S9086-HZ-STM-010/CH-255V1R1

REVISION 1

NAVAL SHIPS’ TECHNICAL MANUAL
CHAPTER 255 — VOLUME 1
FEEDWATER SYSTEM AND
APPARATUS, FEED AND
CONDENSATE SYSTEMS

THIS CHAPTER SUPERSEDES CHAPTER 255V1 DATED 15 AUGUST 1990

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT C: DISTRIBUTION AUTHORIZED TO U.S. GOVERNMENT
AGENCIES AND THEIR CONTRACTORS; ADMINISTRATIVE AND OPERATIONAL USE
(15 AUGUST 1990). OTHER REQUESTS FOR THIS DOCUMENT WILL BE REFERRED TO
THE NAVAL SEA SYSTEMS COMMAND (SEA-56Z11).

WARNING: THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS TECHNICAL DATA WHOSE EXPORT IS
RESTRICTED BY THE ARMS EXPORT CONTROL ACT (TITLE 22, U.S.C., SEC. 2751, ET
SEQ.) OR EXECUTIVE ORDER 12470. VIOLATIONS OF THESE EXPORT LAWS ARE
SUBJECT TO SEVERE CRIMINAL PENALTIES. DISSEMINATE IN ACCORDANCE WITH
PROVISIONS OF OPNAVINST 5510.161, REFERENCE (JJ)..

DESTRUCTION NOTICE: DESTROY BY ANY METHOD THAT WILL PREVENT DISCLO-
SURE OF CONTENTS OR RECONSTRUCTION OF THE DOCUMENT.

PUBLISHED BY DIRECTION OF COMMANDER, NAVAL SEA SYSTEMS COMMAND.

0901-LP-017-7240
13 FEB 1998
*0901LP0177240*
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S9086-HZ-STM-010
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CERTIFICATION SHEET

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter/Paragraph Page

255 VOLUME 1 - FEEDWATER SYSTEM AND APPARATUS,FEED AND
CONSENSATE SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-1

SECTION 1. GENERAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-1

255-1.1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-1
255-1.1.1 INTENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-1
255-1.1.2 TRAINING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-1
255-1.1.3 RECOMMENDED CHANGES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-1

255-1.2 FEED AND CONDENSATE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-2
255-1.2.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-2
255-1.2.2 HISTORY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-2

255-1.3 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-2

SECTION 2. PRESSURE CLOSED FEED AND CONDENSATE SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . 255-4

255-2.1 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-4
255-2.1.2 CONDENSATE SYSTEM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-5
255-2.1.3 ADDITIONAL FEED SYSTEMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-6
255-2.1.3.1 Makeup Feed System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-6
255-2.1.3.2 Emergency Feed and Fill and Reserve Feed Transfer Systems. . 255-6
255-2.1.4 SYSTEM DRAINS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-6
255-2.1.4.1 High-Pressure Drains. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-6
255-2.1.4.2 Low-Pressure Drains. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-6
255-2.1.5 FEED HEATING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-6
255-2.1.5.1 Auxiliary Exhaust Steam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-7
255-2.1.5.2 Steam Extracted from the Main Propulsion Turbine. . . . . . . . 255-7
255-2.1.5.3 Economizers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-7

255-2.2 MAJOR COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-7
255-2.2.1 CONDENSER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-7
255-2.2.2 CONDENSATE PUMP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-8
255-2.2.3 AIR EJECTOR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-10
255-2.2.4 GLAND EXHAUST AND VENT CONDENSER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-10
255-2.2.5 CLOSED FEEDWATER HEATER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-11
255-2.2.6 DEAERATING FEED TANK. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-13
255-2.2.7 MAIN FEED PUMP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-13
255-2.2.8 FEED BOOSTER PUMP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-14
255-2.2.9 FEEDWATER SYSTEM CONTROL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-14
255-2.2.9.1 Feed Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-14
255-2.2.9.2 Automatic Startup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-16
255-2.2.9.3 Gland Seal Control Valve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-16
255-2.2.9.4 Normal Conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-16
255-2.2.9.5 Off-Normal Boiler Drum Water Levels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-16

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TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued

Chapter/Paragraph Page

255-2.2.9.6 DFT Water Level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-16
255-2.2.10 FEEDWATER RECIRCULATION SYSTEM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-16
255-2.2.10.1 Recirculation Line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-17
255-2.2.10.2 Cutout Valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-17

255-2.3 SYSTEM OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-18

255-2.4 FEEDWATER TREATMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-18
255-2.4.1 WATER PURITY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-18
255-2.4.2 OXYGEN CONTENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-18
255-2.4.3 CORROSION PRODUCTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-18
255-2.4.4 LUBRICATING OIL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-18
255-2.4.5 FUEL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-18
255-2.4.6 WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-18
255-2.4.7 SHORE WATER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-19
255-2.4.8 SEA SALTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-19
255-2.4.9 SALT CONCENTRATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-19
255-2.4.10 TREATING THE FEEDWATER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-19
255-2.4.11 WATER TESTING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-19
255-2.4.12 FILLING THE CHEMICAL FEED TANK. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-20

255.2.5 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-20

255-2.6 MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-21
255-2.6.1 GENERAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-21
255-2.6.1.1 Information Sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-21
255-2.6.1.2 Shipboard Maintenance Objectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-21
255-2.6.1.3 Maintenance Items. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-21
255-2.6.2 CHEMICAL CLEANING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-22
255-2.6.3 HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE LEAKS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-22
255-2.6.4 FEEDWATER SYSTEM PUMPS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-22

255-2.7 TESTS AND INSPECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-22

255-2.8 TROUBLESHOOTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-23
255-2.8.1 TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-23
255-2.8.2 PIPING SYSTEM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-24
255-2.8.3 DEAERATING FEED TANK. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-24
255-2.8.4 EXAMINING FAILED PARTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-25
255-2.8.4.1 Photographing Failed Parts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-25
255-2.8.4.2 Identifying Failed Part. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-25
255-2.8.4.3 Photograph Quality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-25

255-2.9 POSTCASUALTY PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-25
255-2.9.1 GENERAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-25
255-2.9.2 REPORTING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-25
255-2.9.3 HANDLING CASUALTIES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-25

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TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued

Chapter/Paragraph Page

255-2.10 PRESERVATION, PERIODIC INSPECTION, AND
RETURN-TO-ACTIVE-SERVICE PROCEDURES FOR EXTENDED
OVERHAULS AND SHIP INACTIVATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-26
255-2.10.1 GENERAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-26
255-2.10.2 INACTIVATING AND ACTIVATING FEEDWATER SYSTEMS. . . . . . . 255-26

SECTION 3. AUXILIARY BOILER FEEDWATER SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-26

255-3.1 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-26
255-3.1.1 INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-26
255-3.1.2 GENERAL DESCRIPTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-26
255-3.1.3 ADDITIONAL FEED SYSTEMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-27

255-3.2 MAJOR COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-27
255-3.2.1 GENERAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-27
255-3.2.2 FEEDWATER PUMP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-27
255-3.2.3 FEEDWATER CONTROL STATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-27
255-3.2.4 SAFETY CONTROL SYSTEM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-29

255-3.3 SYSTEM OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-29
255-3.3.1 PRELIMINARY SYSTEM CHECKS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-29
255-3.3.1.1 Alignment Check. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-29
255-3.3.1.2 System Component Checks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-29
255-3.3.1.3 Coupling Checks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-30
255-3.3.2 UNDERWAY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-30
255-3.3.2.1 Pneumatic Feedwater Controls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-30
255-3.3.2.2 Control Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-30
255-3.3.3 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-31

255-3.4 ADDITIONAL OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE INFORMATION . . . . . . . 255-31

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LIST OF TABLES

Table Title Page

255-2-1 MAINTENANCE ITEMS AND PURPOSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-22

255-2-2 PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-23

255-2-3 FEEDWATER SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-23

255-3-1 AUXILIARY BOILER FEEDWATER LIMIT SWITCH SETPOINT GUIDE . . . . 255-29

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure Title Page

255-1-1 Typical Pressure-Closed-Type Feedwater System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-3

255-2-1 Pressure Closed Condensate and Feedwater System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-5

255-2-2 Typical Condensate Pump Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-9

255-2-3 Typical Two-Stage Ejector Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-10

255-2-4 Gland Steam System and Turbine Drains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-11

255-2-5 Closed Feedwater Heater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-12

255-2-6 Cochrane Direct-Contact Deaerating Feed Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-12

