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Government of India

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GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS for
HEATING, VENTILATION &
AIR-CONDITIONING (HVAC)
WORKS (2017)

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DIRECTORATE GENERAL, CPWD, NIRMAN BHAWAN, NEW DELHI 110011
Chapter -4 PACKAGED TYPE AIR CONDITIONING PLANTS AND
VARIABLE REFRIGERANT FLOW / VOLUME SYSTEM

4.1 Water Cooled Packaged Type Plants 45

4.2 Air Cooled Packaged Type Plants 48

4.3 Variable Refrigerant Volume / Flow System 50

Chapter 5 CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONING PLANT

5.1 Scope 54

5.2 Reciprocating Compressors 54

5.3 Scroll Compressors 56

5.4 Centrifugal Compressors 56


(Constant Speed And Variable Speed )

5.5 Screw Type Compressor 62

5.6 Magnetic Bearing Variable Speed 65


Centrifugal Water Chillers

5.7 Condenser 72

5.8 Chiller 75

5.9 Chiller Plant Optimizer 78

5.10 Refrigerant Plumbing 78

5.11 Microprocessor Controller 81

5.12 Installation 82

5.13 Painting 82

Chapter -6 FACTORY BUILT AIR HANDLING UNIT (AHU), FAN COIL


UNIT (FCU) AND OTHER AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

6.1 Scope 83

6.2 Factory Built Air Handling Unit (AHU) 83

6.3 Fan Coil Units 88

6.4 Insulation 89

XIII
Chapter-11 INSULATION WORK

11.1 Scope 119

11.2 Material Types 119

11.3 Material Specifications 120

11.4 Insulation Thickness 121

11.5 Application Of Insulation On Pipes 121


(Including Suction Line Insulation)

11.6 Application Of Insulation On Pumps 122

11.7 Application Of Insulation On Expansion Tank 122

11.8 Application Of Insulation (Thermal) On Duct 122

11.9 Application Of Duct Lining (Acoustic Insulation) 123

11.10 Application Of Acoustic Lining In AHU Rooms 123

11.11 Measurement Of Insulation 123

Chapter 12 CONTROLS

12.1 Scope 125

12.2 Equipment Safety Controls 125

12.3 Refrigerant Flow Controls 126

12.4 System Controls 128

12.5 Operational Controls And Interlocks 128

12.6 Requirements Of Control Elements 129

12.7 Special Requirements For Cold Storages 131

12.8 Variable Speed Drive (VSD) 131

12.9 Economizer 134

12.10 Energy Recovery Wheel 135

12.11 Time Clock Control 138

XVI
9.2 Material 101

9.3 Construction 102

9.4 Fire Dampers 105

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in 9.5 Variable Air Volume (VAV ) Boxes 105
any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including
photocopy, recording or any information storage and retrieval 9.6 Acoustic Lining And Insulation 106
system, without permission, in writing from the Director General
(Works), CPWD, New Delhi 9.7 Flexible Ducting 106

9.8 Installation Of Metallic Duct 107

9.9 Balancing 108

9.10 Measurement 108

Chapter-10 WATER PLUMBING WORK

10.1 Scope 110

10.2 Plumbing Design 110

10.3 Pipe Materials 110

10.4 Pipe Joints 111

10.5 Pre Insulated Chilled Water Pipes 111

10.6 Valves 113

10.7 Strainers 113

10.8 Instruments 114

10.9 Expansion Tanks 115

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA PUBLICATION 10.10 Installation 115

Published Under the Authority of 10.11 Pressure Testing 117


Directorate General
Central Public Works Department 10.12 Balancing 117
Nirman Bhawan, New Delhi 110011
10.13 Measurement 118

