You are on page 1of 10

Keyblock: An Approach for Content-based Image Retrieval


Lei Zhu and Aidong Zhang Aibing Rao and Rohini Srihari
Department of Computer Science CEDAR
SUNY at Buffalo SUNY at Buffalo
Buffalo, NY14260 Amherst, NY14228

  
  !" # %$!  &' #! &(#))*$ &%  " #! $

8()#0&(8&()I k R oN q45#8()I 8(%$/&(% &'(&(q8(#eO


8($/8(?O!8F
ABSTRACT
+ -,&(#,.#/ 0132*&' 4516#&(798(&(45$;:=<?>@AB%C'D2*#&-?#E8(E8F  %$Y8(%') ^ U2P#&e)G4H j&(8&()I J0V EQY7XQ
16#&'$!Fu %$
 %$9)G4H -&(8&()I J !1K)G'L)GM =&' )G 8()#;#2N8(8(O
8F 8(O
8b)!2P#&(4H 8()#-&(8&()I EhQ!h8(45" (/  #E#! Q#  $
 %$/)G!2P#&(4H 8()#=&(?8&()GI !8(%(##Q=)=8(6)4H K$#4H )  #E#9 I5 ()IX$t&( 8j ?j2*#&j)$!O!)GL16g)i8(
R S8()H2*&' 4516#&(7T U458(#
$02*#&V?O!8&' ?8()W#45,&()IX s M ?6 6 G#/%$5)E86#58(M &(% e#2#E8(E8Fu %$
)4H Y2P% 8( &(L &(;,&(#I
)G$%$T Z1K)G(3 &([ $S#\8(;2]&(F )4H H&(?8&()GI .%  H8(0&(G 8()GIiQ4H 8( !&(08(#&()0 $
^ ?Q_#2&(,&(E8' 8()IXY#
(7
 68(&(45%$_7XQ!#
(7! 6#28( 8(%() ^ #28(O
8Fu %$-)2P#&(4H 8()#e&(8&()I 
 e. ,,)%$
)4H `$ 8'  Ya-Q!G#
(7
 b1K)G(c &(`  ## =8(#V)$!O 8(#-8(U)4H n$#4H ) qnK#2"8(K&(,&(
8' 8()IX6)8(#j #F
8(?&(45V)d8(O
8V$#
 45E8L&(8&()I J e f.g#h8&( ?8(%$3EQ 8' 8(e)4H j1K)i8(Y458' F$ 8' / (; K8(O
8M7Q
16#&'$! T ,8()#
?O,#)i8()H8(jIX%?8(#& ^  
8()% 8()#_kJlnm-oZ458(#
$L1K)G';  $j8(/8(#)$Oe8()G4H K$ 8'  Z )Gn8(O
8Fu %$e8('!F
.H %$02P#&6)4H n?#45,&()G# qprQ5#45, &()-8(K,.&2*#&F ) ^ /#8(H458' F$ 8' ! + H#?&(IX58( 8j8(58(O
8Fu %$
4H H#2n# &= ,,!&(#X 'c1K)i8(c8(HO!)h8()G[8(') ^ e ) 8(%() ^ -4H Q; #Y.0T?8()IXiQ[ %$;8(#9&(,!&(E8e)4H 
?##&2*% 8( !&(= $L16 I8M8(?O!8( !&(-2P% 8( &( .8(j?O,.?&()G45
8'  2P 8( &(M $`#$ ?8Z)4H n&(8&()I JqMi8(# V `)4H )
&( i8(V$!45#h8&' 8(Y8(YT?8()IXL#2e8(V2*&' 45?16#&(7S)G &( 8(iQt$)iT&(E8-2*&(#48(O
8-.#8(ghQ!E8' ?8()G GiQt $[4H E8()iF
)4H &(8&()I J  GiQE E)4H U $/8(O
8q %IX68(K( 45Z)GE8&())GZ,&(#,.&8QT.#8(
#2K8(4 &(`)G!2P#&(4H 8()#"  8j1K)i8(W$)iT&(E8j&(,&(E8' 8()#
2P#&(4H 8(n &K#X )Z8(#=&' G)-8(n8(%() ^ K$IXG#,.%$
1. INTRODUCTION )L8(O
8Fu %$`)!2P#&(4H 8()#V&(8&()I T8(#0)4H &(8&()I J
s &(45$!# n16#&(7Y n.t$#=#t#%16&FuIXq2*% 8( !&(0O
F
8&' ?8()#\2*#&9#E8(E8Fu %$v)4H V&(8&()I Jxw% 8( &(52*&(#4
!#45))i8()G 1#&(7H&(G 8(%$L8(#=# &n ,,&(# (L1Z M,!&(#,.#$V
Q
I &()# j,.#)E8(j#2ZI
)1y 'g /##&Lzi{%|}~ N8(O
8( &(Vzi{%}~ q $
R  $!&()M $LN (  8( cz %} $ ; $ s ;z |}~ R V8()&
 ,.Hz }b %IXn.VO
8()IXiQL?O,#&(%$Trlr &()# KhQ!h8(45
458(#
$"
9)4H M)&(h8Z#45,&($H %$H#HIX?8(#& ^  F
 '[ -mp Rh z }~ Tln)  ]!7zi{}~ #8(#p#E#7czi{}q $Vln)iF
8()% 8()#ckJlnm-o?  $98(V 0?#
$eIX%?8(#&U ( e4H ,`#&n 0#
$
&' /)G4H j4H  45E8nhQ!h8(4Yzi{}b %IXe.; )8U2P#&-F
IX%'8(#&j)h8(#&' 4)/ %$ e8(5)4H 52P% 8( &( s 016#&(7
?&' b#&n,.%?)] N)4H -&(8&()I "8' 7
Kn#%1IX&% H)E8n $
)Z e 8( !&' .  G# #2"8(O
8Fu $58(') ^ lMmMFu %$
,!&(%)=)4H -&(8&()I bh8()b&(4H )U8(#H./ Y#,.[,!&(#G4
#45,&(%$t)G4H 5)Zh h8= S{F$!)G45)# qIX%?8(#&/#2U#
$
.  Y#28(LO
8&(45L$)iH 8QW)S)4H V $&(h8' $)
1K?&(0% (?#
$0?#&&(,.#$-8(#9 tE8()8QY#2Z `,!&(Fu%?8(%$
M? &( &'(&(N16#&(7
)G#0#E8(E8Fu %$/)4H &(8&()I 
#
$!.#E#7. 1K)](Y)n&' 8(%$V %$V#V8(e h8(&()`#2r 
&(Mh8()7!)j45#&(U#45,!&()IX68(%() ^ q2*#&Z?#E8(E8F
)4H Y#
'7
H#2#45V8&' ))G)4H xM# Z8(;#,8
 %$W)4H 9&(8&()I J q1K)8(W8(`# K#2M)45,&(#I
)[ %IX&' 
#2#G#&e)h8(#&' 45)e #8(&-  G# 0#2r8(O
8F %$L8('!F
,!&(%))#t $Y&( J/L#h8-#2r8(j1#&(7L8(#E#7L8(jI
)1#2 
) ^ U1K&(j8(;16#&'$9 &(e8(/##&(- 2]8(&-##& ^  E8()F
)4H  Z e4H 8&()iO5#2 ,)iO!.)E8()i8Q5I   $58(9 ,,G)%$
% 8()G# q8(W8(?O!8(;)/8(Y{F$)45)G# 6IX%?8(#&0#2U8(9,)iO
4H 8(4H 8()G   iQ!)Gq#08(6&' 1\$ 8' M8(#-O
8&' ?8q)G4H 62*% F
#G#&(5#2n W)4H  6 $g8(9)Gh8(#&' 4)/8(H2*&( ^ 'Qc#2
8( !&(
8(Y16#&'$5)L8(V8(O
8(!
s ;I!)1#2e)G4H Y&(8&()I M 9 g,.%)G - ;#2e)G!2P#&(4H F

s )Z&(% &'(V)U ,,.#&8(%$9EQHn 8()#  R 4H )G0 $YV ,F 1.1 Text-based Information Retrieval
,)5U?Q[kJ R Vno6 $9 ZnR f 8npr " #! p6 % F~ 8(e $ )G)&(#Fun?8(#[z %}r,!&(E8(%$; 58' O!##4/QL#2
(nM #2q$45#!
88(," I #    " G#! %$ " X 2]8(8(O
8Fu %$n)2*#&(4H 8()G#-&(8&()I X45#
$GM45#8(4V
81#;G )G945#
$! p#E#G vL#
$6 $tlr%'8(#&0L#
$J q &(
1K)G$iQ= %$/ $/,&(#IX%$e8(#.Z45#&(Z )8' Z)=8(O
8&(8&()I J
s 81#n45#
$G $#,8N7X?Q!1#&'$!8(#n)$!Oj $e&(?8&()GIXZ$#
'F
45
8(Z %$9#V8(e  45,!8()G#L8( 8U.#8(Y$!#
 45E8(Z)Y
$ 8'   $ ^ ?&()G6 `.M$(?&().%$5
Q0 -86#2 7Q
16#&'$!
1K)G(L &(M&(2*&&(%$9 6)$!O58(&(45w#&Z#45U2* .8(O
86% &''
) . 07XQ
16#&'$L) EQ`16#&'$L1K)G'; ,,.% &(M)V8(e$#
 !F
45E8(

