti-Dumping and
Allied Duties (DGAD). This extension will protect domestic industry
from the harm caused by dumping (import) of the cheap Chinese
The DGAD made the case for continuation of the anti-dumping duty
on Chinese products after its second sunset review of the anti-dumping
duty in force on the imports.
Earlier in October 2010, the Revenue Department of the Unio
Finance Ministry had extended the levy (anti-dumping duty) till
October 2015.
What is Anti-Dumping Duty?
Anti-Dumping Duty is a trade levy imposed by any government on
imported products which have prices less than their fair normal values
in their domestic market.
Thus, it is protectionist tariff that seeks to stop dumping
process where company exports a product at a price lower than price it
normally charged in domestic market of importing countries.
Anti-Dumping Duty is imposed under the multilateral World Trade
Organisation (WTO) regime and varies from product to product and from
country to country.
In India, anti-dumping duty is recommended by the Union Ministry
of Commerce (i.e. by DGAD), while the Union Finance Ministry imposes
: (Art & Culture - National Festivals)
Historical International Kullu Dussehra festival begins with Rath
The Dussehra festival has concluded in the country today evening but
in Kullu town of Himachal Pradesh the historical International Kullu
Dussehra festival begins with Rath Yatra.
Governor Acharya Devvrat also took part in the Rath Yatra. According
to the age old traditions people did not burnt effigies of the Ravana,
Meghnath and Kumbhkaran here. The administration has made elaborate
security arrangements for this festival.
About Historic Kullu Dussehra:
Kullu Dussehra is the renowned International Mega Dussehra
festival observed in the month of October in Himachal Pradesh in the

Dhalpur maidan in the Kullu valley. More than 4-5 Lac people visits
the fair from all across the Globe.
Dussehra at Kullu commences on the tenth day of the rising moon,
i.e. on 'Vijay Dashmi' day itself and continues for seven days.
Its history dates back to the 17th century when local King Jagat
Singh installed an idol of Raghunath on his throne as a mark of
penance. After this, god Raghunath was declared as the ruling deity of
the Valley.
The State government has accorded the status of International
festival to the Kullu Dussehra, which attracts tourists in large
: (Govt. Plans & Schemes)
Centre to invest Rs 15000 cr to increase Panipat oil refinery
The Central Government will invest 15,000 crore rupees to increase the
capacity of Panipat refinery in Haryana from existing 15 Million
Tonnes to 25 Million Tonnes. An ethanol plant would also be set up at
a cost of Rs 500 crore by the Indian Oil Corporation in Panipat to
generate alternative fuel from agricultural residue which would boost
agriculture sector.
About Panipat Oil Refinery:
It is located in Baholi village, Panipat, Haryana set up in 1998.
Panipat Refinery is the seventh refinery belonging to Indian Oil
Corporation Limited. It is one of South East Asias largest
integrated petrochemicals plants.
The original cost of the refinery's construction was Rs 3868
crores. It commenced with a capacity of 6 MMTPA and has been recently
augmented to 12 MMTPA at a cost of Rs 4165 Crores.
The refinery is designed to handle both indigenous and imported
crudes. It receives crude through the Salaya Mathura Pipelinewhich
also supplies crude to Mathura and Baroda refineries.
It meets the demand of petroleum products of Haryana and of the
entire North-West Region including Punjab, J&K, Himachal, Chandigarh,
Uttaranchal state and part of Rajasthan & Delhi.
Refining units:
In addition to crude and vacuum distillation units, the major
refining units are catalytic reforming unit, once-through Hydrocracker
unit, Resid Fluidised Catalytic Cracking unit, visbreaker unit,

delayed coking unit, bitumen blowing unit, hydrogen generation unit,

sulphur block and associated auxiliary facilities.
In order to produce low sulphur diesel, a Diesel Hydro
Desulphurisation Unit (DHDS) was commissioned in 1999.
The refinery's highlights include:
Zero discharge of effluent gases.
The presence of four ambient air monitoring stations that were in
place well before the refinery was in use.
It is an eco-friendly refinery, as indicated by a green belt
outside it.
The establishment of a totally electronic-based communication
system within the refinery.
It has the lowest manpower of all refineries in the region with
similar capacities.
Panipat Refinery holds several quality certifications from DNV,
including: ISO 9002; ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001.
11/10/16, 9:15 PM - +91 74559 33399: (Polity- Districts
Telangana: 21 new districts carved out of existing 10 districts:
On the day of Vijaya Dasami, People of Telangana woke up to see 21 new
districts carved out in their state. Government has created 21
districts from the existing 10. With this, Telangana state now has a
total 31 districts. Chief Minister Chandrasekhara Rao inaugurated
Siddipet district at Siddipet town by hoisting the national Flag.
Deputy Chief Ministers and Ministers inaugurated the other districts
in the presence of Parliament Members and other public
representatives. Speaking on the occasion, the Chief Minister said
smaller districts have been created with an aim to bring the
administration closer to people and to alleviate poverty.
New Districts:
The new districts which came into existence on Tuesday are
Siddipet, Jangaon, Jayashankar, Jagtial, Warangal (Rural), Yadadri,
Peddapally, Kamareddy, Medak, Mancheriyal, Vikarabad, Rajanna,
Asifabad, Suryapet, Kothagudem, Nirmal, Wanaparthy, Nagarkurnool,
Mahabubabad, Jogulamba and Medchal/Malkajgiri.
The other ten districts are Hyderabad, Ranga Reddy, Mahabubnagar,
Medak, Karimnagar, Adilabad, Nizamabad, Warangal, Khammam and
Along with districts, the mandals, revenue divisions and other
administrative units have also been reorganised.
Vision Mains 365
Smart leaders SOCIOLOGY Test 6 discussion Notes
Vajiram Psychology Optional Test Questions only
Hindi History Dates
Hindi Press Role In Freedom Of India
Hindi Rivers
Hindi Samaj Sudhar Movements
: Btw reservation is now becoming just a political tool more than the
real upliftment of downtrodden
: Since 1991 we havent seen rise in public jobs anyway
: For real upliftment capacity building for making them able for
private sector should be done
: Trader bank was established?
: In which year
: one should love fiscal deficit or not...
Give your views
: factor cost is exclusive of taxes.. plss anyone?
: In my opinion the stance can not be absolute, it mainly depends on
the situation the economy is in. If there is less aggregate demand and
very less private investment in the economy the govt should loosen its
purse and spend more to revive the economy, other wise it can go for
: Refer this article for more info:
16/10/16, 11:38 PM - +91 74559 33399: Thx bro
: What are your thoughts on Universal Basic Income?
: The Sarabandi (no tax) campaign of 1922 was led by
a. Bhagat Singh

b. Chittaranjan Das
c. Rajaguru
d. Vallabhbhai Patel
: Its D
: In 1930 , Mahathma Gandhi started Civil Disobedience Movement from
a. Sevagram
b. Dandi
c. Sabarmati
d. Wardha
: Dandi
: By breaking the salt law in Dandi , Mahatma Gandhi started Civil
disobedience movement in 1930.
: The Anarchical and Revolutionary Crime Act (1919) popularly known
: Rowlatt Act
: "Abhinava Bharat "a secret society of Revolutionaries was organised
a. Khudiram Bose
b. V. D. Savarkar
c. Prafulla Chaki
d. Bhagat Singh
: Savarkar the great
: Which one of the following Indian leaders was dismissed by the
British from the Indian Civil Service ?
a. S.N.Tagore
b. S.N.Banerjee
c. R.C.Dutt
d. S.C.Bose
: Its B
: S.N.Banerjee was dismissed
: S.N.Tagore was the first Indian to qualify ICS.
: Leader of Bardoli Satyagraha
a. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
b. Mahathma Gandhi
c. Vithalbhai J. Patel
d. Mahadev Desai
: A
: President of INC at the time of Partition of India
a. J.Nehru
b. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
c. J.B.Kriplani
d. C.Rajagopalchari
: Its J.B.Kriplani
: Who drafted the Resolution on Fundamental Rights for the Karachi
session of Congress in 1931 ?
a. Dr. B.R.Ambedkar
b. Pandit J.Nehru
c. Dr. Rajendra Prasad
d. S.V. Patel
: B
: Who presided the session ?

