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Chapter 12

GAS MIXTURES

12-1C It is the average or the equivalent gas constant of the gas mixture. No.

12-2C No. We can do this only when each gas has the same mole fraction.

12-3C It is the average or the equivalent molar mass of the gas mixture. No.

12-4C The mass fractions will be identical, but the mole fractions will not.

12-5C Yes.

12-6C The ratio of the mass of a component to the mass of the mixture is called the mass fraction (mf), and

the ratio of the mole number of a component to the mole number of the mixture is called the mole fraction

(y).

mi NM M

mf i = = i i = y i i

mm N m M m Mm

12-8C Yes, because both CO2 and N2O has the same molar mass, M = 44 kg/kmol.

12-9 A mixture consists of two gases. Relations for mole fractions when mass fractions are known are to be

obtained .

Analysis The mass fractions of A and B are expressed as

mA N AM A M MB

mf A = = = yA A and mf B = y B

mm N m M m Mm Mm

Where m is mass, M is the molar mass, N is the number of moles, and y is the mole fraction. The apparent

molar mass of the mixture is

mm N A M A + N B M B

Mm = = = y AM A + yB M B

Nm Nm

Combining the two equation above and noting that y A + y B = 1 gives the following convenient relations

for converting mass fractions to mole fractions,

MB

yA = and yB = 1 y A

M A (1 / mf A 1) + M B

which are the desired relations.

12-1

Chapter 12 Gas Mixtures

12-13 The masses of the constituents of a gas mixture are given. The mass fractions, the mole fractions, the

average molar mass, and gas constant are to be determined.

Properties The molar masses of O2, N2, and CO2 are 32.0, 28.0 and 44.0 kg/kmol, respectively (Table

A-1)

Analysis (a) The total mass of the mixture is

mm = mO 2 + mN 2 + mCO 2 = 5 kg + 8 kg + 10 kg = 23 kg

5 kg O2

Then the mass fraction of each component becomes 8 kg N2

10 kg CO2

mO 2 5 kg

mfO 2 = = = 0.217

mm 23 kg

mN 2 8 kg

mf N 2 = = = 0.348

mm 23 kg

mCO 2 10 kg

mfCO 2 = = = 0.435

mm 23 kg

(b) To find the mole fractions, we need to determine the mole numbers of each component first,

mO 2 5 kg

NO2 = = = 0.156 kmol

MO 2 32 kg / kmol

mN 2 8 kg

N N2 = = = 0.286 kmol

MN 2 28 kg / kmol

mCO 2 10 kg

N CO2 = = = 0.227 kmol

MCO2 44 kg / kmol

Thus,

N m = NO 2 + N N 2 + N CO2 = 0156

. kmol + 0.286 kmol + 0.227 kmol = 0.669 kmol

and

NO2 0.156 kmol

yO 2 = = = 0.233

Nm 0.699 kmol

NN2 0.286 kmol

yN 2 = = = 0.428

Nm 0.669 kmol

N CO2 0.227 kmol

yCO2 = = = 0.339

Nm 0.669 kmol

(c) The average molar mass and gas constant of the mixture are determined from their definitions:

mm 23 kg

Mm = = = 34.4 kg / kmol

N m 0.669 kmol

and

Ru 8.314 kJ / kmol K

Rm = = = 0.242 kJ / kg K

Mm 34.4 kg / kmol

12-4

Chapter 12 Gas Mixtures

12-17C Normally yes. Air, for example, behaves as an ideal gas in the range of temperatures and pressures

at which oxygen and nitrogen behave as ideal gases.

12-18C The pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the pressures each gas would exert if existed

alone at the mixture temperature and volume. This law holds exactly for ideal gas mixtures, but only

approximately for real gas mixtures.

12-19C The volume of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the volumes each gas would occupy if existed

alone at the mixture temperature and pressure. This law holds exactly for ideal gas mixtures, but only

approximately for real gas mixtures.

12-20C The P-v-T behavior of a component in an ideal gas mixture is expressed by the ideal gas equation

of state using the properties of the individual component instead of the mixture, Pivi = RiTi. The P-v-T

behavior of a component in a real gas mixture is expressed by more complex equations of state, or by

Pivi = ZiRiTi, where Zi is the compressibility factor.

12-21C Component pressure is the pressure a component would exert if existed alone at the mixture

temperature and volume. Partial pressure is the quantity yiPm, where yi is the mole fraction of component i.

These two are identical for ideal gases.

12-22C Component volume is the volume a component would occupy if existed alone at the mixture

temperature and pressure. Partial volume is the quantity yiVm, where yi is the mole fraction of component i.

These two are identical for ideal gases.

12-24C The partial pressures will decrease but the pressure fractions will remain the same.

12-25C The partial pressures will increase but the pressure fractions will remain the same.

12-26C No. The correct expression is the volume of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the volumes

each gas would occupy if existed alone at the mixture temperature and pressure.

12-27C No. The correct expression is the temperature of a gas mixture is equal to the temperature of the

individual gas components.

12-29C With Kay's rule, a real-gas mixture is treated as a pure substance whose critical pressure and

temperature are defined in terms of the critical pressures and temperatures of the mixture components as

Pcr' , m = y P

i cr , i and Tcr' , m = y T

i cr , i

The compressibility factor of the mixture (Zm) is then easily determined using these pseudo-critical point

values.

12-7

Chapter 12 Gas Mixtures

12-33 The masses of the constituents of a gas mixture at a specified pressure and temperature are given. The

partial pressure of each gas and the apparent molar mass of the gas mixture are to be determined.