w#&N Z)IXj$ 8'  r#28(O


8b$!#
 45E8(  2*8(&N7XQ
1#&'$
 %IXH._$8(?&(45)G%$" N tc4H 8&()iOW  %$<?G! )4H  T &(j%?8($[ L7XQ
16#&'$ + -8(&(48(4 W*DX<?>
0 P'G )K %$Tqr '9E8&Q`K~ e#2q  #
)G 8(%$L1K)i8(Y$!#
?F @AB%C'D?
45E8Z $`7XQ
16#&'$Y &(,!&(E8(Z8()45,.#&8' ?-#2b8(
7Q
16#&'$H)L$!(?&())/8(n#E8(E8Z#28($#
? 45E8%w#&KO
F s #/ h16&68(M#$`#  `  # n#2 G?O)G "  iQ)Z)
45, )GSp#E#% 3L#
$~ 6 ~ )V{V)i2e ,,.% &(H)v 6 8(O
8&(8&()I N# ]$[.=,!&(#,.#$;2*#&j)4H j&(8&()I J s )
#8(&1K)/w !&8(&(45#&( T H)45)GG &()8QY458&()Ge)G #L%$$" &()= j8(#[ _)E8(&(h8();8(') ^ 5 $g2P#&0)G4H 9#40F
w#&U$)iT&(
8645#
$
8(U16)E8K4H 8&()]?Z $H8()45)] &()i8Q ,&()G# qIX%'8(#& ^  E8()% 8()G# 
45?8&()]?6 &(n$%$5$!)iT&(E8(iQ5 $08(! r)IXU&()U8(#/$!)iT&(E8
&(?8&()GI r,.&2*#&(4H 9L#&(H$8' )r#2Z8(045#
$!e g.
2*# $L)gz %}u 1.3 Vector Quantization for Signal Compres-
lq%?8(#& sion
 E8()% 8()G#;kJlnm-o)6 -8(%') K,&(#,.#%$52P#&Z) 
^ ^
 #45,&()# $[#
$!)Gz }~ R 8e)- %$[#W
 # n8(?F
1.2 Text-based IR and Content-based Image #&Q"z }E8( 8#
$)UhQ!h8(45  j,.?&2P#&(4d.88(&)i2!8(Q#,.&' 8(
Retrieval
s ;#X )`8(#g&' );8(V8(#&()V $v8(V8(%()  #gIX%?8(#&(/#&=&(# ,e#2KhQ!4=.#G-&' 8(&j8( g#c)$)I
)]$!  
^
#2-8(O
8Fu $ R 8(#)4H V&(8&()I $!#4H )G" s )`#X n) hQ!4=.#GqdIX%?8(#& ^  E8()&U)U =4H ,,)!
')I 0$! -8(#H8(e2P##%1K)V?#)G$!&' 8()#" R Y,!&()G), Enj.xd%%(G(fq;nX
8(?O!8q&(8&()I  $0)4H Z&(8&()I  &(Z8(K( 45K.%  K.#8(
#2=8(4 &(#?&(%$\1K)i8(x)!2P#&(4H 8()#3&(8&()I J O,!8 1K?&(V )=q )]$!% _, `#2M$)45)G#_. )=   iQ
8( 8K8(?QL$!% T1K)i8(Y$)iT&(
8U$ 8' /2*#&(4H 8(  G%$vh#
$!.#E#7
0#28( ^  E8()&% )Z8(n#
$.#E#7H)
$9r)Z8(-#
$!-IX%?8(#&%
M#%16IX?&% .8(j&' )% 8()#g#2 R 2*&(#48(O
8$!#4H )GY8(#H)40F
9$#4H ))/#!Fu8&()I
)G J s 5&(% 8(h80#h8' 9)/$ 08(# )IXt H8&' ))` ^ =f G( (
c X
8(/)E8&())G=$!)iT&(?/.816;8(?O!8n $Y)G4H = $!)iT&(E8 8(/IX%?8(#& ^  
8()?&-y)GI&()=8(#L H, &8()i8()G#t#261K)](
45$)G =)L&(,!&(E8()H $9O!,!&()5)2*#&(4H 8()# Zwb)i&(h8% )G #)h8(M#2qndd( Gu Gu E !1K&(
8(?&(455#2-&(,!&(E8' 8()#" KhQ!
8' ?8()G iQE U g8(O
8`$#
? 45E85)
{?F$)45)# N1K)GH t)4H 0)/F$)45)G# ~0!#$" )G dZLZ'5kJoN\ X
8(?&(45N#2.O!,!&()# 4H E8()G GiQE 8(6 )i8(ZkP16#&'$'ob#2T K8(O
8 w#&5 Y)IX_$!)Gh8(#&8()#W2P ?8()#" r.kJ h o? 1K)G'W)/8(L$!)hF
$!#
 45
8% ,.%?)] Q=8(#K7X?Q!1#&'$! E &&Q0$!)&(?84H E8()G 8' 0.816t8(=)G, !8e)G r $t# 8(, 8e#
$!5 k~w#&
1K)G'_ &(`&(G 8(%$c8(#Y8(`4H E8()G/#2U8(O
80$!#
 45E8( R  O 45, 68(; ?G)G$!% $!)h8' ? Z1K)G(\)L G#W %$S8(
?#E8&' h8% E8(Z )i8(#2 0)4H  E)i8(&r)08(Z,)O!IX#&r)G  ^  &(/&&(#&?o? " ;#,!8()4H bIX?8(#& ^  E8()&M4= h8n( 8()Gh2]QY8(
8(545
8eI 2*8(&j45E8' 8()#" N,&(#I
)G$0?&' iQ# 2P#G#%1K)H#,8()4H )i8QL#$)i8()#
?G U 8 . .# 8q8(Z4H E8()]?r#2"8(Z)4H K)08(6&(h86 
#&j 8e45#h8-)IX0 &()G 0#
h%'8j$(?&(),!8()G#g);8(0%?#$
 Wpr 85?#E8(E8Fu $)G4H `&(8&()I Z$#E 8H  45` _ < <?? <?G@(B[qB JP~B . w#&= (; )2U=
,.?&2P%?8K#!%?86&(#)i8()#  s n  # #2 8(O
86&(?8&()GI .)G 8(9.kJ?ho_.kJ?ho?
2*#&n V (
)4H -&(8&()I "45#8()I 8(%$9 Z8(n2*##1K)L#)G$?&' 8()#" R 2
8(&(-)U 5#
$.#E#79#2e7X?Q!1#&'$!=2P#&n)4H    ## n  r< PB~;qB JPJB T w#&U =)IXL, &8()i8()#;/
8(#,!F
8(0$!)]'8()G# &QY2P#&-8(?O!8-$#
 45E8( .1K)G'[ e i&(% $!Q;. 8()G4H "#
$eIX%'8(#&(Z( 8()h2]Q
?8e ,; 8( &' iQ;)[8(=I# 8()#[#2
4H [ i8( &( [)40F
` g8(t.=&(,!&(E8(%$tEQt L ^ =#2H7Q
16#&'$! %

h89 H [8(O
8H$#
 45E85)H 454H &()$v H g ^ 5#2
7Q
16#&'$! # ^ E8(iQE 8(j45#
$!M#2N8(O
8 R  Y.e% hF 1K&(j )K8(- &'$) G)i8QV#2. 
)iQ/&' )%$=8(#)4H 2*% 8( !&(K&(,&(E8' 8()G#5 $j&(8&()I J
s 
 8(-E8&'  ^ h8()#K &(
WlnmMFu %$e) ?#
$)MhQh8(4#)h8(q#28(!&(6h8(,6kh{o
&' 8(e8(j#
$!.#E#7. NkuoM#
$!)GZ (Y)G, !8nIX?8(#&M)
&(,] %$LEQH8(n)G$O`#2b8(% &(h8M
8&Q`)98(e#
$.#E#7.
y (<*DX<?>rBh5Bh  5 E<

$Lk~Xob#
$)!b8(K$!%#
$!& N8(Z)$!Oj8(#n&(%#h8&( '8
=IX?8(#&UEQH#E#7
)5 ,`8(-?#
$.#E#7T
_ B~B/E< ?< u<WPDX<?>rBh6?hB 5 E<?E

p%  g! #" `8(#&Q_1K)G(,&(#I


)]$!%$S8(#&(8()G  F
R 8`)G ^ )i8(Y$!)iH i8H8(#c h16?&98(L&(h8 ^ h8()# ?#&'$) )2P#&-lMm$)G$! 845E8()#;#1f8(#9)45,45
8U 't `I%?8(#&
8(#j8(h8' 8(#28( &8% +  8K &(n8(,.#)Ge $!)G$ 8(K  ^  
8()?&U $9#%138(#5$)L8(-?#
$.#E#7T 8(816#0,!&(#!F
8(=7XQ
16#&'$n#2. /)4H 9U1645E8()G#%$-.2*#&( ,)iO! 45e %IX0. ?8()IX0&(% &''c) = $[8(&(5 %IX=.
&(H#8j#E#
$7XQ
16#&'$Y.%  58(Qt$#" 8j&(?%?8/)4H  eG#86#2&' .&( i8(Z $5O
8()IXU ,,)G 8()G#Z)H,.%)i.
4H E8()Gqn
h%?8(q &(Z#E#
$0 $!)]$ 8()?68(Qe&(,!&(E8 $#4H )Hz }~ R g, &8()G ] &% N)i8= e.g %$ j V,.#1&2P 
`7
)G$[#20,)G?8(#&()G G   V $[ %IX/.[ %$;EQ;! !F # !&'9#
$)Y8(%() ^ 02P#&=8(H?#45,&()G#W#2U)4H ` $
4H L.)UIX9.2P#&(jG   M?O)h8(%$TM#%16IX?&% #!%?8 I
)G$#5$ 8' Lzi{{ .}~
&(#)i8()#\h8()Z&(4H )/8(#g.V v#,._,&(#4Vv#40F
,!&(#45))= ,,!&(#X '`16- $#,!8(%$9)N1K)i8(V j)G45)i8(%$9$&(#2 RW  lMmMFu %$)4H L#45,!&()#" 6 v)4H L)5$!%#45,.#%$
( ?&()i.)08(  !&' ?QE )4H K &(-, &8()i8()G#%$`)
8(#/4H & )E8(#eO!%$!Fu)Z#
(7
r1K)G(` &(K8(0 %$5 q8(UIX%?8(#&( s #
#
'7
 q $g8( ;?8=#2U&(,&(E8' 8()GI`#
'7
 N1K)G(W  &' 8(j8(/?#
$.#E#7T . 5 h8(&()` G#&()i8(4)n ,,)%$L8(#
#45#%1x.e %$Y Mh8' $ &'$V#
(7!K2P#&n&(%?#h8&( ?8()08( 8(/8e#2Z #
'7
-#8' )%$[2]&(#4 H8&' ))98j $;8(
K*. c- 
   
