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In 1997 the IAPM was still a fledgling pays tribute to people for their achieve-
association. It started out as a loosely ments in project management. These
structured international network for people may have been instrumental to
project managers who shared the ob- the resolution of a crisis situation, they
jectives of promoting and modernising may have successfully implemented a
project management and providing complex development project or they
young project managers with the tools may simply have performed exception-
to work effectively and successfully. ally in various areas of project manage-
Since this time, the IAPM has held ment for many years.
annual International Project Manager
Meetings (IPMM). Back in 1998 the The Book of the Year award honours
IAPM published the precursor to the books on the subject of project man-
PM Guide 2.0, the IAPM By-laws of agement that are published in both
Project Management. These by-laws German and English. These books may
were completely revised and adapted communicate experience and knowl-
to modern requirements and real-life edge in an innovative way, be (auto)
project management scenarios in the biographical works or textbooks pro-
PM Guide 2.0, which was published in viding an introduction to the subject of
2010. In the same year, the IAPM was project management.
completely relaunched.
The IAPM is an independent certifica-
In 2012 the IAPM introduced two tion body which examines the knowl-
awards, the Project Manager of the edge and competence of the certifica-
Year Award and the Book of the Year tion candidates with a comprehensive,
Award. fair and neutral online examination
system. The certification system is there-
The Project Manager of the Year Award fore tailored to the challenging world of
is very special to the IAPM because it project management in the 21st century.

IAPM International Association of Project Managers IAPM International Association of Project Managers 3
Preface Section 2 - People in project

Section 1 - The project Project manager Map 37

Team building 38
Project Map 09
Leadership 39
Project check 10
Motivation 40
Project file 12
Working in the project team 41
Project environment 13
Conflict management 42
Project stakeholders 14
Time management 43
Project charter 16
Personal success 44
Project organisation 1 17
steering committee and core team Stress management 45
Workshop procedure 18
Section 3 - Certification Guide
List of topics for project workshops 19
Objective d efinition 20
Introduction 47
Creation of a specification 21
Certifications and certification levels 48
Creation of a phase model as a team 22
Examination application and admission procedure 49
Creation of a WBS as a team 24
Examinations 50
Work package sheet 25
Affirmation in lieu of oath 52
Cost breakdown structure and budget 26
Process and time schedule 27
Imprint 54
Risk analysis 28
Project organisation 2 30
Project organisation 3 31
line, matrix, autonomous
Meetings and workshops 32
Presentations 33
Project review 34
Project close-out, project evaluation 35

4 IAPM International Association of Project Managers IAPM International Association of Project Managers 5

As project manager, you take advantage These guideline will help you to make
of all available opportunities to plan and targeted use of your project management
implement projects, to review progress knowledge.
and to draw conclusions on how to do It is divided into three sections:
things better in the next project. Why do
you have to document everything you do?
Because you know how important it is for SECTION 1:
future projects. Project managers always THE PROJECT
try to improve on the things they disliked
about their former managers or their be- How to initiate a project and bring it to a successful conclusion.
haviour. Yet despite being the probably
most important manager in the organisa-
tion, project managers often lack orienta-
tion. They need rules and proven systems
to help them in their work.
How to take the soft factors in project work into account.
We have come to the conclusion that
project managers need a comprehensive
range of project management tools to
help them perform what is the most com- SECTION 3:
plex management task of all. CERTIFICATION GUIDE
How to obtain certification of your PM competence and enhance your
market value.

We hope youll be a first-rate project manager,

enjoy team-based project work and maximise
your personal success.

Liechtenstein, March 2013

International Association of Project Managers

6 IAPM International Association of Project Managers IAPM International Association of Project Managers 7
1 Project check 2 Project file 3 Project
5 Project charter

7 Communication
4 Stakeholders
meetings, workshops,

6 Steering

8 Creation of the and core
specification team
11 Work package

10 Creation
of the WBS
9 Creation of the 12 Cost breakdown/ 13 Process / time
phase model budget schedule

Functional, matrix,
16 15 PPM and WPR 14 Risk analysis

17 Project start-up 18 Project review 19 Project close out

8 IAPM International Association of Project Managers 9

Youve been assigned to a new task and you want to approach it professionally. Write down your own thoughts and the things that have already
Obviously, the first question you ask yourself is whether its a project. been said about the following issues.

Is it necessary to define an objective be- Is it a complex project?

fore work commences?
Defined start 7 1 Why is the undertaking complex? Are
and finish? Objective definition What will the project deliverable be? How people working on it at different loca-
before work long do you need to deliver it? Are their tions? Do they all speak the same lan-
commences? any time constraints? How much will it guage? Do they understand each other?
cost? Are there any financial constraints? Are there coordination problems, e.g.
6 because different technical terminology
Novel 2 Are resources limited? is being used?
undertaking? Which human resources, machines,
resources? Is it a novel kind of project?
equipment etc. can you only use to a lim-
ited extent in the project? When will you Can you use knowledge gained in similar
need these resources? What do you have projects? Can some of the work process-

5 3
to expend in return? es be derived from routine activities?

undertaking? Is it an interdisciplinary project? Has the start and finish been defined?
Is interdisciplinary
4 cooperation necessary? What expertise do the project team mem- When can you start formulating the ob-
Defined bers need? Which qualifications should jectives for a specific project contract?
responsibilities they have? Do they come from different When will you have finished planning the
for results? departments, divisions, companies, cul- project and setting up the organisational
tures? structures? When will the project deliver-
able be finished? When will you be able to
If the answer to every question is yes, Have responsibilities been defined? assess how much the project has actually
it can be assumed that the new task is a project.
Who is the customer? Who is providing cost? When will you have documented
If the answers to some of the questions is no, the necessary funding? Can some as- the knowledge gained in the project and
thats not a problem because some aspects of the task can be supported by project pects of the project be grouped or del- made it available to your company?
management methods. egated in sub-projects or work packages?