: Karachi session of INC in 1931 was presided by Sardar Vallabhbhai

Patel and resolution on fundamental rights was drafted by J.Nehru.
: Which one of the following revolts was made famous by Bankim Chandra
Chatterjee in his novel Anand Math ?
a. Bhil Uprising
b. Rangpur and Dinapur Uprising
c. Bishnupur and Birbhum rebellion
d. Sanyasi Rebellion
: D
: Bengali News Paper "Shome Prakash " started by
a. Dayanand Saraswati
b. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
c. Raja Ram Mohan Roy
d. S.N.Banerjee
: Ans. B
: Who wrote the book Babuvivah ?
: Ans. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
: Who wrote the book "The Story of the Integration of the Indian
States" ?
a. B.N.Rao
b. C.Rajagopalchari
c. Krishna Menon
d. V.P.Menon
: D
: After returning from South Africa, Gandhiji launched his first
successful Satyagraha in
a. Champaran
b. Bardoli
c. Dandi
: A
: Champaran Satyagraha to alleviate the problem of Indigo Cultivators.
: Who was the first Englishman translated Bhagvad Gita in to English ?
a. William Jones
b. Charles Wilkins
c. John Marshall
: B
: India-CHEM 2016 International Conference has started in which of
the following cities?
[A]New Delhi
: C - Mumbai
: Who has been appointed as the new Chancellor
and Resources Institute (TERI) University?
[A]Mehant Kumar




[B]Disha Nehwal
[C]Ashok Chawla
[D]Lalit Jain
: Ashok Chawla
: Who has been appointed as the United Nations Womens
Advocate for Gender Equality and Womens Empowerment in India?
[A]Madhuri Dixit
[B]Deepika Padukone
[C]Aishwaryaa Dhanush
[D]Priyanka Chopra
: C - Aishwaryaa Dhanush
: 1.why cooler temp. and thinner air at higher altitude?
Ans-a)Heat absorption power-land>air.
b)Gravity-more pressure near the surface and hence less air at higher
2.N-78%,O2-21% in air,what will happen if % amount interchanged
between these 2 gases and present in the air?
Ans-Earth will not exist as O2 will burn it.
3.Why not much climate change near the coastal areas?
Ans-Reasons-a)to and fro wind betwn land & sea.
b)land>sea(both heating and cooling rate)
Explanation:DAYTIME-wind from land to sea.
NIGHT-sea to land.
: Q. Should the govt be able to alter the minimum wage?
: Yes if the industry agrees but seems not practical at the current
: Is inter state water dispute council a constitutional body?
: It is a statutory body since it's formed under an act of parliament
: IRWD Act
: Is the bill binding on States?
: Until the centre agrees
: And the verdict is published in the Gazette of India
: The proposed legislation will not be binding in the States.
: Because it acts just as a framework
: Stated have to enact their own laws keeping the fundamentals of the
act in mind
: "If an egg is broken from outside a life comes to an end.When that
egg breaks from within,a life is born.Great things always begin from
that power within." HAVE A GREAT DAY
: Ncert is must along with that TN ki padenge we will be able to solve
the questions. This is my personal strategy.
i: Arihant 14000 mcq have few errors... Disha is good
: What are primary and secondary deposits ?
: Indian currency notes are printed on convertible paper currency
standards? ??

: *_Very Educative:_*
A woman suddenly died unexpectedly with signs of bleeding from her
ears, nose, mouth & eyes.
After a preliminary autopsy it was diagnosed that death was due to
arsenic poisoning.
Where did the arsenic come from?
The police launched an in-depth and extensive investigation. A medical
school professor was invited to come to solve the case.
The professor carefully looked at the contents. In less than half an
hour, the mystery was solved.
The professor said: 'The deceased did not commit suicide and neither
was she murdered, she died of accidental death due to ignorance!'
Everyone was puzzled, why accidental death?
The professor said: 'The arsenic was produced in the stomach of the
deceased.' The deceased used to take 'Vitamin C' everyday, which in
itself is not a problem.
The problem was that she ate a large portion of shrimp/prawn during
dinner. Eating shrimp/prawn is not the problem that's why nothing
happened to her family even though they had the same shrimp/prawn.
However at the same time the deceased also took 'vitamin C', that is
where the problem was!
Researchers at the University of Chicago in the United States , found
through experiments, food such as soft-shell contain much higher
concentration of five
potassium arsenic compounds.
Such fresh food by itself has no toxic effects on the human body.
However, in taking 'vitamin C', chemical reaction occurs and the
original non-toxic elements change to toxic elements.
Arsenic poisoning has magma role and can cause paralysis to the small
blood vessels. Therefore, a person who dies of arsenic poisoning will
show signs of bleeding from the ears, nose, mouth & eyes. Thus as a
precautionary measure,
DO NOT eat shrimp/prawn when taking 'vitamin C'.
After reading this; please do not be stingy. It's our duty to take
care of our friends.
Pls share with then.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - *Prawns and Vit C cannot be eaten together*
Forwarded as received
: <Media omitted>
: Executive power of the state is vested in
a. CM

b. Governor
c. President
d. Council of Ministers in the State.
: De facto is governer
De jure is COM
: Sorry i wrote the opposite
: De jure = legally
De facto = actually
: So its Governor
: Yes
: Governor
: A judge of Supreme Court can be removed from the office by
a. Parliament by Law
b. Judges of SC by majority
c. President on a resolution
by Parliament
d. President on his/her own discretion
: C
: Wat abt HC judges ?
: Same C
: The number of judges in SC can be altered by
a. Presidential order
b. Parliament by Law
c. SC by Notification
d. Central Government by Notification.
: Yes the Ans is B
: A member of State Public Service Commission is appointed and removed
a. Governor , Governor
b. President, President
c. Governor, President
d. President, Governor
: Yes its C
: First Muslim President of INC
: Badruddin tyabji.....
: Neel Darpan associated with which revolt?
a. Santhal revolt
b. Pabna riots
c. Indigo Revolts
d. Champaran Satyagraha
: Yes it's C.
: Neeldarpan written by
: Dinabandhu Mitra
: A member of State Public Service Commission is appointed and removed
a. Governor , Governor
b. President, President
c. Governor, President
d. President, Governor
: a
: There is no connection between dhanteres and kuber...God is
dhanvantari..who is provider of good health rather than wealth...he I

associated with aaurveda...that y GOV celebrate 28 Oct as aaurvedic

: Google it..u will find more details
: So it is a rumour that on dhanteras wealth comes to home

What is treaty of sagauli??