v !
Y" ]"#"
%$

8(-E8&(#)]$`#2% (V h8(&K)U %$` U =#


$!.#E#7HE8&QE s # $ ?8(%$Tqwb)G &(0{-) h8&' 8(n j#%1Z( &8M#2N# !&M ,,!&(#X '"
#
$! H)4H 
8(U)4H U)6, &8()i8()G#%$H)E8(#j#
'7
6#2 8(
( 45H)G9 $g8(% 'cG#
(7[)Gj&(,G %$EQt8(5)$?Og#2 s )-, ,.&-)#&(X )%$t n2*##1K5!%'8()G#H$(?&().8(
8(0 &(h8jE8&Q[#[8(5#
$!.#E#7.HM#1% 't)4H 5)j  l mMFu $L ,,&(# (V2P#&M&' 8()G57XQ!#
(7
U#2)4H n $
M
4H 8&()iOt#2Z)$!)]? s #L&(#h8&( ?8e8(/)4H  b% ')$O;) 2P#&n#
$!)G5)4H Z
%?8()#Y0,!&(E8(Z8(-7X?Q#
'7EFu %$
&(,G $eEQU8(q#
$!rIX?8(#& )8(q#
$.#E#7n1K)](-)b ?8(  GiQ )4H ;2*% 8( !&(t?O!8&' ?8()#3 $S&(8&()I M45#
$
%?8()#
W#E#7
,8'    GiQ\8([&(#h8&( ?8(%$)4H t)V#iQ ,&(E8(K8(O!,.&()45E8(6#2N8(,!&(#,.#$V ,,&(#X 'V $H8(
S ,,!&(#O!)4H 8()#_#2n8(9#&()G) U# r)GVlMm)5 ;#hQ #45, &()#;8(#5?O)h8()58(%() ^ UM$9 iQE 8(j# !F
?#45,&()G#  )#V)U,&(#I
)G$%$`)GV!%'8()G#;



)45)GG &(Q;8(#9#8(?&e#45,!&()#th8&' 8()G NlMmMF %$;)4H 
? #45,&()G#`8&()68(#j G ?M8(M#45,&()#H&' 8(n $9#40F
,!&()# ^  )i8QE 1K)=.#8(;#2r1K)]([ &(/$,.$
8M#Y8( 2. KEYBLOCK GENERATION AND IMAGE
)j#28(-#
'7
n $`8(e)e#28(j#
$!.#E#7.KlMm)GUF CODING BASED ON VECTOR QUANTI-
?&' iQ5&(%#)%$` 6 5T%'8()GIn$ 8' j#45,!&()#58(%() ^  ZATION
2*#&M#1x#45,&()#L&' 8(5kh3' { &X.o6 ,,)G 8()# a-Q!#
(7W&' 8()#S)G`?&()i8()G U8(#g8(V,&(#,.#%$v ,,&(#X '"
R  2P ?8% rlMm?#
$.#E#7W$)W)5 v ?8()IX9 &(% ;#2U&(% &''
+ ) 8(-lMmMFu %$n)4H ?#
$)! ?#
$qIX%?8(#&(rkJ)4H #
'7
'oT)G $V 0G &(/
4/.&K#2r$!)V8(%() ^ K %IXe i&(% $!QL.
8(0#
$!.#E#7; &(=#1 8( !&' N)4H g7XQ
16#&'$ #F G$ ,&(E8(%$vz }~ s 5#X )G-8(#L$;8(5#
$!.#E#7t#2U L)IX
7Q!#
'7
 s Qj &(&(,&(E8' 8()IX )i8( %$-8(#M&(%#h8&( ?8 )n2]&(#4 e8Z#28&' )G)j)G4H M#
'7
 R 58(#&QE X8()6# 
)4H j)8(2 T8(?QY Y.e&(X &'$!%$Y M)
8&())] iQYF  _.` ')GIX%$g1K)i8(_ EQ?G h8(&()[ #&()i8(4V s `45#h8
4H E8()]/ )i8(e#2U )4H LL#&(#IX&% N Y#45,!&(%$t)4H  ,.#, G &(iQc %$#H)G)  (U< <? A + *<-
,qAB>X/ .MA XB?P] k o
1K)G')`#%1  ^ ?[#2e7XQ!#
(7
 K H8(;)45)G &[{F 1
$ 0 P?P< < (<?' <?@(B2
.MA XB?J] k~nno? + Z&(h8
$!)45)# )% &eh8&( ?8( !&(0 1K 8j H8(O
8-$#
? 45E8  )E8&(#
$ ?08(=816#Y #&()i8(45/ $t8(t#4/)=8(48(#
s &(2*#&( T8(-?&' )% 8()#t#28(O
8Fu %$ R )n#%1f 8( !F &' 8(e8(-#
$!.#E#7`#27X?Q#
'7

&' J

2.1 GLA
)H S)i8(&' 8()IXY h8(?&()Gc #&()i8(41K)i8(v8(L#X M#2
1.4 Our Approach
R d8()V, ,.&% -16t,&(E8; _7XQ!#
(7EF %$3 ,,&(# (x2*#& ()I
)58(j#,8()4H )i8QV#$)i8()#M2P#&n8(/$!);#2 0IX%'F
? #E8(E8Fu $)G4H 5&(8&()I J s )/ ,,!&(#X 'W4H )Qg#F 8(#& ^  E8()G&%xO!,)G)i8(iQE U$ !&()Gg% ')i8(&' 8()# Z&(h8% Z8(
)h8(j#268(!&(04H )Gg#45,.#E8(5kh{%o #
$.#E#7t&' 8()# 8&' ))G=G#
(7
Z &(U&(Fu, &8()8()#%$H)
8(#/K #&'$!)G/8(#e8(
?&' 8(= Y#
$.#E#7g#2Z8(5)4H 9$ 8'  H %$g#clMm < <?' <?G@(BnC(B PP~B  %$0#08(K#
$.#E#7=?&' 8(%$
1K)G'Y)U,.&2P#&(45%$L#Y)4H U)L8(8&' )G)58% Nkuo #40F 8N8(,!&(I
)G# N)i8(&' 8()G# q
%#$"  %$e#/8(C'< PhB~jC(B
,!&()#"S#
$V% (d)G4H [)38(g$ 8'   L1e  JPJB 8(5
8&(#)G$g#2K% 'g)j#45, 8($;1K)](g1K).
)[8( ^ ?&Q; )L8(=7X?Q#
'7
-)t8(5#
$.#E#7. N $vk~o 8(HE8&Qg#2K8(9#
$.#E#7&' 8(%$W 8/8(` &&(
8/h8' 
#E8(E8F %$5&(8&()I Jq?&(% 8(Z)4H n&(8&()I .45#
$G6 $ s t8(/#IX&' q$)h8(#&8()G#g)j#45, 8(%$; $Y8(0( 0#2
,,G)HI &()# 08(O
80&(8&()I Z8(%() ^ 0 (v 08(&(42]&(F 8(0$)h8(#&8()#c)-8(h8(%$T s )e,&(#
/)-&(,.% 8(%$g E8()N8(
^ ?Q $)
IX&8(%$\GL8(#v?&' 8(g8([&(,!&(E8' 8()# ( 6#2T$)h8(#&8()G#=).#%1_ M8(&(#G$" s Z #&()i8(4 
#2K)4H 02*% 8( !&(5IX%?8(#&(e#g1K)]()4H 0&(8&()I r &(H#F .- 454H &()%$` Z2P#G#%1K
3 u5< 476 )IX\8&' ))Gv ^ ?[  G(hLX ))i8()G  )&b8(q&(# 8()#/) # ^ E8(iQE 16 j ()I.88(&
?#
$.#E#7Mj %%(h?nX $g L )i8' 08(!&(#]$ ^  G)i8Qj2*#&8(6#45,!&(%$/)4H M#1IX&% )i8q)G45#&(Z#40F
8 .8M8(-))i8()G  %IX?&' /$)h8(#&8()G#!9:-8(#H HG &(jI G j $ , !8' 8()# iQ[O!,.)IX s 0#
'7;)5)-   iQt-8( 
)i8(&' 8()#Y
4/.<
& ;f{ {%0[{%/8(#=( 8()h2*Q98(45))4H T&( ^ )i&(45E8Z#28( ^  G)i8QE

3 u5< 4>= L@ ? 8(#;$g8(`45))G4/ 4 $!)Gh8(#&8()#W, &8()8()# !)Z8(Z#


(7=)U)r4H GJ X8(K8#2T8(68&' ))Ge#
'7
U
 T
'"%Guhu.M0 %$V# < <?? <?G@(B=C'B JPJB
f $ #45,.#%$L2*&(#48(8&' ))H)4H e8VRH Yh8()GN.eIX&Q