255-2-7 Boiler Feed Pump Remote Startup Logic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-15

255-2-8 Recirculating Configuration for Boiler Feed Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255-17

255-3-1 Auxiliary
255-28 Boiler Feed System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

v / (vi Blank)
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S9086-HZ-STM-010/CH-255V1R1

CHAPTER 255

VOLUME 1 - FEEDWATER SYSTEM AND APPARATUS,FEED AND CONSENSATE SYSTEM

SECTION 1.
GENERAL INFORMATION

255-1.1 INTRODUCTION

255-1.1.1 INTENT. The purpose of volume 1 is to provide to the fleet general information about the operation,
maintenance, and repair of the feed and condensate systems of nonnuclear steam ships and their related machin-
ery and equipment. The deaerating feed tank (DFT) is discussed in volume 2 of this chapter, titled Deaerating
Feed Tank. The user should supplement this general information by referring to the following publications for
additional and specific information on feedwater systems:

a. Ship Information Book , Volumes 1 and 2, or Ship Operating Book
b. Ship Operating Guide for Propulsion Machinery (POG)
c. Damage Control Book
d. NAVPERS 10788, Principles of Naval Engineering
e. Machinists Mate Training Manuals
f. Engineering Operational Sequencing System (EOSS)
g. Manufacturers’ Technical Manuals and Instruction Books.

255-1.1.1.1 The following publications provide additional information on the thermodynamics and operation of
feed and condensate systems:

a. Marine Engineering by Harrington
b. Transamerica DeLAVAL Engineering Handbook.

255-1.1.2 TRAINING. Attendance at Navy training courses and study of related publications are suggested as
aids in understanding the principles and concepts of feed and condensate systems operation and how the feed and
condensate systems fit into the ship design as a whole.

255-1.1.3 RECOMMENDED CHANGES. This chapter has been revised to update information and cover
important aspects of feed and condensate systems. Comments and recommended changes should be referred to
the Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) in accordance with NSTM Chapter 001, General - NSTM Pub-
lications and Index and User Guide .

255-1.1.3.1 The instructions, procedures, and recommendations of this chapter complement, and generally agree
with, those of the equipment manufacturers. If instructions in this chapter and those in the manufacturer’s tech-
nical manual conflict, refer to the manufacturer’s technical manual or component specification for specific guid-
ance and notify NAVSEA by way of a Technical Manual Deficiency Evaluation Report (TMDER) to reconcile
differences.

255-1
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255-1.2 FEED AND CONDENSATE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

255-1.2.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION. The system includes the exhaust steam and drains from main propul-
sion and auxiliary machinery equipment and piping that are condensed and collected, referred to as condensate,
and the treated water that is supplied to the boiler for the generation of steam, referred to as feedwater.

255-1.2.2 HISTORY. The pressure closed feed system was developed as steam requirements were raised above
650 psi and 850°F. Air suspended in the feedwater could not be removed as steam conditions increased, so a DFT
was installed that boils the feedwater to remove dissolved air and scrubs the condensate to remove suspended air.
This feedwater system is widely used on naval ships today and is fully discussed in Section 2 of this chapter
(Figure 255-1-1).

255-1.2.2.1 There are many minor condensate and feedwater system variations. The discussion in this chapter is
limited to a typical generic arrangement.

255-1.3 REFERENCES

255-1.3.1 The following NSTM chapters are referred to in this volume:
a. Chapter 050 - Readiness and Care of Inactive Ships
b. Chapter 079 - Engineering Casualty Control, Volume 3
c. Chapter 220 - Boiler Water/Feedwater - Test and Treatment, Volume 2
d. Chapter 221 - Boilers
e. Chapter 254 - Condensers, Heat Exchangers, and Air Ejectors
f. Chapter 503 - Pumps
g. Chapter 504 - Pressure, Temperature, and Other Mechanical and Electrome-
chanical Measuring Instruments
h. Chapter 505 - Piping Systems
i. Chapter 531 - Desalination

255-2
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Figure 255-1-1 Typical Pressure-Closed-Type Feedwater System

255-3
S9086-HZ-STM-010/CH-255V1R1

SECTION 2.
PRESSURE CLOSED FEED AND CONDENSATE SYSTEM

255-2.1 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

255-2.1.1 FEED SYSTEM. Water used in propulsion boilers for producing steam is provided by a pressure
closed feed system, which in turn receives its water source from the condensate system by way of the steam-
pressurized deaerating feed tank (DFT).

255-2.1.1.1 The feed system typically consists of a set of motor driven main feed booster pumps (not on all
steam ships) that take water from the DFT and deliver it to a set of turbine driven main feed pumps. The main
feed pumps discharge the water to the boilers through a feedwater regulating station and interconnecting piping
and valves (Figure 255-2-1). Water must continue to circulate through the main feed pump to cool the pump
regardless of loading conditions. For this purpose, recirculating lines have been provided. These lines take flow
from the pump discharge and recirculate it back to the DFT.

255-4
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Figure 255-2-1 Pressure Closed Condensate and Feedwater System

255-2.1.2 CONDENSATE SYSTEM. The condensate system originates at the hot wells of main and auxiliary
condensers, where condensate pumps take the condensed steam (condensate) and deliver it to the DFT through
air ejector condensers and, on some ships, a first-stage feed heater. Recirculation from the condensate pump dis-
charge back to the condenser hot wells is provided to ensure condensate is always available for air ejector con-
denser cooling.

255-2.1.2.1 Condensate is also returned to the DFT through the freshwater drain collecting (FWDC) tank and
pumps that receive low-pressure steam drains from sources inside and outside the machinery spaces. On some
ships, the FWDC tank contents are sent to the main and auxiliary condenser hot wells via vacuum drag lines
rather than pumping them to the DFT via the condensate main.

255-2.1.2.2 Taken together, the boiler feed system and the condensate system provide the means to condense,
collect, heat, deaerate, and supply condensed steam back to the boilers - in a continuous closed-loop cycle (Figure
255-2-1).

255-5
S9086-HZ-STM-010/CH-255V1R1

255-2.1.3 ADDITIONAL FEED SYSTEMS. In addition to the boiler feed and condensate systems, a reserve
feed system, an excess feed system, and a makeup feed system are provided. The reserve feed system consists
of reserve feed tanks that receive excess feed from the DFT level control system and distilled water from the
ship’s distilling plants. The reserve feed system is the source of water for the makeup feed system, the emergency
feed and fill system, and the reserve feed transfer system.

255-2.1.3.1 Makeup Feed System. The makeup feed system operates in conjunction with the DFT level control
system. It takes feed from the reserve feed tanks by means of vacuum drag lines from either the main or the aux-
iliary condensers, or both. This system also contains a demineralizer that removes contaminants from the feed-
water in the reserve feed tanks. Such contaminants are detrimental to the boiler tubes.

255-2.1.3.2 Emergency Feed and Fill and Reserve Feed Transfer Systems. The emergency feed and fill and the
reserve feed transfer systems (not on all ships) provide a method of transferring feedwater from the reserve feed
tanks directly to the boilers by means of a steam reciprocating feed pump.

255-2.1.4 SYSTEM DRAINS. Drain systems collect drains and condensate from various sources and deliver
them to either the DFT or the FWDC tank. There are two types of drains: high-pressure drains and low-pressure
drains.

255-2.1.4.1 High-Pressure Drains. High-pressure drains include those from the main steam lines, boiler pres-
sure auxiliary steam lines, and other high-pressure ( 150 psig) sources. These drains are collected in a high-
pressure drain main, which discharges directly to the DFT.

255-2.1.4.2 Low-Pressure Drains. The low-pressure (or freshwater) drain main collects the drains from the
main turbine, turbogenerator, distilling plant, gland exhaust condenser, low-pressure steam piping serving the
space heaters, water heaters, galley, and laundry. The low-pressure drain main empties into the freshwater drain
collecting tank, and from there it can be either pumped to the DFT or vacuum-dragged to the condenser.

255-2.1.4.2.1 In addition to the low-pressure drain main, several other drains discharge into the freshwater drain
collecting tank. Drains from low points in the auxiliary exhaust main, low-pressure steam, and bleed steam pip-
ing also discharge into the freshwater drain collecting tank.

255-2.1.4.2.2 Drains from a low-pressure feed heater may also drain to the FWDC tank. The low-pressure feed
heater drains can also be either pumped into the condensate system or vacuum-dragged to the condenser. The
low-pressure feed heater may be located high enough above the freshwater drain collecting tank so that it can
drain by gravity to this tank in order to avoid a pumping arrangement. This eliminates the pump, motor, and
required piping and controls, and reduces both the initial cost of the system and the maintenance and space
requirements.