10.14 Insulation 118

XV
6.5 Painting 89

6.6 Chilled Beams 90

6.7 Variable Air Volume System 91

6.8 Radiant Cooling System 92

6.9 Geo Thermal Based Air Cooling System 93

Chapter -7 COOLING TOWERS

7.1 Scope 95

7.2 Type 95

7.3 Design 95

7.4 Material and Construction 96

7.5 Installation 97

7.6 Painting 97

Chapter 8 CIRCULATING WATER PUMPS

8.1 Scope 98

8.2 Type 98

8.3 Rating 98

8.4 Material and Construction 98

8.5 Accessories 99

8.6 Insulation 99

8.7 Installation 99

8.8 Painting 100

8.9 Variable Flow Hydronic Systems 100

Chapter-9 DUCTING

9.1 Scope 101

XIV
CONTENTS

Chapter-1 GENERAL Page

1.1 Introduction 01

1.2 Conformity with statutory acts, rules,


standards and codes 02

1.3 Safety codes and labour regulations 02

1.4 Works to be arranged by the department 03

1.5 Works to be done by the contractor 03

1.6 Power supply, water supply and drainage 04

1.7 Machinery for erection 06

1.8 Completeness of the tender, Submission of 06


programme, approval of drawings and
commencement of work

1.9 Dispatch of material to site and their safe custody 06

1.10 Co-ordination with other agencies 06

1.11 Quality of materials and works man ship 07

1.12 Care of the building 07

1.13 Colour scheme for the equipment & components 07

1.14 Inspection and testing 08

1.15 Running in period and date of acceptance 09

1.16 Guarantee 09

1.17 Payment Terms 10

1.18 Tender drawings, Drawings for approval 10


and Completion Drawings

1.19 After Sales Service 12

1.20 Documents to be furnished on completion 12


of Installation

XI
Chapter-2 SYSTEMS AND SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS

2.1 Air Conditioning System 13

2.2 Recommended Cooling Demand Densities 15

2.3 Window type A.C. 16

2.4 Split type A.C. 17

2.5 VRV/VRF System 18

2.6 Packaged Type Units 21

2.7 Central Plant 21

2.8 Central Heating System 25

2.9 Mechanical Ventilation ( For Non Air Conditioned Areas) 27

2.10 ETAC Plants 31

2.11 Cold Rooms 35

Chapter-3 ARCHITECTURAL AND STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS

3.1 Scope 37

3.2 Packaged Type Plants 37

3.3 Central Air Conditioning Plant Room 37

3.4 Weather Maker/ AHU rooms 38

3.5 Cooling Towers 39

3.6 Central Heating System 40

3.7 Mechanical Ventilation/ Evaporative Cooling System 40

3.8 Cold Rooms 41

3.9 General Structural Requirements 42

3.10 Check list for Space Provisions for 44


Central Air Conditioning Works

XII
MEMBERS OF SPECIFICATION COMMITTEE FOR
E&M WORKS

1. Sh. Mukesh Vij, SDG(ER), CPWD Chairman


2. Sh. Prabhakar Singh, ADG(NDR), CPWD Member
3. JS&CVO or his representative Member
4. Sh. S.K. Chawla, CE(E)PEWZ, CPWD Member
5. Sh. M.K. Sharma, CE CSQ (C), CPWD Member
6. Sh. Gurvinder Singh, DDG(W), CPWD Member
7. Sh. C.K.Varma,CE(E) CSQ, CPWD, Member
8. Sh. Surendar Singh, CE (E), PWD Member
9. Sh. Sandeep Mehta, CE(E) DDA, Spl. Invitee
10. Chief Technical Examiner or his representative Member
11. CA(NDR),CPWD Member
12. Sh. C.S.Mittal, CPM (PNB PZ) Member
13. Sh. Shahbuddin Ahmed, CE(E),BFLZ Member
14. Sh. Ujjwal Mitra, CE(NDZ)-III Member
15. Sh. Bijendra Kumar, CE(NDZ)-VII Member
16. Sh. Ashish Singh, Director Finance. Member
17. Sh. Rajeev Sharma, SE (E) DCEC-VII, CPWD Spl. Invitee
18. Sh. S.S. Garg, S E (E) TLQA, CPWD, Spl. Invitee
19. Sh. D.K. Tulani, SE (E) TAS, CPWD Member Secretary

VII
REFERENCES OF AMENDMENTS

S. Reference under which Chapter Item Page Remarks


No. issued No. No. No.

IX
REFERENCES OF AMENDMENTS

S. Reference under which Chapter Item Page Remarks


No. issued No. No. No.