$V?#45, !8(M8(- %IX&' j$)h8(#&8()# G &(jqI[$)i&(%?8(iQ; ,,iQ!) #WT )h8()b8(#E#L?#h8(iQE
w#&ZO 45,G X2P#&U H)4H M#2 &(# 8()#VE{H
{%
!8(&(M &(
9?3  Ab 
.kJ?huo XE?`kuU=oq#
(7
 $V{%
'HkJnjXoq#
(7
 R 2T8(K
40F

.&5#2n8(`8&' )G)g)4H 5)0' r8(c8(&(L &(g{!'[t
IX%'8(#&(q#=1K)](H  h8(&()j #&()i8(4 (5  v1K).
,,)%$9)9#&'$?&U8(#/#!8' )98(-#
$.#E#7`#2N=`0#
'7
 s #
2 CD@EFHGIC D 8 Eh8(#,08(Z)i8(&' 8()#H1K)i8(`
3 u5< 4-B R  ? q8(
 #
$!.#E#7C JD #8(?&1K)Gj#E8()G

I
)G 8(q8(),!&(#4V %1%$n8(#Z&(%$ 8(q)Gr#28(r8#2
8(e8&' ))G9I%?8(#&(eM2?# &( X )G" `( 45,)Hh8&' 8(Q
 _.` ,,)%$8(#Y% 'c8&' ))G;)G4H 58(#Y&(%$ 58(HG &(
3 u5< 4LK w#&(4 t1#
$!.#E#7v ?<M 0EQ$!)GY8(L#,8()iF 2J ?8(#&% U{%
'g)8(9 .#IX`O 45,G N8(#t Y&(G 8()IXQ4H 
4H U#
$VI%?8(#&H 2P#&H8(L, &8()i8()G# )Gt8(C'< PhB~
)j[qn#%1IX&% )L#&'$!&K8(#07X,98(M&(,&(
8' 8()IX#
(7

C(B JP~B kJqgzi{ `}*o? )V8(8&' )G)HIX%?8(#&n?8% )h8(% $Y#2q ,,iQ!)08(e( 45,)
h8&' 8(QE X1M ,,Q _8(#8(Z#
(7
q#2"% (=8&' ))G-)4H 
3 u5< 4ON  ,G 08(0#G$?#
$.#E#7 ? 1K)i8(g8(51#
$!F &(h86 $=8(5 U8(K&( i8()/ h8(&6E8&(#)G$q8(#-2P#&(48(
.#E#7V@?@M 82;O;QP\{  $9#=8(#0h8(,;

8&' ))GLIX?8(#&-?8% + 0 ;8([ ,,iQ[n8(#`&' 8(
8(j#
$!.#E#7V/KM#! 16j Y#,8()# iQ; ,,iQ X )G
 #8-  &' E8(/8(#H$V8(=#,8()4H ?#
$.#E#7T s  1K)i8( H _))i8()G M#
$.#E#7c8(#t&' 8(L8(` U#
$?F
)i8(&' 8()#`4H Q_#
IX?&(V8(#c g#
 n45))4/ 4)2n8(Y))i8()G 
.#E#7.qpG#%1d)Z8(nh8(,2*#&U&' 8()=7XQ!G#
(7
2P#&K)4H 
$ 8'   99
?#
$.#E#7`)Z,.#E#&(QHG?8(%$" &(#0 $ &' Q;z }",&(E8(%$
I &()# -1Z Q!-8(#V$#L)G)i8()] )G 8()#"VU#8(&e,&(#4)-8( 8
);#451K 8t#45, 8' 8()# QdO!,.)IX nn) 3 u5< 4X6 ! 45,G  98(#`8-8(j8&' )G)L?S8 R s 0( 45,)
45#&(-H)E8%
 L.-$!#M)i8(&K4H 
 iQH#&U  8(#4H 8()G iQEqw#&U V  8(#F
4H 8()G=,!&(#
%$! &( &' $!#45iQ;( 45,)GV)e#0'#)G5 !8-8(
#,!8()4H  &(,&(E8' 8()GIj?8n)n#8M  &' E8($"UMLO!,.)IX
2.2
nnfPNNA
) 0IX?&QL)45,j h8(?&()G` #&()8(4V R 8Mh8' &8(U1K)8(  !80T?8()IXL(#)GL)=8(#t ,,iQcO!)h8();2P% 8( &(L?O!8&' ?8()#
8(1K#G-8&' )G)0 ^ 68U% 'V)i8(&' 8()# 81#0% &(h8  (9 Z##&K)h8(#&' 4V
8(O
8( !&(M#&ZIX` ,.M8(#/#$ ?8Z
?#
$ZIX%'8(#&(q &(Z45&(%$j $e&(,G %$=EQ-8()&r
8&(#)G$" s   h8(?&()G9#2r8(j1K#5$ 8'  = $V8(Y j8(/E8&(#)G$
?#
$.#E#7)9)=$%?&( %$cEQS{ s )=,!&(#
0)/&(,.% 8(%$ #2 (V h8(?&n n j8&' ))=)G4H 
E8()GN8(5$)i&(%$; q#
$.#E#7;)5)e&( (%$T0n#8(=8( 8
 (_45?&(H)=#,!8()4H  8e8(H#IX&' 6&( i8/45)GE8=#8/. 3 u5< 4Y= w#&r% (08&' ))G-)4H K
$!%#45,.#Z)i8)E8(#-#
(7

#,8()4H J 1K)G't)1K
Q[nn)-2J h8(&j !8-)GE8(Q[)2*&()#& #2 O$)Gq8(#Z8b Z ^ #2I%?8(#&(  x% ( G(hLX

8(# j s  T ,,iQ #; 8(#HO
8&' ?8 ;#
$!.#E#7[ #2)

[ !1K&(-8())i8()G )% 8()#;)U$#&' $#45I Q J

2.3 Combining GLA and PNNA


R 8(qlMmW)4H ?#45,&()G# 8(?&(r)b 68&' $#0.816-8(
3 u<54WB 8U IX%'8(#&(Z); )E8(#/8(8&' ))=8U'J
?#45,&()G#[&' 8(= $V8( ^  )8QY#2q8(j#45,&($;)4H 
pr%  L&(8&()I Z)5$!)&(?8(iQW#$ ?8(%$c#c8(9#45,&(%$
3 u<54/K U,,Q`nnd#V8(#0?8n =#
$.#E#7V[Z%J
)4H  E1n &(U45#&(U#&($5 .# !8r8(U#45,!&(%$0)4H 
3 u5< 4\N]_^4.PJB . A ` U,,iQ 8(#c X )\1K)i8(3[an 9 
^  )i8QE s &(e)U =&(G 8()#),Y.81V8(e I&' /$!)h8(#&F ))i8()G #
$.#E#7`8(#=8K8(M ?#
$.#E#7V@bX
8()#; $`8(-&(8&()I ,.?&2P#&(4H -1K)](L1K)b.e #IX&(%$
EQ`8(eO!,.&()45E8Z&( 8(K!)j Y)G4H j$ 8'  e)n  !F
R 2bh8(,Y/)U#8U#$ '8(%$"
8(Y[Zb)Z8(n #
$!.#E#7.
QgIX&Q[G &( V#E#
$g8&' $#_.81g8(0H)?Qg $
?T%?8()IXr#2T&' 8()8(K#
$!.#E#7/)GqO!,.%?8($" s )r)
')IX%$[
QY#4/)) $tnnj + =#%1$!(?&().
8(e#45,8(,&(#
?%$ !&(2P#&U&' 8()08(#
$.#E#7. 2.4 Image Encoding
R V8()Mh8'  .2*#&M% (;)G4H e)V8(j$ 8'   T$!%#45,.#e)i8
 829.M H)G4H M$ 8'  rwb)i&(h8% ! e( 45,)e,&(#
?%$ !&(M) )E8(#Y#
'7
 s  2P#&0% 'c#2U8(H#
'7
 $t8(`#h8
?#$! ?8($`8(#=G?8 e8&' ))08Red G( %( E s  E8&Q9)G98(e#
$!.#E#7L $Vh8(#&(-8(-)$!OV?#&&(,.#$)iQE
n#%1g% (e)G4H q)N Z4H 8&()iO#2)$)G 1K)G(e e.&(X &'$%$
G &(&U8(8&' )G)08% 8(K8( I&' /$!)h8(#&8()#V) R 
8(n)G$    !8(U1K#G$ 8'  S  9y)GZ %$` 68(U8&' )) Z{?F$!)45)# !)0( =#&'$?&% s ),&(#,.&8Qj)IX&Qj)45)GG &
?8% . !8M)i8K1K)N.8(#E#9?#h8(iQE s j,!&()),e#2N8(e( 45,) 8(#t Y8(?O!80$#
 45E8/1K)G'_)5#)G$&(%$W H ;) &H)h85#2
)-8(#`%?8/ 98e#26)4H -1K)G([&(,!&(E8(S  9 -4/ ([  7XQ
1#&'$K)98(?O!8Fu %$ R 
,.#)