255-2.1.5 FEED HEATING. Feed heaters are used on all steamships for heating the condensate before it is
pumped into the boilers. This improves the efficiency of the plant and also avoids local stresses that would be
caused by the injection of comparatively cold feedwater into the boiler. Feed heating increases the propulsion
system efficiency, thus reducing the fuel consumption. The feed can be heated by any one or more of the follow-
ing methods.

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255-2.1.5.1 Auxiliary Exhaust Steam. The auxiliary exhaust system collects steam exhausted by the various
auxiliary machinery components and delivers the steam to a number of services.

255-2.1.5.1.1 One of the primary objectives of the auxiliary exhaust system is to supply steam to the DFT. In the
DFT, the exhaust steam directly contacts the condensate that is sprayed into the tank. This mixing of the steam
and condensate heats the feedwater to its saturation temperature, releasing the dissolved air and gases (particu-
larly oxygen, which is highly corrosive) from the feedwater.

255-2.1.5.1.2 The normal sources of steam for the auxiliary exhaust system are the exhaust steam from the non-
condensing-steam-operated auxiliaries (for example, the main feed pumps) and, on some ships, bleed steam from
the main turbines. If sufficient exhaust steam is unavailable (for example, slow ship speed, maneuvering, or in
port), the exhaust steam is augmented with steam from the main or auxiliary steam systems.

255-2.1.5.2 Steam Extracted from the Main Propulsion Turbine. Heat energy available from main steam is pro-
gressively reduced as it passes through the main turbines. Only a limited portion, therefore, of the steam’s avail-
able energy can be converted into useful work by the turbine. Extracting steam from the turbine after its avail-
able energy has been significantly reduced and using this steam for feed heating, improves the overall efficiency
of the system. Ultimately, after the steam leaves the turbine, a large portion of the heat in the steam is exhausted
into the main condenser.

255-2.1.5.3 Economizers. Economizer tubing is installed in the combustion gas uptake beyond the boiler
steam-generating tubes. Economizers increase the temperature of the incoming feedwater by the feedwater cool-
ing the flue gases leaving the boiler.

255-2.1.5.3.1 An economizer is a simple heat exchanger consisting of a bank of tubes connecting an inlet and
outlet header located in a relatively cool gas temperature zone beyond the boiler main generating bank. Supplied
with water at a temperature near that of the feedwater leaving the DFT, the economizer supplies additional heat
to the feed by cooling the flue gas. In many installations the economizer is the final heat exchanger in the exhaust
gas path.

255-2.1.5.3.2 Economizers can be divided into two types: bare-tube and extended-surface. Both types are forced
circulated by the main feed pump. In general, they are designed to heat the incoming feedwater to within about
35 degrees of the boiler pressure saturation temperature. They are arranged for counterflow of the water and the
products of combustion since greater heat absorption can be obtained with this configuration. This provides the
highest boiler efficiency for a given economizer size since the exit gas temperature tends to approach that of the
incoming feedwater.

255-2.2 MAJOR COMPONENTS

255-2.2.1 CONDENSER. Steam surface-type condensers are used in the exhaust system of steam propulsion
power plants to condense the steam discharging from the main propulsion and auxiliary (ship service turbine
generator) turbines. This creates a low absolute pressure at the turbine exhaust.

255-2.2.1.1 A steam surface-type condenser is a gastight shell-and-tube structure fitted with heat-conductive
tubes through which cooling seawater circulates for the purpose of condensing the turbine exhaust steam. The
condensate formed is continuously pumped from the condenser hot well into the condensate system. Noncon-

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densable gases entering the condenser shell from leakage through the turbine shaft seals, through subatmospheric
drains and returns to the condenser, or from any system subatmospheric (pressure vessels or lines) are removed
by a steam-jet air ejector or a mechanical air pump (paragraph 255-2.2.3). In marine power plant cycles, the non-
condensables are mostly air.

255-2.2.1.2 In a well designed and maintained system, the noncondensable gases constitute a very low percent-
age in the steam and have little effect on its condensing temperature (partial-pressure effect is nil up to 0.1 per-
cent). If the ratio of noncondensable gas to condensable vapor is significantly higher, its effect on the condensing
overall heat-transfer rate, the condensing steam temperature, and the venting equipment necessary for its removal
must be considered. Accumulation of noncondensable gases or inadequate venting arrangements in a feedwater
system may be the most significant factor in poor steam power plant performance.

255-2.2.2 CONDENSATE PUMP. Condensate pumps remove the water from the condenser hot well and pump
it to the DFT. Condensate pumps are usually motor driven and operate with a small submergence and with pump
liquid at a temperature equal to the saturation temperature at the condenser pressure. A diagram of a typical con-
densate pump arrangement is shown in Figure 255-2-2.

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Figure 255-2-2 Typical Condensate Pump Arrangement

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255-2.2.2.1 Several aspects of the condensate pumps require special attention in ship design. The condensate
pumps must be able to handle water under vacuum at its saturation temperature. Flashing will occur at the pump
impeller entrance unless adequate head is available between the minimum operating water level of the condenser
hot well and the pump suction. A short and direct lead sloping from the hot well to the pump is essential. Mount-
ing the pump near the condenser fore-and-aft centerline reduces the erratic suction that could occur if the ship
rolls or assumes a permanent list.

255-2.2.3 AIR EJECTOR. Steam air ejectors convert the heat energy of steam into kinetic (high-velocity)
energy by means of steam nozzles. The high-velocity steam jet removes noncondensable gases from the con-
denser shell. Steam removed with the noncondensable gases is condensed between stages in an intercondenser
and after the second stage in an aftercondenser. A piping diagram for a typical two-stage ejector is shown in
Figure 255-2-3. For a more complete discussion on this subject, see NSTM Chapter 254, Condensers, Heat
Exchangers, and Air Ejectors .

Figure 255-2-3 Typical Two-Stage Ejector Assembly
255-2.2.3.1 Condenser condensate cools the inter and after condensers (Figure 255-2-2 and Figure 255-2-3). This
recovers practically all the heat in the ejector steam and thereby improves the overall efficiency of the plant. The
small amount of condensate from the inter and after condenser (condensed ejector steam) is returned to the con-
denser hot well and thus to the boilers with deaerated feedwater. When the amount of condensate from the main
condenser is inadequate to cool the inter and after condenser properly, as might be true during light loads or
starting, a portion of the condensate is recirculated back to the condenser. This limits the temperature rise to the
required amount and enhances air ejector performance.

255-2.2.4 GLAND EXHAUST AND VENT CONDENSER. All steam turbines have sealing and drainage sys-
tems to prevent leakage of steam from within and to remove the water formed during the warmup of the casing

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and connected steam piping. Condensing steam turbines also have a means of removing water formed as the
steam expands below saturation in the turbine blading. The drains usually fitted to a combined impulse and reac-
tion turbine are shown in Figure 255-2-4. These consist of drains from the turbine steam chest, curtis wheel,
guardian valves (special stop valves in main steam lines), space between the dummy and shaft-end packing, and
gland area.

Figure 255-2-4 Gland Steam System and Turbine Drains

255-2.2.5 CLOSED FEEDWATER HEATER. Two types of feedwater heaters are common: the in-line closed
feed heater (Figure 255-2-5) and the direct-contact feed heater, called a DFT (Figure 255-2-6). In a closed heater,
the feedwater and heating steam do not mix. The feedwater passes through tubes in the heater, and the heating
steam is admitted to the shell of the heater and surrounds the tubes. The closed heater acts in the same way as a
surface condenser working without a vacuum. The feedwater passing through the tubes condenses the steam out-
side the tubes and absorbs heat energy. The condensed steam drains out of the bottom of the heater and returns
to the condensate system.

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Figure 255-2-5 Closed Feedwater Heater

Figure 255-2-6 Cochrane Direct-Contact Deaerating Feed Tank

255-2.2.5.1 A diagram of a straight-tube closed feedwater heater for low-pressure service is shown in Figure
255-2-5. This heater has partition sealing plates in the water heads. The difference in the feedwater pressure at

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inlet and outlet keep the gaskets of the partition plate tight. The floating head allows the tubes to expand. This
type of heater, commonly called a low pressure feed heater, is typically used in the condensate system between
the air ejector condenser and the DFT.