If most answers were no,

its not a problem either, because the task can then be planned as a routine operation. Now you have to create the
project file.

10 IAPM International Association of Project Managers IAPM International Association of Project Managers 11
Type of Project: Projects arent implemented in a vacuum.

They are implemented within legal/contractual frameworks and subject to constraints on

human/technical resources etc. The timely identification of important issues so that they
1: Project Organisation 4: Project Controlling can be taken into account enables the project manager to ensure the projects success.
Environment Execution What kind of an environment is your project being implemented in? What do you have
to pay attention to in the following areas?
1.1 Project manager 4.1 Activities List (updated)
1.2 Project team 4.2 WPD (approved, in progress, completed) Political - political framework Technology - technological framework
1.3 Steering Committee 4.3 Project Reports (updated)
Which powerhouses do you have to Do technical innovations have to be inte-
1.4 Client/Customer 4.4 Work Reports, Activity Reports
take into consideration? Are there con- grated in the project? Are the technolo-
1.5 Project Partners 4.5 Calculations (updated)
flicts of interests? gies tried and tested? Do you have to con-
sider trade mark rights or licenses?
2: Project Definition 5: Project Close-out
Preparation Valuation Economic - economic framework
Are there economic constraints? Impor- Legal - legal framework
2.1 Tender documentation 5.1 Invoicing
tant economic interests? Competitors? Do What is the legal framework? Which laws
2.2 Quotation 5.2 Quality assurance (acceptance)
seasonal or cyclical fluctuations have to and regulations apply to your project?
2.3 Objectives (performance, Costs, time) 5.3 Historical cost calculation
be taken into account?
2.4 As-is Analysis 5.4 Product generation (routine process)
2.5 Contract, order, terms & conditions of business 5.5 Client/Customer evaluation
2.6 Specifications 5.6 Overall knowledge gained Sociology - sociological framework Environment - ecological framework
2.7 Project report (outline, draft)
Is the project subject to ethical or moral Will your project pollute the environment?
constraints? Do you have to take the sen- Do you have to consider environmental
3: Project Planning 6: Project Material
timents or emotions of people affected by regulations or restrictions?
Initialisation Collection
the project into account?

3.1 Phase plan, milestone plan 6.1 Concepts

3.2 Work break down structure 6.2 Software (CDs, USBs) Do you need professional assistance in any of these areas? How can you deal with con-
3.3 Network diagram 6.3 Accompanying material (scientific materi- straints? Are there aspects that make it impossible to implement your project? If so, how
3.4 List of activities als, articles, literature, reference to other can you verify the problems and how can you terminate the project?
3.5 Preliminary costing projects, online research, sources)
3.6 Risk analysis 6.4 Presentations (transparencies, hand-outs)
3.7 Project report, Version 0 (int., ext.) The prompt termination of a project that is impossible to implement
makes sense!

12 IAPM International Association of Project Managers IAPM International Association of Project Managers 13

Projects are made by people for people!
Who will be affected by or able to influence your project and/or the project deliverable?
What can you do to get these people involved in the project? What organisational aspects
do you have to consider?
Put the people or groups of people in a portfolio.
low high
The two axes of the portfolio represent level affected and influence. INFLUENCE


You define the measures for the organisation Quadrant III: It may be a good idea to
of/ communications to the stakeholders. make a person a member of an consult-
ant panel or advisory board. Whatever
Quadrant I: Get them closely involved in their role in the project, the people in
the project (e.g. as core project team these quadrants have to be regularly and
members). proactively involved in the communica-
tion process.
Quadrant II: It may be a good idea to
make a person a member of the steering Quadrant IV: It is often sufficient to pro-
committee or project team. vide summarised information on a situ-
ational basis.

14 IAPM International Association of Project Managers IAPM International Association of Project Managers 15
The targets that you have identified up to now help you to draft a project charter with the
most significant people in the project. It should include the following points:

Project performance objective Prioritising objectives The project may be implemented in an Adaptation of project scope or organisa-
existing company or (though this is un- tion
What do you have to achieve by the end Which objective has priority A: quality,
usual) in a temporary company with its You either then have to reduce the scope
of the project? time or cost compliance?
own legal status (e.g. Ltd.). The project of the project in order that it can be com-
Which things have subordinate priority?
manager has to consider whether this missioned or leave the scope as it is and
Project time objective
might be the case. look for another customer who is higher
Project cost centre
When will the project start and when will
up in the organisations hierarchy.
the performance objective be achieved? If the project is an internal one, a project Set up the steering committee
Have you remembered to allow for float cost centre is set up as the basis for reli- Core team
Initial ideas on the steering committee
time? able cost management (cost budgeting,
should be discussed with the customer. Based on the PESTLE and stakeholder
cost monitoring).
From this time on, regular meetings with analyses which have already been con-
Project cost objective
the customer have to be held. In order ducted, the project manager considers
Project release
How much money will have been spent to make this possible, a formal steering the functions and departments which will
by the end of the project? Now, the customer can release the pro- committee which has both the customer be required in the project. People in de-
Does that include contingency funds? ject, which means that you are able to and the project manager as members is partments which can exert the strongest
plan, implement and finalise it. set up. Now it is clear that your customer influence on the success of the project
has to be a person with authority, i.e. he are appointed as members of the core
has to be able to allocate budget funds, team (PM team). To do this, the project
intervene in the companys existing or- manager provides the customer with a
ganisational structures and make strate- list of the necessary functions and skills
gic decisions! profiles. The customer then has to liase
with the department managers and ar-
The project charter specifies the project managers role in the project and in the steering If the customer is not able to do these range for the necessary employees to be
committee. Both the project manager and the customer are members of the steering com- things, he cannot commission the pro- released from regular duties to work on
mittee. The steering committee should have as few members as possible and meet on a ject and you cannot take a project of this the project.
regular basis. scale on under these circumstances.