%#$" N8(58&' ));)4H 0 &(`$)I
)]$!%$)E8(#Y#
'7
j1K)G' 3. KEYBLOCK-BASED IMAGE FEATURE
&(=&(,!&(E8(%$[ -IX%'8(#&( s /4H &-8(/#
'7Y) 8(
REPRESENTATION AND RETRIEVAL
+ 6#%1W,!&(E8N8(r&' )% 8()#5#28(O
8Fu %$ R 8(#)4H  + n.)GIXn8( 8Z8(n ,,. &' -#&U$!)( ,,. &' -#2N&8' )
&(?8&()GI ~ 7 Q!G#
(7
M)Y.#8(Y= $/r5)G4/ i8' # iQV MI&QL)45,.#&F
X
8' E8/)$)G 8()#W#2K8(H)45)G &()i8Qc.?816c $r!tL#&(F
c <ed JP~B &' =45#
$!e#29DX<?>@AB%C'D@ <d 5 E<g(< #IX&% h ,,.% &' ?-)N45#&()45,.#&8' E8b8( g$)( ,,.% &' 
P'u<gf A!)U ^ )E8( ,/z 99ghL'g(0ji}"1K&( #/8( 8Z  |v2 ::qw#&6O 45,
)`# !&K)G45,45E8' 8()#" X16
#8()G68( 8N  f{N2 ::n
U)IX8(6.h8N&( 8%! ,,.#
9x%  G(ke)68(M)Gh8K#2NlMmf#45,&(%$H)40F r-m kh{'!(o? m 6k~
{'o? " m Kkh{'!{%o? 8(
 i~ k r!h?oq
  e2
' { P { M! Y ! E i ~ ;k r!h o- { e { Px { M
Y{

1K)G(V)$!)] 8(Z8( 8U" n)GK45#&()45)GG &U8(


# r/8( L
h % X? g)L8(;)h8V#2/7XQ!G#
(7
9)\8(
#
$!.#E#7.
I h) 9.
M )e 94H ,,)H1K)G'[4H ,- `, )i& 3.2
l-)-Vector
)45)G &e8(Model
#L)i8(j# E8(&(, &8-)t8(O
8Fu %$ R  U 45
#2 -7XQ!#
(70 $H 5)4H M8(#j -#Fu 8()IXK
4/.&%
#8(H J ku h o?t!#! )Gj&(,&(E8(%$c = 8( 868(?&( &([[)4H Z)Y9 $Hq7XQ!#
(7!)GYht ?8z J
4H 8&()iOSkJK~ o k r %$c8(;<?G! 5 P?G51K)i8(v% ' .-8(2]&( ^ ?QL#2rX) h ,,. &()5)Y)4H -0x9 $
 l
45E8n)G$)G 8(8(/)G45,.#&8' =#2Z H7XQ!#
(7Y)Gt   .M8(M
4=.?&#2b)4H Z)`1K)](L ,!&(E8(  K$!%$
.#IX s #&(4H )%$92]&( ^ ?
Q z J )K)IXLEQ
)4H w#&L% ')4H ;E K8(&(;)G9 F$!)G45)# 
2P 8( &(/IX%?8(#n & m %  ( E p 8 o .1K)G'; 
z ~
z J



8(02*#&(4#< 2 o q k m oe ~ N.58(5,!&(#%?8()IXH2P ?8()# 4H O  u

z u
8( 8H&(8( &(`8(V16)E8L #
)G 8(%$\1K)8(7Q!#
'7SX
$9)4H -  M#8(&Z)45,.#&8' 
8U?#?,8%   ## U8(#` f<?'</XB%CH <
x  r%%G rtsG_ rvuue)GK8(-?8M#2 ^ &()6 ^ &Q
FuEQ!F ?<_H< C>-)98(O
8K$!#4H )" )- f<??<e 5 E<?(<H< C> 1K)](
O 45,5 ,,&(#X 'g)Gj $"9r ' ^ &Q; = 92*% 8( !&( )U$%$9 
IX%'8(#&% r- m d  w %G( w E
1K)G(9)Z)45)] &Z8(#j8(M2*% F  o?nz5
~z  oTk
8( &(nIX%?8(#O & m  
idTyx 9 
M )e 9)45)G &()i8Q;45%  &(/.81t

^ 

 
& 0
Q 

 9
$ 
`
 
) H
4 

  s )G45%  !&(M)6 %$08(#/&' 8( a-Q!#
(7g2*&( ^ 'Qc)5 [45  &(`#2n#%1#2*8(v Y7XQ!#
(7
8(M&' 7
)=)G98(n&(8&()I "h8'  ,,.% &(U)L8(#45,!&(%$L)4H p 8K8(n7XQ!#
(7!Z1K)](
,,.% &q)=4H EQ-)4H r &(Z#8IX&Qe ?2P 
2P#&r$)h8() ))
&(I  'h h8bG)7Xq8(rh8(#,F~1#&'$)Ge8(8(O
8 Nly#40F
RL  8(M2P##%1K) .816#5,.%?)45#
$rp#E#G tL#
$rk~pZYo ,&(#45)U8(-81#5T%?8(UEQL$!)08(-7Q!#
'7H16)GE8(
$Wlr?8(#&9L#
$!ekJl-Yo= &(Y$('&()G.$"S,.%?)] n V#2 
lt E G$HM)h8(#&' 4 L#
$!bkJYo? X) #j)h8(%$02P#&)i8(q#%1K
J z J r
~z
)45,.#&8' ?
s 1)E8(Z2P#& ^ ?&Qr
! ~ w  &(e#45, 8(%$H)45)GG &(QE

3.1 l-$!8(=)G45)G &()i8Qt45  &(0 8(=)G&e,!&(#


$ ?8e#2
p6Boolean
&' 8(58(9Model
2P 8( &(LIX%?8(#&(0#2$ 8'  V)4H H $
81#0 )i8Z2P% 8( &(eIX%?8(#&(
^ &()e
Qt#)G$?&()GV1K8(&e#&j#8/ L7XQ!G#
(7[ ,,.% &(
s 
 1- %IXKJ
hK~ w-;!{E 1K)G(Y &(e$!%$L 
i r o
k

m rm

~ w
AN J

{ 5z{zJ S|_-
pm /TS 0 rm

Ab ~
Ab ~ w
KJ Qy
 #8(&1K)

1K&(2z~ U)b8(q2*&( ^ ?Qe#27XQ!G#


(7jXT ,,.% &()M)=)4H  3.3 Histogram Model
- [.j&(X &'$!%$[ e H,.%)G q =#2l-t .1K)](;)-)G40F
$L3)GU /8(!&(#G$" ,.#&8' E8 $V)45, R 98()  T J nz J 8(-2*&( ^ 'Q
#2nX ,,.% &();)_Xg!)45)G &(iQE K~ wVzJ w s H2P 8( &(
pr#8( rZ m $ m &()G &Qnh8&()Gb#28(e.1K&(8(qJF~8(-)i8 IX%'8(#&(
 m - $ r/
m &(M8(eDX<?>@AB%C'D/
*?~B(  ( s M)45)GG &()8Q
)$)G 8(1K8(&6#&6#8K ,,. &( #45, &()#`.816 r m 45%  &()M$%$` 
} $ m )K)i8KEQ9)i8K#=8( 8Z8()45)G &()i8Q9.819)G4H -
$ ^ &1 Q r=)U$%$9  i6;k r
 oq U{ PcE5 E{ k r
o
i~ r o>rP
k! :: :: 1K?&(8(-$!)Gh8' -2* '8()G#L)
1K&(
KJ MtK~ w

E5Xk

r h o
  )GK8(n! 4=.&6#2)i8(Z( 8()Gh2]Q!)Go k m oq>o k rm of{ Ab U
{ PcK~ <PcKJ w
)i2)i8n)K8(-JF~8(V)i8% R V#8(&K16#&'$   )U8(-! 4=.&
#2,.#)i8()G#M 8Z1K)](V.#8(m / $ r/ m &(0{ J s 61)E8(%$= 4)N8(#n&(45#IX8(6O)IXZ) 6#28(
2*&( ^ E8(iQL ,,.% &()07X?Q#
'7
Z#98()45)G &()i8QE
::-)GK8(n! 4=.&6#2)i8(Z( 8()Gh2]Q!)Go k m oq>o k rm o
)i2)i8n)K8(-JF~8(V)i8% R V#8(&K16#&'$  :: )U8(-! 4=.& p%  ;8(; .#IXV8(&(;45#
$!`#iQS2*#
 `#)$)I
)]$!  
#2,.#)i8()G#M 8Z1K)](V.#8( m / $ / r m &(eJ. $ 7 Q!G#
(7. - ,,.% &' 5)[)G4H -1K)G=8(0#&&(G 8()#/.?F
X
 $V2:j : &(e8(1)E8( )$;8(#  $/::X 81v7XQ!#
(7!H &(V#89# 
8($_) 16Y G#c,!&(#,.#%$vUF
&(,.%'8()GIiQE #
(7S45#
$!H1K)G' &(Y8(;&' )% 8()G#3#2e8(YUF&' 4
45#
$!zi{%} )`G   -45#
$G)j8(#jO
8&' ?8Z#&&(G 8()G#92*% F
8( !&( s e$!8' )  V.M2P# $L)tz }~ 
*_1#.

