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Department of Aerospace Engineering



September, 2011

P. Walsh
J. Karpynczyk


Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Laboratory Instructions ……………………………………………………………..……2

General Safety Rules and Regulations …………………………………………………...4

Nomenclature ……………………………………………………………………………6

Lab # 1
Wind Tunnel and Airfoil Drag Analysis (room KHE-33) ……………………….….…7

Lab # 2
Pressure Distribution on the NACA 0015 (room KHE-33)……………………….……13

Lab # 3
Effect of Flaps and Slats (room KHE-33) ………………………………………….19

Lab # 4
CFD Analysis of NACA 0015 (room W71B) ………………………...………….….…23

Lab # 5
Airfoil Design Using CFD (room W71B) ………….……………………………..……31

Appendix A: Manometers ……...…………………...…………………………...…….37

Appendix B: Pitot-Static Tubes……...………………………………………………….39

Appendix C: Guidelines for Lab Report Writing ……………………………………….41

Appendix D: Calculation of Forces on Airfoils ……...………………………………….46

Appendix E: Lab report grading template …………………………………………….. 49


Laboratory Instructions

(i) ALL students must attend the laboratory in order to receive credit. Lab reports are
to be done in pairs. Students are responsible for performing an equitable share of
the lab report preparation.

(ii) Lab reports are to be prepared with any standard word processor. Hand written
labs will NOT be accepted.

(iii) Guidelines for writing lab reports are given in Appendix C, but as a minimum
each report should contain the following sections:

Title Page
Obtain at:
Lab report grading table, obtain from Blackboard, AER 504 site
Main Body of Report
Short Introduction
Description of the data analysis, theory, and procedures (not for CFD labs)
Results and Discussion
Brief Conclusion
References (if necessary)
Graphs of results (if applicable)
A sample calculation
Raw experimental data

(iv) The main body of the report must be concise, with no more than four pages (in 12
point font). Lab reports exceeding this length will be penalized 10% per extra
page. The technical writing in the lab reports is therefore expected to be of high
quality and low quantity.

(v) No restriction is placed on the length of the Appendix. Graphs contained within
the report must have a title, labeled axes, and a legend if more than one set of data
is presented on one plot. Electronically generated plots are expected.

(vi) Sample calculations and raw experimental data should be placed in the report
Appendix and must be presented neatly and be clearly labeled. Figures must be
numbered, have a descriptive caption, and be reference in the text of the report.

(vii) Lab reports are given a grade out of 10, with individual points given for technical
content, formatting, presentation, spelling and grammar. The grading template is
given in Appendix E.


(viii) Material and figures taken from external sources must be clearly referenced.

(ix) Be aware that partial or complete plagiarism will result in a grade of 0 for all
parties concerned and will result in further disciplinary action up to a grade
of F in the course.

(x) Lab reports must use the standard cover page obtained from the departmental
website given in point (iii) above. All students responsible for the report must sign
the cover page in the designated space. Digital signatures are NOT acceptable.
Students not signing the report will not receive a grade for the lab.

(xi) Lab reports are due 1 week after the lab is conducted. Reports submitted late will
be penalized 10% per day. Labs are to be placed in the Instructor’s box across
from office (ENG 149) before 3:00 pm on the due date.

Campus Security Dial: 5001/5040
Emergency Dial: 80
Jerry Karpynczyk, Safety Officer: 6420
Department of Aerospace Engineering

The following safety rules and regulations are to be followed in all Aerospace Engineering laboratories and research facilities. These
rules and regulations are to insure that all personnel working in these laboratories and research areas are protected, and that a safe
working environment is maintained.

1.”Horseplay” is hazardous and will not be tolerated.

2. No student may work alone in the laboratory at any time, except to prepare operating procedures for equipment or data write-

3. Required personal protective equipment (PPE) will be provided by the Department for use whenever specified by the Faculty,
Engineering Support or Teaching Assistant, .i.e., hearing protection, face shields, dust masks, gloves, etc.

4. Contact lenses will not be worn in the laboratory when vapours or fumes are present.

5. Safety glasses with side shields and plastic lenses will be required when operating targeted class experiments as outlined in the
experimental procedures. Splash goggles or face shields will also be provided and worn also, for those experiments which have been
identified as a requirement.

6. Each student must know where the location of the First Aid box, emergency equipment, eye wash station is, if required in the
laboratories, shops, and storage areas.

7. All Faculty, Engineering Support and Teaching Assistants must know how to use the emergency equipment and have the
knowledge to take action when an accident has occurred, .i.e., emergency telephone number, location, emergency response services.

8. All Faculty, Engineering Support and Teaching Assistants, and Research Assistants, must be familiar with all elements of fire
safety: alarm, evacuation and assembly, fire containment and suppression, rescue.

9. Ungrounded wiring and two-wire extension cords are prohibited. Worn or frayed extension cords or those with broken connections
or exposed wiring must not be used. All electrical devices must be grounded before they are turned on.

10. All Faculty, Engineering Support and Teaching Assistants, and Research Assistants, must be familiar with an approved
emergency shutdown procedure before initiating any experiment.

11. There will be NO deviation from approved equipment operating procedures.

12. All laboratory aisles and exits must remain clear and unblocked.

13. No student may sniff, breathe, or inhale any gas or vapour used or produced in any experiment.

14. All containers must be labeled as to the content, composition, and appropriate hazard warning: flammable, explosive, toxic, etc.

15. The instructions on all warning signs must be read and obeyed in all laboratories and research facilities.

16. All liquid and solid waste must be segregated for disposal according to Faculty, Engineering Support or Teaching Assistant
instructions. All acidic and alkaline waste should be neutralized prior to disposal. NOTE: NO organic waste material is to be poured
down the sink or floor drains. These wastes should be property placed in designed waste disposal containers, labeled and stored in the
department’s flammable storage cabinet which is ventilated and secured.

17. Good housekeeping must be practiced in all teaching and research laboratories, shops, and storage areas.

Faculty. All the foregoing rules and regulations are in addition to the Occupational Health and Safety Act. 5 18. shops. Casual visitors to the laboratory and research areas are to be discouraged and must have permission from the Faculty. 33. face shields.e. There will be no open flames or heating elements used when volatile chemicals are exposed to the air. Compressed gas cylinders must be secured at all times. Eating. No tools. Any toxic chemicals will be only be exposed to the air in a properly ventilated Fume Hood. Proper safety procedures must be followed when moving compressed gas cylinders. Students are never to play with compressed gas hoses or lines or point their discharges at any person. etc. In June 1987 both the Federal & Ontario Governments passed legislation to implement the workplace hazardous material information system or WHMIS across Canada. Equipment that has been deemed unsafe must be tagged and locked out of service by the Technical Officer in charge of the laboratory or research facility. and “near misses” must be reported to the Faculty. The Accident Report must be completed as soon as possible after the event by the Faculty. . 24. All injuries. 29. 21. Do not use adapters or try to modify any gas regulator or connection. i. No student is to handle any hazardous materials unless supervised by a Faculty. although some targeted laboratories and research areas will be supported by a reasonable stock of protective clothing and accessories. General laboratory coats. or any other items may be tossed from one person to another. All chemical spills are to be reported to the Faculty. supplies. drinking. Only the Safety Officer may make changes to these policies upon confirmation of the Safety Committee and approval of the Department Chair. 36. Faculty. use of any tobacco products. 28. Ice from any refrigerator is not be used for human consumption or to cool any food or drink. accidents. Cylinders not in use must be capped. Do not use an oiled gauge for any oxidizing or reactive gas. Flammable chemicals will be exposed to the air only under a properly ventilated hood or in an area which is adequately ventilated. Engineering Support or Teaching Assistant will follow the prescribed instructions for cleanup and decontamination of the spill area. Only chemicals may be placed in the “Chemicals Only” refrigerator. Engineering Support or Teaching Assistant present. WHMIS was designed to give workers the right-to-know about hazardous material to which they are exposed to on the job. 25. All students and Faculty. gloves. 20. Engineering Support or Teaching Assistant to enter. Engineering Support or Teaching Assistant must wash their hands before leaving targeted laboratories. Any glassware breakage and malfunctioning instruments or equipment must be reported to the Faculty. Only food items may be placed in the Food Only refrigerator. All visitors must adhere to the safety guidelines and is the responsibility of the visitor. Engineering Support or Teaching Assistant. and storage areas. welding aprons. Engineering Support or Teaching Assistant. 31. All accidents are to be REPORTED. 26. Any person who is required to handle any hazardous material covered by this act should first read the label and the product’s material safety data sheet (MSDS). The Departmental Safety Officer must be notified of the equipment lockout IMMEDIATELY! 34. research facilities or shops. Any person involved in an accident must be sent or escorted to the University Health Centre. 32. Engineering Support or Teaching Assistant and reported to the Departmental Safety Officer immediately. Only gauges that are marked “Use no oil” are for Oxygen cylinders. Engineering Support or Teaching Assistant is responsible for ensuring that any hazardous materials are stored safely using WHMIS recommended methods and storage procedures. Engineering Support or Teaching Assistant. safety footwear are not provided by the Department of Aerospace Engineering. Personal items brought into the laboratory or research facility must be limited to those things necessary for the experiment and safe operation of the equipment in the laboratories and research facilities. 1987. All MSDS must be displayed and stored in a readily accessible place known to all users in the workplace and laboratory 35. safety glasses. 37. 27. 22. 19. The laboratory Technical Officer.. Glassware breakage must be disposed in the cardboard boxes marked “Glass Disposal”. The Departmental Safety Officer must be notified when a major spill has been reported. 30. dust masks. 23. whose direction must be followed for containment and cleanup. gum chewing or application of makeup are strictly prohibited in the laboratories.