: In the order of precedence the speaker has an equal rank to
a. VP
b. PM
c. Cabinet Ministers
d. Chief Justice of India
: Yes it's D
: UT get representation in
a. LS
b. RS
c. Both the houses
: C
: A bill for alteration of boundaries of states shall not be
introduced in the Parliament with out the recommendations of
a. SC
b. President
c. Legislatures of the state concerned
d. Presiding officers of both the houses
: B
: Its C The Legislatures of the State Concerned
: It cannot be C
: The state legislature's view does not matter at all Because mostly
states don't agree with their divisions
: State has no power as to what sovereign as far as alteration of
boundaries are concerned
: State has no power as to what as far as alteration of boundaries
are concerned**
: Par some places they have given as state legislatures
: Thats wat am cheking
: Read article 3
: See the wordings. There is 'recommendations', State's recommendation
is not binding on anyone
: Sure the bill cannot be introduced in the Parliament without the
president referring it to the concerned state legislature, but the
State Legislature's recommendation is not binding.
: Yeah before recommending the bill , president has to refer the same
to the state legislatures concerned for expressing its view with in a
specified time .
: It should be *B*
: But The President is not bound by the view of state legislatures
may accept or reject.
: How the chairman of RS is removed?
: This is true answer should be B
: Resolution from the Rajya Sabha with an absolute majority and agreed
to by the Lok Sabha
: Can anybody tell if the creation of a new all india services
amounts to the amendment of the constitution under article 368?

: Shikha Chauhan:
1 Ease of Doing Business Report -World Bank
2 World Development Report -World Bank
3 Global Hunger Index Report -International Food Policy Research
4 World Economic Outlook Report -International Monetary Fund
5 Global Financial Stability Report -International Monetary Fund
6 World Investment Report -UN Conference on Trade & Development
7 Global Competitiveness Report -World Economic Forum
8 Global Financial System Report -Bank for International Settlements
9 World Happiness Report -Sustainable Development Solutions Network
10 Global Innovation Report -World Intellectual Property Organization
11 State of World Population -United Nations Population Fund
12 Global Corruption Index -Transparency International
13 Actions of Air Quality -United Nations Environment Programme
14 Global Environment Report -United Nations Environment Programme
15 Global Money Laundering Report -Financial Action Task Force
16 Financial Stability Report (FSR) India -Reserve Bank of India
17 Economic Survey of India -Ministry of Finance
18 Fiscal Policy- Ministry of Finance
19 Trade Policy of India -Ministry of Commerce & Industry
20 Trend and Progress of Banking in India -Reserve Bank of India
: Can any one explain Advance Pricing Agreements in simple words?
: (Economy - GST Rates)
GST rates: Five key points you must know
The GST Council on Thursday finalised the 4-tier GST tax structure of
5, 12, 18 and 28 percent. Chaired by Finance Minister Arun Jaitley,
the council finalised the slabs with with lower rates for essential
items and the highest for luxury and de-merits goods that would also
attract an additional cess.
The GST rates will come as a relief for the common man as essential
items including food will be taxed at zero rate.
However, tobacco products, soft drinks and SUVs are set to cost more
with the council imposing sin tax of over 40 percent on them.
5 key points of the GST Rate slab:
1. Essential items such as food be taxed at zero rate. It means that
the price of essential commodities will not be hiked.
2. Common used items will be taxed at just 5 percent, the lowest of
all while there would be two standard rates of 12 and 18 percent under
the Goods and Services Tax (GST) regime.
3. Items that are currently taxed at 30-31 percent will now be tax
just 28 percent, thus making them cheaper.

4. Sin tax of over 40 percent has been imposed on soft drinks, tobacco
products, Pan Masala and SUVs thus making them costlier.
5. The cess collected from this be used for compensating states for
any loss of revenue during the first five years of implementation of
: Sin tax ?
Seriously ?
: Yes there s sin tax
: As far as I know, the sin tax is still a demand, not finalised by
the GST council
: It has been finalised
: It will be charged as a cess
: The council finalised both the tax and the cess
: Yes the cess and sin tax words confused me
r: Black money in the form of gold investments has come down heavily,
for furnishing PAN is mandatory these days for all high value
purchases. Property, still needs to be addressed though
: Local retailers don't ask for PAN
: Digitisation of land records would solve that problem.
: Work is in progress
: Karnataka has already completed this under Bhoomi project. Many
other states are doing I guess.
: It is mandatory for purchases above 2 lakh
: The matter of the fact is that, it will reduce black money being
invested in gold, not generation of black money.
: Cent percent success is not possible at all. There are too many
loopholes. Agriculture income not being taxed is one more factor. Lot
of illegal income is shown as agriculture income. So there are many
ways to conceal black income, so unless all such ways are shut,
there's no solace.
: Yes agriculture income of Amitabh Bachchan
: CAG of India is conducting a performance audit on the significance
of 'agricultural income exempted from income tax'
07/11/16, 12:10 AM - Himanshu Aspi:
Wow only if this could be done in India
: *The national capital is facing the worst smog in 17 years, and
increasing difficulties of the Delhiites*
The hazardous gases spread in the air are majorly affecting the
patients of Bronchitis. Lets study the measures to be taken for
For the last three days, the national capital is under a thick smog
blanket due to which health of the people is getting badly affected.
Especially, children, elderly people and the asthma patients are the
most affected.

Doctors suggest that prevention from such poisonous gases is best

option which one can opt for. They have asked people to be alert as
far as health is concerned.
Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide and Phosphorus in Delhi
Gases like Sulphur Dioxide present in the atmosphere
Hazardous to health
Children, Elderly people and asthma patients most affected
Uneasiness in lungs, burning of eyes and nose, sneezing
Throat & lung infection
Problematic for Heart patients
Headache and heart trouble
Air pollution affects the whole body
Should stay indoors and step out if required
Extra care of children, asthma patients and elderly
Cover your nose or use of mask
Asthma patients should keep medicine with them
Close the car window
Shut the doors and windows of homes
Don't burn the remaining crops
Kindly use public vehicle
If possible, go for car pool
Crop burning in Punjab and Haryana is one of the major factors
contributing to the rising air pollution in the national capital.
The situation was bad and crackers burnt during Diwali made it worse.
Environmentalists have asked people for putting in collective efforts
to save the environment from getting polluted.

: Is ngc thing real?

: Another Jhatka from PM:
Be CAREFUL from tomorrow!
New Motor Vehicle Act passed on 11 November
Offence - Fine

2015 in Rajya Sabha.

Four Wheeler

Belt - Rs 1000
PUC - Rs 1500
Insurance - Rs 10000
paper - Rs 5000 and impound
license - Rs 10000 and vehicle impound

All original papers should be taken along while driving.

Mobile while driving - Rs 5000
Drunk & Driving - Rs 25000
Three times memo - 'License Japt' in both two and four wheelers.
After 3rd time of such offence, license stands cancelled pan India.
Please inform in all your groups.
Effective from tomorrow.
: There should be a better option of a card containing a code from
which every necessary detail could be checked by authorities
: Digi locker
: Download that
: What is the difference between LRR and SLR..AT THE TIME OF COMPUTING
: Legal Reserve Ratio (LRR) refers to that legal minimum fraction of
deposits which the banks are mandate to keep as cash with
themseves.The LRR is fixed in India by the Reserve Bank of India.
LRR has two components:
Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) and Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR)
(i) Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR)
It refers to the minimum amount of funds that a commercial bank has to
maintain with the Reserve Bank of India, in the form of deposits. For
example, suppose the total assets of a bank are worth Rs 200 crores
and the minimum cash reserve ratio is 10%. Then the amount that the
commercial bank has to maintain with RBI is Rs 20 crores. If this
ratio rises to 20%, then the reserve with RBI increases to Rs 40
crores. Thus, less money will be left with the commercial bank for
lending. This will eventually lead to considerable decrease in the

money supply. On the contrary, a fall in CRR will lead to an increase

in the money supply.