)bet t n[ v!q


 t

"`q

br
I    "I
G#
(7
  E{ {%X 
0V
{
  X{% X! |X
{{ 
4. EXPERIMENTS
s M?O,.?&()G45
8(q &(n#$! ?8(%$/#081#j$ 8'  rnU#F -p H9 {%!  !  ||
  X
 
)h8(#2r1[##&-)4H 0k~$#8(%$ pZo? .1K)G([)M)GY2P I#& 5L {%X
  {  {X
  {
 
#2"##&2P 8( &(
$/8(Z#8(&#)h8(r#2T&(Q
Fu( Mpr&(#
$ 8( {5[{% ! 
{%
 |X !{% {%|
G{
8(?O!8( !&()4H /k~$!#8(%$ s pZo? 1K)G'V)K)L2J %IX#&U#2N8(O
8( &( 0V {%|! X {{{{ E X |! 
2*% 8( !&(nn -pM 8(e,&(#,.#%$V45#
$GM &(/#45, &($L1K)8( s -p H9 X
 | E! || X! |
{ 
8(-8&' $)i8()# N?##&n)h8(#&' 4z{|} $Y##&-?#?&(E8nIX?F 5L |X
 E{ X
  
 ||  
8(#&=zi{}N8(%() ^   $V# s -pM .)i8M)n#45, &(%$91K)i8(Y  &
$L  .')G61Z %IX8K8(O
8( &(M8(%') ^ 
&(%#h8&( ?8(%$Y)4H U1K)i8([$)iT&(E8n#
$.#E#7
q ([#
$?F
.#E#7-)N#8' )%$jEQe ,,Q!)K8( #&()i8(4$(?&().%$j)=!%'F
4.1 CDB and TDB Setup
s 5&(h8/$ 8'   -pM b#)Gh8(/#2MY)4H /4H !  iQ 8()#;j#L8(%?8(%$`8&' ))5?8%
$!)I!)G$!%$\)
8(#W!{[1iF$!%$\&(# , M1K&(t (#2j1K)G'
 U)i8(&j{%0#&-0)45)GG &n)4H  s /'&()8(?&()G#V2P#&4H 
!F s [{`,!&(E8(/8(9 %IX?&' 9$)h8(#&8()G#v#2 -p $ s -p
Q0)G45)G &()i8Q0&(# ,)Ge)Gr %$0#5#IX&' . ,,.% &'  s  1K)i8( U#28(Y#
$!.#E#7
 s ; %IX&' ;$!)Gh8(#&8()#S2*#&L 
)4H L)9I &()=2*&(#4Y|;8(#tXL_{%
{ s L)40F )4H e$ 8'  S 9)M G G 8(%$LEQ
H16?&(;$#%1KFu#X $%$v2]&(#4I &()# 516\)i8(H#8( 8H#
.kJ( o
,!&(F~&(h8&()G?8()#r '= q$)iT&(E8q 45&' n45#
$!r $jG)
8() vj C 9V
?#$!)i8()G#U &(e  45%$52P#&K8(n8(h8() -pS)Nh h8U /4H 
 ,#8e#28(0)4H -#;8( R 
8(?&(8% s ?&(5 &(L{%V &8
)4H q1K)G'` &(nG )%$5)
8(#5{{M&(# , 'H , )E8()G 1K?&(0K)Gj g)4H 5 $ K )8(=&(#h8&( ?8(%$[)4H 0 2*8(?&
 )G&' ,
QE 8' R [ $$)i8()#" 8(&(5 &(0H&(% q)i2P0)4H  $#
$)! s M8' n#%1K68(M&(] 8()#),L.816H8(M %IEF
1K)G'5 &(U 8(#&()%$0)E8(#--G r (0 q(&QE X
4H  &' j$)h8(#&8()#V#2 /)IXL$ 8'  e $H8(, &' 458(&(Z2P#&
?8()I
)8() 45#
$ . )4H   &( J 8' s )K)U8(-&(# $ 8(jlMmMFu $Y#45,!&()# -w#& `)GI[#
$.#E#7Y) T8(
8&( !8(V2P#&-I   8()G#  R ;#&'$!&n8(#H%?8n8(e8&' ))H)4H  4H &8(/7Q!#
'7L)G T8(jG#%1&-8(/$)h8(#&8()# /nY8(
2*#&n#8' ))58(j#
$!.#E#7
 T#j)G4H e)M&' $#45iQV,)G(7X%$ #8(&M $" !2P#& 0)GIV#
(79) 8(-G &(&n8(e#
$.#E#7.
,92]&(#4% (V&(# ,9#08( 8Z8(n8&' )G)58K K{e)4H  8(/4H &-8(=$)h8(#&8()#  s &(2*#&( #
'7Y)0 $t#
$?F
.#E#7;)=1# ]$t T%'8-8(/&(?8&()GI q,.?&2P#&(4H /.%  5
G &(9$!)h8(#&8()#% $-8(#V 9] &(H$!&' $ 8()##268( ^  G)i8Q
s   =#8(&e$ 8'   s -pU ?#)h8(-#2ZX9&(Q
Fu( =pr&(#F
$ 8(q8(O
8( &()4H b#2)Z|Z|U1K)G'/ &($)I
)]$!%$e)GE8(#e{{% #26 t)G4H 5 2*8(&-8(5#45,&()#" 8(
45)E845)% $;8(
 8(#&()r '` 8(#&Q`#)Gh8(Z#2e)G4H r1K)8(H)45)G & )4H &(8&()I J
8(?O!8( !&(gMX ) q2P#&0% (_ 8(#&QE r#9)4H 9)=&' $!#45iQ
G?8(%$V#=8( 8Z8(-)-#2N8(n8&' ))0?8M)-{{%

4.3 Image Feature Representation, Retrieval
and Comparison of Results
+ g %IXg)45,G45E8(%$S8(&(g45#
$; ;$!(?&().%$d)G!%'F
4.2 Codebook and Keyblock Generation
s #V&' 8(=7XQ!#
(7! "8(&(0#
(7[) HtE b`Y b $ 8()#Y
6NO!,.&()45E8(K &(e,.&2*#&(45%$L# -p $ s -pS1K)i8(
Kj! ! &(U %$=2P#&6.#8( -pW $ s pM R 0 $$!)i8()G# -pc) $)iT&(
8#
$!.#E#7
rw#&% (H)IX`#
$!.#E#7. !$ 8'  M)G40F
#e8(h8(%$=1K)i8(=8(K)K#2N{K0{-.%  Z8(Z)4H  &(K)G r &(K?#
$%$/2*##%1K)G-8(Z7XQ!G#
(7e)$?O)n,&(#
?%$ !&(
G &(&K)n8(  s -pM R 
8( )i8()GIiQE X#
(7
1K)i8(L$!)T?&(E8Z) s j$!)G45)#M#2N8(-2P% 8( &(eIX%'8(#&(M &(jO ?8(iQ`8(e( 45
4H Q0 ,!8( &(K)2P#&(4H 8()#51K)i8(`$)iT&(E8r&' ! G &()i8QE   iQ q8(U#
$!.#E#70) E1K)G'5)r#K#2b

{E .{%j#&K!
4H G?&5#
(7!=O!,#)i80#
 K)G!2P#&(4H 8()#_#2U8(`)4H 9#F R `#&'$!&K8(#0#$! ?8Z8(nI   8()#Y $58(-#45, &()G# !8(
8(
8% ! 'L K%$U $`&()G#K1K)i8(V)9, 8()]  2]&( ^ ?QE $ 8'  K)r #8' 7X= 8(6I
)   ^ &Qj82P#&q8(h8()!q!#!
&(&H#
(7!54H Qc,!&(#I!)G$!L#&&(G 8()#\ 45#t)
.#&() 8(?&( &(Z ^ &Q-O 45,"2*#& pg $j ^ ?&QO 40F
 Fu#
(7
K K16b U L#IX?&(I!)1d#2N8(G# I &()G 8()#" ,Z2*#& s -pMw#&K ( ^ &QE E8(,&(%?)G)#Y $`&(% , )i&(
#&&(,.#$)08(#=8(n8(#,t{ 
"G  ,98(#0=&(8&()IX%$`)4H 
w#&9% (\#
(7S) UO!,.&()45E8(5 IY.\,.&2*#&(45%$S8(# &(` G G 8($"[wb) GiQE b8(` I&' `,!&(%))#_ $t&(% 6)
?&' 8(U#
$.#E#7
r#2.2P# &r$)iT&(E8q)! !E{
.{Xe $  ]? G 8(%$V#IX?&U  ^ &()Z2P#&M =)IXV$ 8'  Z
)G -p
! R 8(9)45,G45E8' 8()#" N8(`$)h8(#&8()# q1K)G'_)/8( )$!)$;)V2P I#&#2r##&M2P% 8( &( .816#`#!IE8()G# b#G#&
#!%?8()IXU2P ?8()#H2P#&Z#,!8()G45)% 8()#51KH&' 8()/ /#
$!F 2P 8( &(V8(') ^  q8(L8&' $)i8()# U)h8(#&' 4,&(#,.#%$v
Q
.#E#7. E)8(Z ^  &(Z?&&(#&r#4545#iQj %$j2P#&q)4H U#45,!&(hF
16 )H $0p6 GG &'$[zi{%|}T $/8(K?##&6#&(E8I%?8(#&Uk Z lo
)#  s 6 ^  &(&&(#&)b8(q )G$% 5$)h8' 6.816j8( ,&(#,.#%$0EQ=N   $ " )zi{%}T &(K %$=2P#&r8(K#45, &()#
I%?8(#&(U#2N8()E8()i8Q9I  K#2q V#&()G) #
'79 $98( 8 # -pM s 02*% 8( !&(5IX%?8(#&(-#2 Z l $t##&j)Gh8(#&' 4
#28(j#&&(,.#$!)H7XQ!#
(7. R Y#&8% 8(e8(h8()G5)#F &(K.#8(0#2Xe$)45)#n/8(K#8(&q $T X) s -p
$! ?8($j1K)i8(L{%/kJ#
(7j)j;-?#
$.#E#7/)'o#
$!.#E#7
 )n8n ,Y)Y2J %IX#&#28(O
8( !&(e2*% 8( !&( T  & $Y-  .%()
2*#& pM ! $51K)i8(;{0k~n/Eo#
$!.#E#7
2*#& s pM!U2]8(&8( 1Z %IXG?868(O
8( &(K8(%() ^ nzi{%
"{} &(M %$02*#&68(n#45, &F
?#
$.#E#7!L &(Y&' 8(%$" M GM)4H 9)S8(;$ 8'  L &( )#V# s -pM
8(L#
$!%$V#&&(,.#$)QE
wb) !&(Yt,!&(E8(=8(L#45, &()#W&( 8(gk~ Xo0 $kJ.o/)!F
UN jO 45, wb)G &(KZ#%1K /)4H kP2*&(#4 -p6ob $-)i8( $)G 8(V8( 858(V,.&2*#&(4H Y#2epZt 6t ql- U# 8(,.?&F
K*/"
[