6 Nomenclature Ai Area of surface i A Axial force on an airfoil.N r. chordwise direction C Dimensionless force/moment/location coefficient c Airfoil chord length D Drag force on an airfoil. ds Incremental surface area vector. xac location of center of pressure.D or A. Polar spatial coordinates t Unit vector tangent to a surface u. incremental length i Index variable L Lift force on an airfoil. vector sum of L. normal to flight direction LE. perpendicular to the chord p Static pressure R Resultant force on an airfoil. trailing edge M.v Velocity components in the x. aerodynamic center (from the LE) Angle of attack Doublet strength Stream function Air density .y Cartesian spatial coordinates xcp.y cartesian directions respectively V Velocity vector x. TE Leading edge.m Moment acting on airfoil (Nm) n Unit vector normal to a surface N Normal force on an airfoil. opposite to flight direction ds.

7 Lab # 1 Wind Tunnel and Airfoil Drag Analysis .

then the forces and flow characteristics on and about the model can be directly related to those on the actual flight vehicle. The two-dimensional momentum equation indicates that the forces on an airfoil inside the wind tunnel can be directly related to the velocity profiles in the air stream and the pressures on the tunnel walls. with two separate test sections denoted as 1 and 2 (shown in Figure 1). and the air densities are 1 and 2. the student will determine the velocity coefficient. Theory Consider a segment of wind tunnel. airfoil end effects can be eliminated and the problem is simplified to an application of two-dimensional theory. V A1 1 1 2V2 A2 (1) If the flow is incompressible ( as will be the case for this lab ). This lab will determine the drag force on the airfoil at various angles of attach through integration of the downstream velocity profile. If the airfoil is made to completely span the tunnel. Therefore. If the size of the model and the conditions inside the test section are precisely known.Wind Tunnel and Airfoil Drag Analysis 8 Wind Tunnel and Airfoil Drag Analysis Purpose The objective of this lab is to familiarize the student with some of the characteristics of wind tunnel operation. In particular. . V1 A1 V2 A2 (2) If it is also assumed that there are no losses caused by the viscosity of the air (inviscid). and to be confident that these properties remain uniform and constant throughout the test section. If no mass is lost between the two sections then by mass conservation. while the velocities are V1 and V2. it is critical to know the air properties accurately. Preamble The purpose of an aeronautical wind tunnel is to obtain aerodynamic measurements on scaled models of actual flight vehicles. then by Bernoulli’s equation. the density of the air will be constant throughout the wind tunnel segment and. Yet reliable force measurements of numerous airfoils were available as early as the 1920’s. The cross-sectional areas for each section are defined as A1 and A2. This experiment will also acquaint the student drag prediction using the velocity profile downstream of a NACA 0015 airfoil. Early measurements of lift and drag on airfoils did not use sophisticated forces balances and transducers that are in common use today. the mean velocity and the theoretical velocity of the test section.

1: Dimensions of the cross-sections at the pressure taps. V2 act C v V2th Inlet cross-section 4. With this value a velocity coefficient Cv can be computed.75 in. This value is easy to obtain from pressure taps in the tunnel wall. A pitot-static tube can be used to find the actual velocity at any point in the flow V2act . 18 in. but it is approximate only. A control volume ( bounded with a dashed line ) can be drawn parallel to the upper an lower surfaces and vertically upstream and downstream of the airfoil. The airfoil is not within the control volume but its surface forms another boundary of the control volume allowing the surface forces to appear in the momentum equations. 45o Figure 1. The steady-state integral momentum equation of fluid dynamics relates the flux of momentum through the boundary of a control volume to the forces applied to its surface. it can be used as a correction factor to find the actual velocity from the theoretical. Outlet cross-section 48 in. If theses boundaries are drawn to coincide with the x and y coordinate directions. Consider an airfoil inside the wind tunnel that completely spans the test section. as shown in figure 1. the computation of lift and drag can be further simplified. V2 act Cv V2th If this coefficient remains constant as the velocity in the wind tunnel is varied. . 2( p1 p2 ) / V2th 2 A2 1 A1 This velocity is ‘theoretical’ only since assumptions were made concerning compressibility and viscous effects. Wind Tunnel and Airfoil Drag Analysis 9 1 2 1 2 p1 V1 p2 V2 (3) 2 2 Equations 1 and 2 can be solved to find the ‘theoretical’ velocity V2th at any section.2.

The net force acting on the airfoil R. as demonstrated in figure 1. not including the airfoil. . Surface Forces pdS . by Newton’s third law The steady-state integral momentum equation can be written: ( V dS)V pdS . Figure 1. consistent with Newton’s third law.Wind Tunnel and Airfoil Drag Analysis 10 The surface forces acting on the control volume are a result of air pressure and the reaction from the airfoil itself denoted as R. is a result of surface shear stress and pressure.R The integration is carried out over the entire outer surface of the control volume.3: Force exerted on the airfoil by the flow of air and the opposing reaction on the control volume.3. The reaction R is negative in the integral momentum equation since the force applied to the control volume is each in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force exerted on the airfoil by the flow of air.R or R ( V dS)V pdS.2: Outline of the control volume inside the small subsonic wind tunnel. Figure 1.

Be sure to record the air temperature in the room and the inclination of the manometer. Be sure to record the air temperature in the room. binders. With the assumption that the inflow velocity is uniform and the density constant. With the wind tunnel off and the manometer rake in place record the zero reading on the rake pitot tubes. For low subsonic flight speeds. The actual velocity is determined from the manometer attached to the handheld pitot-static tube mounted ahead of the airfoil at the test section. Note that the vector dS is an outward normal to the local control volume surface with a magnitude equal to an incremental surface area. 2/5. ) and make sure that the students are well behind the floor safety strip. and 1/5 positions. Do the same for the 3/5. Set the angle of attack to 10 degrees and open the baffle fully. record this value also. . t t t Drag Rx ( V dS)u u i2 dy u o2 dy (u o2 u i2 )dy b b b Here. people etc. Calculate V2act. only the inflow and outflow planes need be considered when evaluating the integral. Experimental Equipment Small subsonic wind tunnel Handheld pitot-static tube Inclined manometer Manometer rake with 1 cm intervals Procedure 1. Record the wind tunnel manometer reading (inclined manometer attached to the two pressure taps located at the two areas). Set the baffle at the wind tunnel inlet to the fully open position (5/5) and start the wind tunnel. V2th and Cv for each wind tunnel setting. 2. Therefore. the pressure and density at these planes will be nearly uniform and equal. the equation can be further simplified.Wind Tunnel and Airfoil Drag Analysis 11 The drag force can be isolated by considering the horizontal component of this equation only: Drag R x ( V dS)u pdSx Since the control volume boundaries were selected to coincide with the Cartesian coordinate axis. Close the baffle at the wind tunnel inlet to the 4/5 position and repeat the measurements. Do the same procedure for angles of attack of 15 and 20 degrees. See Appendices A and B for analysis. This will provide the theoretical velocity. The appendix section on pitot-static tubes may be of assistance. rags. the pressure integral can be dropped for the calculation of the drag force. 4. Ensure that the wind tunnel discharge area is clear of objects that could become airborne when the tunnel is started ( paper. Record the value of uI using the tunnel manometer. the two-dimensional nature of the flow and the alignment of the boundaries with the coordinate axis have reduced the equation further. 3. Start the tunnel and record all of the pitot tube values of the rake.