255-2.2.6 DEAERATING FEED TANK. The DFT or direct-contact heater mixes the feedwater with the heat-
ing steam. The DFT acts much like a jet condenser (Figure 255-2-6). Condensate is sprayed into the DFT and
mixes with heating steam. The heating steam condenses and gives up its heat energy to the condensate. The feed-
water and condensed steam drop to the bottom of the DFT and are pumped out by the boiler feed pump or feed
booster pump. The pressure of the heating steam used in the DFT is approximately 10 to 15 pounds per square
inch gage.

255-2.2.6.1 There may be a strainer over the feed booster pump suction inlet and a single-pass shell-and-tube
heat exchanger at the outlet of the DFT for cooling the feedwater. This slight cooling prevents flashing of the
feedwater in the booster pump. In the heat exchanger, condensate flows on the shellside while feedwater flows
on the tubeside.

255-2.2.6.2 The DFT is always placed on the suction side of the boiler feed pump. If the temperature of the feed
pump suction exceeds 170°F, the pump could become vapor bound unless there is a positive pressure head on the
suction side of the pump. To ensure positive pressure, either the DFT is placed in an elevated position in the ship
to give the main feed pump a positive suction head or a feed booster pump is used to deliver the water from the
DFT to the main feed pump suction. Most naval ships have the DFT low in the ship and thus use feed booster
pumps. The boiler surge capacity in the bottom of the DFT (storage tank region), together with its normal oper-
ating volume results in a large unit (Figure 255-2-6).

255-2.2.6.3 The DFT heats the feedwater to a temperature corresponding to the pressure in the DFT shell. To
operate the DFT at full efficiency, both the water sprayer and the atomizer are required.

255-2.2.6.4 The primary function of the DFT is to deaerate the feedwater. Boiler feedwater must be free of dis-
solved oxygen and carbon dioxide, which corrode the boiler and economizer tubes. The condensate is sprayed
into the DFT, where it mixes with steam and is thereby heated to nearly the temperature of the steam. By this
process the air in the water is released and vented through the top of the DFT. The DFT delivers water to the
boiler in a practically air-free condition. To summarize, the DFT acts as a feedwater heater, an air remover, and
a storage tank to accommodate variations in boiler requirements. Further details on DFT design can be found in
volume 2 of this NSTM chapter.

255-2.2.7 MAIN FEED PUMP. The boiler main feed pump provides a continuous supply of heated and deaer-
ated water to the boilers. Boiler feedwater consists of condensed steam from the main and auxiliary condensate
systems, condensed heating steam, and miscellaneous freshwater drains. The heated and deaerated feedwater col-
lects at the bottom of the DFT from where it becomes a source of feedwater for the main feed pump.

255-2.2.7.1 Most marine boiler feed pumps are driven by steam turbines. Single- and two-stage types that have
pump shafts common with the turbine shaft are frequently used. Small-capacity pumps for waste-heat boilers or
small auxiliary boilers are usually of the end-suction type and are motor driven. Some installations use vertical
multistage pumps, either motor or turbine driven.

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255-2.2.7.2 The system shown in Figure 255-2-1 normally has at least two feed pumps in compliance with ship
design practices. The feed discharge piping is designed for the pump relief valve pressure setting or the pump
shutoff head if a relief valve is not provided.

255-2.2.7.3 Feedwater can be delivered through either the main or the auxiliary feed lines. Each feed line has a
stop-check valve. The main feed line has a feedwater regulator, a feed stop valve, and a feed stop-check valve.
The auxiliary feed line has a feed stop valve and a feed stop-check valve.

255-2.2.7.4 The boiler in the design illustrated by Figure 255-2-3 is fitted with an economizer. The feed is there-
fore circulated through the economizer before being discharged into the boiler drum. If the system design
includes more than two stages of feedwater heating, the subsequent heating stages are also in the feed pump dis-
charge line.

255-2.2.8 FEED BOOSTER PUMP. Feed booster pumps are needed in connection with feed systems where
space restrictions prevent locating the DFT at a sufficient static elevation above the main feed pump suction to
provide the required net positive suction head (NPSH). In the absence of a large static submergence at the suc-
tion, NPSH requirements are satisfied by the booster pump discharge pressure. For a detailed description of these
pumps refer to NSTM Chapter 503, Pumps .

255-2.2.8.1 These pumps usually are designed for much lower speeds and heads so that the impeller is larger
and the suction velocities are lower than in main feed pumps. The result is that a lower net positive suction head
is permitted for the booster pump. Also, the possibility of complete vaporization and resulting cavitation damage
is reduced in the booster pump because the ratio of energy loss to pump volume is much smaller than for main
feed pumps.

255-2.2.8.2 The flow through the booster pump is essentially controlled by the main feed pump, which in turn
is controlled by the boiler feedwater regulator. A booster pump must have a recirculating line, usually piped back
to the DFT, to protect the booster pump when the main feed pump is not operating.

255-2.2.9 FEEDWATER SYSTEM CONTROL. Control of the rate of feedwater in accordance with boiler
drum water level is accomplished manually by manipulating the boiler feed stop check valves or automatically
by the feedwater regulators. The complications involved in starting a cold plant dictate that the plant be started
manually and then gradually transferred to automatic control.

255-2.2.9.1 Feed Pump. The boiler feed pump is usually located remotely from the control station, which has
remote-starting capabilities. The steam-turbine-driven feed pumps on most propulsion plants require a control
system that provides the necessary steps for startup. Such control systems are usually called logic systems since
they can initiate each step in proper order and check if each step is accomplished satisfactorily. A logic diagram
of the steps that might be required is shown in Figure 255-2-7. The system will vary depending on the particu-
lar feed pump and driver installed.

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Figure 255-2-7 Boiler Feed Pump Remote Startup Logic Diagram

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255-2.2.9.2 Automatic Startup. The system in Figure 255-2-7 has four inputs to indicate that the power and
piping are set up correctly and that the system is in a ready state. When these control signals are in proper array,
the start switch may be manually actuated to initiate the starting cycle, which begins with the running of an aux-
iliary oil pump. When oil pressure rises to normal, the sequence continues and a gland seal control valve motor
operator is energized. If pressure is not obtained in a specified time, the sequence stops and an alarm sounds.

255-2.2.9.3 Gland Seal Control Valve. The gland seal control valve also has a specific time in which to open.
If the position sensor fails to detect an open valve in the allotted time, the sequence stops and the alarm sounds,
as in the case of low oil pressure. If the sensor detects that the gland seal control valve is open, the sequence
continues and the pump suction valve is opened. In this case both position and pressure are checked before the
system is cleared for the next and final step of opening the feed pump turbine steam supply valve.

255-2.2.9.4 Normal Conditions. Under normal steaming conditions, the feedwater regulator automatically
maintains the water level in the boiler drums. The level in the boiler drum must be manually regulated by throt-
tling the main feed line stop-check valve when the boiler is being supplied by the emergency feed line. The
emergency feed line stop valve is not used for boiler drum water level control so that valve wear can be kept to
a minimum. This will ensure a tight stop valve if positive isolation of the boiler is required.

255-2.2.9.5 Off-Normal Boiler Drum Water Levels. Off-normal water levels in the boiler drum will trigger an
alarm. If the level drops below a safe limit, the boiler burner flames are automatically extinguished. A high water
level may damage the machinery by water carryover into the steam lines; therefore, protection is provided by
shutting the feed valve. In addition, closing the main throttle or extinguishing the fires may prove beneficial by
causing a shrink in the drum water level. Alarms are provided for such off-normal conditions as low steam pres-
sure, high steam temperature, and low water level in the feed tanks.

255-2.2.9.6 DFT Water Level. The water level is maintained in the DFT by the excess feed and makeup feed
valves. Each valve is automatically controlled by high- and low-level control pilots. The high-level spill valve
dumps the condensate from the condensate system feeding the DFT into a reserve feed tank. The low-level
makeup feed valve allows makeup water from a reserve feed tank to be vacuum-dragged to the main condenser
(Figure 255-2-1).

255-2.2.10 FEEDWATER RECIRCULATION SYSTEM. Even when the flow of regulated feedwater is low or
no flow exists for short intervals, water must continue to circulate through the main feed pump to cool the pump.
For this purpose, recirculating lines have been provided. These lines take flow from the pump discharge and
recirculate it back to the DFT. A typical feedwater recirculation system piping arrangement is shown in Figure
255-2-8.