(ii) Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR)

SLR is concerned with maintaining the minimum reserve of assets with
RBI, whereas the cash reserve ratio is concerned with maintaining cash
balance (reserve) with RBI. So, SLR is defined as the minimum
percentage of assets to be maintained in the form of either fixed or
liquid assets with RBI. The flow of credit is reduced by increasing
this liquidity ratio and vice-versa. In the previous example, this can
be understood as rise in SLR will restrict the banks to pump money in
the economy, thereby contributing towards decrease in money supply.
The reverse case happens if there is a fall in SLR, as it increases
the money supply in the economy.
Courtesy Google
: Why did India opt for planning?
: 1.because india had limited resources and many needs
2. Our leaders were inspired by russian revolution.
3. capitalist society just went through a great depression a few years
4. Private sector couldn't be trusted.
Watch this
: Indian socialism is a blend of Marxism and Gandhism. How?
: Marxism i can relate as of clasless society and equality of all
classes, thus leading to a equal society and equality of
And hence reducing all social problems like poverty, unemployement
: I think indian society is more like gandhian and less like marxism
: However both want a classless society
: Egalitarian till we have full automation.
: But marx ideology came when there was no concept of democracy
: US , france and britain had democracy
: At that time democracy was like utopian concept
: Democracy in current form is farce.
: It is being used to make people feel they have power but actually
they dont
: Democracy is something like belief
: If u dont believe u will never reach a true democracy
: A country should have an authoritarian govt like that of napolean
and what SC bose imagined of till the time people actually know what
democracy actually means.
: A democracy is a gov for the people and by the people....u have to
believe more in others than in urself

: Marxism...bcoz it blvs in ol d means of prod. N deir objectives to

be people centric n active participation by the ppl in dem.....n
Gandhian bcoz it blvs in taking this entire scenario to originate frm
rural grounds...i,e, grass root Gandhiji hd dis idea dat
real India resides in the dis way...its a blend of
Marxism n Gandhism
: One thing that is unprecedented about this deal is that, a country
like Japan which has never dealt with any non NPT member, has signed
the deal even though India made it clear that it might never join the
treaty. This doesn't show Japan believes in India. India is the only
country outside NPT to have past deals with NPT members, this gives
Japan some kind of satisfaction, though i won't call it firm belief.
Second the pretentious clause will not wait for stoppage of supplies
in case India is going for making weapons, it can stop by just
conducting nuclear tests. Other thing is the advance payment for
supplies won't be refunded to India. But right now nothing is clear so
an article is not warranted and accurate.
And yes it was for nuclear test..i wrongly write nuclear weapons
: Asian power balance has being twisted in alliance with US along with
indo japan ties....against china..
: Specifically in SCS matter
: *Forest Rights Act, 2006 & PESA Act, 1996*
Nearly 250 million people live in and around forests in India, of
which the estimated indigenous Adivasi or tribal population stands at
about 100 million, constituting about 8% of Indias population.
Forest Rights Act (2006) and the Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled
Areas) Act (1996) -established a framework for local self-governance
in demarcated (or scheduled) areas.
Issues of forest dwellers
Forced eviction and threats , Legitimate and illegitimate
Social alienation and depression
Illegal looting of the forests
Used by mafias, smugglers ending up getting arrested or tortured
for petty amounts.
At the receiving end of bureaucratic hassles
Different views of development for them and government
Poor implementation of FRA and PESA act .
Lack of awareness about their own rights
Forest Policy
In 1894, the first Indian Forest Policy was adopted. The policy viewed
forests as sources for generating profits and stressed on the
need to preserve forests of the hilly regions. But the hidden agenda
was to consolidate the states property rights over the forests.
Forest Policy 1988 for the first time treated forests as ecological
necessity as source of goods for local populations. These goods were
called Non Timber Forest Produce (NTFP). This policy also set the
target of increasing Indias forest cover to 33%.

*PESA 1996*
Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act 1996 or PESA is a law
enacted by the Centre to cover the scheduled areas, which are not
covered in the 73rd amendment or Panchayati Raj Act of the Indian
Constitution. It was enacted on December 24, 1996 to enable Gram
Sabhas to govern their natural resources.
Gram Sabha to protect the traditions, beliefs and culture of the
tribal communities
Gram Sabha to manage and protect common properties based on their
traditional systems of management and protection
Gram Sabha to have the rights over minor forest produce; powers to
restore land to the tribals; and control over money-lending to
tribals, tribal welfare activities by social organizations and local
plans and sub-plans for the development of tribal areas and
In the schedule areas, there will be a minimum of 50% seats
reservation for Scheduled Tribes (STs) at all the tiers of Panchayat
Challenges State governments generally make rules regarding functioning of
TACs rather than Governor going against 5th Schedule provisions
Government notified rural land as urban to divert land as PESA
only extends to rural areas
Lower level of awareness and education among the tribals comes in
the way of raising assertive voices.
PESA is applicable only to those areas which are legally regarded
as Scheduled Areas. A significant number of tribals living outside the
scheduled areas are not covered by this legislation.
Forest Rights Act 2006
For the first time, the Government of India with passage of the
Scheduled Tribes and the Other Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest
Rights) Act 2006, admitted that forest rights on the ancestral
lands and their habitat were not adequately recognized in the
consolidation of state forests during the colonial periods as well as
in Independent India resulting in Historical injustice with the
scheduled tribes and other traditional forest dwellers, who are
integral to the very survival of the forest ecosystem.
Right to collect and sell minor forest produce (MFP)
Recognizes the rights to hold and live in the forest land under
the individual or common occupation for habitation or for selfcultivation for livelihood,
Any person belonging to a Scheduled Tribe can claim rights to live
in and cultivate up to four hectares provided she has occupied it and
was depended on it as of December 13, 2005.
In case of a non-tribal, in addition to this requirement, she will
have to prove her familys residence in the vicinity of the forest
land for 75 years prior to December 2005.
Right to protect, regenerate or conserve or manage any community
forest resource which they have been tradit
ionally protecting and conserving for sustainable use.

FRA clearly states CFR rights apply not just to village forests,
but also to protected forests, reserved forests (which have more
restricted access than protected forests), and even protected areas
like wildlife sanctuaries and national parks
The process of documenting tribal claims is not an easy, involving
democratically constituted gram sabhas (village assemblies) as per the
provisions of the 73rd constitutional amendment on panchayati raj and
Not recognising common property resources that tribes collectively
manage and live off is not only economic injustice, but also breaks
the (in many senses, highly evolved) traditional order of tribal
The process of documenting communities claims under the FRA is
intensive rough maps of community and individual claims are
prepared democratically by Gram Sabhas. These are then verified on the
ground before being submitted to relevant authorities.
Way Ahead
Amend the Coal-Bearings Areas Act 1957 to return land to original
holders after mine-exhaustion as recommended by Xaxa Committee
Introducing better source of employment, providing them skill to
better utilise the forest resource without harming it
Recognizing that they are inherent dwellers of the land and any
development has to take them along. Also, Increase awareness among
people about their rights
Bill was was by parliament in this year
Bill establishes the National Compensatory Afforestation Fund
These Funds will receive payments for: (i) compensatory
afforestation, (ii) net present value of forest (NPV), and (iii) other
project specific payments. The National Fund will 10 percent of these
funds, and the State Funds will receive the remaining 90 percent
These Funds will be primarily spent on afforestation to compensate
for loss of forest cover, regeneration of forest ecosystem, wildlife
protection and infrastructure development.
Procuring land for compensatory afforestation is difficult as land
is a limited resource, and is required for multiple purposes
A 2013 CAG report noted that state forest departments lack the
planning and implementation capacity to carry out compensatory
afforestation and forest conservation. With the share of funds
transferred to states increasing from 10 to 90, effective utilisation
of these funds will depend on the capacity of state forest departments
poor quality of compensatory afforestation plantation
*#GS3 #Conservation*
*One India, One Election*