d) Values of uo will be nearly constant at the wall but will not be the same as ui..H. Determine if the velocity coefficient can be used as a correction factor for the theoretical velocity. A. c) The pitot tubes do not measure velocity at the wall. Compare to results you find in literature.max > ui a valid one? Explain.. Compute the drag force on the airfoil at the three attack angles considered by numerically integrating the velocity profile.max uo. Initial Wake Profile Profile ui uo.min 3. With the results obtained in procedure 3. Reference Rae. 2. 1984. How could you improve the measurements of drag using the wake rake? 2. W. Note that the integral between a pitot tube at j and an adjacent one at j+1 can be approximated as: j 1 1 2 (u o2 u i2 )dy (u j u 2j 1 ) o (u 2j u 2j 1 ) i y j 1 y j j 2 Note a) Density is assumed constant and that ui is constant for all j. You will need to extrapolate a uo value at the wall from nearby internal values. Is the assumption of uo. John Wiley. Questions 1.Wind Tunnel and Airfoil Drag Analysis 12 Results 1. V2th and Cv vs.24 cm. plot V2act vs. calculate the drag coefficient per unit span of the three attack angles. Pope. Given that the airfoil has a chord length of 15.”. V2act. .max ui uo. b) This approximation must be repeated between all pitot tubes and summed in order to estimate total drag. “Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Testing 2nd Ed.

13 Lab # 2 Pressure Distribution on the NACA 0015 .

note that -180o o . Theory Y Leading N Edge (LE) Upper Surface R X X=0 L V Trailing D Edge (TE) Lower Surface X=c A Figure 2.Pressure Distribution in the NACA 0015 14 Pressure Distribution on the NACA 0015 Purpose The purpose of this lab is to investigate the surface static pressure on a NACA 0015 airfoil at various flight speeds and angles of attack. The normal (n) and tangent (t) vectors to the airfoil surface are defined as: n sin( )i cos( ) j t cos( )i sin( ) j Here. is the angle between a line tangent to the airfoil surface and the positive x axis. The x. it is ignored. R the resultant force. N is the normal force. To obtain the proper orientation. or the angle between a normal line from the surface and the positive y axis ( measured positive in the clockwise direction). and pitching moment found from the surface pressures are used to define the NACA 0015’s performance. The lift.2: Surface vector orientation convention The contribution to the total resultant force from a small region on the airfoil surface of length ds is a sum of normal pressure (p) and tangential shear forces ( ): dR pn ds t ds Since the shear stress is assumed small (in this case). A the axial force. Here. The total force due to pressure is formed by integration around the entire surface of the airfoil: R pn ds p (i sin( ) j cos( ))ds . L and D the lift and drag respectively. drag. Y + n X ds t + =0 Airfoil surface Figure 2.y coordinate axis is aligned with the airfoil as shown.1: Airfoil conventions Conventions used in this lab are defined in the figure above.

(see Appendix A) p p CP 1 2 V 2 The normal force coefficient CN (per unit airfoil length). It is convenient to place the pressures in terms of pressure coefficient since the pressure difference obtained by the manometers is essentially p p . the integration will instead be conducted from leading to trailing edge. This integration is easily done since the airfoil is symmetric and the segments are the same on both surfaces. can be found from. The axial force coefficient (per unit length): 1 A yu yl x CA (C PU C Pl )d 1 2 x x c V c 0 2 The lift and drag coefficients are found from: CL C N cos( ) C A sin( ) CD C N sin( ) C A cos( ) The pitching moment coefficient at the leading edge caused by the normal force is: 1 M LE N x x CM N (C PU C PL ) d 1 2 2 c c V c 0 2 Caused by the axial force: 1 M LE A yU y yl y x CM A C PU C Pl d 1 2 2 x c x c c V c 0 U L 2 The Total moment about the leading edge ( per unit length of wing ) is: C M LE CM A CM N . 1 N x CN (C PU C PL )d 1 2 c V c 0 2 The subscripts U and L refer to the upper surface and lower surface respectively and c is the chord length. To avoid confusion with the class text. on upper and lower surfaces. It should also be noted that the coefficients in this lab are computed on a per unit length of airfoil basis since only a two-dimensional pressure profile is used.Pressure Distribution in the NACA 0015 15 The axial and normal force components are RA p (sin( ))ds RN p (cos( ))ds RA pdy RN pdx The integration above is carried out in a closed loop in the clockwise direction about the airfoil. consistent with Aerospace convention.

. 14 . 5. 8. Observe the pressure distribution pattern on the multi tube manometer. people etc. In your calculations. and 18 degrees angle of attack. Record the level at the remaining stations. Adjust the airfoil to obtain a symmetric pressure distribution by SLOWLY and GENTLY adjusting the attack angle until the above symmetric pattern is obtained. 20 21 Figure 2. Record this value. Loosen the brass incidence set screw. center the model horizontally at the mouth of the subsonic wind tunnel. The pressure distribution for a symmetric airfoil at zero degrees angle of attack should be symmetric as shown in figure 2. and gently set the trailing edge (TE) of the model to zero degrees angle of attack. Repeat the procedure at 10 .3 below.. Holding the symmetrical airfoil by its supports. 9. Note that the green fluid is water and that a pressure higher than atmospheric will push the level in a tube BELOW the datum level. Datum 1 2 3 4 5 …. Clamp the model with 4 ‘C’ –clamps that are available. At this zero angle of attack and with the wind tunnel inlet baffle fully open. binders. rags. The airfoil model is now calibrated for zero degrees angle of attack. this is the datum Patm. 4.. ) and make sure that students are well behind the floor safety strip. 16 . 12o.Pressure Distribution in the NACA 0015 16 Procedure 1. 11 ….3: Pressure tap readings at zero degrees angle of attack 6. All pressures will be calculated from this datum. 7. Ensure that the wind tunnel discharge area is clear of objects that could become airborne when the device is started (paper. 3. the value of P-Pdatum should yield a positive value at the stagnation point. Set the baffle at the wind tunnel inlet to the fully open position (5/5) and start the wind tunnel. record the wind tunnel manometer and all 21 static pressure tap readings on the multi tube manometer inclined at 30 degrees. Hook-up all 21 static pressure lines in numerical order to the multi tube manometer and incline the manometer to 30 degrees. 2.

13 8. Find the aerodynamic center (as a percentage of chord) by computing the inverse slope of this line.0058 ±0.192 15. Then compute CL.048 4. CM. Calculate the normal. 2.096 7.144 10. 3. 6 5 4 3 2 Y 1 11 8 7 X 14 15 21 20 17 18 19 16 . CD.1: Coordinates of the pressure taps and numbering scheme on the NACA 0015 Taps 11 10.524 3. and moment coefficients for each angle of attack using the same spreadsheet and an appropriate approximation.Pressure Distribution in the NACA 0015 17 Report 1.8534 ±0. Plot CL vs.21 T.572 6.3048 0.7010 ±0.E.668 12. Compute the corrected tunnel velocity for each attack angle using the correction coefficient found in lab 1.17 4. and Ccp vs. Average the readings at taps 1 and 21 to get a value for the trailing edge. 5.7010 ±0.4: Pressure tap locations on the NACA 0015 airfoil.18 3.9144 ±1. CM for all angles of attack. Note the appendix on the next page provides numerical approximations. X (cm) 0 0. convert all pressure tap readings to pressure coefficient values.4877 0 Figure 2.240 Y (cm) 0 ±0. What was the stall angle of this airfoil? How does this compare with other values found in literature? Is the aerodynamic center where it was expected? Table 2. angles of attack.12 9.9144 1.5182 ±0. CD.14 7.19 2. and Ccp for each angle.1582 ±1.20 1. Discuss the characteristics of the NACA 0015 in terms of its lift/drag behavior.0973 ±1.16 5. Using a spreadsheet. Plot CL. axial.620 9.15 6. 4.1277 ±1.

point i+1 is adjacent to i but closer to the trailing edge along the airfoil surface. Both i=1. Remember. c 1 yU yl CM A CPU yU CPl yL dx c2 0 x x n m 1 C P (i ) C P (i yi yi yi yi CP( j ) CP( j yj yj yj yj 1) 1 1 1) 1 1 4c 2 i 1 j 1 c CM N 1 (C CPL ) xdx P c2 0 U n m 1 C P (i ) C P (i xi xi xi xi CP ( j ) CP ( j xj xj xj xj 1) 1 1 1) 1 1 4c 2 i 1 j 1 c m n CN 1 (C CPL )dx 1 CP( j ) CP ( j xj xj C P (i ) C P (i xi xi P 1) 1 1) 1 c0 U 2c j 1 i 1 c CA 1 (C yu CPl yl )dx P c0 U x x n m 1 C P (i ) C P (i yi yi CP( j ) CP( j yj yj 1) 1 1) 1 2c i 1 j 1 .Pressure Distribution in the NACA 0015 18 Appendix: Numerical Approximations i=6 7 8 9 10 Y i=11 1 i=4 5 X j=4 5 j=11 10 7 8 9 j=6 Figure 2. and j=1 are the leading edge pressure tap. which must be included in any calculation. By averaging these two taps to get a trailing edge value. Numerical formulas are given below. The pressure at the trailing edge can be taken as the average of pressure values at taps 1 and 21. you are essentially creating another node.5: New tap order for upper/lower integration In order to numerically integrate the surface pressures in a manner consistent with the class text. the taps need to be renumbered according to Figure 2.5 above. The i index refers to the upper surface while j the lower.