If there is need to make any changes, they will be directly reflected in the quality, time and
cost objectives and the consequences of any changes will be evident.

16 IAPM International Association of Project Managers IAPM International Association of Project Managers 17
Project work is always team work. It in- In every project, some aspects of project The following either require a high level
volves people with different professional Workshop: Implementation work are more effectively performed as a of concentration or involve powerful emo-
backgrounds and experience (compe- team than individually. Sometimes, it may tions. Thats why it is easier to process
tences) working together. Sometimes, Objectice: Focus on the issues to be be necessary to gain a quick overview of them individually or in small groups and
team members have different cultural dealt with at the workshop. If a work a situation or obtain the opinions of many then to present the results to the team
backgrounds, speak different languages, breakdown structure is being cre- different experts, and one-to-one inter- and discuss them in more detail.
hold different values and have different ated, the question to ask is What do views with these people would obviously
basic outlooks on life. In order to over- we have to do to solve the problem? be associated with time and communica- Not entirely suitable workshop topics
come these obstacles, the project man- (Please refer to the specific workshop tion constraints.
Contract drafting
ager has to be able to implement effective instructions). Customer specification drafting
workshops! Procedure: Plan the workshop agenda Work package definition
or procedures. The following aspects of project work are
Process schedule creation
Effective workshops environment and best dealt with at workshops.
Roles: Define roles (these are gener- Cost schedule creation
ally time manager, minute taker, team Capacity and resource schedule creation
Suitable workshop topics
Ensure that a suitable room is selected leader and presenter). Conflict resolving
and that the room contains the right tech- Environmental analysis
Duration: Estimate the duration of each
nical equipment (flip chart, pin board, Stakeholder analysis
presentation materials, computer projec- Definition of objectives
tor, overhead projector, transparencies Dates: Define the timeframe for each
Phase model
and projector pens). procedure.
Work breakdown structure
Implement: Implement the workshop Risk analysis
Effective workshops implementation as planned. Basic principles of team work
Good visualisation is essential in a good
workshop, i.e. the following steps have to
be written on a flip chart or overhead pro-
jector transparency. This ensures that the
team is involved.

Effective workshops follow-up

Prepare a report detailing the workshop
results. Use photo reports because they
have a high recognition value and are
easy to distribute.

18 IAPM International Association of Project Managers IAPM International Association of Project Managers 19
Sometimes, when you are briefed on a Are the objectives realistic? If not, why You and the core team define the work and services to be performed, specify the main
project, ideas may have already been not? What do you suggest? prerequisites to be met and identify all the things which have to be taken into considera-
outlined, and a requirements analysis, Team work 10 min tion. You prepare a performance spcification. Sometimes, if the organisation has a quality
status quo report or project contract may management system, the performance specification will have a standardised format. If
already exist. Often, project managers Have conflicting objectives been avoid- there is no standard format, the following structure can be used. All it takes is a little im-
dont have to start their projects from ed? If not, why not? What do you have to agination and adaptation and you have the basis for a summarisation of all expectations
scratch because they have access to bear in mind? and requirements.
relatively well-structured basic materials. Team work 10 min
As project manager, you can either read
through these materials to familiarise
yourself with them or, better, organise a 3. Workshop follow-up
workshop. After consulting the customer, Now you have to speak to the custom- General information
invites potential core team members to er about the defined objectives. Clarify 1.1 Scope of application
attend your workshop. In large-scale or whether the objectives are realistic. If 1.2 Documents and rules to be used
extensive projects, it is important for the they are, the customer can formally ap- 1.3 Description of the object (project deliverable)
customer to send out the workshop invi- point you as project manager, give you 1.4 Change procedure (form)
tations. the appropriate authority to implement
the next steps in the project and assign Quality
1. Project objectives any necessary resources to you. 2.1 Functional quality
2.2 Operational quality
Date of objective definition, participants.
2.3 Constructive requirements
2. Workshop procedure
Write down the quality, cost and time ob- 3.1 Climatic burdens
jectives on the basis of the contract or the 3.2 Mechanical burdens
customers briefing 3.3 Other environmental burdens
Individual work 10 min
Interfaces If it isnt possible to provide any informa-
Summarise quality, cost and time objec- 4.1 Overview tion with regard to any of the above items,
tives, prioritise objectives and clarify dif- 4.2 Descriptions the names of team members and to be
ferences of opinion or perception defined are written under the item in
Team work 15 min Testing and quality assurance question. This indicates that the specifi-
5.1 Test types cation will be supplemented at this point.
5.2 Test schedules It also indicates where assumptions have
5.3 Licensing documents been made.
5.4 Test synopsis

20 IAPM International Association of Project Managers IAPM International Association of Project Managers 21

Phase Phase results Duration Costs

Now the project budget and timeframe have to be planned.
A simple yet effective means of doing this is to create a phase plan.

Project phase plan Estimate of the duration and costs of COSTS () This cost/time chart can be used to
each phase
Date of phase plan creation, participants. assess project progress and as the
Individual work 5 min basis for control measures.

Workshop procedure
Preparation of a summary of results, ta-
Definition of phases and the results in bles and a chart
each phase. A standard phase model is Team work 20 min
useful here
Team work 15 min Workshop planning results
A table and the appertaining chart are
shown on the next page.
Phase1 P2 P3 P4 P5
Result Res. Res. Res. Res.