" !

 v!b"vg !
5 vb+
" V   "I$'
 WIgeV t
e"5 v
t)t
t/ 
ebe L $

2*#&(4y8(M8&' $)i8()# .8(%') ^ Nw#&KO 45, E)H8( #2 L $ R[)=8(`)i8(&' 8()#_8()45 s 
 q8(`4H &08(9#
(7
pM N G45#h85  #2U #2Z8(0&(I E8j)G4H / &(` 45# ) 8(G &(&n8(8&' ))= ^ M# 8(-4H &U8(
8(#,\Xg&(?8&()GIX%$v)4H H1K)i8(pZ1K);#iQvX  &(V&(F #
(7g) N8(5#&j8(5)4H 9?#45,&()G# Ln b)i8/)
8( !&(%$[EQ Z lj R t8(H 5#2 s -pM N 8-8(0&(% IXr#2 45#&(j#45, !8' 8()# iQYO!,.)IX-2*#&-4H G&n#
(7! s &(?F


8([,!&(%))#d)S
|3kJ-Yo? K
|
{\k~pZYo? Z! |dkJl-Yo? 2P#&( !8(&()K e8&' $#N R `# !&KO!,.&()45E8(
/Hj)M j#E#
$

LkJn  &1Z %IX8('o6 $H! !{0kJ-  .%')1Z %IXG?8('o? ? (#)Gcwb) !&(L[ #[#%1K=8( 80 )=45#&(9)i8()GI`8(#
,.&2P#&(45.hv8 Jk~%o? qk~$on &(=8(=#45, &()#t#28(=,!&(#F #
(7H)Gn8( `8(n#8(&6816#=45#
$!Z $ s pS&()Z45#&(
,.#%$e45#
$ 1K)i8(eO!%$, &' 45?8(&( 1K&(8(2P#&(45?&N#%1K )8()I
)i8Q`8(#0IX?&Q945#
$!.8(  -pM
8( 8Z2*#&M#
$.#E#7
ekJ#
'7H=H! )0{X5#&M
{%o? pZ,.&F
2*#&(45b.h8N# -p;1K)6-,.&2P#&(45b.h8N# s  p J!kJo? !kP2'o R  &( Z ,,)G 8()G# 8(58(#,8(&(8&()IX%$)4H / &(`#&F
$!45#h8&' 8(68(U?T%?8r#2.8(U#
$!.#E#7/)M#0,.&2*#&(4H  4H iQH, )G$`45#&(n 88(E8()G#`2*#&U ^ &QENw#&68()G6&( #" wb)GF
8' 7
)GLp61K)8([HY97Q!#
'7
- - [O 45,jn -pM &(UM#45, &(b8(Z %IX&' K,&(%))#0 $j&(% #/8(#,Hn $
8(,.&2*#&(4H -)K#8U K)i8()IXe K# s -pS1K)i8(9&(,.%?8 {%`&(8&()IX%$[)G4H -#2Z% 'g `wb)i&(h8% 2P#&j% 'g$ 8'  
8(#08(-#
$!.#E#79)G R V $$)i8()#" 2P#& jO!%$97Q!#
'7`) 8(/)h8-,!&(%))#.%&(% Gq)t (g# 45;)-4H &(7X%$L1K)i8(
8(LG &(&H8(L#
$.#E#7v) 68(9.88(&08(L,.&2*#&(4H  _ % .1K)](Y#&&(,.#$U8(#08(-.h8M45#
$T2P#&- 0)GI;#
$?F
s #?8(&j1K)i8( s V{ b8(5  45,8()#[8( 8j L4H &/$)hF .#E#7d)_ $f vO$x#
(7x)n -pM )x45#h8[#2
8(#&8()#W% $!/8(#;.88(&/,.&2P#&(4H H)G/IX&()i$"[M2M# &( 8(t  epZ ,.?&2P#&(459.hv8 Je1K)g# s -pU K- i1Z Q
$! K8(#e#45K &'$!F~8(#F#
8&(#2J ?8(#&(Z 'H 6lMm3, &' 458(&( ,.&2*#&(45/8(9.h8%_!%?#$T 2P#&5 ;O$c#
$.#E#7c)V $
?##&M,  . $`&(# $98&( !8(
8(?&(- &(-O,8()# 2P#&`% (\45#
$~ 8(V)Gh8`,!&(%))#.%&(% G 45#$!)T?&F
E8K#
(7H)GU &(- $&()$"
1K)G(L#%138( 8Z1K)i8(L#
(7

wb) &(j0,&(
8(K8(-?T%?8M#2N8(-#
'79)Gj#V8(&(-45#
$
F `tL $[L; ,.&2P#&(4H ?5)Ge.88(?&j8( [1K)8(g9[L#&
Gw#&=% (W45#
$J q&' GiQW,.% 7
)G 2P#&H VO!%$c#
$!F {%0[{%
 s )i&'$T 2P#&n (V45#
$J !8(-#,8()4H ",.&2P#&(4H -)
.#E#7L) . 04H &n#
'7`)/% $K8(#5.88(&U,.&2*#&(4H  ))E8(%$"Mw#&O 45, .p6,.&2*#&(45n.h8n# -p31K)i8(
UX )G" Z8()5IX&()i08( 8H#E#
$\,.&2*#&(4H V#2e g7XQ!G#
(7EF #
$!.#E#73kJYg! n{XXo/1K)V- ,.&2P#&(450.h85# s -p
 %$5)4H M&(8&()I 45#
$)r $H#` j4H G&6$)h8(#&8()# 1K)i8(\#
$!.#E#7dkuLWE {%Eo?wb)G iQE 68(9# M#,8()4H 
#28(Llnm $S#45,&()#" s )H)H,.%)G iQ_8&( L2*#& ,.&2*#&(4H 2P#&U% (V$ 8'  -)K)i8' )G)%$" 1K&(-p61K)i8(
s pS.%  n)i8Z)Z e)E8(iQH)G45,&K$ 8'  qn#%1IX&% E2*#& #
$!.#E#7kJ5L b{XXoU)M8(e.h8n# -p\1K)/1K)i8(
.#8($ 8'   )t8(/O
8&(450 0#268(/G h8/$)h8(#&8()# #
$!.#E#7xku;_E j{XEo? s )G`)$!)] 8(H8( 898(Y#,8()4H 
1KL{Nj{Z#
(7
UkJ,)iOG'ob) %$T 1K)](=&(%$! b8(#n8(K##& , &' 458(?&( $L8(j45#
$ &(=$ 8'  =$!,.$!E8%Un#8()G
^  E8()% 8()#Lz{%}~ X8(Z,.&2P#&(4H ?Z)G#8q q#E#
$= 8(Z  8( 8H _#IX&()%$v#
$.#E#7W4H Qc45)G $c8(9&(?8&()GI U.?F
1K)i8([/Y= $L5L0#
'7
w#&UO 45, 8(-.h8M %IX&'    /8(j2*% 8( !&(=IX?8(#&(.#45-8(#E#L, &(en;8(/#8(&
,!&(%))#j1K)8(H{Tn{q#
(7
N ()IX$j 8b8(8(#,=6&(8&()IX%$-)40F  $T q ; $!&Fu)G%$c#
$.#E#7c4H Q #t.`45)G $)[.?F
)Gr#Q0! XE
1K)G'H)q8( H! -2P#&8(U n#2bK0   8(2*% 8( !&(-IX%?8(#&(K.%#45M8(#E#5#X &(
#
'7
# -pM s 6&(% #0)N8( 8Z{be{Z#
(7!$!##8N&(?8
#
 T, 8()G ")!2P#&(4H 8()#H1K)G'H)6 2P 2P#&&(8&()I JrL#&(F
#IX?&% E)i8)r8(#E#j#h8(iQ=8(#j#45,!&(q 5)4H U1K)i8(V{r5{K#
'7
 5. CONCLUSION
M#8(8( 8 d M =#45,G?O)i8QH# 2 0ku 6X R
o?
1K&(j 1 ,,&(#X 'v2P#&9#E8(E8F %$_)4H V&(?8&()GI M)H,&(#F
)n8(/)=#2q8(e8&' ))` ^  )GM8(/#
$.#E#7Y) ,.#$[EQV?O,#)i8()9  ## 8(O
8Fu %$ R 8(') ^ M#
#45,&(%$[)4H / %$[#g8(0IX%?8(#& ^  E8()% 8()#  s 
Performance of the Proposed Models vs. Color Feature Techniques on CDB Performance of the Proposed Models vs. Wavelet Texture Descriptors on TDB
1 1
Boolean Model (4x4, 1024) Histogram Model (2x2, 1024)
Histogram Model (2x2, 256) Boolean Model (2x2, 1024)
0.9 Vector Model (2x2, 1024) Vector Model (2x2, 2048)
Color Coherent Vector 0.9 Haar Wavelet
Color Histogram Daubechies Wavelet

0.8

0.8
0.7
PRECISION

PRECISION
0.7
0.6

0.5
0.6

0.4
0.5

0.3

0.4
0.2

k~ Xo kJ.o
0.1 0.3
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
RECALL RECALL