19 Lab # 3 Effect of Flaps and Slats .

Adjust . Flaps tend to change the effective camber of the airfoil while slats tend to stabilize the flow over the top surface of the airfoil. These two effects will change both the stall angle and the lift produced at a given attack angle. In this lab. The windows should cover the test section when the tunnel is in operation. 4. Be careful not to bump or place any weight on the strain gage balance. span=35. 5. adjust the orientation of the stand with the knob just underneath the model holder. people etc. and stall angle of the wing. The slat and flap should be in the retracted position. the lift. rags. 3. Turn on the tunnel again and observing the lift parameter. Figure 3. Preamble Flaps and slats effect the airflow over the airfoil in different ways. binders. You may need to aerodynamically reset the symmetrical wing for zero angle of attack (zero lift at zero angle of attack) With zero degrees angle of attack indicated on the test stand. drag. the influence of each control surface will be investigated.5 cm Small sub-sonic wind tunnel Pyramidal strain gage balance Data signal amplifier and analysis software Procedure 1. Apparatus Symmetric airfoil with slat and flat components: chord=15. double click the wind tunnel data acquisition icon. and moment gages must be zeroed. Turn on the data acquisition system located under the table by the side of the wind tunnel.0 cm. 2. Click on the ‘tare’ button just underneath each of the five gages. Once the computer is up. and thus effect the performance of a wing in a dissimilar fashion.1 below shows the appearance of the data acquisition display. Ensure that the wind tunnel discharge area is clear of objects that could become airborne when the tunnel is started ( paper. drag. Then turn on the computer. ) and make sure that students are well behind the floor safety strip. Before data can be taken. Install the airfoil on the test stand in the wind tunnel. The student should gain an understanding of the relative effects of each device on the lift.Effect of Flaps and Slats 20 Effect of Flaps and Slats Purpose The purpose of this lab experiment is to familiarize the student with the effects of high lift devices such as flaps and slats. Set the baffle at the wind tunnel inlet to the fully open position (5/5) and start the wind tunnel.

and the data acquisition system in that order. 2. 9. 8. Set the flap on the model with the provided tool to 45 degrees flap angle. Increase the angle of attack in two degree increments up to and including 20 degrees while recording all parameters. . Turn off the tunnel. With the baffle fully open. drag. The influence of these devices on stall angle.Effect of Flaps and Slats 21 the orientation until zero lift is produced. 10. the computer. Compute the center of pressure xcp and the aerodynamic center xac for each case. On each plot. Repeat procedure 6. put the results of the four test cases. The changes in the lift and drag curves with the flap and slat. Discussion In your report. Report 1. Repeat procedure 6. reduce the angle of attack back to zero. 6. What configuration would you recommend in take-off? In landing? 4. and moment. How do these devices change the center of pressure and aerodynamic center? . This is the true zero degree angle orientation. Shut down the wind tunnel. 2. When complete. Retract slat on the model while leaving the flap in place. read the lift. 7. Tare all gages. discuss: 1. 3. Repeat procedure 6. The airfoil performance with the high lift devices compared to the baseline case. Fully deploy the slat on the model without removing it from the test stand. Create three plots: CL D Mle/CL vs.

.Effect of Flaps and Slats 22 Figure 3.1: Display of the data acquisition system window.

23 Lab # 4 CFD Analysis of NACA 0015 .

1: A typical 2D grid about a NACA 0015 airfoil. . However. The non-linear nature of these equations makes exact solution impossible in all but the simplest of circumstances. Although numerical methods have existed for some time. Students should gain an understanding of the techniques used and demands that aerodynamic analysis imposes on standard CFD codes. only recently have they become practical since the development of computers powerful enough to solve the large number of equations in a typical problem. the Navier-Stokes equations comprise a coupled set of five non-linear equations representing continuity. if the domain about an aerodynamic body can be divided into a grid of small discrete control volumes. other equations may be necessary to describe the conservation of relevant parameters or chemical species. In turbulent and chemically reacting flows. momentum and energy. A typical grid is shown in the figure below with an enlargement of the boundary layer region shown in the next figure. 24 CFD Analysis of the NACA 0015 Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to gain experience with Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) software applied to external aerodynamic problems. the smaller the grid spacing. 4. Fig. The number of equations to be solved can be enormous since the resolution of a numerical model depends on the local size of the control volumes. approximate linearization methods can be used to reduce the Navier-Stokes equations to a set of linear algebraic equations. In a two dimensional problem there will be 4 Navier-Stokes equations plus one or more turbulence model equations if needed. Theory The flow of air about aerodynamic shapes can best be described by the Navier- Stokes equations. Each discrete control volume will have its own set of linear equations. In practice. a minimum of 4N algebraic equations must therefore be solved simultaneously. In three dimensions. If the domain is divided into ‘N’ discrete control volumes. the greater the accuracy and the more control volumes and equations needed.

You can download directly from the workstation onto a USB key. solutions are solved using a ‘time marching’ technique. . However. Therefore. You can use the SSH program available though CCS to transfer files. a very fine grid spacing is used normal to the wall. The system of equations is solved either simultaneously using an implicit technique such as Gaussian elimination or with an explicit method such as Runge-Kutta. the implicit time step limit will usually be more generous that the explicit one. This technique is valid over all flight regimes from low subsonic to supersonic flow. Data files can also be downloaded directly into your Matrix account if you login to the DCN system remotely. Implicit schemes. solving the entire system of algebraic equations for each step in time. In most aerodynamic applications of CFD. although inherently stable. creating very elongated control volumes in this region.2: Enlargement of the grid near the surface of the NACA 0015 airfoil. Time marching techniques advance an initial guess solution through time using a specified time step size. This size limit is dictated by the character of the local solution and by the local grid spacing. The Navier-Stokes equations contain independent variables of both space and time.CFD analysis of NACA 0015 25 Fig 4. Recall that explicit techniques such as Runge-Kutta have stability limits. will also encounter a stability limit on time step sizes due to the non-linearity of the Navier-Stokes equations. In boundary layer regions gradients normal to the wall can be several orders of magnitude larger than streamwise gradients. to model boundary layers. Apparatus Note that for this lab you will need to save electronic files containing the data that you produce. Marching in space only is an alternative so long as the flow remains supersonic everywhere. especially for high Reynolds number flows. This means that the solution will not ‘blow up’ so long as time step sizes do not exceed a certain limit. Fine grid spacing is needed to resolve the boundary layer. therefore variations in both these domains must be considered.