Phase breakdown for Phase breakdown for Phase breakdown for KNOWLEDGE GAINED AND FURTHER PROCEDURES
investment projects organisational projects product development

Engineering As-is analysis Market and principal Targets
Official procedures Definition of objectives component analysis
Unless the phases are precisely specified and the phase outcome is properly defined, it
will be difficult to estimate costs and timeframes.
Procurement Target concept Feasibility study

Product development Budgeting model

Construction and installation Pilot test
Before an estimate is made, it is necessary to decide whether to use the top-down or
Start-up Evaluation of pilot test Product testing and approval bottom-up method.

Training and documentation Implementation of the overall concept Pilot series

Limitations of the phase model
Planning of practical use Training Planning and market launch Lengthy, overlapping and/or cost-intensive phases generally cannot be implemented with-
out a work breakdown structure.
Map: Standard phase model
22 IAPM International Association of Project Managers IAPM International Association of Project Managers 23
In some projects it is necessary to plan Every team member writes down the
work packages (WP) based on the work answers, ensuring that they dont just
breakdown structure (WBS). write keywords, but phrases (wrong:
list, right: create list). This is a clas- Project: 1
Project phase: from WBS
Indications that it is necessary to create a sic creativity technique called brainwrit- WP name/no.:
WBS and define WPs are: ing. The first step of the process can also
overlapping, cost or time-intensive be supported by mind mapping or similar WP description:
methods. All answers are then written on WP deliverable: 2
phases in the project Prerequisites and necessary external supplies: Expertise
MetaPlan cards. Interfaces, norms and standards:
concerns that it may not be possible
Individual work : 20 min
to implement the project
expected, possibly substantial risks. A moderator is nominated. He or she has Duration Effort required
Activities Team member Other Costs Costs
to compile the individual team members (h, d) (person hors/day)

answers into clusters and define head-

Creation of the WBS as a team ings for each cluster. When all the top- 3
ics have been clustered, another check Planning
Date of WBS creation, participants (if
is made to see whether any more head-
possible, involve staff who can contribute
ings or tasks will be necessary to ensure 4
knowledge and experience i.e. compe- Specification
tence from their specialist field).
Moderated team work: 25 min
Workshop procedure Estimate
In particularly critical projects, it can be
The question for this workshop is What helpful to create WBSs with different em- Calculation
do we have to do to solve the problem? phases (phase, function or object-orient-
Remember that the answers to the ques- ed) to close any gaps that may exist.
tion do not initially provide any informa- Moderated team work: 25 min
tion about expected costs or time re- 7
quired. This information is obtained on Workshop follow-up Calculation
the basis of the defined work packages, The work packages are delegated to the from
which will be dealt with later on. team members for precise definition. Contract
Start date: Finish date: Total costs:
Staff involved:
Person responsible:

The WP is similar to a quotation and, like the quotation, it is used to plan, check and evaluate performance. Formu-
lating a WP is not team work. It is a good idea to give this task to the person responsible for the WP. The formulation
of the WP is followed by plausibility checks and further consultations.

24 IAPM International Association of Project Managers IAPM International Association of Project Managers 25
BUDGET The duration of each work package (WP) Step 4
and the interdependencies between the
Make forward and backward pass calcu-
The work package costs can be grouped If you have problems controlling costs, WPs are used for process and time sched-
into costs per sub-project and the costs you can call in the steering committee uling.
per sub-project can be grouped into pro- and clarify the budget issue with the Step 5
Step 1
ject costs. customer (in projects where the main
Calculate free float and determine the
priorities are deadlines and/or quality) or Place the WPs in sequence and link the
critical path.
All cost blocks for staff, raw materials and reduce the scope of performance (in pro- individual WPs.
supplies, power consumption, rents, sup- jects where the main priority is deadlines
Step 6
plies, external suppliers, and/or costs). Step 2
travel and hotel expenses etc. are then Schedule the WP.
Has any WP been forgotten? If necessary,
covered. A preliminary budget can then be pre-
define the missing WPs and include them
pared and used for business planning Step 7
(in the WBS and, after costing, in the cost
The result provides a clear idea of ex- purposes. Remember that you may have Identify any problems and resolve them
breakdown structure and process sched-
pected costs. to make changes as a result of process (e.g. by adapting resources or objectives
planning or risk assessment. at deadline and/or quality level).
Now it is necessary to compare the value Step 3
calculated with Procedures after preparing the process
Procedures when the budget has been Include the WP duration in the process and time schedules
the cost value calculated in the phase fixed schedule.
Now its time to prepare the risk analysis.
model and Now its time to prepare the process and
the cost model in the project objec- time schedules.
tive chart.

Is there float time?

Always ensure that there is float time in
a project because project managers who
have plenty of leeway and who are not
under pressure of time will deliver better

26 IAPM International Association of Project Managers IAPM International Association of Project Managers 27
Projects are always future-oriented, which Post-workshop planning procedures Table
means they are subject to unforeseeable
Adapt the WBS, the WPs, the process/
problems or risks. On the one hand, It Risk work package (RWP) Probability of occurrence [%] Impact [] Risk value[]
time schedule, the cost and resource
is practically impossible to implement a
plan. Implement change management if
risk analysis. On the other, it would be
misguided not to. The project team analy-
ses the project risks together in a work-
This kind of risk analysis is dependent on
shop organised by the project manager.
the team having an expert understanding
and knowledge of the project. Thats why
Project risk analysis...
its a good idea to wait with the risk work-
Date of risk analysis, participants. shop until the WBS and process sched-
ule have been prepared. Highest risk value:
Workshop procedure probability of
Chart occurrence [%] *impact []
Identify the work packages which are ex- During the project implementation phase,
posed to risks (RWP) in the work break- the risk analysis should always be imple-
down structure (WBS) mented after a critical project review at PROBABILITY OF OCCURRENCE [%]
Individual work: 15 min each phase transition. This ensures that
the risk analysis can be used as a project
List the RWPs with reasons managment tool.
Team work: 15 min

Estimate probability of occurrence [%]

and impact []
Individual work: 5 min

Work out averages and prepare tables

and charts
Team work: 20 min

Define measures for the highest risk WP

Individual work: 15 min
Measures Assessment Selection
Evaluate measures and include them in
1. ... ... ...
the WBS
2. ... ... ...
Team work: 20 min
3. ... ... ...