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Figure 255-2-8 Recirculating Configuration for Boiler Feed Pump
255-2.2.10.1 Recirculation Line. Minimum flow through the main feed pump is maintained by a recirculation
line between the pump discharge line and the pump suction source (DFT typically). This line has either a recir-
culation orifice to pass the required minimum flow or a modulating pressure breakdown valve. The recirculation
connection is in the pump discharge line between the discharge nozzle and a check valve. All valves in the recir-
culation line must be open whenever the pump is operating under any of the following conditions:

a. Starting pump
b. Low flows
c. Stopping pump.

255-2.2.10.1.1 The recirculation valves may be manual or automatic. If automatic controls are used, check them
at the beginning of and occasionally during the startup procedure.

255-2.2.10.2 Cutout Valves. Major systems and components have backup systems and components that are
cross-connected through cutout valves to permit continued operation if individual components fail.

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255-2.3 SYSTEM OPERATION

255-2.3.1 Proper system operation is described in Section 6 of volume 2 of this NSTM chapter. Main condenser
and air ejector operation is outlined in NSTM Chapter 254, Condensers, Heat Exchangers, and Air Ejectors
. NSTM chapters for other system components are shown in Figure 255-1-1.

255-2.4 FEEDWATER TREATMENT

255-2.4.1 WATER PURITY. Water used for boiler feed with water-tube boilers must have an extremely high
degree of purity, be free of lubricating oil, and contain no oxygen. The rate of heat transmitted through the fur-
nace tubes of water-tube boilers, especially those operated at high rates of combustion, is so high that scale form-
ing on the waterside due to impurities in the water will eventually cause the tubes to overheat and fail. Scale
buildup will require frequent cleaning of boiler tubes with the resultant expense and increased time in port. Today,
when the boiler feedwater of naval ships is kept at the proper degree of purity, the boilers are typically opened
for cleaning once in 12 months.

255-2.4.2 OXYGEN CONTENT. Dissolved oxygen contamination results from defects in the DFT, improper
DFT operation, air leakage into any part of the system, and, most commonly, failure to secure and lay-up the
boilers in accordance with prescribed procedures.

255-2.4.3 CORROSION PRODUCTS. Corrosion products may be picked up from piping, valves, and machin-
ery at various points in the steam-water cycle. These corrosion products, like other contaminating materials, tend
to be carried to the boiler.

255-2.4.3.1 To prevent corrosion of the boiler and economizer tubes, eliminate all dissolved oxygen from the
feedwater and maintain the alkaline level (pH level between 7.0 and 10.2) in the boiler water. Direct-contact
feedwater heaters and a closed feedwater system keep air out of the boiler feed and thus ensure that the water
entering the boiler is practically free of dissolved oxygen.

255-2.4.4 LUBRICATING OIL. Lubricating oil introduced into the boiler with the feed will coat the inside of
the tubes and eventually cause tube failure. Even the smallest quantity cannot be allowed in a water-tube boiler.
If a ship is propelled by turbines and the auxiliaries are driven by turbines or electric motors, there is little pos-
sibility of lubricating oil getting into the boilers. There is always danger, however, of a small amount of lubri-
cating oil entering the boiler with the feedwater through the turbine gland seal system.

255-2.4.5 FUEL. Fuel may also enter the feedwater system. Fuel entering the feed system would eventually be
carried to the boiler. The most likely sources of fuel contamination are the fuel heaters. Today, this contamina-
tion risk has been minimized with the switch to marine diesel fuel, which does not require heating before going
to the boilers.

255-2.4.6 WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS. Water treatment chemicals can also contaminate the boiler
water. Although the chemicals are necessary, they do increase the amount of foreign matter in the boiler water.
Rust preventive or preservative used in new or reactivated ships may also enter the condensate system or the feed
system from a number of sources.

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255-2.4.7 SHORE WATER. Minerals in shore water introduce an entirely new set of contaminating substances.
Even if shore water is distilled before use, it will still contain impurities that cannot be counteracted by the stan-
dard methods of boiler water treatment. Shore water should therefore never be used as boiler feed, except in an
extreme emergency. Note that steam obtained from shore will normally be contaminated in the same manner as
distilled shore water. While recognizing the dangers of using shore water, shipboard personnel might overlook
the fact that the same dangers exist (though to a lesser degree) in using shore steam. If shore steam is routed to
the drains, for example, trouble may later be encountered with the boiler water.

255-2.4.7.1 To protect the boiler and feed system from contamination, return/dump shore steam drains through
either the reserve feed riser or the shore steam return riser (if provided) or overboard above the waterline.

255-2.4.7.2 Boiler feedwater is always in danger of contamination from seawater leakage in the condenser.
Proper maintenance and care of this equipment is therefore essential to avoid such situations. Although there are
many sources of boiler water contamination, the contaminating materials tend to produce three main problems:
waterside deposits, waterside corrosion, and carryover. Any boiler water treatment must be aimed at controlling
these problems.

255-2.4.8 SEA SALTS. The salts in seawater and, therefore, to a lesser extent in the distillate are chiefly com-
pounds of sodium, calcium, and magnesium. Seawater is most likely to enter the system at the following points:

a. Main and auxiliary condensers
b. Distilling plant evaporators, condensers, and air ejectors
c. Drain collecting tanks, open funnel drains, and drain lines that run through or terminate in the bilges
d. Feed suction lines that run through the bilges
e. Reserve feed tanks (leaky seams)
f. Bottom blow valves on idle boilers.

255-2.4.9 SALT CONCENTRATION. Each evaporator is operated to provide distilled seawater - seawater that
is distilled to about 1/20,000 of its original concentration or about 1.75 ppm of sea salts (approximately 70
pounds per 20,000 tons of water). Each evaporator has its own salinity cell (which measures salt content in ppm)
and dump valve. If the water becomes too salty, an audible alarm sounds and the water is automatically dumped
to the bilges. In considering water problems and water treatment, remember that the basic impurity of seawater
distillate would require water treatment even if no other impurities entered the feedwater from other sources.

255-2.4.10 TREATING THE FEEDWATER. Boiler feedwater is now usually routinely tested and treated with
boiler compounds that react with scale-forming impurities to form sludge. Treating boiler water with alkaline
prevents corrosion in boiler and economizer tubes. The chemicals used for feedwater treatment should in no way
cause excessive priming, which could result in moisture being carried over into the superheater and perhaps into
the turbine itself. Always use boiler compounds when raw water, taken on board in port, is used for boiler
makeup feed without first going through an evaporator. No boiler compounds are available that will eliminate the
harmful effect of lubricating oil in the feedwater.

255-2.4.11 WATER TESTING. Water samples can be taken from the boiler water wall header, DFT, and con-
taminated steam generator. The samples should be cooled and tested in convenient access to a sink. To facilitate
the maintenance of boiler water chemistry, a chemical mixing tank and a chemical feed tank are provided. For

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the frequency of treatment and the amount of compound to be added to the boiler, consult NSTM Chapter 220,
Volume 2, Boiler Water/Feedwater - Test and Treatment .

255-2.4.12 FILLING THE CHEMICAL FEED TANK. The following procedure is recommended for filling the
chemical feed tank:

1. Close the drain, feed supply, and drum injection valves.
2. Open the tank vent and filling valve.
3. Dissolve the chemicals in warm feedwater, and pour the mixture into the tank.
4. Fill the tank by way of the filling connection until the mixture flows out of the vent. This will ensure that all
air has been expelled.
5. After the tank has been filled, close the filling vent valves and open the feed supply line valves.
6. Open the valves in the boiler injection line to the boiler receiving the mixture.
7. As a result of the difference in pressure between the feed discharge and the boiler drum, the compound is
injected into the boiler. Allow sufficient time to inject all of the mixture.
8. Close the feed supply and injection valves, and open the vent and drain to drain the tank to the contaminated
drain system.
9. The tank is ready for another charge (refer to NSTM Chapter 221, Boilers ).