You will learn to start the code. A case file containing the computational grid has been prepared for your use.cas 3. Define > General . From this point on Fluent will use 4 CPU cores. leave other options in their default. allowing you to experiment with the code. View the grid: Display > Mesh > Display . A node can be considered the center point of a control volume at which the discrete Navier-Stokes equations are solved. 1. obtain solutions. Or. . Save the surface pressure data you obtain to a storage device that you brought with you. . In the Results section of your report answer the questions posed under the ‘Questions’ section. Load in the coarse grid case: File > Read > Case > naca0015. and analyze results. 4.Resetting the image is done with ctrl-a. Once a grid has been loaded. Preliminary procedure . 4. under ‘Processing Options’. Run the cases listed in the ‘Cases’ section below. if you are an impatient person. This casefile uses a coarse grid with only 4000 nodes. . The procedure is outlined below. 3. drag lower right to top left. 2. Familiarize yourself with the code using the instructions provided below. load in cases.You can pan left or right with the left mouse button held.To zoom out: middle mouse button. Hit the Windows Start button on the lower left of the screen.CFD analysis of NACA 0015 26 Procedure The first part of this lab will familiarize you with the start-up and running procedure for the CFD code ‘Fluent’.Login to your workstation using your Ryerson user name and password. You will need it for comparision to Lab #2 results. set initial and boundary conditions.cas’ to your working directory.Transfer the file ‘naca0015.Zoom in on the airfoil outlined in white: with the middle mouse button held drag within the view panel from top left to lower right. select ‘Parallel’ and set the number of processors to 4. then All Programs > Applications > ANSYS 12.1 > Fluid Dynamics > Fluent Select the 2D option. . the desired running conditions must be specified. the TA will know the location of the file Start-up and Run Procedure using Fluent 1.Create a temporary working directory on the local file system .ensure that the following parameters have been set: Type: Density-based (for compressible flow) Time: Steady (steady state solution) Velocity Formulation: Absolute 2D Space: planar . A ‘small’ grid such as this will generate solutions relatively fast. 2.

Hit the Create/Edit button. . . Now set the solution parameters Solve > Controls . Hit ok . . This allows changes to laminar viscosity as the air temperature changes. In aerodynamic applications. select ideal-gas since the flow will be compressible in some regions. . it would be prudent to account for the effects of turbulence. leaving the coefficients and other parameters in their default state. Define > Boundary Conditions .Leave other parameters in their default setting. Many turbulence models are know as ‘eddy viscosity’ models.Highlight Residuals and hit the edit button . The additional or ‘eddy viscosity’ is determined by the turbulence model.089 .Use the vector n cos( )i sin( ) j Xcomp i Ycomp j enter the value of Xcomp in the ‘X’ window and same for Y. select the Sutherland law.In the density drop down menu.In viscosity.The angle of attack is specified by a unit vector in cartesian coordinates. Note.Select air under the Fluid banner. it has NO influence on final solution accuracy. 6. 5. which means that they introduce the effects of turbulence by adding additional viscosity to the laminar viscosity that appears in the Navier- Stokes equations.Under Equations select all the buttons under Monitor and de-select all buttons under check convergence.Here we need to specify the turbulence model we wish to use.Select Spallart-Allmaras. a commomly used model is Spallart-Allmaras since it requires only one additional equation to be solved and generally works well in most cases.You can change settings by highlighting the parameter and pushing the ‘edit’ button on the bottom left .ensure that the following parameters have been set: Energy: on Viscous: Spalart-Allmaras 1 eqn model Everything else: off .CFD analysis of NACA 0015 27 Define > Models . .Beside Mach number specify 0. you will set Mach number and angle of attack.Here we define material properties for air. Solve > Monitors . Now start the individual data run. As the solution progesses you can increase the Courant number to speed up the run time.Set the Courant number to 5.Exit buy hitting the Change/Create button. . Since the Reynolds number is close to the critical value of 500.Here.Under options make sure print to console and plot are selected . The Courant number is a means of setting the time step size as the solution time marches to a steady state solution. hit the Edit button . then Close. Define > Materials . . .select pressure-far-field.000.

( you learn these things the hard way ) .You can check your image using the ‘Preview’ button on the bottom of the window. The variable you display is specified in the two drop menus on the top right of the box. in practice.CFD analysis of NACA 0015 28 Solve > Initialize . if the continuity equation has a zero residual. The Residual is a measure of the degree to which the solution conforms to the conservation requirements of each equation.After 50 iterations. Note you will need to do this every time you change .Set ‘white background’ so that the background is white. or 10-12 in double precision.To view the surface pressure use. Generally. .you can output a copy of your results using: File > Save Picture . Solve > Run Calculation .Anything in the graphical display window will be saved.You can also display a vector plot under the Graphics submenu .Set either Monochrome or grey shading ( unless you have a colour printer ) . the lowest a residual will get is 10-6. Note some cases tend to be less stable and you may not be able to increase the Courant number without causing the code to crash. hit Calculate. .0 10-5. Since real numbers to six figures of accuracy are being used. . 7. a residual will never fall to zero. double the courant number (Solve > Controls) and do another 50 and so on. At the top of this box there is a drop down menu under compute from.0 10-5 or less for each conservation equation. . Display > Graphics and Animations . Solution Output . Select the pressure far field which you have set previously. As an example.Set resolution to 1093 width. they sum to zero). Otherwise your printer will use up all its toner when you produce your report. .You can display the velocity field in terms of a vector plot with this option. Display > Plots > XY plot . in the display window will be graphically plotted the Residuals for each conservation equation being solved. Select the filled option to give a full colour display. An initial guess solution is needed as a starting point. Note that it is important to achieve a residual of 3. 820 height or there about. . Save your image if you wish to keep it. the solution is considered ‘converged’ and further iteration will not significantly change the solution.Under Graphics select Contours and hit the Set up button .Set the number of iterations to 50 ( the first box ). then all mass flows through all control volume faces meet the mass conservation requirements (ie. It should be noted that.You can view the solution with a contour display.When the solution process starts. if the residuals for all equations drop below 3. .You can zoom in or out as you did with the grid display. You may need to rescale the vectors in order to make them more visible. Hit initialize to initialize the solution.You can use either a JPG or a TIFF format. .

. Hit the setup button . Scroll to the right and read the CL and CD under the heading ‘Total Coefficient’ Make sure to record the lift and drag coefficients for each solution. Lift and Drag Calculation Report > Reference Values . Set pressure and static pressure under the Y axis function. this is only for the naca0015. compute the vector components using: n cos( 90o )i sin( 90o ) j Xcomp i Ycomp j . Hit apply. which will be useful if you wish to prove flow separation. Kill the autorange function and set the max and min Y axes values so that the Y axis ranges from positive values at the bottom and negative values at the top.CFD analysis of NACA 0015 29 .1524m2. . . Cases 1. Note. Note that a calculator is available if you hit the right mouse button and look under 'accessories'.You can compute the lift ant drag on the airfoil at any time using: Report > Results Reports > Reports > Forces >set up . Set the angle of attack to 10o. min to 600) This is a traditional format for presentation. (eg. . Under the compute from menu. 8. then close and finally plot.You will need to set the direction in which to compute the forces in order to get an accurate lift and drag. This will save x and pressure data. you must repeat the above procedure starting at step 5 with the angle of attack specification. . Compute a converged solution. On one plot. . the code needs a set of reference values. 9. other cases will be different. This is the same procedure as specifying the angle of attack components which was done previously. . hit the axes button at the bottom of the window.1524m.cas case file.To find the drag. Area = 0. Highlight the wall boundaries in the selection menu in the lower right of the box (named upper and lower for naca0015.Set length paramters. select pressure far field. compare the surface pressure estimated by Fluent with that obtained in the wind .For each angle of attack that you compute. .To find the lift. use the components of the vector that you had set for the initial conditions: n cos( )i sin( ) j Xcomp i Ycomp j since drag is measured in the direction of flow. Depth = 1m. . other case files will be different) . Y=0 . Once the vector is specified. the forces will be listed on the Fluent window. in the XYplot window specify write to file found in the top left. To save an ASCII data file of the surface pressure. Length = 0. set max to –2000. Set the ‘Y’ axis in the top left of the window. Set the plot direction as X=1. Save an ASCII data file of the static pressure on the airfoil surface using the ‘XY plot’ facility.To calculate force and moment coefficients.cas. Parameters that must be set for each data run . Note that you can plot surface shear stress in the same way as pressure.

Anderson. New York. What has happened to the boundary layer at stall? What has happened to surface shear stress at the separation point? 3. See figure 4.V. 1984.. J. Don’t forget to re-initialize the solution for each angle.. and surface shear stress.. Computational Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer. Hemisphere Pub.A. New York.H. CD . References Anderson. McGraw-Hill. Jr. Why is there a difference between the experimental and numerical pressures? Which do you think is the more accurate. Is the pressure above the trailing edge greater or less than that of an unstalled airfoil with a similar angle of attack? Comment on how the drag of the airfoil will be influenced.. and why? How could you improve the numerical result? 2. R. Tannehill. Observe the static pressure on the upper surface of the stalled airfoil.3 below for a sample plot Answer question 1. Tabulate your CL . New York. Computational Fluid Dynamics. J.CFD analysis of NACA 0015 30 tunnel in experiment 2 (at 10o angle of attack). Observe the boundary layer on the upper surface of the airfoil. Pletcher.3: Surface guage pressure on the NACA 0015 at 5o angle of attack. 1980. o 2.D. D. CD results. McGraw-Hill. S. Record the CL . Look at your velocity vector plot near the trailing edge at stall. Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow. . Answer question 2 and 3. The Basics with Applications. Co. Estimate and compute lift and drag data at increments of 1o until you are confident stall has been reached. 4.. Questions 1. Fig.C. Record an image of the static pressure over the upper surface and a velocity vector plot at the separation point of the stalled airfoil. 1995.. Patankar.