28 IAPM International Association of Project Managers IAPM International Association of Project Managers 29
The project now has to be integrated in ganisation and externally. You need the
the organisation implementing it and the necessary formal authority to do this, i.e.
Projects are teamwork undertakings. Step 3 project manager has to be furnished with authority to act or general power of attor-
In order to organise this team work, the formal authorities. ney as managing director.
Define the people responsible for the
project manager has to define work pack-
WPs; possibly in conjunction with the
ages. He can take them from the WBS. Step 3
people specified in step 3.
But who is the project managers partner
Step 1 Decide who will be the deputy project
in the project? Step 4 manager (in case you want to take holi-
Define a suitable organisation (line, ma-
It may be necessary to discuss the WPs day leave or are off work sick). Loyalty is a
trix or autonomous) and substantiate the
Step 1 with the person who is responsible for it more important criterion than profession-
and make some adjustments. al competence when choosing a deputy
Decide which functional unit in the or- project manager! Is it necessary or would
Step 2 - line organisation
ganisation or which external partner Step 5 it be helpful to establish an advisory
could perform the WP. Include the unit or Make it clear that the customer is the sole board? If so, then define the members
external company in the WBS and create Create a project organisation chart and project decision maker in the line organi- and their competences. Also define when
the first organisation breakdown struc- an establish an escalation procedure in sation. All you do is update the plans and and how often meetings and project re-
ture (OBS), assign sub-project managers case of a crisis. Clarify whether you, the point out any deviations! views will take place with the customer
and the people who will be responsible project manager, have decision authority
and sub-project managers.
for the work packages. in the event of a crisis. Why? Because you Step 2 - matrix organisation
have the most extensive knowledge of the
You are responsible for the timely com-
Step 2 project. Procedures after the establishment of the
pletion of the WPs. The issues of work
It will be necessary to prepare a skills quality, responsibility for implementation project organisation
Procedures after defining the people re-
profile for some WPs so that the WP re- sponsible for WPs and sub-project man- and all personnel management issues, As project manager, it is best if you are
sponsibilities can be defined. It may be agers i.e. leave scheduling, staff appraisals etc. given executive management compe-
possible to gain the customer, the per- are dealt with by the line manager! tences by the customer. This enables you
sonnel department and/or (subject to the The project is now integrated in the line
to formally commence project implemen-
customers consent) a line manager as organisation. Step 2 - autonomous organisation tation. You have to remain on the project
supporters in this task. If the organisation path and, communicate regularly!
You have sole responsibility for all as-
implementing the project has a quality
pects of project work. The project team
management system, e.g. based on ISO
members report directly to you and you
9000, there may be pre-defined employ-
represent the project both within the or-
ee profiles in the QA manual.

30 IAPM International Association of Project Managers IAPM International Association of Project Managers 31
Before During After Introduction Main Part Summary Discussion

Prepare Welcome If one of the participants Welcome Communicate Remember that a picture says more
isnt necessary, let him go. than a thousand words and images have
agenda and introduction That saves time! content to be generated in the mind,
Present the not on the wall!
Book Reason and objective problems Present
venue of the event and objectives problems

Distribute Agenda Write and distribute Present possible

Arouse interest
agenda the minutes solutions
and establish
Implementation rapport
Plan follow-up Define alternatives
Obtain confirmation of
meeting and
participants attendance Summarise Introduce the
decisions Summarise
topics covered presenter results

Final remarks Demonstrations

Explain the Transition to Record
and closure presentation agenda discussion results
and timeframe

Refer to
Writing the minutes of the meet-
Minutes ing is your rst duty as project documents
Project Date
Use open-ended questions at
Subject Start your meetings (e.g. why, what
for ).
As project manager, you are responsible for ensuring that your own or sub-project
Chairperson managers presentations have structured content and are interesting.
Minute taker
Persons attending Be demanding on your presenters!
Signatures of persons who have read the minutes How?
Distribution list Ask for eloquently presented an interesting presentations and youll always be amazed
Agenda by the results!

32 IAPM International Association of Project Managers IAPM International Association of Project Managers 33
Your project is in the implementation The review covers both technical and
phase, but are you still in control or los- emotional aspects of the project and you
ing the thread? To find out, you have to can use the review findings to forward Every project has to be formally concluded.
implement regular project reviews. plan and manage risks. Risk manage-
You have to
ment is a valuable asset to you through-
For example, you can implement reviews
out the project and it helps you to keep in get customer approval of work or ser-
at phase transitions.
touch with your project! vices performed
Incorporate any agreements that are calculate the cost of the project and
Ask yourself and your team (sub-PM, per- made in your planning activities.
son responsible for WP): wind up commercial controlling
document knowledge for the next
What is the projects current status
Procedures after the project review project and
in terms of quality, deadline and cost
objective achievement? if your project has autonomous man-
As project manager, you present the re-
view findings to the customer. Take your agement structures, you have to of-
What did we want to achieve, what
deputy project manager along to these ficially dissolve the project team and
have we achieved?
meetings with you. relinquish your authority.
What problems were encountered? Procedures after the project review

Why? You can use the knowledge that you have

Call your project team together for one gained in your project for the next project.
Are the project requirements being
last meeting and thank them for their Ensure that any procedural instructions,
hard work. Combine this meeting with a templates and documents are adapted.
What do I have to do to bring the pro- final meal or party together (on a suitable
ject back into line when deviations scale for the size and significance of the
occur? project). If you think you have implemented a
Do the objectives have to be revised? Ask the members of your team what things genuinely good project, put yourself and
Can float time be used? they would leave unchanged and what your team forward for a Project Excel-
things they would do differently in future. lence Award.