Performance of the Proposed Models under 4x4 Blocks on CDB Performance of the Proposed Models under 4x4 Blocks on TDB
1 1
Boolean model (1024 Keyblocks) Histogram model (512 Keyblocks)
Boolean model (512 Keyblocks) Histogram model (1024 Keyblocks)
0.9 Histogram model (512 Keyblocks) Boolean model (1024 Keyblocks)
Histogram model (1024 Keyblocks) 0.9 Vector model (1024 Keyblocks)
Vector model (512 Keyblocks) Vector model (512 Keyblocks)
Vector model (1024 Keyblocks) Boolean model (512 Keyblocks)
0.8

0.8
0.7
PRECISION

PRECISION

0.7
0.6

0.5
0.6

0.4
0.5

0.3

0.4
0.2

k~%o k~$o
0.1 0.3
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
RECALL RECALL

Average PrecisionRecall of BM with 4x4 blocks on CDB Average PrecisionRecall of BM with 4x4 blocks on TDB
1 1
1024 Keyblocks 2048 Keyblocks
2048 Keyblocks 1024 Keyblocks
0.9 512 Keyblocks 512 Keyblocks
256 Keyblocks 0.9 256 Keyblocks

0.8

0.8
0.7
PRECISION

PRECISION

0.7
0.6

0.5
0.6

0.4
0.5

0.3

0.4
0.2

kJo kP2'o
0.1 0.3
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
RECALL RECALL

K*" 1.#

L "X %  _5
"
eY
 `
S
 /b " " - v  OI!q
etQpYY
0 vOS
>'1Vt t
LY1q0 vY



q" b]'S
"#."* vV Y1 "t" %#."< 2
" "I /! I!
et\
! L/U% /" "q

t  
S  p `
#."
< vr '   "I
% X
xX v -
5 )
 $
Performance of the Boolean Model with 1024 Keyblocks on CDB Performance of the Boolean Model with 1024 Keyblocks on TDB
1 1
4x4 block 2x2 block
2x2 block 4x4 block
0.9 8x8 block 8x8 block
16x16 block 0.9

0.8

0.8
0.7
PRECISION

PRECISION
0.7
0.6

0.5
0.6

0.4
0.5

0.3

0.4
0.2

kJXo kJ.o
0.1 0.3
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
RECALL RECALL

Performance of the Vector Model with 1024 Keyblocks on CDB Performance of the Vector Model with 1024 Keyblocks on TDB
1 1
2x2 block 2x2 block
4x4 block 4x4 block
0.9 8x8 block 8x8 block
16x16 block 0.9

0.8

0.8
0.7
PRECISION

PRECISION

0.7
0.6

0.5
0.6

0.4
0.5

0.3

0.4
0.2

kJ)]o k o
0.1 0.3
0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
RECALL RECALL

Performance of the Histogram Model with 1024 Keyblocks on CDB Performance of the Histogram Model with 1024 Keyblocks on TDB
1 1
2x2 block 2x2 block
4x4 block 4x4 block
0.9 8x8 block 8x8 block
16x16 block 0.9

0.8
0.8

0.7
0.7
PRECISION

PRECISION

0.6
0.6
0.5

0.5
0.4

0.4
0.3

0.2 0.3

kJ7o kJ.o
0.1 0.2
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
RECALL RECALL

K*!
 ;r " vX% X )> v  !
.#

-b "X e%   "
[U"
 )  @Y
 YH2 [

5-h '+
W%/
Qq V1
!5//$/ e/!W"% %#.! t O%X vq


$n "".#
N  
WS vq
 Yb e ! ) q% %  #  jL tg  "#.
!"5$
K*-"[M
5)
U tY
qSV" ]"#."c )
"ee
!"

" [

[" !I-Ne
 %$

,!&(#,.#%$W ,,!&(#X 'W,&(#I


)G$/458(#
$!j2*#&=O
8&' ?8()[)4H  *Hp<bt"_g _'tvU5vt"_0> c't5j
2*% 8( !&(V1K)G(3)GL#8L)32P %IX#&Y#20 EQ, &8()]? G &Y#%1ZFuIX v _v` > t 5gH5v 5gt vp ?  _
 et

2*% 8( !&(9 'W 0##&0#&=8(O
8( !&( R h8(% $T b8(52P 8( &(0O
F Tqt" _j5j"ptq T  ?VW 
 et
r    j"s _vt 31j   +  
Tqt  5 u
t"p v?W   
 vtvj` 9"!RGv= S@ t55 ( '
8&' ?8(%$t2*#&/ t)4H =)Gj 9#45,!&()IX5$(?&(),8()#t#268(
?#E8(E8-#2r8(0)4H /1K)G't)G-45#&(=4H E8()]?hFu&(] 8(%$Y8( 
***


8(eO!)Gh8()5G#%1&FuGIX2*% 8( !&(UO!,.&()45E8' "&( i8(M I aH[= ;t w%H5tQ 7L ;6 ^ 5<jH5_vj
t 5_ttt 'tv P@H@  A 
t(
 tv
$!45#h8&' 8(%$\8( 8L8(t,!&(#,.#%$d45#
$!V &(g ,.?&()G#&Y#8

/ _j
x v
 Kvc
t" 3i
J "   (  j"_ #&DE#F #9!$#G+
#iQ8(#U#G#&N)h8(#&' 4f $-##&N#&(E8bIX?8(#& ,,&(#X ' v% **
1K)G'_ &(`)2J %IX#&0#2M##&=2*% 8( !&( r 8/ G#;8(#Y  &0 $
vp 1= ;Y< 1t5 'tt = \@ 'tv<j[
  .')G/1Z %IXG?8=8(O
8( &(` ,,&(# (j1K)G(v &(9)2P I#& j5v? >t jH5v _2 y A 
v6 zxT  ppW z
#2N8(O
8( &(n2*% 8( !&( {I;:,f9&D/#F *C!$* v"v%2 *##
x
 +Hp ;Y< {5ttv'tvv` Ot jH5vt
6. REFERENCES 'tvjj y A 
t(
 ett 
5g_+
t@_g UtVtjUvj v 9*&D5 +F +!$+*a| P___p '_< **v
tt @ tv<'tv@5jtjvvqU  9Hp= ]tg = d 't< ;jjvVt'tvj5
v_tVv[v'tv@'ttv_V_j 5jt+ [ jvv_v___< __5vj jv+  ?vpTe3}3jW$   VtE

     t
j
t"   
jt    
g

t" e ~& tvj? C"!&9v55v5 ; %@ **



t__ Itv_ "!$# " tvvv"& %@ ( 't )
**
 ( Gt< ]I_ t & ]qjtt _ t I= ] t5 '"vv
+H t_j- ,/.H5_<t 0 '_ ,21_54 3g j5 " jt6 
 t vUv5_ ,f't5_i ;t H5vtI 'tvt P@H 't5jj
  
 v8 7_5( )  *** 5gt vp  J   UT t" j__"pt   t
g
t"
 e( 
I I 
j p
v" I 


t_jI tvj` 9G-!RGR
9H[t5_g  et: 1< ;Y= 1t5 'te vt__ **G

5_t" __5v? >t jH5vt'tvvI52@   CH v5j _ vUR
V   v  
   e
@r
t  W<
j N 31j    R Xv
A 
v6
 vtB  
j<5jj v= C&DE+F ++"!$++( '" ** 3i
  pW&  5 V KpvHVRV5
J @ ] = P_5g"tjvt ;_v
Gt< ;Yj _tv'tg= H( V_   I" jt6 
 t %U _5 f )  **G
A4J t6 Kvvv: 7!( )BLX vg v= 1UM . v **v  H[ V St"tt%v5njH5_vU6 ^5
CHN ;YI_gj6 ) = 7 1U0 ' t"56 ) OUt t5 jH5vt: P_5VHv'B btv< 'tv
t< PUte Oj )Q'R)S 'tv2tQ S@_'v _ gq P@H 't_g 5gt vp  J  M  _
 et

O@%R ) 55_ UT  ?VW  j +#&DE*F +9"!$9+j g **C Tqt" _j5j"pt5  
j25jj vtv_? Ga!RGvv **G
H_Vt = ;Y( ) X   t YHW=
t  Z-
 t[
t"  v
 " g[ V 5'tS" , tR S@5t+ __"@ )pt v'H5_
T  ?V5jt@ \@_jt_VI ] < '5_g **+ jv 5j  ,f't_1'tv? >_ ) ) 55_ 5jt+ [ `vpTu3
g 5Ut"& ] ttH5t"vv5 Vv6 ^ pt 3jW&   pt/
~$ tv_? #!$*#"v%v: ; %  **
_vV_5_'tv_g 15gt vp I  _
 et
  #Hp"5tVt<= 1v& ) _` g5
t   t
t" q   j? ?
t& hv
T t" j__"pt_ I+ W=
4" jt6 
 et  Kv   tvj` 9a9"!$9a# 7__6 )R,%tp '5vI ] _j **
;_0 'vv( ' **
#Hc b_e d 0 ' tptUv8 dtUvt__gH55  *Hp ;Yttj Pt tvv 6 ^@  X  W

Tq `V W  jj I+t $D%" Fv !$9+I **v
^ 5t5vvv6 )$' R ,f't_'tv@5_5tte
6
+aH2R ) _- ,2;tVI[t<V t5 f )p5V
5jt+ [ I  j
 t
`gt hv J  V/vi 3jW$   VvE
jv55t_v$ , v't5v i   _
 et

" jt6 
 tk   
el23B Im&nnn ot bvv__g"t v
%@ 1g _p '_X G+aaa Tqt" _j5j"ptX
/ jj 5  et **