IX
MEMBERS OF SPECIFICATION COMMITTEE FOR
E&M WORKS

1. Sh. Mukesh Vij, SDG(ER), CPWD Chairman


2. Sh. Prabhakar Singh, ADG(NDR), CPWD Member
3. JS&CVO or his representative Member
4. Sh. S.K. Chawla, CE(E)PEWZ, CPWD Member
5. Sh. M.K. Sharma, CE CSQ (C), CPWD Member
6. Sh. Gurvinder Singh, DDG(W), CPWD Member
7. Sh. C.K.Varma,CE(E) CSQ, CPWD, Member
8. Sh. Surendar Singh, CE (E), PWD Member
9. Sh. Sandeep Mehta, CE(E) DDA, Spl. Invitee
10. Chief Technical Examiner or his representative Member
11. CA(NDR),CPWD Member
12. Sh. C.S.Mittal, CPM (PNB PZ) Member
13. Sh. Shahbuddin Ahmed, CE(E),BFLZ Member
14. Sh. Ujjwal Mitra, CE(NDZ)-III Member
15. Sh. Bijendra Kumar, CE(NDZ)-VII Member
16. Sh. Ashish Singh, Director Finance. Member
17. Sh. Rajeev Sharma, SE (E) DCEC-VII, CPWD Spl. Invitee
18. Sh. S.S. Garg, S E (E) TLQA, CPWD, Spl. Invitee
19. Sh. D.K. Tulani, SE (E) TAS, CPWD Member Secretary

VII
CONTENTS

Chapter-1 GENERAL Page

1.1 Introduction 01

1.2 Conformity with statutory acts, rules,


standards and codes 02

1.3 Safety codes and labour regulations 02

1.4 Works to be arranged by the department 03

1.5 Works to be done by the contractor 03

1.6 Power supply, water supply and drainage 04

1.7 Machinery for erection 06

1.8 Completeness of the tender, Submission of 06


programme, approval of drawings and
commencement of work

1.9 Dispatch of material to site and their safe custody 06

1.10 Co-ordination with other agencies 06

1.11 Quality of materials and works man ship 07

1.12 Care of the building 07

1.13 Colour scheme for the equipment & components 07

1.14 Inspection and testing 08

1.15 Running in period and date of acceptance 09

1.16 Guarantee 09

1.17 Payment Terms 10

1.18 Tender drawings, Drawings for approval 10


and Completion Drawings

1.19 After Sales Service 12

1.20 Documents to be furnished on completion 12


of Installation

XI
Chapter-2 SYSTEMS AND SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS

2.1 Air Conditioning System 13

2.2 Recommended Cooling Demand Densities 15

2.3 Window type A.C. 16

2.4 Split type A.C. 17

2.5 VRV/VRF System 18

2.6 Packaged Type Units 21

2.7 Central Plant 21

2.8 Central Heating System 25

2.9 Mechanical Ventilation ( For Non Air Conditioned Areas) 27

2.10 ETAC Plants 31

2.11 Cold Rooms 35

Chapter-3 ARCHITECTURAL AND STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS

3.1 Scope 37

3.2 Packaged Type Plants 37

3.3 Central Air Conditioning Plant Room 37

3.4 Weather Maker/ AHU rooms 38

3.5 Cooling Towers 39

3.6 Central Heating System 40

3.7 Mechanical Ventilation/ Evaporative Cooling System 40

3.8 Cold Rooms 41

3.9 General Structural Requirements 42

3.10 Check list for Space Provisions for 44


Central Air Conditioning Works

XII
Chapter -4 PACKAGED TYPE AIR CONDITIONING PLANTS AND
VARIABLE REFRIGERANT FLOW / VOLUME SYSTEM

4.1 Water Cooled Packaged Type Plants 45

4.2 Air Cooled Packaged Type Plants 48

4.3 Variable Refrigerant Volume / Flow System 50

Chapter 5 CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONING PLANT

5.1 Scope 54

5.2 Reciprocating Compressors 54

5.3 Scroll Compressors 56

5.4 Centrifugal Compressors 56


(Constant Speed And Variable Speed )

5.5 Screw Type Compressor 62

5.6 Magnetic Bearing Variable Speed 65


Centrifugal Water Chillers

5.7 Condenser 72

5.8 Chiller 75

5.9 Chiller Plant Optimizer 78

5.10 Refrigerant Plumbing 78

5.11 Microprocessor Controller 81

5.12 Installation 82

5.13 Painting 82

Chapter -6 FACTORY BUILT AIR HANDLING UNIT (AHU), FAN COIL


UNIT (FCU) AND OTHER AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

6.1 Scope 83

6.2 Factory Built Air Handling Unit (AHU) 83

6.3 Fan Coil Units 88

6.4 Insulation 89

XIII
6.5 Painting 89

6.6 Chilled Beams 90

6.7 Variable Air Volume System 91

6.8 Radiant Cooling System 92

6.9 Geo Thermal Based Air Cooling System 93

Chapter -7 COOLING TOWERS

7.1 Scope 95

7.2 Type 95

7.3 Design 95

7.4 Material and Construction 96

7.5 Installation 97

7.6 Painting 97

Chapter 8 CIRCULATING WATER PUMPS

8.1 Scope 98

8.2 Type 98

8.3 Rating 98

8.4 Material and Construction 98

8.5 Accessories 99

8.6 Insulation 99

8.7 Installation 99

8.8 Painting 100

8.9 Variable Flow Hydronic Systems 100

Chapter-9 DUCTING

9.1 Scope 101

XIV
9.2 Material 101

9.3 Construction 102

9.4 Fire Dampers 105

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in 9.5 Variable Air Volume (VAV ) Boxes 105
any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including
photocopy, recording or any information storage and retrieval 9.6 Acoustic Lining And Insulation 106
system, without permission, in writing from the Director General
(Works), CPWD, New Delhi 9.7 Flexible Ducting 106