34 IAPM International Association of Project Managers IAPM International Association of Project Managers 35

1 Team building

8 Stress management 2 Leadership

7 Personal success 3 Motivation

6 Time management 4 Working in the

project team

5 Conflict management

36 IAPM International Association of Project Managers 37

A project manager cant manage a project alone. He has to include people with a range The project objective has to be clearly Decisions have to be made.
of different qualifications and experience on the team and ensure that they are suitably defined. You can only guide your project
team in achieving the project objectives if Are you aware of the consequences of
you know what the objectives are. your decisions? Are your decisions sub-
F P stantiated? Can you stick by your deci-
Step 1 Forming Step 4 Performing Are the objectives clearly defined or is sions once you have made them? Go to
After steps one to three, the project team further clarification necessary? Go to ob- risk analysis checklist if necessary.
Form your team. The stakeholder analysis
members are capable of targeted project jective definition checklist if necessary.
shows you which departments and indi-
viduals have to be involved in the project. planning. Do remember, though, that You work in a team with people from dif-
As project manager, you have to guide ferent fields who want to prove their com-
First of all, talk to your customer about some of your project team members will
your team and your suppliers. petence. Each of them has to be given the
the people who you intend to include in leave the team at phase transitions and it
opportunity to shine!
your team. Then form your core team. may be necessary for new people to join Can you do that? Have you got their con-
S the project. Remember to thank team fidence and the necessary competence? Have you given the other people in the
Step 2 Storming members who leave the project and help Go to project organisation and/or team project their share of the limelight? Go to
new project team members to integrate building checklist if necessary. team building checklist if necessary.
Get the creative chaos under control as
themselves in the project. It may be nec-
quickly as you can. You can do this in an You have to explain the processes and You are a manager and a leader. Manage-
essary to arrange another brainstorming
official team building workshop where all next steps to the project team. ment is all about asking questions. Open-
aspects of project planning can be dis- ended questions!
cussed. Never omit the informal part. Al- Is the project environment clearly struc-
low project team members to satisfy their tured and are planning activities consist- Why? is a management question. Did
Step 5 Adjourning (in autonomous pro- ent? Go to phase model and/ or process you use it the last time you talked to pro-
social needs (getting to know each ject organisations)
other, team development, appreciation of and time schedule checklist if necessary. ject team members? Go to meetings and
their work etc.). Some project team members will seek workshops checklist if necessary.
new challenges before the project is offi- People dont want to feel confused.
Step 3 Norming cially closed out. Others will attempt to re- Are the procedures and decisions com-
open work packages that have long been prehensible? Go to workshop procedure
You have to help your staff to quickly fuse closed out in order to continue working
as a team! Give your team a project iden- checklist if necessary.
on the project. You have to be prepared
tity by defining a vision, motto, slogan for project team dissolution and be aware
and logo for the project. That breathes life of the best way to dissolve your team.
into the project and motivates the team.

Memory hook A manager has to set an example,

be more resilient and shoulder
For (Forming) greater levels of stress as the team
Super (Storming) members!
New (Norming)
Projects (Performing) Can you do that?

38 IAPM International Association of Project Managers IAPM International Association of Project Managers 39
Project team members all have different your options are limited. For example, in
professional qualifications and different a matrix organisation, the project man-
motivations. ager cant use negative motivation (e.g. Your project stakeholders want to receive In your communications make sure that
threats) and a project manager in a line information about the projects status. you talk to people and not about people.
In autonomous project organisations, you organisation is often not able to provide
can use all kinds of motivational incen- positive motivation (e.g. rewards). You provide regular information to stake- Remember Socrates sieves of effective
tives. In the matrix and line organisations, holders by way of communication and always check for
regular meetings
milestone meetings relevance
Use the motivation matrix whenever possible and remember the two basic types of phase transition meetings truth
motivation ("towards" and "away from"). quality.
project reviews
project closure meetings.
EXTRINSIC You, as project manager, are responsible
When you provide first-hand information for all aspects of information transfer and
ensure quality of communication. The only exception is
information transfer and communication
telephone calls within the line organisation, where you
Threat Example setting correspondence can only provide advice and recommen-
Use of violence, generally subtle Praise meetings dations.
Recognition presentations.
When you provide second-hand informa-
tion ensure quality of
- + downloads
Hate Love websites
Fear Courage, self-confidence
Envy Support
Jealousy Modesty
Greed Generosity
Avarice Self control
Anger, irascibility Discipline
Gluttony, self-indulgence Passion
Resentment ...