The idea for simultaneous elections for all the states as well as for
general assembly was pitched by some national leaders.
Advantages of simultaneous elections:
It would save public money 8and time of politicians that is wasted
in campaigns for elections.
It would encourage more focus on governance and policy making as
winning elections become the sole objective of executive in case of
frequent elections. Hence, governance suffers.
It would reduce the vote bank
It would result into better checks on electoral malpractices.
It would help in reducing problems of casteism, communalism etc
which are mostly aggravated during election time.
Simultaneous elections would result into mixing of national issues
with those of state issues. In such a scenario, state issue would get
less importance and national parties would have unfair advantage over
regional parties.
There is always a tendency for voters to vote the same party in
power in the state and at the Centre in case the Lok Sabha polls and
the state elections are held together.
Problems would emerge in case of premature dissolution of state
One election in a five year period would not ensure accountability
on the part of politicians which has been the case in frequent
Advantages of present system (frequent elections):
It would ensure answer-ability and accountability of politicians
towards citizens.
It keeps the politicians in touch with pulse of the public
and the result of elections at various levels can ensure the
government the necessary course correction.
It also ensures that the mood of the nation at a particular moment
does not hand over politically power across a three-tiered democratic
structure to one party. Hence, It keeps checks and balances via
different parties at centre and states.
It creates work opportunities for lakhs of people at grassroot
It ensures separation of national and regional issues.
Disadvantages of present system:
Pace of economic development hampers.
Encourages short term thinking (of winning elections) on the part
of executive.
Encourages vote banks politics
Significant time of executive is wasted during electoral campaign
which could be used in governance of the country.
The lacunas of the present system can be avoided by an alternative
method of holding elections in two phases.

Elections of some assemblies can be held at mid-term of Lok Sabha

and remaining with the end of tenure of Lok Sabha. For this, the terms
of some legislative assemblies may need to be extended while some of
them may need to be curtailed.
Law commission has recommended an amendment to the rule of no
confidence motion. Inu this system the opposition party leader moves
both the no-confidence motion and a confidence motion, land he would
become the new leader if the both the motions are passed. In this way,
premature dissolution of state assemblies can be avoided.
The idea of simultaneous elections comes with many challenges
especially in a large country like India. It can be implemented with a
few modifications that are suitable to our democratic environment. But
reform process should not be stopped here. Further electoral reforms
are required to tackle other challenges related to cap on spending in
elections, Transparency's in political partys funding,
idecriminalization of politics, electoral malpractices etc.
*#GS2 #Polity*
: A lot have been missed by you. Add examples which are cases of
judicial overreach such as BCCI leadership reforms case. Add why it's
difficult to let go of special powers of the court. Add about
independence of court used as an excuse to judicial overreach. Add
about the problem of citizen's trust in the courts and the lust of
seeing it to victory. Add your opinion on what are the good and bad
consequences of such overreach with respect to democracy.
: India's economic policies are non- liberal.'
: The scheme is "housing for all" only in rural areas. Does not
target urban migrating working class. So income basis should suffice
: If one's parents live in urban areas and he/she is working in rural
area then we can assume he/she is capable to own a house in the rural
Q. The issue of state funding of elections has surfaced again in
recent times. Comment upon the various benefits it offers and the
challenges in its application?
: Benefits:
1) increased transparency
2) unbiased elections since every party got the same facilities
3) reduced costs
4) better monitoring by regulators and citizens
5) practically feasible manifestos and better way to judge their
1) Impossible to fully fund due to weak economic condition. Can only
be partially funded
2) Many committees suggested partial funding and that too for national
and state parties. This creates a biased situation for independents.

3) Partial funding has its own set of challenges such as non

4) No guarantee that black money won't be pumped unless efficient anti
corruption regulators are not at place
5) Need of a independent regulators to monitor any illegal additional
funds from corporates, if fully funded by state
6) More avenues of corruption if funded in cash, so a need of funding
in kind is appropriate.
7) Previous experiences in other countries show weak implementation
and no effect on corruption. So a need to learn from their failures
would be appropriate.
: Most of the challenges you mentions can be cured through qureshi
: What will be the consequences of USA backing down from TPP?
: What is the pupose of Islamic window in Banking?
: To bring those Islamic people into banking stream who believed that
it is HARAM to give or take interest on money
: There will be no interest
: With reference to the GRAPES-3 experiment located at Ooty in India,
consider the following statements:
It is a collaboration between institutions from India and Japan.
Apart from being able to detect muons from cosmic ray showers, it can
be users to study solar storms and space weather.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) Neither 1 nor 2
: With reference to the GRAPES-3 experiment located at Ooty in India,
consider the following statements:
It is a collaboration between institutions from India and Japan.
Apart from being able to detect muons from cosmic ray showers, it can
be users to study solar storms and space weather.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) Neither 1 nor 2
: What is GRAPES-3
: It's gamma ray astronomy pev energies phase 3
: Notes have limited validity, they were forced to return. But that's
not the case with Gold. It is an investment for ever.
: Gold bonds wes a good start but i dont think they have brought
enough dividends to make the scheme a success.
: True. But people have been tolerant. Don't know how much they will
: Secondly the underworld uses bitcoins instead of legal transactions
: There's no way to trace bitcoins unless u know the algorithm

: How can going cashless stop the issue of under invoicing and over
: Invoices are made online for online transactions. No way to change
: Taxes are evaded through gaps in cross country transctions as i said
earlier. If payments are made online and still there is corruption,
check the location of the subsidiaries. In case the location is in
India, payments are made through cash not online
: A complex network of subsidiaries are made just to evade tax and
most often they are placed in different countries to utilize holes in
tax laws
: DTAA will open up their tax return papers to India and then we can
decide the amount. Though their subsidiaries are located in a large
number of countries. So, there's a need for a universal DTAA
: no country has necessary infra for going cashless
\: Does rotation of earth influence earths seasons?
: What do you mean when you say " Chinese leadership has always
considered nuclear weapons as *political weapons*
: Forcing small countries to succumbing to China's territorial
: Extreme Socialism and capitalism won't survive for long.
: One leads to stagnation and other breeds inequality. We need to have
a middle ground.
: Now hoping for lifting of all embargos and advent of democracy in
: Castro's early life:
Castro is the son of a wealthy Spanish sugarcane farmer who settled in
Castro entered law school at the University of Havana and became
immersed in the climate of Cuban nationalism, anti-imperialism and
He focused on politics and joined the anti-corruption Orthodox Party.
By 1947, Castro had become increasingly passionate about social
His targets included the Cuban government, led by the president Ramon
Grau, which was mired in accusations of corruption.
In March 1952, a coup led by General Fulgencio Batista successfully
overthrew the Cuban government and took power.
Batista set himself up as dictator, solidified his power with the
military and Cuba's economic elite and had his government recognized
by the United States.
Batista's policy of closer ties with the United States and the
suppression of socialist organisations ran counter to Castro's
fundamental political beliefs.
Cuban Revolution:
Castro believed Cuba's economic problems were a result of unbridled
capitalism that could only be solved by a people's revolution.
Castro and fellow members of the Orthodox Party organized a group they
called "The Movement" and planned an insurrection against U.S. backed