9.8 Installation Of Metallic Duct 107

9.9 Balancing 108

9.10 Measurement 108

Chapter-10 WATER PLUMBING WORK

10.1 Scope 110

10.2 Plumbing Design 110

10.3 Pipe Materials 110

10.4 Pipe Joints 111

10.5 Pre Insulated Chilled Water Pipes 111

10.6 Valves 113

10.7 Strainers 113

10.8 Instruments 114

10.9 Expansion Tanks 115

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA PUBLICATION 10.10 Installation 115

Published Under the Authority of 10.11 Pressure Testing 117


Directorate General
Central Public Works Department 10.12 Balancing 117
Nirman Bhawan, New Delhi 110011
10.13 Measurement 118

10.14 Insulation 118

XV
Chapter-11 INSULATION WORK

11.1 Scope 119

11.2 Material Types 119

11.3 Material Specifications 120

11.4 Insulation Thickness 121

11.5 Application Of Insulation On Pipes 121


(Including Suction Line Insulation)

11.6 Application Of Insulation On Pumps 122

11.7 Application Of Insulation On Expansion Tank 122

11.8 Application Of Insulation (Thermal) On Duct 122

11.9 Application Of Duct Lining (Acoustic Insulation) 123

11.10 Application Of Acoustic Lining In AHU Rooms 123

11.11 Measurement Of Insulation 123

Chapter 12 CONTROLS

12.1 Scope 125

12.2 Equipment Safety Controls 125

12.3 Refrigerant Flow Controls 126

12.4 System Controls 128

12.5 Operational Controls And Interlocks 128

12.6 Requirements Of Control Elements 129

12.7 Special Requirements For Cold Storages 131

12.8 Variable Speed Drive (VSD) 131

12.9 Economizer 134

12.10 Energy Recovery Wheel 135

12.11 Time Clock Control 138

XVI
(vii) BMS drawings (wherever applicable) 12.12 Temperature Control 138

1.19 AFTER SALES SERVICES 12.13 Demand Based Control 138


The contractor shall ensure adequate and prompt after sales service in the Chapter 13 ELECTRICAL WORK
form of maintenance, spares and personnel as and when required and shall
minimise the breakdown period. In case of equipment supplied by other
manufacturers the firm shall furnish a guarantee from the manufacturer for the 13.1 Scope 140
same before the plant is taken over.
13.2 General 140
1.20 DOCUMENTS TO BE FURNISHED ON COMPLETION OF INSTALLATION
13.3 Switch Boards 140
Three sets of the following documents shall be furnished to the department by
the contractor on completion of work:- 13.4 Power Cabling 141
a) Completion drawings as per 1.18.3, 13.5 Control Wiring 142
b) One set in Digital form and 1 set in printed form of manufacturers
technical catalogues of all equipments and accessories,
c) Operation and maintenance manual of all major equipments, detailing all
13.6 Earthing 143
adjustments, operation and maintenance procedure.
13.7 Power Factor Capacitors 143

13.8 Remote Control Cum Indicating Panel 144

13.9 Motor Starter 144

13.10 Painting 145

13.11 Motor Efficiency 145

Chapter 14 CENTRAL HEATING SYSTEM

14.1 Scope 146

14.2 Electrically Operated Hot Water Generator 146

14.3 Painting 147

Chapter-15 MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM AND ETAC PLANTS

15.1 Scope 148

15.2 Centrifugal Fans 148

15.3 Axial Flow Fans 148

15.4 Propeller Fans 150

15.5 Roof Mounted Fans 150

15.6 Evaporative Type Air Cooling (ETAC) 151

XVII
12
1.18.2 Drawings for approval on award of the work (Not applicable in case of Window
15.7 Exhaust Unit 152 and Split AC)