255.2.5 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

255-2.5.1 The following precautions are recommended for protecting the various system components and pro-
viding safe and continuous operation:

a. The feedwater system is equipped with salinity indicating systems for continuously checking water purity.
When starting the feedwater system, energize the salinity cell circuits and check the indicators. Check read-
ings hourly for all operating equipment. Salinity indicating cells are installed in the following locations:
1 Main condensate pump discharge
2 Turbogenerator condensate pump discharge
3 Freshwater drain tank pump discharge
4 Freshwater drain tank vacuum drag
5 Feed booster pump suction
6 Emergency feed and transfer pump suction
7 Makeup feed lines from reserve feed tanks.
b. Closely watch the level in the reserve feed tank from which makeup feed is being taken. Vacuum drag on an
empty tank will cause loss of vacuum, delay in restoring the DFT water level, and possible disruption of the
entire steam and water cycle. For safety precautions of general piping systems, consult NSTM Chapter 505,
Piping Systems .
c. To make recirculation automatic and to avoid excessive recirculation (which causes excessive heat loss), most
air ejector recirculating lines have thermostatic controller valves (Figure 255-2-2). These valves are actuated
by the temperature of the condensate discharged from the air ejector after condenser. When water temperature
rises above the valve temperature setpoint, the valve automatically opens. This recirculates the heated water

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back to the condenser and through the air ejector. Thermostatically controlled recirculating valves are adjust-
able through a 40-degree range. They should be set in each individual case to open at the highest temperature
at which the air ejectors will operate without losing condenser vacuum or discharging a significant amount of
vapor from the air ejector after condenser vent. Thermostatically controlled recirculating valves have bypasses
or manually operated pull-open devices for use when warming up the plant or if the automatic feature fails.
d. The condensate in the condenser hot wells must never collect and overflow into the turbines or in any way
reduce the steam condensing space in the condenser shell.

NOTE

Never operate the condensate pumps with a dry condenser hot well.
e. Do not throttle steam inlet valves to DFT’s.
f. Do not close or throttle valves in the vent line from operating DFT’s.
g. Open feed pump recirculating lines whenever pumps are operating.
h. Never operate centrifugal feed pump unless the feed booster pump is running.
i. In warming up a cold DFT, open the steam supply valve slowly to avoid sudden temperature changes in the
tank.
j. Before starting any repairs on the DFT, observe the precautions listed in volume 2 of this NSTM chapter.
k. Additional safety precautions for condensers, air ejector, and pumps can be found in NSTM Chapters 254
and 503, Pumps .

255-2.6 MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR

255-2.6.1 GENERAL. The preventive maintenance information in this section complements the maintenance
requirement cards (MRC), which contain the basic job order requirement for each task supplied for programmed
preventive maintenance under the 3-M system. Propulsion feedwater system component MRC’s are required for
each preventive maintenance task. Where the preventive maintenance system (PMS) coverage applies, preventive
maintenance should be conducted in accordance with the MRC’s.

255-2.6.1.1 Information Sources. The information in this section, the manufacturer’s equipment manual, the
ship information books, and other applicable documents provide detailed procedures for conducting corrective
maintenance and for evaluating the results of required inspections and tests to an extent not covered by the
MRC’s.

255-2.6.1.2 Shipboard Maintenance Objectives. The feed system is reliable because of its relatively simple
construction. It has few moving parts and very few wearing parts. If linkages are kept greased, system steam is
kept very clean, and proper starting and steady-state operating procedures are followed, the system can be
expected to operate for many years without replacing any parts. Primary shipboard maintenance objectives
include awareness of possible changes in performance, keeping systems clean, and periodic inspections.

255-2.6.1.3 Maintenance Items. Important maintenance items under the control of shipboard personnel and the
purpose of the maintenance are shown in Table 255-2-1. The various system component designs allow the main-
tenance items listed in Table 255-2-1 to be performed with no or limited disassembly.

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Table 255-2-1 MAINTENANCE ITEMS AND PURPOSE
Item Purpose
Proper machinery (pump) lubricant quality, cleanli- Avoid wiping of bearings, scoring of journals, and chemical
ness, and quantity attack on these and other critical surfaces.
Freedom of control and trip Avoid slow action or hangup of control or trip valves.
Condition of water drains Avoid turbine damage, water slugging, and the entry of water into
the lubricating oil system.
Condition of various pump shaft and gland packings Avoid blowing steam into engine spaces or pulling air into the
system rotating machinery or main condenser.
Cleanliness of feedwater component internals Avoid the entry of foreign material through access openings or
through connected piping. Restrict internal damage (mechanical or
chemical).

255-2.6.2 CHEMICAL CLEANING. The length of time between cleaning piping, tanks, and feedwater heaters
depends on the plant condition, feedwater purity, and amount of steaming. Clean by boiling out with a trisodium
phosphate solution as described in NSTM Chapter 221 .

255-2.6.2.1 The actual hookup should be devised by the ship to best suit the installation. Do not exceed design
pressure and temperature limits of the system.

255-2.6.3 HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE LEAKS. The proper maintenance and repair instructions for tubes in
feedwater heaters, drain coolers, and other types of heat exchangers can be found in NSTM Chapter 254 or the
appropriate technical manual.

255-2.6.4 FEEDWATER SYSTEM PUMPS. The proper care and maintenance instructions for the pumps in the
feedwater system can be found in NSTM Chapter 503 .

255-2.7 TESTS AND INSPECTIONS

255-2.7.1 Maintain feedwater system components in accordance with the PMS in effect fleetwide. The PMS
defines specific action to be taken to ensure proper equipment operation and extended life. PMS instructions have
been generated from the applicable equipment technical manuals, but any conflicts should be reported through
feedback reports to the Naval Ship Systems Engineering Station (NAVSSES) for final resolution. Periodic tests
and inspections are required for preventive maintenance. Recommended periodic tests and inspections and their
frequency are listed in Table 255-2-2.

NOTE

These tests and inspections are the minimum necessary to ensure safe and reli-
able operation of equipment. Any improper operation of equipment may indicate
the need for a test to determine the cause. The test schedule indicated in Table
255-2-2 is a minimum. Additional or more frequent tests may be performed at
the discretion of the Engineering Officer. (Additional tests required for the DFT
are in volume 2 of this NSTM chapter.)

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Table 255-2-2 PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS
Test/Inspection Frequency
Run lubricating oil purifier while underway Daily
Operate and lubricate all valve operating linkage. Monthly
Lift DFT shell relief and vacuum breaker valves by hand to ensure freedom of move- Monthly
ment.
Test DFT remote water level indicator against gage glass at high and low levels. Quarterly
Test operation of air-pilot-operated control valves for makeup and excess feedwater con- Quarterly
trol as follows:
1. Manually stroke the hand-operated device to test valve travel and freedom of move-
ment
2. Observe that diaphragm control valve opens and closes in response to operating pres-
sure on the diaphragm.
3. Lower the level of the DFT to low water level and check that makeup feed valve
opens. When level returns to normal working level, check that valve closes. If necessary,
adjust control pilot to prescribed setpoints.
4. Perform similar test on excess feed valve, and adjust as necessary.
Test setting of DFT spray system valves according to volume 2 of this NSTM chapter. Twice a year
Inspect interior of DFT, and clean as needed Twice a year
Inspect and clean the DFT check valve and steam atomizing valve. Twice a year
Clean, inspect, and preserve exterior of system components. Regular overhaul cycle
Test DFT vacuum breaker according to volume 2 of this NSTM chapter. Regular overhaul cycle
Remove and test DFT relief valve according to NSTM Chapter 505 . Regular overhaul cycle

255-2.8 TROUBLESHOOTING

255-2.8.1 TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE. Various problems (and suggested remedies) encountered during
feedwater system operation are listed in Table 255-2-3. This information is only a general guide. Use it in con-
junction with the feedwater system component technical manuals, NSTM Chapters 255, Volume 2, and 503,
and NSTM Chapter 504, Pressure, Temperature, and Other Mechanical and Electromechanical Measuring
Instruments .

Table 255-2-3 FEEDWATER SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
Symptom or Cause Remedy
1. Air in system Check all flanged connections of feed and condensate system, con-
denser waterbox flanges, and turbine glands for air inleakage espe-
cially at low power levels. Ensure adequate steam supply to air
ejector. Check turbine gland seal supply connections on downstream
side of condensate pump discharge valves. Ensure that DFT steam
supply valves are wide open. Reduce high pressure in DFT caused
by high-pressure drains flashing to steam and reducing flow of
steam through atomizing valve. Ensure that DFT vent system is
working properly. Verify that all vent line valves and needle valves
are open (reduces possibility of boiler tube corrosion due to exces-
sive air in system - see paragraph 255-2.8.3). Test DFT spray valves
for proper operation. Consult volume 2 of this NSTM chapter for
DFT information.