On July 26, 1953, Castro led about 120 men in an attack on the Moncada
army barracks in Santiago de Cuba in order to seize weapons for use in
an armed uprising.
The assault failed, Castro was captured and sentenced to 15 years in
Castro used his court appearance to expose atrocities committed by the
army which further raised his profile, particularly among members of
the foreign press.
While in jail, Castro renamed his group the "26th of July Movement".
Meanwhile, looking to improve his authoritarian image, Batista
released Castro in 1955 as part of a general amnesty.
Castro traveled with his brother Ral to Mexico, where he met fellow
revolutionary Ernesto Che Guevara and plotted his return to
In 1956, when Castro and others sailed secretly to Cuba, government
forces ambushed them and killed many.
The survivors, including Castro, his brother Ral and Guevara, fled
deep into the Sierra Maestra Mountains in southeastern Cuba with
virtually no weapons or supplies.
Over the course of the next two years, Castro's steadily growing
forces waged a guerrilla war against the Batista government
Beginning in 1958, Castro and his forces mounted a series of
successful military campaigns to capture and hold key areas throughout
Batista tried to snuff out the uprising with a massive offensive,
complete with air force bombers and naval offshore units.
Combined with a loss of popular support and massive desertions in its
military, Castro's efforts finally led to the collapse of Batista's
In January 1959, Batista himself fled to the Dominican Republic.
At the age of 32, Castro had successfully concluded his guerrilla
campaign to take control of Cuba.
Castro soon took over as prime minister (later switched title to
Castro's first years in power:
By the end of 1959, Castro's revolution had become radicalized, with
purges of military and government leaders and the suppression of any
media critical of Castro's policies.
In 1960, Castro nationalized all U.S.-owned businesses (took them
under Cuban government control), including oil refineries, factories
and casinos to end U.S. economic dominance on the island.
This prompted the United States to end diplomatic relations and impose
a trade embargo.
Bay of Pigs Incident:
In 1961, 1,400 Cuban exiles trained by the U.S invaded Cuba at the
remote Bay of Pigs in an attempt to overthrow the Castro regime.
The incursion ended in disaster, with hundreds of the insurgents
killed and more than 1,000 captured. Castro capitalized on the
incident to consolidate his power.

In the wake of the Bay of Pigs incident, Castro intensified his

relations with the Soviet Union.
By that time, Cuba was becoming increasingly dependent on the Soviet
Union for economic and military support.
Castro publicly declared himself a Marxist-Leninist and accepted
economic and military aid from the Soviet Union.
He announced an end to democratic elections in Cuba.
For a long time after coming to power, Castro defied the US and
survived many assassination plots by the U.S. agencies.
As communist regimes collapsed across the world, Castro kept the red
flag flying right on the doorstep of his greatest enemy, the United
Cuban Missile Crisis:
Hoping to deter another U.S. invasion of Cuba, Castro and Soviet Union
Premier Nikita Khrushchev conceived the idea of placing nuclear
missiles in Cuba, just 90 miles off the USA's coast of Florida.
Khrushchev justified the move as a response to U.S. Jupiter missiles
that had been deployed in Turkey.
However, America discovered the base construction before the missiles
were installed and President Kennedy responded by demanding the
removal of the missiles.
The world was on the brink of World War III as things escalated
between U.S and U.S.S.R.
Over 13 anxious days of secret communications between Khrushchev,
Kennedy and their agents, the Soviets agreed to remove the missiles in
exchange for the United States' public agreement not to invade Cuba.
The Kennedy administration also agreed to secretly remove the Jupiter
missiles from Turkey.
Castro's policies:
After taking power, Castro abolished legal discrimination, brought
electricity to the countryside, provided for full employment.
He advanced the causes of education and health care, in part by
building new schools and medical facilities.
Castro's regime has been credited with opening 10,000 new schools and
increasing literacy to 98 percent.
Cubans enjoy a universal health-care system, which has decreased
infant mortality to 11 deaths in 1,000 (1.1 percent).
But Cuba's amazing health care was described as myth by many who have
witnessed it. They pointed to the years of waiting in line for a
surgery and status of dilapidated hospitals.
He promised to give the land back to the people and to defend the
rights of the poor. But farmers ended up as nothing more than
government servants.
The government quickly imposed a one-party system. Hundreds of people
were sent to jail and labour camps as political prisoners.
He crushed all civil liberties and closed down opposition newspapers,
killed and jailed thousands of political opponents and made no move
toward elections.
He abolished private business and presided over housing and consumer
goods shortages.

With political and economic options so limited, hundreds of thousands

of Cubans, including vast numbers of professionals and technicians,
left Cuba, often for the United States.
The 1990s:
Communist Cuba was heavily subsidized by the leader of the Communist
movement, the Soviet government.
The Soviet Union poured money into Cuba. It bought the bulk of the
island's sugar brought in desperately needed goods to beat the US
trade embargo.
After the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union sent Cuba's economy into a
tailspin, Castro's revolution began to lose momentum.
Without cheap oil imports and Soviet market for Cuban sugar and other
goods, Cuban unemployment and inflation grew.
Still under the US embargo and with its Soviet lifeline cut off,
chronic shortages and empty shelves in Cuba were inevitable.
Tempers grew shorter as the food queues grew longer.
Yet, throughout his leadership, he railed against the US, its economic
and trade embargo and against the evils of free markets
While many Cubans undoubtedly detested Castro, others genuinely loved
him. They saw him as a David who could stand up to the Goliath of
He worked to turn the island nation into a place of equality and
social justice but the state-run economy failed to bring prosperity to
most Cubans.
For many around the world, Fidel Castro has remained the symbol of
revolution, a communist who has survived the fall of communism.
But he has also been condemned for intolerance, for keeping his people
poor and for refusing to see the benefits of economic liberalisation
that even the communists of China have embraced.
Later years:
In a dramatic announcement, on July 31, 2006, Castro designated his
brother Ral as the country's temporary leader.
In 2008, Fidel Castro permanently gave up the Cuban presidency due to
his deteriorating physical condition and handed over power to Ral.
In his retirement, Castro began writing a column about his experiences
and opinions, called "Reflections of Fidel," and in 2007 his
autobiography "My Life" was published.
Raul Castro started implementing economic changes intended to attract
foreign direct investment and ease the tight restrictions on ordinary
President Obama's announcement in December 2014 of the beginning of an
end to US trade and other sanctions saw the beginning of a thaw in
what had been half a century of hostile relations between the two
Fidel Castro died on November 25, 2016 at the age of 90.
Castro in World affairs:
From the 1960s to the 1980s, Castro supplied military and financial
aid to various leftist guerilla movements in Latin America and Africa.

In January 1966, Castro founded the Organization for Solidarity with

the Peoples of Asia, Africa, and Latin America to promote revolution
and communism on three continents.
In 1967, he also formed the Latin American Solidarity Organization to
foster revolution in select Latin American countries.
In the 1970s, he provided military support to pro-Soviet forces in
Angola, Ethiopia and Yemen.
Castro and NAM:
Despite his reliance on the Soviets' help, Castro put Cuba at the head
of the newly-emerging Non-Aligned Movement (NAM).
On Cuba's behalf, Che Guevara came to New Delhi to discuss its
Later Fidel was the secretary general between 1979 and 1983.
Fidel came up with the clearest enunciation of the NAMs aims as an
anti-imperial, anti-racist organisation.
He said the purpose of the organization is to ensure the national
independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and security of nonaligned countries in their struggle against imperialism, colonialism
and racism.
Castro and India:
India was one of the first countries to recognise Fidel Castro's
socialist government after the Cuban revolution.
NAM was the obvious platform for the strategic convergence between
India and Cuba.
Fidels Cuba always enjoyed good ties with India, with both
countries supporting multilateralism internationally and need for a
more democratised United Nations.
The ruling Congress and the Left parties in India supported Castro,
who for many embodied the fight against the supremacy and interference
of the United States in all possible ways.
Fidel found Indira Gandhis leftist political orientation helpful
for bilateral cooperation.
During 1992, India had provided Cuba with 10,000 tonnes of wheat and
10,000 tonnes of rice when Cuba was undergoing hardship due to an
economic crisis brought about by US sanctions. Castro called it the
Bread of India.
Cuba has also repeatedly supported India's candidature as a permanent
member on a reformed Security Council at the United Nations, and India
had always pushed for lifting of US sanctions against the socialist
: Democracy is a evolutionary process. Some nations don't just cut to
it. If we compare his policies with those from modern day Democratic
nations, the number of kills will seem to be higher at the latter's
plate. Don't just compare Fidel to any of those like Idi Amin, he was
always for the people and for the country, though we are not in a
position to judge his actions from the lens of the opposition.
: Elections has a time to come, not before reform. I or u are not in
place to judge his intentions. The only reason of he heading the NAM
was a more Democratic attitude in global politics