31 Lab #5 Airfoil Design Using CFD .

The profile shown is symmetric. Advanced fighter aircraft in the early 1940’s had similar tail profiles. consistent with that of a horizontal stabilizer on the tail of a subsonic aircraft. Figure 5. This problem was not limited to one aircraft design but occurred to all high-speed propeller driven aircraft of the day. The aircraft appeared to be unable to pullout of a dive although the aircraft was undamaged. An ICEM CFD command file. The problem so easily analyzed with a rudimentary CFD model was completely unfamiliar to aircraft designers of the day. clearly shows the cause in the form of a shock-wave induced flow separation near the trailing edge of the airfoil. Preamble Computational Fluid Dynamics has matured to the point where preliminary aerodynamic design of basic aircraft and wing configurations can be done numerically. However. At the end of the second world war fighter aircraft were being lost inexplicably while in a steep dive.Airfoil Design Using CFD 32 Airfoil Design Using CFD Purpose The purpose of this lab exercise is to provide a student with insight and experience into the basic process of airfoil design using numerical methods. requiring experience from the previous CFD lab and good judgement to steer the design process towards and optimal solution. If this was a model of a tail section. The process will be iterative. and repeats the process with knowledge gained from previous design cycles. ‘A504-icem-2d’ Download these files to your root directory as you did in Lab 4. produced via a CFD analysis. The goal of the first part of this lab is to design an airfoil that will not suffer from this problem and will also achieve specific lift and drag performance criteria. The process will be iterative in nature.1 below. The second part of this lab will explore general airfoil performance and design. namely the alleviation of separated regions near the trailing edge of a wing in transonic flow. the student reconfigures an airfoil profile to achieve specific performance criteria. Considering that the top speed of such and aircraft was 450 mph. The problem to be solved in this lab was outlined at the beginning of the course. More sophisticated methods such as genetic algorithms and adjoint techniques have the promise of completely automating the design process to produce an optimal shape given a specific set of criteria. A profile generator in the form of a Matlab script file. any flaps located aft of the separation point would have substantially reduced effectiveness. . Many aircraft and test pilots were lost while attempting to find the cause. these methods are still under development. This lab is intended to give you a simple introduction to the process of aerodynamic design with CFD to achieve stated performance goals. a steep dive in full throttle flight could easily achieve speeds approaching Mach 1. ‘Progen09A’ 2. tests the modifications with CFD. Software required from the AER 504 root directory 1.

= 0o. loading a case. . To begin. you should re-read the relevant section in the previous lab before proceeding. If you are at all unsure of conducting any of these tasks. This will start Matlab and the profile generator GUI. You can select the airfoil type. Note for the 5 digit series the range of location of the maximum camber is 5% to 30% only.CFD analysis of NACA 0015 33 Figure 5. showing boundary layer separation. Generate an airfoil profile .1: Mach number contours over a NACA 0015 at free stream M = 0. inputting pertinent model parameters. Log into the system . which is a commonly used grid generator.83. You will also be asked for a file name for the output file. either 4 digit or 5 digit series. obtaining a solution. 2. The entire grid generation procedure has been abridged to allow the timely performance of this lab. The grid generation software package is a called ICEM CFD.m selecting to run the file.Download both ‘Progen09A’ files to your working directory along with the ICEM CFD command file ‘AER504-icem-2d’. the airfoil thickness (in % chord). Procedure Note that it is assumed that you have performed lab 4 and that you are now capable of starting Fluent. students must become familiar with the grid generation process. and extracting useful information and figures. 1. . the lab will give some insight and experience in grid generation. None the less. and the location of the maximum camber (in % chord from the leading edge). the maximum camber (in % chord).Log into the computer system and create a temporary working directory on the file system.Start the profile generator by using the right mouse button (RMB) on the file named. Progen09A.

CM values as the solution converges. y ) Moment > Moment center: x = 0. enter the desired airfoil characteristics. Solve > Monitors > Residual > Edit turn off the 'check convergence' flag for each equation listed. It is convenient to see the CL.25.rpl In the Replay Control window. This will provide the lift and drag calculations with the proper dimensionless coefficients. de-select the ‘Record’ option. hit 'ok'. If all goes well. Select the desired airfoil profile. Output > Write output. File > Read > Mesh select the grid The procedures to set up and run a test case at this point are the same as procedures 3 through 6 of lab 4. Generate a grid You can start the grid generator ICEM CFD the same way you started Fluent in lab 4. you will see the new grid. Output file > . then either./name. 4. Additional parameters that you will need to set are listed below. the write output button is the last of four just under the list of function tabs./fluent’ with your own. give the profile a name. > Apply. An outline of the airfoil shape will appear.To create a profile. Please refer back to lab 4. Enter the following. Report > Reference values in the 'compute from' window select the ‘far field' boundary.CFD analysis of NACA 0015 34 . then hit ‘save’. File > Import Geometry> Formatted point data. Now enter the command script to generate the grid. Options > Print to console. . Don't forget to . First import the desired airfoil data. and make sure the first line of the file is highlighted. Turn on the 'plot' flag at the top left. Save as > enter a descriptive name > save Save current project first > yes Save project as > enter same descriptive name as above > Save Open > enter same descriptive name as above. 3. A solver selection window will appear. Load the grid you just created by. load in A504-icem-2d. hit ‘generate airfoil’. set the monitoring as follows: Solve > Monitors > select parameter > Edit. y = 0. Use length and area values of 1. Drag > Force vectors: x: cos( y o o Lift > Force vectors: x: ). Select Select solver > Fluent_V6 > okay. File > Replay scripts > Load script file. z = 1 At this point you are now ready to run the following cases with grid generation and using the same procedure as in the previous CFD lab. > Open The Fluent V6 window will open. Fluent V6 > Grid dimension: 2D Replace the default name ‘. for every option you must do. Save the new grid by selecting the tab near the top of the window called. select ‘crvs’. Another window will appear. Then hit the Do all button./name > done. To do this. Axis: x = y = 0. First load in the file. Generate a Solution Start Fluent using the same procedure you used in lab 4. CD.

and drag data. Vary the thickness in increments of 2%. lift and drag data for all test cases you run. camber in increments of 1%. The problem parameters are as follows. camber. Make sure to record thickness.033 ( or less ) Lift/Drag ratio: L/D = 8 ( or greater ) Thickness: range = 8% to 16% of chord length Angle of Attack: = 0. Or.80 Required moment coeff. thickness.CFD analysis of NACA 0015 35 extract all useful results before proceeding to your next test case. Flight Mach Number: M = 0. which indicates a stagnation point in the flow (see figure 5. Max. The challenge here will be to select a maximum camber. you could use a surface shear stress plot on the airfoil surface and look for a value near 0. Perform an iterative design process with the given constraints.2 below). and the location of Max. Part A The first part of this lab involves the separation of the boundary layer near the trailing edge. make sure to record all Max. Part B In this portion of the lab you will design an airfoil to meet specific design parameters. You can check this by looking for flow reversal using a velocity vector plot. Take a systematic approach.85 Angle of Attack: = 0. Flight Mach Number: M = 0.0o Max. vary the Max. camber range: camber = 1% to 6% Max. varying one . It saves time if you do not shut down Fluent between cases. Again. The objective will be to determine the airfoil thickness that alleviates the separation problem described previously.: CMc/4 = 0.0o Maximum camber: camber = 0 Performance Criterion: No boundary layer separation detectable Recall that boundary layer separation is present when the airflow has completely stopped at some point on the airfoil surface. You will only need to reset the material properties. cam. free stream Mach number and re-initialize the solution if you do leave Fluent open. Include a Mach contour plot of your final solution. a location for the maximum camber. Save a clear vector plot near the trailing edge or surface shear plot showing the state of the boundary layer. camber location. camber by increments of 10% for the 4 digit series and 5% for the 5 digit. and an airfoil thickness to meet specific lift and drag requirements. Just re-read the next grid you create. lift. location: range = 5% to 70% from the LE For simplicity.