Assumptions Under specified conditions both CO2 and CH4 can be treated as ideal gases, and the mixture as

an ideal gas mixture.

Properties The molar masses of CO2 and CH4 are 44.0 and 16.0 kg/kmol, respectively (Table A-1)

Analysis The mole numbers of the constituents are

mCO 2 1 kg 1 kg CO2

mCO 2 = 1 kg

N CO 2 = = = 0.0227 kmol 3 kg CH4

MCO2 44 kg / kmol

mCH 4 3 kg 300 K

mCH 4 = 3 kg

N CH 4 = = = 0.1875 kmol 200 kPa

MCH 4 16 kg / kmol

N CO 2 0.0227 kmol

yCO 2 = = = 0.108

Nm 0.2102 kmol

N CH 4 0.1875 kmol

yCH 4 = = = 0.892

Nm 0.2102 kmol

PCO 2 = y CO 2 Pm = (0.108)(200 kPa ) = 21.6 kPa

PCH 4 = y CH 4 Pm = (0.892)(200 kPa ) = 178.4 kPa

mm 4 kg

Mm = = = 19.03 kg / kmol

N m 0.2102 kmol

12-9

Chapter 12 Gas Mixtures

12-39 [Also solved by EES on enclosed CD] The mole numbers, temperatures, and pressures of two gases

forming a mixture are given. The final temperature is also given. The pressure of the mixture is to be

determined using two methods.

Analysis (a) Under specified conditions both Ar and N2 will considerably deviate from the ideal gas

behavior. Treating the mixture as an ideal gas,

P2 = P1 = (5 MPa ) = 18.2 MPa

Final state : P2V 2 = N 2 Ru T2 N 1T1 (1)(220 K)

(b) Initially,

1 kmol Ar

T1 220K

TR = = = 1.457 220 K

Tcr , Ar 151.0K 5 MPa 3 kmol N2

Z Ar = 0.90 190 K

P1 5MPa

PR = = = 1.0278 8 MPa

Pcr ,Ar 4.86MPa

Then the volume of the tank is

V= = = 0.33 m 3

P 5000 kPa

After mixing,

Tm 200K

TR ,Ar = = = 1.325

Tcr ,Ar 151.0K

v Ar Vm / N Ar

Ar: v R ,Ar = = PR = 0.90

Ru Tcr ,Ar / Pcr ,Ar Ru Tcr ,Ar / Pcr , Ar

3

(0.33m )/(1kmol)

= = 1.278

(8.314kPa m 3 /kmol K)(151.0K)/(4860kPa)

Tm 200K

TR , N 2 = = = 1.585

Tcr , N 2 126.2K

v N2 Vm / N N 2

N 2: v R,N2 = = PR = 3.75

Ru Tcr , N 2 / Pcr , N 2 Ru Tcr , N 2 / Pcr , N 2

3

(0.33m )/(3kmol)

= = 0 . 355

(8.314kPa m 3 /kmol K)(126.2K)/(3390kPa)

Thus,

PAr = ( PR Pcr ) Ar = (0.90)(4.86 MPa) = 4.37 MPa

PN 2 = ( PR Pcr ) N 2 = (3.75)(3.39 MPa) = 12.7 MPa

12-40 EES solution of this (and other comprehensive problems designated with the computer icon) is

available to instructors at the Instructor Manual section of the Online Learning Center (OLC) at

www.mhhe.com/cengel-boles. See the Preface for access information.

12-14

Chapter 12 Gas Mixtures

12-47C No, this is an approximate approach. It assumes a component behaves as if it existed alone at the

mixture temperature and pressure (i.e., it disregards the influence of dissimilar molecules on each other.)

12-48 The moles, temperatures, and pressures of two gases forming a mixture are given. The mixture

temperature and pressure are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Under specified conditions both CO2 and H2 can be treated as ideal gases, and the mixture

as an ideal gas mixture. 2 The tank is insulated and thus there is no heat transfer. 3 There are no other forms

of work involved.

Properties The molar masses and specific heats of CO2 and H2 are 44.0 kg/kmol, 2.0 kg/kmol, 0.657

kJ/kg.C, and 10.183 kJ/kg.C, respectively. (Tables A-1 and A-2b).

Analysis (a) We take both gases as our system. No heat, work, or mass crosses the system boundary,

therefore this is a closed system with Q = 0 and W = 0. Then the energy balance for this closed system

reduces to

E in E out = E system

0 = U = U CO 2 + U H 2 CO2 H2

0.5 kmol 7.5 kmol

200 kPa 400 kPa

Using Cv values at room temperature and noting that m = NM, 27C 40C

the final temperature of the mixture is determined to be

(0.5 44kg )(0.657kJ/kg C )(Tm 27C) + (7.5 2kg )(10.183kJ/kg C)(Tm 40C ) = 0

Tm = 38.9C (311.9K )

(b) The volume of each tank is determined from

NRu T1 (0.5kmol)(8.314kPa m 3 /kmol K)(300K)

VCO 2 = = = 6.24m 3

P1 CO 2 200kPa

NRu T1 (7.5kmol)(8.314kPa m 3 /kmol K)(313K)

VH 2 = = = 48.79m 3

P1 H2 400kPa

Thus,

Vm = VCO 2 + VH 2 = 6.24 m 3 + 48.79 m 3 = 55.03 m 3

N m = N CO2 + N H 2 = 0.5 kmol + 7.5 kmol = 8.0 kmol

and

N m RuTm (8.0 kmol)(8.314 kPa m 3 / kmol K)(311.9 K)

Pm = = = 377 kPa

Vm 55.03 m 3

12-16

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