15.8 Two Stage Evaporative Coolers 152 The contractor shall prepare & submit three sets of hard copy & one Digital/
soft copy in AutoCAD format of following drawings and get them approved
15.9 Package Type Air Washers 153 from the Engineer-in-Charge before the start of the work. The approval of
drawings however does not absolve the contractor not to supply the
equipments/ materials as per agreement, if there is any contradiction between
15.10 Scrubber 154 the approved drawings and agreement.
15.11 Painting 156 i) Lay out drawings of the equipments to be installed in various rooms such
as plant room, AHU rooms, hot water generator room, cooling tower and
Chapter-16 COLD ROOMS other equipments.
ii) Drawings including section, showing the details of erection of entire
16.1 Scope 157 equipments including their foundations, water basin for the cooling towers /
air washers, etc.
16.2 Compressor 157 iii) Plumbing drawings showing the layout of entire piping, dia & length of
pipes, valves and isometric drawings showing connections to various
equipment.
16.3 Drive Arrangement 157
iv) Ducting drawings showing sizes, locations of dampers, grilles & diffusers.
v) Electrical wiring diagrams for all electrical equipments and controls
16.4 Motor 157 including the sizes and capacities of the various cables and equipments,
vi) Dimensioned drawings of all electrical and control panels,
16.5 Condenser 157 vii) Drawings showing the details of all insulations and vapour barrier works,
viii) Drawings showing details of supports for pipes, cable trays, ducts etc.
16.6 Product Cooler 158 ix) Any other drawings relevant to the work.

16.7 Refrigeration Piping 158 The department shall, at its discretion, use the soft copy of such drawings to
prepare and examine the integrated services layout, resolve conflicts, and
16.8 Defrosting & Reheat Arrangement 158 advise the contractor to modify the execution drawings suiting & adjusting to all
the services requirements. The contractor shall be bound to modify & execute
accordingly.
16.9 Painting 158
1.18.3 Completion Drawings (Not applicable in case of Window and Split AC)
Chapter-17 INSPECTION, TESTING AND COMMISSIONING
One set of Digital/ soft Copy and one set of the following laminated drawings
17.1 Scope 159 shall be submitted by the contractor while handing over the installation to the
Department. Out of this one of the sets shall be laminated on a hard base for
17.2 Initial Inspection At Manufacturers Works 159 display in the A.C. plant room. In addition one set will be given on compact
disc.
17.3 Initial Inspection At Site 161
(i) Plant installation drawings giving complete details of all the equipments,
including their foundations,
17.4 Final Inspection 163
(ii) AHU room installation drawings,
(iii) Plumbing layout drawings including insulation giving sizes and lengths of
17.5 Testing Requirements And Procedures 163 all the pipes and the sizes and locations of all types of valves, and
including isometric drawings for the entire piping including the pipe
Chapter 18 BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM connections to the various equipments and insulation details wherever
required,
18.1 Scope 168 (iv) Duct layout drawings with their sizes and locations, and sizes and
locations of all dampers, grills & diffusers,
18.2 System Architecture 168 (v) Line diagram and layout of all electrical control panels giving switchgear
ratings and their disposition, cable feeder sizes and their layout,
(vi) Control wiring drawings with all control components and sequence of
operations to explain the operation of control circuits,

XVIII
11
the satisfaction of the Engineer-in-Charge. In case it is felt by the 18.3 Interface And Integration 169
department that undue delay is being caused by the contractor in doing
this, the same will be got done by the department at the risk & cost of 18.4 Digital Controllers 169
the contractor. The decision of Engineer-in-Charge in this regard shall
be final.
18.5 Field Devices 171
iii) Any leakage of refrigerant and/or oil due to defective design,
manufacture, workmanship or installation during the guarantee period 18.6 BMS I-O (Input-Output) Summary 174
shall be made good by the contractor free of charge.

1.17 PAYMENT TERMS

1.17.1 The following percentage of contract rates shall be payable against the stages
of work shown herein:

Machinery & All other


S.No. Stage of work
Equipment items
I After initial inspection (wherever
specified) & delivery at site in good 80% 70%
condition on pro-rata basis
II On completion of pro-rata installation 10 % 20 %
III On commissioning and completion of 5% 5%
successful running in period
IV On completion of major seasonal test 5% 5%

1.17.2 When the major seasonal test cannot be carried out on commissioning of the
installation due to any reason not attributable to the contractor, the installation
will he handed over to the Department for beneficial use after completion of
successful running in test of 7 days subject to a minimum aggregate of 120
hours as per para 1.15 above. The balance payment shall be released to the
contractor on his furnishing a bank guarantee in the specified format from a
scheduled bank for an equivalent amount. The bank guarantee shall be valid
for a period of 6 months. However it will be extended till the successful
completion of the major seasonal test. This bank guarantee shall be
independent of the one furnished for performance guarantee.