40 IAPM International Association of Project Managers IAPM International Association of Project Managers 41
MANAGEMENT Clarity about life objectives Methods of time management

Konflikte liegen in der Natur der Menschen. 3. Conflict management: open conflicts You cant manage your time effectively When you have identified the things that
unless you are absolutely clear on your are important to you with the measures
Have you checked where the conflict
1. Preventing conflicts life objectives. You can obtain clarity by that you will use to achieve them and the
is in the conflict spiral?
way of dates by when you want to have achieved
The main thing is to prevent conflicts Have you checked whether you are them, you can group other tasks around
from occurring. How do you do that? the right conflict manager for your a funeral oration your issues, follow an efficient time man-
project organisation form? agement concept and apply the appro-
stakeholder management a life fairytale and/or
Have you used the 10 point plan for priate methods (e.g. time scheduling and
providing information to the right peo- a toilet map
conflict management? deadline monitoring, filing, documenta-
ple tion and archiving systems, creation of
Have you obtained professional ad-
obtaining feedback, e.g. at the end of Write down all your visions about a quiet work environment that helps you
vice (works council, company medi-
the meeting/ workshop etc. what you want to achieve, create, ex- to concentrate while you work, use of
cal officer, company psychologist,
perience, see, learn and practice modern communication and information
and by implementing project reviews. mediator, arbitrator, legal expert, line
in your life. methods etc.)
manager, steering committee etc.)?
Keep your eyes open at all times to identi- Have you reported, transferred, es- Your desires
fy any latent conflicts! And remember that calated the conflict to the proper per-
the conflict may still occur, even if you are The areas that you identify in this way
sons or departments?
watchful. provide clarity about your mission, stra-
tegic orientation, desires and attitudes to
2. Conflict management: covert conflicts life.
Is the conflict out in the open or cov-
Have you prepared a social network
Have you correctly identified the par-
ties to the conflict?
Have you created profiles of the con-
flict partners?
Are the conflict partners included in
the organisation chart?

42 IAPM International Association of Project Managers IAPM International Association of Project Managers 43
You manage your priorities with the help of 2. High urgency and low importance Stress makes people ill, and its the last 2. Measures
thing you need. Do everything you can to
Ask other people to provide their com- Can I do something to combat the stress
a relevance matrix to ascertain order avoid stress - if you have the power to do
petence by delegating and making your or do I have to become more resistant
of urgency and the so!
supporters successful. to it? Prepare a stress management and
Eisenhower principle, which involves stress resistance plan and be very disci-
categorisation as important and 1. Stress analysis
3. Low urgency and high importance plined about sticking to it.
urgent Who or what is causing the stress?
Remember to use your hold file. Often,
Why am I stressed? 3. Time heals all wounds!
these tasks cannot be finalised, per-
When you have set your priorities, work haps because they are routine activities, Has it built up recently or over a long You know that time heals all wounds, so
on your tasks as follows according to their because you need additional input or period? you can handle sudden stress that is out-
priority: because you have more urgent tasks to side your sphere of influence.
work on. Temporary stress is caused by things such as
1. High urgency and high importance
4. Low urgency and low importance crises
Focus on the task and be consistent,
concentrate on what you are doing and strokes of fate
Dont work on these tasks, discard them!
dont let people interrupt you. And if the tasks priority should change, force majeure
Use all available information sources it will cross your desk again and you can hopelessness
and, naturally, the 80/20 rule; process it then. So dont hold back on
discarding tasks and dont worry about it. Permanent stress is caused by things such as:
high workload
mental overload

44 IAPM International Association of Project Managers IAPM International Association of Project Managers 45
All IAPM certification procedures are
based on the IAPM Project Guide ver-
line with international standards and
best practices. The IAPM Project Guide

sion 2.0 (PM Guide-IAPM). The PM is available as a download on the IAPM
Guide is based on the comprehensive website (
IAPM project management knowl-
edge base. A panel of experienced The IAPM certification levels of Certified
international project managers and sci- Project Manager (IAPM) and Certified
entists collaborated on the development Senior Project Manager (IAPM) reflect
of this knowledge base. It is regularly international project management prac-

optimised and updated to bring it into tices and experience.

46 IAPM International Association of Project Managers 47
Certified Senior Project Manager (IAPM)
The candidate must have at least 5 years
Certified Project Management Trainer
of experience in project management, Holders of the Certified Senior Project
three of which in a senior position or a Manager (IAPM) certificate who have The application for certification must in- If an application for Certified Senior Project
position with major responsibilities. Proof proven experience in project manage- clude the following documents: Manager (IAPM) certification is submitted
of project management experience and ment training can apply for the Certified and the documents do not support the
competence in the practical application Project Management Trainer (IAPM) cer- Application documents for application, the candidate will be notified
of project management methods and tification course. An IAPM commission Certified Project Manager certification accordingly. The IAPMs decision is final.
tools must also be provided. decides whether the applicant satisfies Application form A new application can be submitted
the criteria for the course. The course once the applicant has gained additional
Curriculum vitae
curriculum covers all the knowledge and project management experience which
Certified Project Manager (IAPM) competences that a project management meets the IAPMs requirements. If the
trainer requires. candidate does not have the Certified
The candidate must have project man- Application documents for Project Manager (IAPM) certificate, the
agement knowledge in all competence Certified Senior Project Manager
IAPM will recommend that this certifica-
elements. Previous experience is not certification
tion is applied for.
necessary, but it is advantageous.
Application form
Curriculum vitae
Project management experience
(List and descriptions of between one
and five projects in which the appli-
cant was project manager or held a

All forms have to be filled in on the

Application and Cert. Project Manager (IAPM) Knowledge IAPM website. Applications by sur-
examination face mail are not possible. After re-
ceipt of the documentation, the IAPM
will check the documents for com-
Application, Cert. Senior Project Manager (IAPM) Experience pleteness and establish whether the
references and knowledge applicant satisfies the admission require-
and examination ments.