: Its due to communism not otherwise....india was no better at that

: No one was stopped from leaving, those who saw better opportunities
outsides went right ahead even to the US
: The Columbian peace agreement between the govt and FARC was rejected
through a referendum by the same democracy. This shows how an ignorant
citizenry can hamper nation building. Democracy installed before
mental reformation, can only take a nation decades back in
development. So much for democracy.
:Agreed but totalitarianism is not the solution.
: Atleast allow dissenting voices.
: Buddy totalitarianism is an initial face of democracy. Without it
democracy cannot survive
: Agree on some counts and disagree on others. Still my question is,
if what he was doing right or well intentioned why curtail freedom of
: But i won't call fidel's rule as totalitarian. It is nothing
compared to what idi amin, mao zedong did
: Agreed but we must have seen some reforms by now.
: His brother after 2006 has brought some.
: He was too rigid and unwilling to change with time.
: And if u compare US democracy, then I'll say, US elections are a way
to alter one authoritarian after the other in a few years
: US' democracy is no model to anyone.
: The number of kills on the instance of the Democratic leaders are
much higher than the best of authoritarians
: That's why our constitution makers discarded presidential model of
: He's talking about middle East interventions by US
: I'll share an article soon. But for the time being just remember a
key word oil invasion
: US is an imperial force...its better not to confuse democracy with
: Yes that's what they are...they are the neo colonisers
: I'll give u my perception on this. It's halk baked info if u think
that people are clearing this exam on the very first attempt. The
mental development of a human being is influenced by many factors and
family is one of them. The presence of right thinking parents having
the correct experience can take ur game miles ahead others. They can
grant u necessary exposure and inspiration u need from an early age,
that'll build ur roots and eventually success will become a habit.
Unlike these kids, others like us are not privy to the necessary
exposure, guidance and inspiration since some like us are the first
ones to handle any kind of competition ever in life. So yeah don't
worry, it'll take time for ur growth but once done, you'll be no
different than any of these achievers. A diamond takes time pressure
and struggle to evolve from a coal but once formed and finished
properly, it'll stay the same for a lifetime.
28/11/16, 5:42 PM - Anjali CSE Group: I also wanna ask one thing
Why is delhi so imp when it comes to preparation?
I mean people will directly tell u.. without delhi, its like

Then the commission should make only delhi candidates eligible for
this exam!
: Agreed bro.....but half baked truth........internal factors
matters......what you say about disabled , financial poor ,
oppressed, who cracked such exams.......or achievement in other
fields............cse check the patience, perseverance, knowledge and
calibre.....if we have that, no one can stop us.........if 2-3-4-5
even last attempt went bogus, what ??........instead of being nervous
and depressed, have to stand up positively in life......easy to speak
but very hard to digest ..only because of emotional attachment with
preparation............soldiers like attitude should be there Disciplined, dedicated, dutiful and rational etc
etc...............even after this failure come then think positively
and have to adjust with life .......why we are going in the serve the nation.....then we can do it by other way
too .........always have a backup plan and this ups and
downs are nothing actually ( my view) .........still u want to is stopping........
: If we can't succeed in qualifying CSE , At least we should
qualify UGC net.
Apna toh bawishya kharab kiya doosro ka b kardo teacher ban k...
: A person knowing calculus in grade 3 will be leading school exams
like a pro. A person psychologically prepared from childhood can
withstand tremendous pressure when it's needed
: After advent of internet all these things doesn't matter....
I believe its your capabilities that will sail the helm...
28/11/16, 7:14 PM - Krishnananda Aspi: And even remember one
thing .... There is nothing you can't do only thing is that you really
want to do it ...
: Haha ok. Did mrunal teach u how to read, what to do in self doubt,
how to handle psychological pressures, how to learn and retain?
: But these are inner things you need to self balance yourself
: Mrunal will only tell u certain ways which other toppers have shared
with him. Somethings are better learnt by self after committing
mistakes or getting them instilled from ur childhood.
: I had backup plan, it worked. Now not able to prepare for CSE.
: Work + preparations is no joke it requires serious time management
: Bai log kuch krna hai Na toh Laden bnna sikhho moh maaya shod do,
:Sirf aur sirf target
: What did someone do that made you think they were really smart? by
Sean Kernan
An addendum to my yesterday's response on success.
: The candidate with least discrepancies can then be elected
: People having such info can extract facts from rhetoric and compare
historical achievements of the candidates

: We have permanent executive already. Which prepares policies and

guides the political executive, all our political executive does is
making a choice. Why need expertise for that?
: When we can have field experts as bureaucrats why restrict democracy
to a selected few in the name of incapability.
: The same reason we need expertise in selecting information from the
: Infirmation is at large, you need to have the ability is seeking the
most efficient one.
: democracy is self correcting
: no other method provides the same facility.
: Democracy is the most random way of governance
: If a farmer is being guided by a well experienced pilot or captain,
why not?
: Until the education criteria is fulfilled and by education i don't
mean literacy
: Yes. In fact pilot(expert) is the one who is in the driver's seat in
a democracy Political executive just decides where to take a pit stop
and where to refuel.
: Guys, what is priority sector lending certificates? And how does it
: How it is killing a mosquito with canonball if corruption is a big
menance in economy...??
: Simply means there are better safer alternatives to achieve the same
: Universal DTAA, Anticorruption agreements with foreign banks, Taking
action on names mentioned in Panama papers, Working with foreign govts
in strengthening our extradition laws.
: Apart from all the banking reforms that could have been done
: What about curbing terror funding
: And corruption by small govt. Official..
: Same here. No time for this.
: Harijans and dalits both belong to same caste
: Harijans follwed gandhian ideology and remained part of hinduism
: Ok let me dissect ir for you:
*Shudra* : cultural term
*Harijan* : gandhian term to mainstream shudra in mainstream society
*Dalit* : ambedkar didnt like the gandhian term harijan for shudras
hence he coined a new term dalit who were politically assertive.
: Himanshu u said dabbi is Dalit has no religion,
: How independent is CIA? Isn't it also a caged parrot?
: CIA is quite independent
: They forced Nixon to resign.
: CBI can never do that.
: Howcome they gave in to Bush propaganda of the presence of WMDs in
: That was in interest of USA and also it is not conclusively proven
that they didnt posses WMD.
: Tell me one thing which country has in the history of global
politics ignored a UNSC resolution and went ahead with their own plans
of conquering a territory?