1.17.3 The following shall be considered major seasonal test for the purpose of the
above payment terms: -
a) Air-conditioning system : Summer or monsoon
b) Central heating system : Winter
c) ETAC : Summer
d) Cold room/ Walk in cooler : Summer

1.18 TENDER DRAWINGS, DRAWINGS FOR APPROVAL & COMPLETION


DRAWINGS

1.18.1 Tender Drawings

The drawings appended/ uploaded with the tender documents are intended to
show the areas to be conditioned, space allotted for various equipments,
tentative duct, cable and pipe routes. The equipments offered shall be suitable
for installation in the spaces shown in these drawings.

XIX
10
1.14.3 Safety measures
APPENDICES
Page All equipments shall incorporate suitable safety provisions to ensure safety of
the operating personnel at all times. The initial and final inspection reports shall
bring out explicitly the safety provisions incorporated in each equipment.
A. Terminology 177

B. List of Relevant Indian Standards 182 1.15 RUNNING IN PERIOD & DATE OF ACCEPTANCE

C. I.S. Safety Codes 183 i) After the installation work has been completed by the contractor, he will
conduct tests and make adjustments as may be necessary to satisfy
D. Heat Load Calculation Proforma 184 himself that the plant including low side equipments is capable of
continuous running. There after he will offer to the department a running-
E. Heat Load Calculation Proforma For Cold Storage 185 in period of 7 days subject to a minimum aggregate of 120 hrs at his
cost. The duty cycle of the plant during this running in period shall be
F. Proforma for Schedule of Technical particulars 187 same as that specified in the tender documents. In case of multiple
compressor installations, all the compressors should be run by rotation.
The plant will be operated and a log of all parameters will be maintained
G. Proforma For Test Results And Notes On Test 194 during this period. The contractor will be free to carry out necessary
Instruments And Capacity Computations. adjustments etc. during this period without stopping the plant. Record of
inside conditions will be made during this period to check that the same
H. Maintenance 197 are as per NIT requirements. The plant will be said to have successfully
completed the running-in-period, if no break down or abnormal/
I. Typical A.C. Plant room Layout 203 unsatisfactory operation of any machinery occurs during this period. After
this the plant will be made available for beneficial use. After the plant
J. Typical AHU room Layout 204 has operated without any major break down/ trouble and inside
conditions are maintained as per NIT requirements for the above
K. Typical Piping connection for AHU, 205 specified running in period, it shall be taken over by the department
subject to guarantee clause mentioned below. This date of taking over of
Condenser/ Chiller & Pumps
plant after trouble free operation during the running in period shall be the
date of acceptance.
L. Air Side Economizer Acceptance Procedures 206
ii) Any loss of refrigerant or oil during the running in period shall be made
M Values Of Performance Characteristics of 207 good by the contractor free of charge.
Energy Efficiency Induction Motors iii) Capacity test of the chilling unit & other major equipments shall be
carried out as and when conditions become stabilized as per details
N List of CFC and HCFC Free Refrigerants 211 given under Appendix `G.
iv) Seasonal testing may be carried out as & when outside conditions
become suitable for the Major Season Test.

1.16 GUARANTEE

i) The contractor shall guarantee the complete system to maintain the


specified conditions under all conditions of ambience and internal loads
subject to the condition that designed outside conditions & designed
internal loads are not exceeded. Also the inlet/ outlet temperatures at
the specified flow of water in the chiller unit shall be guaranteed.
ii) All equipments shall be guaranteed for a period of 12 months from the
date of acceptance and taking over of the installation by the
Department against unsatisfactory performance and/or breakdown due
to defective design, material, manufacture, workmanship or installation.
The equipment or component or any part thereof so found defective
during the guarantee period shall be repaired or replaced free of cost to

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9
iii) Colour bands shall be 150mm wide, superimposed on ground colour to CHAPTER -1
distinguish type and condition of fluids. The spacing of band shall not
exceed 4.0m. GENERAL

iv) In addition to the colour bands specified above all pipe work shall be 1.1 INTRODUCTION
legibly marked with black or white letters to indicate the type of service
and the direction of flow identified as follows:- 1.1.1 Scope