48 IAPM International Association of Project Managers IAPM International Association of Project Managers 49

There is a basic examination on the


In order to pass the examination, can-

IAPMs website so that candidates can didates must answer 65% of the ques-
gain an idea of the types and level of diffi- tions correctly. The examination score is
The IAPM provides candidates with three Certification examination candidates culty of the questions that may be asked. calculated automatically straight after the
optional examinations to maximise their must be approved by the IAPM. This ap- To take the examination, simply go to examination and the candidate is notified
chances of success: proval is contingent on the application and follow the instructions. of the result electronically.
process. There is no requirement to take
NATION AND CERTIFICA- training partner to take the examination. EXAMINATION
TION EXAMINATION. However, participation in a preparatory The interim examination can only be
course is strongly recommended. taken by candidates who have registered Candidates may re-take the examina-
The basic examination and the certifica- for training with an IAPMlicensed trainer tion once at the time of their choice. If
tion examination can be taken online at or training partner. A list of certified train- they fail the examination a second time,
the IAPM website from any PC. However ing providers is published on the IAPM there is a mandatory waiting period of 12
the interim examination can only be tak- website. months before the examination can be
en by participants of a course provided taken again. If the candidate also fails
by an IAPM licensed trainer or train- CERTIFICATION this second re-take, he or she will be dis-
ing partner. The trainer will advise you EXAMINATION qualified from taking any further certifica-
whether it is recommendable to take the tion examinations. The examination fee is
interim examination or the certification Once a candidate has been approved by payable in each case.
examination. the IAPM, the examination can be taken
without any further requirements on a CERTIFIED PROJECT
computer of the candidates choice. Be- MANAGEMENT TRAINER
fore the examination, the candidate must (IAPM)
fill out and sign an affirmation in lieu of
oath that he or she is taking the exami- Participation in a course is mandatory
nation without assistance or aids such for this certification. These courses can
as books or computers. The examination only be provided by trainers or training
questions cover all the IAPM competence partners who are licensed by the IAPM.
elements as set out the PM Guide. They Information about IAPM-licensed trainers
are randomised and taken from a com- or training partners can be found on the
prehensive catalogue of questions. IAPM website. The courses provide the
knowledge and competences which are
necessary to obtain the Certified Project
Management Trainer (IAPM) certificate.
The examination and a detailed assess-
ment are held during the course. No
computer-based examination for this cer-
tificate is available.

50 IAPM International Association of Project Managers IAPM International Association of Project Managers 51
8. The IAPM reserves the right to suspend
Certification candidates are required to provide the following affirmation in lieu of oath or revoke the certificate of any individual
before they can take the examination. The affirmation in lieu of oath is archived in the who is determined to have failed to up-
certification candidates personal file. This information is treated as strictly confidential hold, or otherwise breached this agree-
and it is stored in accordance with the IAPMs privacy policy and the European Unions
ment. In this case, the IAPM reserves the
data protection legislation.
right to pursue criminal proceedings.

9. I release and indemnify the IAPM and

the IAPM certification department from
1. I agree to satisfy and conduct my- 5. I agree that all materials that I sub- all liability and claims that may arise out
self in accordance with all IAPM cer- mit to the IAPM certification department of, or be related to, my project manage-
tification programme policies and become the property of the IAPM certi- ment and related activities.
requirements. fication department, and that the IAPM
certification department is not required to 10. I hereby release, discharge and in-
2. I shall maintain confidentiality of IAPM return any of these materials to me. demnify the IAPM, its directors, offic-
examination questions and content. Fur- ers, members, examiners, employees,
thermore, I agree not to copy, discuss, 6. I agree that information related to attorneys, representatives, agents and
debrief or disclose, in any manner, the my participation in the IAPM certi- the IAPM certification department from
specific content of IAPM examination fication process may be used in an any actions, suits, obligations, damages,
questions and answers to any individual. anonymous manner for research pur- claims or demands arising of or in con-
poses only. nection with this application, the scores
3. I certify and swear that I have per- given with respect to the examination
formed the exam entirely alone and with- 7. I agree that all disputes relating in any or any other action taken by the IAPM
out the help of any other individual, lit- way to my application for an IAPM cer- with regard to certifying, testing and
erature or any other means of assistance. tificate and/or my involvement generally professional development including, but
in an IAPM certification program, will be not limited to, all actions related to ethics
4. I agree that I shall at all times act in a resolved solely and exclusively by means matters and cases.
truthful and honest manner and provide of IAPM certification department policies,
truthful and accurate information to the procedures and rules. Any disputes or 11. I understand and agree that any de-
IAPM. I agree that any intentional or un- lawsuits are excluded. cision concerning my qualification for
intentional failure to provide true, timely any certificate, as well as any decisions
and complete responses to questions in regarding my continuing qualification for
this application may lead to further inves- any certificate rest within the sole and ex-
tigation and/or sanctions by the IAPM. clusive discretion of the IAPM, and that
these decisions are final.

52 IAPM International Association of Project Managers IAPM International Association of Project Managers 53



Proven project management competence

Copyright IAPM 2013 Competitive advantages for

organisations and individuals

Fotografie: Standardisation of terms and

methods with the PM Guide 2.0
Edited by IAPM International Association External, objective verification of
of Project Managers in Liechtenstein knowledge and experience

2nd revised edition 2

ISBN 978-3-941739-21-5
No travel expenses
Quality Management System
No pressure of time to prepare
The quality management system used
by the IAPM International Association of Exams can be taken on any PC
Project Managers
satisfies the requirements of ISO 9001.
Trademark Protection No certificate expiry date
IAPM International Association of Project
Managers is a protected EU trademark No new costs
no. 9539354

The fees depend on the GDP of the coun-

try in which the certificate candidate has

No subjective evaluations
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54 IAPM International Association of Project Managers IAPM International Association of Project Managers 55
56 IAPM International Association of Project Managers