thickness. . Note: Fluent uses the mathematical sign convention rather than the aerodynamic convention for moments. Questions 1. The coordinates appear in the surface window. How is the 5 digit series different than the 4 digit series in terms of performance? 5. Surface > Point > Select point with mouse clicking the right mouse button while the cursor is in the display window will select the point.2: Surface shear stress on an asymmetric NACA airfoil indicating stagnation. flow separation and re-attachment near x = 0. How does thickness effect shock-wave strength and location over the airfoil? 2. What implications does thickness have for high-speed aircraft wing design? 3. How does camber. and location of maximum camber effect lift and drag? 4.7m from the leading edge. What airfoil did you select to complete the requirements? Figure 5. then move on to the next parameter. Note: you can easily obtain the coordinates of any point using.CFD analysis of NACA 0015 36 parameter completely learning how that parameter influences performance.

p( z ) po z will increase with depth.Appendix A: Manometers 37 Appendix A: Manometers Manometers are simple devices that are used extensively in this course to provide accurate pressure measurements. is the specific weight of the fluid. Consider the manometer below. z grows in magnitude with increasing height. Integration of this expression yields an expression relating the pressure at some point z to the pressure at the datum po where z = 0. To assist the student a very brief discussion is provided here. In a fluid at rest. the pressure at any point will vary according to: p z z Here. It is essential for the students to have a good understanding of the fundamental principles involved. . p po h This simple relation allows an analysis of hydrostatic systems. The coordinate z . decreases in the direction opposite to the direction of gravity. In other words. with h being the depth of the fluid. Any fluid mechanics text will have a discussion of manometry under the topic of hydrostatics. A B Datum h=0 h1 1 3 h2 2 The pressure at A can be related to the pressure at B by following a path from A to B through the fluid and accounting for the changes in pressure with variations in fluid properties and height. A more intuitive reference frame measures depth in a positive sense. . which is a product of its density and the gravitational constant g.

3 2 = 9810 N/m .Appendix A: Manometers 38 pA h 1 1 2 (h2 h1 ) 3 2 h pB If the fluids have very different specific weights. pB pA 2 (h2 h1 ) It should be emphasized that the depths included in these expressions are vertical depths. Where. . in the above 3 1 3 ) and fluid 2 was water. An inclined manometer can be considered if vertical depths are obtained after conversion of the inclined depth L via h = . the effects of the air can be ignored to produce. is the angle from the horizontal of the inclined tube. the fluid with the smaller specific weight can usually be ignored with very little loss of accuracy. For instance.

Specific gravity is defined as. Whatever the fluid. 2( P2 P1 ) V1 (2) The pressure difference is measured by an inclined manometer. in ‘static’ relation ( P1 ). By Bernoulli’s equation: 1 2 P1 V P2 2 1 (1) Therefore. The total pressure is a sum of the static pressure and the dynamic pressure which is measured when the fluid is brought to rest ( P2 ). in other words. P1 P1 . V1 V2 = 0 L Datum P2 P1 A pitot-static tube determines the velocity of an incompressble flow by comparing the the total pressure of the fluid to its static pressure. which can measure slight pressure differences with reasonable accuracy. The static pressure is what an observer would measure if they were moving with the flow. its specific gravity ( SG ) must be known. fluid SG O H 2O at 4 C Hydrostatic relations give the pressure at the bottom of a column of fluid with vertical height h and specific gravity SG as. . but other fluids such as mercury can be used if the pressure differences are large. The manometer fluid is often coloured water.Appendix B: Pitot-Static Tubes 39 Appendix B: Pitot-Static Tubes P2 .

some fixed inclined manometers measure L with the slope already included.Appendix B: Pitot-Static Tubes 40 p SG H 2O g h Here. h L sin( ) Where. . 2 SG f H 2O g L sin( ) V1 air Note that the specific gravity of the manometer fluid is denoted as SGf . This means that the scale on the manometer reads and not just L. the vertical height of the column of fluid is. Combining these relations the air velocity can be found from. Caution is advised with the calculation of the vertical height h. With the inclined manometer shown in the figure. This relation provides a means of determining the pressure difference P2 – P1 in equation 2. and the density of the air in the wind tunnel is air.81 m/s2 ) and H2O is 1000 kg/m3. g is the gravitational constant ( g = 9. L is the inclined length of the fluid column and the angle of incline of the column with the horizontal.

. To assist students in preparing their reports.3 cm .. This style of writing is used in academic works since it does not readily convey any bias towards the subject matter on the part of the writer. leaving no possibility for ambiguity or misinterpretation.. As a consequence. produced a CL of 1. using the terms ‘I’ and ‘We’ frequently. lab reports in this course will conform to the universally accepted format of a formal academic paper. It is more conducive to allowing the reader to form an objective opinion on the subject.. Examples: vague: ‘… somewhat noticeable …’ ‘…was relatively small .’ ‘. grammar and spelling are all considered when determining a grade for an individual lab report. Third person: When the wind tunnel was activated the model flew out the back striking the wall. Writing Precision Since your lab report is considered a formal scientific work. leading to the conclusion that it had not been secured. For this reason. the writer tends to present his or her point of view from a personal prospective. was 5% less than published NACA results for the same airfoil…’ .Appendix C: Guidelines for Lab Report Writing 41 Appendix C: Guidelines for Lab Report Writing The exact format of a lab report is as varied as the number of institutions that require them. First person: My analysis of the data leads me to conclude that the stall angle of the NACA 0004 airfoil is 11 degrees. First person: When I switched on the power to the wind tunnel I realized the model had not been secured since it flew out the back and hit the wall..’ ‘. It should be noted that this entire lab manual is written in third person.’ better: ‘ fluctuated by +/. something they will be required to do at some point in their engineering careers.. In first person. While in third person.2 . Writing Style Formal academic papers in engineering are almost exclusively written in third person sometimes called passive voice. Third person: The analysis of the data indicates that the stall angle of the NACA 0004 airfoil is 11 degrees. the language used to convey information should be exacting.’ ‘. The format of which contains most of the structure of a lab report from any other university but with additional elements. the structure. Examples of each. it looked good . a set of guidelines covering content and style is given in this appendix. format. The intent of using such a rigid structure is to give each student experience in writing formal reports.. a writer refrains from giving written text the appearance of a personal opinion.

A mathematical development. 2) What is the significance of the results? After the literature review given in the last step.Appendix C: Guidelines for Lab Report Writing 42 Title Page The title of the lab report should be concise. Questions that should be answered are: 1) What has been done in this area in the past? To answer this. theoretical Background and Procedures In longer reports based on broad investigations it is sometimes necessary to give the reader an overview of the subject through a development of its theory. Data Analysis. The reader can then decide to read further if he or she is interested. It should not contain any information about the results or the conclusions. 3) Why was this specific study performed? You should present the specific hypothesis and experimental design being investigated. The abstract should be concise and provide specific details of the work and the results. It should give the reader exact information about the subject of the work only. if applicable. The function of an abstract is to give a reader a general overview of the report. is appropriate along with a discussion of the assumptions and limitations of the theory. Give an indication of where the results of the report fit in and how it contributes to the body of knowledge of the subject area. the author must develop a historical prospective based on cited works that are listed in the References section. . It should also contain the following: Names and student numbers of all authors and contributors The date and time the lab was performed The section numbers of all authors The names of the TA and course professor Abstract The abstract is a summary of the entire report and should be written last. with no more than 10 words. Accepted facts and knowledge gaps in the subject area should be mentioned. You must then lead the reader from a point of general knowledge of the topic to the point of specific knowledge necessary to benefit from reading the remainder of the report. it should be easy to place the present report in it historical prospective. A good abstract will answer the following questions: 1) What was done in the lab or experiment? 2) How was the lab or experiment performed? 3) What was found? 4) What was concluded? Introduction You cannot assume that your reader has an in-depth knowledge of the subject area of the report. Usually. an abstract should be between 100 and 200 words in length and is placed at the beginning of the report.