High temperature Hot water : HTHW 1.1.1.1 These specifications cover the following types of air-conditioning, heating,
Medium temperature Hot water : MTHW ventilation and cold room works:
Low temperature Hot water : LTHW
Chilled water : CHW i) Window AC , Split AC
Condenser water : CDW ii) VRV/ VRF type Air-conditioning System
Steam : ST iii) Packaged type Air- conditioning plants
Condensate : C iv) Central air-conditioning system
v) Central heating system.
1.14 INSPECTION AND TESTING vi) Mechanical ventilation system :
a) General Ventilation
1.14.1 Initial Inspection & testing b) Basement Parking & Shaft Ventilation
vii) Evaporative type Air Cooling Plant.
i) Initial inspection of materials & equipments at manufacturers as per viii) Cold rooms.
details given in chapter 17 will be done by the engineer-in-charge or his
representative. For item/ equipment requiring initial inspection at 1.1.1.2 Central air-conditioning system included in these specifications is by means
manufacturers works, the contractor will intimate the date of testing of of reciprocating / Scroll or centrifugal or screw type compressors. Therefore,
equipments at the manufacturers works before dispatch. The contractor only vapour compression type refrigeration equipments are covered herein.
shall give sufficient advance notice regarding the dates proposed for Absorption type refrigeration equipments are excluded from the scope of
such tests to the departments representative(s) to facilitate his presence these specifications.
during testing. The Engineer-in-charge at his discretion may witness
such testing. Equipments will be inspected at the manufacturer/ 1.1.1.3 Water coolers / desert coolers and water softening plants for treatment of
authorised dealers premises, before dispatch to the site by the water are also excluded from the scope of these specifications.
contractor. For equipment sourced from abroad, the contractor shall
include in his bid the costs of journey & stay, other costs if any, for 1.1.1.4 These General Specifications cover the equipments and materials for the
sending his technically competent representative to witness the system, their testing and/ or inspection as may be necessary before their
performance and pre-dispatch tests at the manufacturers works. dispatch from their respective works, their delivery at site, all preparatory
Evidence to this effect by way of travel documents etc. shall be produced works, assembling, installation and adjustments, commissioning, final testing,
before the payment against delivery is released. The Engineer-in-charge, putting into operation, equipment capacity computation and handing over of
at his discretion, may also witness such testing subject to Government the complete system.
Orders at that time.
ii) The department also reserves the right to inspect the fabrication job at 1.1.1.5 These General Specifications are subject to revision from time to time.
factory and the successful tenderer has to make arrangements for the
same. 1.1.1.6 Each air-conditioning work has its own particular requirements. These
General Specifications shall be supplemented with tender specifications as
v) The materials duly inspected by Engineer-in-Charge or his authorised may be required for a particular work. The tender specifications, wherever
representative shall be dispatched to site by the contractor. they differ from these General Specifications, shall have over- riding value
vi) No additional payment shall be made to the contractor for initial and shall be followed for that particular work.
inspection /testing at the manufacturers works by the representative of
the Engineer-in-Charge. However, the department will bear the expenses 1.1.2 Related Documents
of its representative deputed for carrying out initial inspection/testing.
These General Specifications shall be read in conjunction with the General
conditions of contract. These General Specifications shall also be read in
1.14.2 Final Inspection & Testing conjunction with the tender specifications, schedule of work, drawings and
other documents connected with the work.
Final Inspection & testing will be done by the Engineer-in-Charge or his
representative as per details indicated in Chapter 17.