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Table 255-2-3 FEEDWATER SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE -

Continued

2. Poor condenser vacuum Ensure that steam pressure to air ejectors and quantity of conden-
sate to air ejector inter condenser are proper. Maintain water level
in reserve feed tank from which makeup feed is taken. Check sea-
water flow through the condenser.
3. Excessive loss of feedwater as vapor from air Engage recirculation system flow to increase cooling water (conden-
ejector after condenser vent (most often occurs at sate flow) through air ejector.
low power levels)
4. Excessive noise or water hammer in heating Improve drainage by maintaining vacuum on system drain tank
system drain lines (can lead to vibration and pos- through proper air ejector operation.
sible joint leaks)
5. Booster pump or main feed pump overheating at Open pump recirculation lines to provide sufficient flow through
low-flow conditions pump (see NSTM Chapter 503 )
6. Low feedwater system pressure emergency Line up emergency transfer pump to take suction from emergency
feed tank and discharge feedwater to booster pump discharge header
(main feed pump supply). Look for rupture or leak and fix or iso-
late.
7. Lowering feedwater exit temperature from DFT Ensure continuous venting of DFT to prevent noncondensable gases
during steady operation from accumulating in DFT. (Continuous venting of a small amount
of steam ensures removal of these gases.) Check DFT pressure
relief valve and vacuum breaker for proper spring settings and
operation.
8. DFT water level exceeds normal ship operating Use manual level control. Check air supply. Check emergency
high-low range (possible control air supply failure) handwheel control valves. Check or replace differential pressure
transmitters (see also DFT remote level indicator section of NSTM
Chapter 504 ). Ensure that makeup feed tank valve is operational
and the control pilot settings are correct.
9. Leaking DFT spray system valves on test rig Record pressure indicated when spray valve opens. Adjust valve
spring settings if necessary (see DFT spray valve test section of
volume 2 of this NSTM chapter).

255-2.8.2 PIPING SYSTEM. General application of piping system remedies and guidance are contained in
NSTM Chapter 505 .

255-2.8.3 DEAERATING FEED TANK. Boiler tube corrosion has been directly linked to needle and vent line
valves that were closed, preventing separated air from escaping from the DFT. If air is not removed, it will be
redissolved in the feedwater in the DFT storage section. Air is removed through a vent from the vent condenser.
In most installations, the vent discharges through a line to a gland exhaust condenser or to the after condensers
of the main and auxiliary air ejectors. The vent line normally has a valve of line size for maximum venting. A
needle valve or orifice is usually provided around this line valve to regulate venting less than maximum quanti-
ties. To ensure positive and continuous venting at all times, the Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) has
authorized, where applicable, the ship’s force to install a 3/8-inch orifice in a bypass around the vent line valve.
This will prevent complete closing of the vent line and will permit the vent valve to be used for purging the tank,
if necessary. Install a simple manometer or other visual flow indicator across the orifice to ensure that there is
flow and that a valve downstream from the orifice is not closed. In newer installations, the DFT’s have an ori-
fice plate to maintain a vent steam rate of 0.05 percent of rated load at the design operating pressure. Additional
guidance on DFT operational problems can be found in volume 2 of this NSTM chapter.

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255-2.8.4 EXAMINING FAILED PARTS. Whenever parts fail or are damaged from a cause other than
improper maintenance, faulty operation, or normal wear, consider the cause to be inappropriate design or faulty
manufacturing. Thoroughly examine the failed part and, when necessary, preserve it for further examination to
determine the cause of failure. Notify NAVSEA of the failure, giving the circumstances and detailed results of
examinations. NAVSEA may want other naval activities or the original manufacturer to investigate the failed part
further.

255-2.8.4.1 Photographing Failed Parts. Photograph the damaged parts to supplement the written description.
Photographs are particularly helpful in interpreting hard-to-describe or unusual markings, such as those from cor-
rosion or erosion damage. The photograph becomes a permanent record. It can be compared with photographs
taken previously and used to establish a rate of degradation, where appropriate. This is often of primary impor-
tance in establishing the significance of the condition.

255-2.8.4.2 Identifying Failed Part. Note that although at the time the pictures are taken there is no doubt about
what is being photographed, the object may become indistinct later and be completely unrecognizable to persons
reviewing reports. Placing the following items in the picture will help orient the viewer:

a. A scale, preferably a 12-inch ruler, next to the part

b. A placard next to the part to identify the part by name (or mark the part itself, circling the damaged area with
contrasting color). The nomenclature should correspond to that of the technical manual (for example, Gland
Exhauster Tube Bundle, Upper Steam Inlet Side, Port Unit, DDG 40).

255-2.8.4.3 Photograph Quality. Use professional photographers with closeup cameras if fine details are impor-
tant, such as early stages of erosion or corrosion and fractured surfaces where fatigue can be identified by typi-
cal marks. Taking several photographs at different distances and angles will permit later selection of the best pic-
ture.

255-2.9 POSTCASUALTY PROCEDURES

255-2.9.1 GENERAL. System failure can be a temporary inconvenience or a casualty that can endanger the
ship and the lives of the ship’s force. Operating personnel must be continuously on the alert for indications that
equipment or systems are about to fail. Prompt and proper action can usually confine a casualty to a specific sys-
tem or piece of equipment, and backup equipment can permit almost normal continuity of operation. An experi-
enced operator’s sight and hearing, augmented by reference to operating instruments and logged data, can nor-
mally evaluate the condition of the feedwater system in its various operating modes or conditions. Investigate
abnormal conditions promptly. NSTM Chapters 254, 503, and 505 contain additional information.

255-2.9.2 REPORTING. In the event of a casualty, report the incident to the level of authority that can prop-
erly assess the effect on the system or ship and can then take appropriate action.

255-2.9.3 HANDLING CASUALTIES. Detailed steps of engine room casualty control are in NSTM Chapter
079, Volume 3, Damage Control - Engineering Casualty Control .

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255-2.10 PRESERVATION, PERIODIC INSPECTION, AND RETURN-TO-ACTIVE-SERVICE PRO-
CEDURES FOR EXTENDED OVERHAULS AND SHIP INACTIVATION

255-2.10.1 GENERAL. The various aspects of inactivating and activating ships are discussed in NSTM Chap-
ter 050, Readiness and Care of Inactive Ships .

255-2.10.2 INACTIVATING AND ACTIVATING FEEDWATER SYSTEMS. The following information can
be found in NSTM Chapter 050 :

a. Preservation:
1 Assessing general condition of equipment
2 Procedure for dehumidification
3 Preservation by solvent cutback of corrosion preventive
4 Detailed preservation instructions for condensers, air ejectors, heaters, pumps, and piping systems.
b. Periodic Inspections and Tests
c. Return to Active Service:
1 Cleaning solution for feedwater piping
2 Cleaning condensers, condensate, and air ejector piping
3 Flushing condensers, condensate, and air ejector piping
4 Cleaning DFT and feedwater piping
5 Cleaning feedwater piping cross-connections
6 Flushing DFT and feedwater piping.

SECTION 3.
AUXILIARY BOILER FEEDWATER SYSTEM

255-3.1 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

255-3.1.1 INTRODUCTION. This section provides information on the operation, maintenance, and repair of
natural-circulation-type auxiliary boiler feed systems. This information is intended to supplement the appropriate
manufacturers’ instruction books and technical manuals for training and shipboard use of auxiliary boiler feed
systems.

255-3.1.2 GENERAL DESCRIPTION. A typical U.S. Navy auxiliary boiler system consists of one or more
125-psi, natural-circulation, water tube auxiliary boilers. Each boiler and its components are installed on a com-
mon bedplate. The boiler consists of a steam drum and water drum connected by banks of inclined generating
tubes, and continuous floor and waterwall tubes. Each boiler provides service steam for shipboard use in space
heating, water heating, galley, and laundry when underway or when needed in port.

255-3.1.2.1 Each boiler is also equipped with necessary components to control feedwater and to maintain a
desired combustion fuel-air ratio.

255-26
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255-3.1.2.2 The feedwater system maintains a preselected water level in the boiler steam drum. A motor-driven,
constant-speed pump delivers feedwater to the steam drum and to the feedwater flow control valve (Figure
255-3-1). The flow of feedwater to the steam drum is determined by the position of the control valve, which
dumps the excess feedwater to the supply tank. The valve position is controlled by the feed-water controls, which
are pneumatically operated. They sense the water level in the steam drum and send a signal to the man-auto con-
trol station in the panel above the burner. The control station sends to the control valve either this same signal,
when set to auto, or a signal that is controlled by manually adjusting the control knob on the front of the con-
trol station, when set to man. The signal from the man-auto control station determines the position of the con-
trol valve and thus the flow of feedwater to the steam drum.

