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The Golden Section

It is a proportioning system
that governs the relationship
of smaller parts to the whole.
Fibonacci number is used to
approximate the Golden
The ratio is

For Example:  Parthenon in Greece .

 In human body .

.Modular Le Corbusier's created his own proportioning system which is called the modular. He use the golden section in his modular system for the scale of architectural scale.

Le Corbusier bridged the relationship between the Imperial System (e.g. The system is based on the human body in different gestures. inch and feet) and the Metric System (e.g. millimetre and metre) by providing a system which takes the heights and proportions of the human form as a universal standard. .

The Modular is anthropometric scale of proportion based on the height of the English man with his arm raise. Ken .

For this reason. In ancient China.Japanese unit of measurement is shanku and ken like feet and inches. even today after the adoption of the metric system. A square with sides of 1 ken is called 1 tsubo and is used as a . the space between two pillars was called ken and that is how this unit came to be used to designate the distance between pillars. ken is a familiar term in Japanese architecture as the underlying basis for the dimensions of household fittings and tatami mats.

ken is used as a unit to represent the width and depth of the stage. Two methods of designing the Ken modular method: •Inaka-ma method The ken grid of 6 shaku determined the centre-to- centre spacing of columns. which has its roots in kabuki. It is now standardized as 1 9/11 meter. . In Japanese stage art. The exact value of Ken has varied over time and location but has generally been a little shorter than 2 meters (6 ft 7 in).unit of area to indicate the size of houses and land. too.

7 shaku.30 shaku) and the column spacing (ken module) varied according to the size of the room and ranged from 6. .Therefore.4 to 6. •Kyo-ma method The floor mat remained constant (3. the standard tatami floor mat (3 x ^ shaku or ½ x 1 ken) varied slightly to allow for the thickness of the columns.15 x 6.