: No country
: UNGA was over ruled by US not UNSC
: How can US over rule the UNGA
: VETO ?
: Resolution on imp issues have to be passed from both UNGA and UNSC
: In UNSC USA has veto
: So a country who dictates democracy to others by conquering them
: I was also reading the Watergate scandal and i don't think the CIA
or FBI acted independently.
: CIA was used by Nixon's administration as a pawn
: An ammendment to the constitution can be intiated by an
introduction of the bill in loksabha only .
State whether its True or false
: False
: So it can be initiated from any house
: Scandinavian countries...
: Least corrupt,highest HDI,highest rank in happiness,highest per
capita income.
: And less inequality
: And most environment friendly
: Attorney General of India can be a member of a committee of Loksabha
State whether its True or false
: True
: Least religious, least interference in international affairs to add
: Least religious bigotry not least religious
: And now they are testing Universal Basic Income.
: Maybe because they are a homogenous societt
: Real role model for the world
: I dont know how successful would that be
: But that is the only option in the coming times of automation.
: Everyone with same income
: It is a basic income. Just enough to support food, clothing and
shelter I suppose.
: Some US states have that too i guess.
: Like an unemployment allowamce
: We have our own version in india
: The famous MNREGA...
: It has been a saviour
: Q. As a moral aspirant analyze the validity of death
penalty/capital punishment?
: Demand for Teghbhaga paesant movement in bengal
a. Reduction of share of landlords from one half of the crop to one
b. Grant of ownership of land to peasants as they are the actual
Cultivators of land
c. Uprooting of Zamindari system n the end of serfdom
d. Writing of all paesant debts
: A

: In grassland trees do not replace grasses as a part of ecological

succession bcoz of
a. Insects n fungi
b. Limited Sunlight and paucity of nutrients
c. Water limits and fire
d. None of the above
: C
: Rainfall is less in grasslands. Roots of trees require more water.
: Fire is spread as dry grass catches it easily under extreme heat
: There are always extreme climates here. Either very cold or hot
: If our metro cities are not well equipped to face these problems
when will the rural India be?
: How sweden fares when compared to India's population?
: Rurals know well ,but polytthiene is problem
: Nothing but inefficient population is the root of India's all
: Yes population explosion is the root cause for all problems
: Not population but inefficient population
: Population is good but inefficient population makes everything bad
: An end to crony capitalism?
: His self funded campaign had made these decisions possible
: He's comparing GDP growth with job growth and this is the most
foolish thing to do. Job growth has no relation with GDP growth
: many economists have called UPA regime as jobless growth
: Because a gdp growth is only concerned to rise in production.
Production rise can take place through implementing efficient ways of
producing like automation.
: I'm proving gdp growth has no relation to job growth
i: He's comparing GDP growth with job growth and this is the most
foolish thing to do. Job growth has no relation with GDP growth
: only answer is that jobs were replaced by automation
: and hence the term jobless growth
: and till 2010 there was no effect of 2008 crisis in india
: Why?
: In 2008 only there was huge crisis
: india wasn't much affected by sub prime crisis at all even after
: Unitech closed its shutters
: There were huge distributions of pink slips
: RBI didn't allow indians to buy the bonds of US banks,and thats why
india was saved.
: As i said UNITech closed its shutters
: FDi was still flowing in india till 2010
: Unitech was a big developer back then
: i am quite sure about this
: reversal of FDI started in 2010
: and continued till 2013
: The revenue the mncs earn in india is contributing to India's gdp

: Any loss to them is also a loss to Indian economy

: Plus the majority of Indian private workforce work in MNCs
: Loss of jobs was huge at the point bro
: Will the united assumption by all US intelligence agencies, be a
reason to reconsideration of electoral mandate of Trump?
: Find error
Your separation is very painful to me because living without you is
not possible.
: Painful for me
: Your absence
: It should be
*Separation from you* instead of *your separation.*
*A noun or pronoun in the Possessive case should not be used sometimes
with the noun such as*
Separation, leave , excuse, mention , report, pardon, sight, favour.
: Or u can use absence
: We can use *your absence*
But i think there is a difference between separation and absence.
: I agree with you.
Separation and absence have the same meaning?
: Literally not the same but figuratively it's used in literature
: Find error
Your written statement differs in several important respects from my
verbal statement.
: modis add with paytm was unethical but not illegal
: and it doesnt require prior permission
: And even you and I can advertise with Modi's photo and name. All you
would be fined is 500
: I think any private company promoing its business through the
conveyance of GOI is not just unethical but illegal
: it is totally legal for anyone congratualting anyone for his/her
: you are not selling your product in the meantime
: The law governing prevention of improper use of emblems and names of
1950 provides for this rather insignificant penalty for violating
: yo would have seen many juice companies congratulating sportman
after they win olympic medal
: that doesn't apply in this situation
: Both jio and paytm were promoting their business

r: CBI has been established through Delhi Police Special Establishment

act, they are independent in functioning but are tagged to each other
by law
: NDMC can solely be made national capital
: to develop a wholesome transportation
: By ndmc I mean area under NDMC
: Where is RBI headquarters
: CBI is established through an executive order of govt. Its is not
established through an act of parliament......thats why it is declared
unconstitutional by one of the high court
: What is the purpose of this video?
: Because initially the vendors are unaware of the holes and before
them correcting the errors hackers misuse them.
: No minister is nominated
: I m nt expert, bt i know one thing smriti, arun n other members r
from rajya sabha n still got ministry. How come can u plzz explain
: There is no law or rule that says members of Rajya Sabha cannot hold
minietrial positions @918802573232
: U don't need to win the election in lok sabha to be chosen as min.
You can be chosen by PM even if u have no relation with elections
whatsoever. But rule is within 6 months u have to become a member in
either house and everyone knows making anyone a member of rajya sabha
is a cup of cake for majority party.
: Itna to pta hi, bt like u said they r nt nomited in rajya sabha, bt
still they r member of rajya sabha how come???
: They fight elections that's why we cannot use the word nominated
: U mean to say if a person losse thr election vo rajya sabha member
ho skta, agr PM unko RS member declair kr de. Is it???
: PM cannot declare them members unilaterally
: They have to get selected from state s
Assemblies as members
: Pls read the parliament chapter in laxmikant. There it's written how
a rajya sabha member is elected. It's an indirect election which can
be won easily when u have people in the right places. So yes if a
majority party wants it can make anyone to win a rajya sabha seat.
: Can President use the veto power in Constitution Ammendment Bill?
: no
: Resolution for removing Vice President can be moved in
a. Lok Sabha alone
b. Either house of the parliament
c. Joint sitting of the parliament
d. Rajya Sabha alone
: D
: Why do people deposit money in banks even when inflation rate is
Higher than the rate of return?
: Isn't it a theft?
: Because net loss is less
: Plus there are other securities like loan on behalf of deposit and
security of wealth
: Also tax exemption on timed deposits

: Why shouldnt one buy gold instead of depositing in bank?

:Buy gold and then exchange it for gold bonds
: Insured against inflation as well as the money is secure
: Plus we get additional returns too.
: Because gold isn't liquid. Cash is highly liquid
: The returns on gold can reduce than its original price. This doesn't
happen with cash
: If you see the long term curve of gold prices it has always
increased and is even better investment than FD.
: When we talk of liquidity there is nothing like long term
: I was talking of investment
: But will the store selling rashan accept gold bonds
: We can redeem gold bonds for money at any time.
: Only from market and that also at specific times not always
: We have assurance on cash also
: Yes but cash value is decreasing with time
: And gold is not
: SBI gives 4% return
: On gold the return is even less
: Inflation will always be greater than 4%
: On times deposits we have a return of 8-10 percent
: No
: Read my above comment gold value has always exceeded FD
: How much is return on gold
: That return is over the current value of gold bro
: That is additional to rise of value of gold
: Even if i keep my gold in house
: It is better than fd
: Gold bonds reap me further dividends
: So if u talk of long term, then we can't debate on bank deposit
advantages because people deposit for short terms
: We can debate on investments if u want
: For short term too banking is loss
: Why
: Returns should atleast be touch higher than inflation
: Other wise gold is better
: But as i said it's still lesser loss making than gold
: And the high liquidity advantages anytime money