255-3.1.3 ADDITIONAL FEED SYSTEMS. The electric boiler used for ships laundry (not on all ships) has a
low-pressure feedwater system. Steam at a pressure up to 100 psig is produced using banks of electrically heated
coils in the boiler.

255-3.2 MAJOR COMPONENTS

255-3.2.1 GENERAL. The feedwater system consists of a feedwater pump and motor, a control valve, a drum
level transmitter, an isolation manifold for the transmitter, a condensate chamber for the transmitter, a drum level
controller, a man-auto control station, and two pressure reducing valves (PRV) - one to regulate the pneumatic
air supply and one to regulate the controller setpoint.

255-3.2.2 FEEDWATER PUMP. The feedwater pump is a turbine-driven pump (not on all ships). The pump is
designed to deliver feed at maximum boiler flow rate at sufficient head to enter the steam drum. A screen strainer
or sediment trap in the piping on the inlet (suction) side of the pump may be installed to prevent abrasive par-
ticles from entering the pump. The strainer plug allows draining of sediment; the screen can be removed for
cleaning during boiler downtime. Relief valves and bypass piping are provided at the output (discharge) end of
the feedwater pump to relieve any excessive pressure that might damage the pump.

255-3.2.3 FEEDWATER CONTROL STATION. The feedwater control valve receives the signal from the man-
auto control station and positions itself accordingly. If the pneumatic system should fail, the control valve may
also be positioned manually by using the hand jack mounted on top of the valve. The man-auto station may be
set to automatic or manual mode. Under normal conditions the station is set to auto and the signal from the con-
troller is sent directly to the feedwater control valve. When man is selected, a separate signal is sent to the con-
trol valve. This signal is regulated by the knob on the front of the control station, which permits the operator to
adjust the feedwater control valve from a remote position. The man-auto control station also displays the trans-
mitter signal that corresponds to the level of the water in the steam drum and the station output signal that cor-
responds to the position of the feedwater control valve.

255-27
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Figure 255-3-1 Auxiliary Boiler Feed System

255-28
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255-3.2.4 SAFETY CONTROL SYSTEM. The safety control system consists of the limit or safety switches,
the burner logic system, and the flame scanner and scanner relay. The limit switches that pertain to or are influ-
enced by the feedwater system are listed in Table 255-3-1.

Table 255-3-1 AUXILIARY BOILER FEEDWATER LIMIT SWITCH
SETPOINT GUIDE
Switch Function
Drum Overpressure Senses the pressure in the steam drum and trips the burner when the pressure
exceeds 135 psig.
Low Atomizing Steam Pressure Senses the atomizing steam pressure at the inlet of the differential control valve and
trips the burner when the pressure falls below 60 psig.
Low Steam-Oil Differential Pres- Senses both the steam and oil pressures at the inlet of the burner hoses and trips the
sure burner when the steam pressure becomes less than 3 psig higher than the oil pres-
sure.
High Water Level Mounted on the flame safeguard cabinet, this switch senses the pressure on the drum
level transmitter and triggers the burner alarm when the pressure corresponds to a
high water level in the drum.
Low Water Level Mounted on the back of the flame safeguard cabinet, this switch senses the pressure
of the drum level transmitter and triggers the burner alarm when the pressure corre-
sponds to a low water level in the drum.
Low Water Cutout Mounted on the back of the flame safeguard cabinet, this switch senses the pressure
on the drum level transmitter and shuts off the burner when the pressure corresponds
to a low water level in the drum.
Auxiliary Low Water Cutout Mounted on the steam drum, this switch senses the water level in the steam drum
and shuts off the burner when the level falls below desired level in the water gage.

255-3.3 SYSTEM OPERATION

255-3.3.1 PRELIMINARY SYSTEM CHECKS.

255-3.3.1.1 Alignment Check. Check the alignment of the feedwater system piping, components, pump, pump
motor, and coupling before operating the auxiliary boiler feed system.

CAUTION

Operating the feedwater pump without checking the system components can
result in damage not only to the feedwater pump, but to other system com-
ponents as well.

255-3.3.1.2 System Component Checks.

a. Inspect and clean feedwater strainer. If necessary, clean basket with compressed air.

b. Check feedwater control valve, feedwater pump motor, and feedwater pump. Report any signs of mechanical
damage.

255-29
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CAUTION

Operating the feedwater pump without first opening the feedwater supply
valve could severely damage the feedwater pump. The feedwater pump uses
feedwater passing through it as lubrication.

c. Open the feedwater supply valve to admit feedwater to the feedwater pump inlet. This will expel air and vapor
before feedwater pump operation.

255-3.3.1.3 Coupling Checks.

a. Check alinement of coupling between the feedwater pump and pump motor.
b. Check tightness of coupling between the pump and pump motor. If necessary, tighten coupling using a socket
wrench.

255-3.3.2 UNDERWAY. The feedwater pump, which is driven by the feedwater motor, provides the suction to
draw the water from the feedwater reserve tank or a feed and drain tank and the output pressure to force the water
into the steam drum. The control valve is connected to the output or discharge end of the pump. This valve con-
trols the amount of water fed into the steam drum by recirculating water back to the feed tank. The feedwater
control valve position (and from that the feedwater flow) is regulated by the pneumatic feedwater controls.

255-3.3.2.1 Pneumatic Feedwater Controls. The pneumatic feedwater controls start with the drum level trans-
mitter. The transmitter is located on the rear of the boiler and is connected to the boiler steam drum through the
isolation valves, manifold, and condensate chamber. The isolation valves are used when servicing the transmit-
ter or adjusting its setpoint. The transmitter senses two pressures. One pressure is the steam drum pressure plus
the height of the water in the line from the condensate chamber, which is connected to the top of the steam drum
(Figure 255-3-1). The other pressure is that in the steam drum plus the height of the water in the steam drum and
the water in the line connected to the bottom of the steam drum. The higher the water level is in the drum, the
smaller the difference is between the two pressures. Conversely, the lower the water level is in the drum, the
larger the difference is between the two pressures. The transmitter measures the difference between these two
pressures and sends a pneumatic (compressed air) signal that corresponds to the opposite of that difference. If the
level of the water in the drum is normal, the transmitter will send out a pressure signal. If the water in the drum
is high or low, the transmitter will send out a signal that indicates the pressure difference.

255-3.3.2.1.1 The signal from the transmitter goes to the drum level controller, the man-auto control station
(where it is displayed as the measured variable), the high-water alarm switch, the low-water alarm switch, and
the low-water cutout switch.

255-3.3.2.2 Control Operation. The drum level controller compares the signal with that from the setpoint regu-
lating valve. If the two signals are equal, which would correspond to a normal water level in the steam drum, the
signal from the controller stays the same. If the signals are different (drum level not normal), the output signal
will change at a rate corresponding to the amount of the difference. If the difference is small, the output signal
will change slowly; if the difference is large, the signal will change rapidly. Once the two signals match again
(drum level normal), the output signal stops changing. This output signal reacts in reverse to the input signal from

255-30
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the transmitter. If the input signal is low, the output signal will increase. If the input signal is high, the output
signal will decrease. The output signal from the controller goes to the input of the man-auto control station.

255-3.3.3 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS. Refer to the Safety Summary for a complete listing of warnings and
cautions that appear throughout the auxiliary boiler manufacturer’s technical manual. Before any attempt to oper-
ate, maintain, troubleshoot, or repair any part of the V2M auxiliary boiler feedwater system, thoroughly review
and understand all warnings and cautions. The following precautionary measures are recommended to protect the
various system components and to provide safe and continued operation:

a. Monitor the water level in the reserve feed tank or feed and drain tank from which feedwater is being taken.
Vacuum drag on an empty tank will cause loss of vacuum and possibly disrupt the entire steam and water
cycle.
b. Take makeup feed through the feedwater pump.
c. Open feed pump recirculating lines whenever the pump is operating.
d. Consult NSTM Chapter 503, Pumps , for safety precautions of pumps.
e. Consult NSTM Chapter 505, Piping Systems , for safety precautions of general piping systems.

255-3.4 ADDITIONAL OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE INFORMATION

255-3.4.1 Consult Section 2 of this chapter for information on the following:

a. Maintenance and repairs
b. Test and inspection procedures
c. Troubleshooting
d. Postcasualty procedures
e. Preservation, periodic inspections, and procedures for returning the unit to active service.

255-31 / (255-32 Blank)
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