All tables must have a title and labeled columns and rows to make interpretation easier. The objective of this section is to provide sufficient detail on the equipment and the method such that the experiment can be repeated to confirm its results. This section should answer: 1) What apparatus was used? Provide detailed engineering drawings with dimensions and a written description. air. This section provides all of the key findings. Results and Discussion The Results and Discussion sections are usually combined but can be made separate if circumstances warrant. All tables plots that appear in this section must be numbered and be accompanied by a descriptive caption of one or two sentences in length. 3) What conditions were required? List experimental mediums such as water. Discuss the relationships and trends that you see in the data and how this relates to achieving the objective of the investigation. it should not be included in this section. contamination ( humidity for air ). All plots must be easy to read with labeled axis and a title. the lift coefficient increases steadily as the angle of attack is increased. This is the section where you show understanding and knowledge of the subject area beyond simple performance of the experiment. If a table or a plot appears in this section it must be discuss somewhere in the text. This indicates that this airfoil will generate higher lift at a given airspeed by simply increasing attack angle. If you have nothing to say about a figure. Sample data calculations can be provided here or left to the appendix. pressure. A few examples: example figure caption: Figure 3: Plot showing the relation between the lift coefficient and the angle of attack for the NACA 0012 airfoil.Appendix C: Guidelines for Lab Report Writing 43 If the procedures in the experiment are complex or highly detailed then a listing of all the steps used in its performance should be listed. The rapid decrease in CL seen in the figure once the angle of attack passes 16 degrees is consistent with known lift behavior past the stall angle. Technical drawings and specifications of the equipment should be provided or referenced. oil. etc. Clearly. However. All presented data should be in graphical or tabular form unless the amount of data produced is very small. What you present in this section and how you interpret the results is the most important part of the report. Questions that may help you to write a better discussion: . example discussion: Figure three provides a plot of the lift coefficient (CL) as a function of the angle of attack ( ) for the NACA 0012 airfoil. the author should be wary of providing to much detail to the point of overwhelming the reader. 2) What instruments and sensors were used? List the individual components an sensors used in the apparatus with their specifications. Also provide their conditions such as temperature.

The number to the left indicates the order in which it appears in the text. “Effects of Heat Transfer at the Side Walls on Natural Convection Cavities” Journal of Heat Transfer. D. Vol 112. pp. For example. The format of this section can vary from one publication to the next but the function is the same in all. (1972) “Lectures in Mathematical Models of Turbulence”. It will accomplish the following tasks: 1) Restate known facts or trends presented in the Results and Discussion section. the first work referenced will have number [1]. another example: ‘…. convective flow was studied extensively by Le Peutrec and Lauriat [2]. you can use the number previously assigned.B. UK (Launder.’ In the Reference section: Launder. Spalding..Appendix C: Guidelines for Lab Report Writing 44 1) What do the results indicate clearly? 2) What trends do you see in the results? 3) How do these trends change as various parameters are varied? 4) How accurate are the results and how could you estimate the accuracy? 5) What are the significance of the results? 6) Are there any ambiguities in the data? 7) How do the results compare to know or related values? 8) How do the results relate to the theory? Conclusion The conclusion is usually short but concise. Spalding. …‘ In the Reference section a citing with the following format will appear: [2] Le Peutrec. 2) Justify each fact or trend. Academic Press. Y. the second [2]. foundations for numerical turbulence modeling were developed at Imperial College in London. …. D. If you need to refer back to a work previously referenced. England. The only data quoted in the conclusion are from the Results and Discussion section.E. B.1972). The Conclusion can also be used to suggest further research and to discuss the implications of your findings. 1990.B. and so on. Lauriat. 3) Indicate any weaknesses or limitations of the experimental design. This is most often done with quantitative data obtained from the Results and Discussion section.E. Do not use the conclusion to present new data or to further discussion. London.. 370-378.. G.. For example.. References A list of publications cited in the report is provided in the Reference section. . B. at some point in the text a published work is referenced: ‘….

…’ . Again. Data for separate sections of the work should be contained in different appendices. For example. the data pertaining to each airfoil would warrant its own appendix section. superfluous plots and drawings. if several airfoil shapes are studied. sample calculations. all plots should have a caption and all tables should have a title.Appendix C: Guidelines for Lab Report Writing 45 Appendices The appendices contain all raw experimental data ( in tables ). At some point in the text of the report the information contained in the appendix should be referenced: ‘ … further results on the performance characteristics of the NACA 0012 is provided in Appendix C.

Appendix E: Calculation of Forces on Airfoils 46 Appendix D: Calculation of Forces on Airfoils Y Leading N Edge (LE) Upper Surface R X X=0 L V Trailing D Edge (TE) Lower Surface X=c A Figure D.2). Presented is a more mathematical method of determining the same result. R the resultant force.y coordinate axis is aligned with the airfoil as shown. which accounts for some of the negative signs in the expressions above. The aerospace sign convention on moments is used only in the calculation on the moments about the leading edge. note that 0o 0o. A the axial force. The geometries used in this appendix are defined in the figure above. see figure D. To obtain the proper orientation.1: Airfoil conventions This Appendix is intended for students not satisfied with the method of calculation for airfoil forces used in the class text. is the angle between a line normal to the airfoil surface and the positive x axis ( measured positive in the counter-clockwise direction. Here. The x. In the end. Y n Airfoil i+1 surface ds + X dy + i =0 dx t Figure D. a set of compact formulas requiring integration about a closed loop (the airfoil surface) will be created. Note that the integration is conducted counter-clockwise meaning that dx = xi+1 – xi. D. N is the normal force.1 and below D. L and D the lift and drag respectively. The classic mathematical convention of defining moments as positive counter-clockwise in a right handed system is used to derive normal and tangential vectors.2: Surface vector orientation convention . The normal outward (n) and tangent (t) vectors to the airfoil surface are defined as: 1 1 n cos( )i sin( ) j dy i dx j t sin( )i cos( ) j dxi dy j ds ds 2 2 ds dx dy Here.2.

The integration is a closed loop. The force and moment terms due to pressure can be written in numerical form based on the analytical equations. an element of arc length ds has the component dx = xi+1 – xi . A pdy dx y M LE . (see Appendix A) p p CP Cf 1 V2 1 V2 2 2 The normal force coefficient CN (per unit airfoil length). Since pressure force is easier. N The shear stress term in these expressions is difficult to determine experimentally. as shown below.2. . as in figure D. where the node i+1. integration is done counter-clockwise. The lift and drag coefficients are found from : CL C N cos( ) C A sin( ) CD C N sin( ) C A cos( ) The Total moment about the leading edge ( per unit length of wing ) is: CM LE CM LE . it will be the only term used in the subsequent discussion. Note. RN y CN C pd x Cf d 1 V 2c c c 2 The axial force coefficient is found with a similar expression. N pdx dy x It is convenient to place these forces in terms of non-dimensional coefficients since the pressure difference obtained by the manometers is essentially p p . can be found from. For example. is further counter-clockwise on the airfoil surface than node i. A CM LE . which means node i=1 and i=n+1 are the same node.Appendix D: Calculation of Forces on Airfoils 47 The contribution to the total resultant force from a small region on the airfoil surface of length ds is a sum of normal pressure (p) and tangential shear forces ( ): dR pn ds t ds The total force is formed by integration around the entire surface of the airfoil in a counter-clockwise direction: R pn t ds p(i cos( ) j sin( )) i sin( ) j cos( ) ds The axial and normal force components are RA p cos( ) sin( ) ds RN p sin( ) cos( ) ds RA pdy dx RN pdx dy M LE .

Appendix D: Calculation of Forces on Airfoils 48 n CM A 1 C ydy 1 1 C C P (i yi yi yi yi p P (i ) 1) 1 1 c2 c2 i 1 4 n CM N 1 C xdx 1 1 C C P (i xi xi xi xi p P (i ) 1) 1 1 c2 c2 i 1 4 n CN 1 C dx 1 1 C C P (i xi xi P P (i ) 1) 1 c c i 1 2 n CA 1 C dy 1 1 C C P (i yi yi P P (i ) 1) 1 c c i 1 2 .

Appendix E: Lab report grade template 49 Appendix E: Lab Report Grading Template AER 504: Aerodynamics. tables. Dare Olubodun Lab Number: 1 Section Number: 03 TA: Harpuneet Pabla Component: Excellent Good Satisfactory Needs Grade Improvement Technical writing (/2) Grammar. concise. equations captioned/numbered Quality of figures /2 Data and calculations (/3) Observations and data Calculations and/or results /3 Questions and conclusions (/3) Discussion points and questions Conclusions /3 Overall: /10 Comments: . legible Logical train of thought Proper use of citations/references /2 Report content and formatting (/2) Required formatting Organization of content Figures. Laboratory Report Evaluation Student Name(s): Floyd D'Souza. spelling Clear.