8 1
1.1.3 Terminology Ducting, piping, cabling or any other work, which directly affect the progress of
building work, shall be given priority.
The definition of terms used in these specifications shall be in accordance with
IS: 3615- Glossary of terms used in refrigeration and air-conditioning. Some 1.11 QUALITY OF MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP
of the commonly used terms are defined in Appendix `A.
i) The components of the installation shall be of such design so as to
1.1.4 Site Information satisfactorily function under all conditions of operation.
ii) The entire work of manufacture/ fabrication, assembly and installation
The tenderer should, in his own interest, visit the site and familiarise himself
shall conform to sound engineering practice. The entire installation
with the site conditions before tendering. For any clarification, tenderer may
shall be such as to cause minimum transmission of noise and vibration
discuss with the Engineer-in-Charge.
to the building structure.
1.1.5 Heat Load Calculations and Equipment Selection iii) All equipments and materials to be used in work shall be manufactured
in factories of good repute having excellent track record of quality
i) The successful bidder/ contractor should give detailed heat load manufacturing, performance and proper after sales service.
calculations , immediately after award of work as per Appendix`D iv) None of the equipment/ machines supplied shall be more than Six
separately for all the seasons in which, the specified conditions are to months old from date of supply at site, Copy of Excise Gate Pass/
be maintained. Invoice/ Shipment /Custom Clearance certificate/ details (in case of
ii) The successful Bidder/Contractor should also give the above heat load Imported equipments) shall be submitted to prove the date of
calculations wherever required separately for the areas served by each manufacture & genuineness of the equipments/ machines supplied.
AHU in a central air conditioning/ heating system.
iii) The equipment selection and duct design shall be made on the basis 1.12 CARE OF THE BUILDING
of the above heat load calculations wherever required.
Care shall be taken by the contractor during execution of the work to avoid
iv) The Contractor can refer and utilize the design done by the department/
damage to the building. He shall be responsible for repairing all such damages
consultants for the department, however, there shall be no commitment
and restoring the same to the original finish at his cost. He shall also remove
to provide the same to the contractor, nor the contractor shall be
all unwanted and waste materials arising out of the installation from the site of
absolved of the responsibility of correct design and performance of the
work from time to time.
air-conditioning system provided by him.
1.13 COLOUR SCHEME FOR THE EQUIPMENTS AND COMPONENTS
1.2 CONFORMITY WITH STATUTORY ACTS, RULES, STANDARDS AND
CODES i) Colour scheme for equipment like chilling unit, pumps, AHUs, cooling
tower etc. shall be as per manufacturers standard colour scheme.
i) All components shall conform to relevant Indian Standard
Specifications, wherever existing, amended to date. A list of such ii) The scheme of colour code painting of pipe work services for air
standards is appended in Appendix `B. conditioning installation shall be as per National building code and is
indicated below:
ii) All works shall conform to National Building code as well as
Description Ground colour Lettering First colour band
relevant BIS codes.
colour
iii) All electrical works shall be carried out in accordance with the Condenser water piping Sea Green Black French Blue
provisions of Indian Electricity Act, 2003 and Indian Electricity Rules, Chilled water piping Sea Green Black Black
1956 amended to date. They shall also conform to CPWD General Central heating piping Sea Green Black Canary Yellow
Specifications for Electrical works, Part-I: Internal, 2013 and Part-II: Below 60 deg C
External, 1994 and Part IV (Sub-station), 2013, as amended to date. Central heating piping Sea Green Black Dark Violet
iv) All components shall conform to Energy Conservation Building 60 deg C to 100 deg C
Code 2007 of India as amended or revised up to date. Drain pipe Black White
Vents White Black
Valves and pipe line White with black Black
1.3 SAFETY CODES AND LABOUR REGULATIONS fittings handles
Belt guard Black & Yellow
i) All the safety procedures outlined in the safety codes listed in diagonal strips
Appendix`C shall be complied with. Machine Bases, Inertia Charcoal Grey
Bases and Plinth
ii) In respect of all labour employed directly or indirectly on the work for
the performance of the air conditioning contractors part of work, the

2 7
1.7 MACHINERY FOR ERECTION contractor at his own expense, will arrange for the safety provisions as
per the statutory provisions, B.I.S recommendations, factory act,
All tools and tackles, heavy machinery handling equipment, etc. required for workmans compensation act, CPWD code and instructions issued from
unloading/ handling of equipments and materials at site, their assembly, time to time. Failure to provide such safety requirements would make
erection, testing and commissioning shall be the responsibility of the the tenderer liable for penalty as provided in the labour laws/ GCC for
contractor. each violation. In addition the Engineer-in-charge, shall be at liberty to
make arrangements and provide facilities as aforesaid and recover the
1.8 COMPLETENESS OF THE TENDER, SUBMISSION OF PROGRAMME, cost from the contractor.
APPROVAL OF DRAWINGS AND COMMENCEMENT OF WORK
iii) The contractor shall provide necessary barriers, warning signals and
other safety measures while laying pipelines, ducts cables etc. or
i) Completeness of the tender
wherever necessary so as to avoid accident. He shall also indemnify
CPWD against claims for compensation arising out of negligence in this
All sundry equipments, fittings, assemblies, accessories, hardware items,
respect. Contractor shall be liable, in accordance with the Indian Law
gaskets, masonry platforms/ foundation for Chilling Units, pumps, Cooling
and Regulations for any accident occurring due to any cause. The
Towers etc., supports for pipes foundation bolts, supports, termination lugs
department shall not be responsible for any accident occurred or
for electrical connections, cable glands, junction boxes and all other items
damage incurred or claims arising there from during the execution of
which are useful and necessary for proper assembly and efficient working of
work. The contractor shall also provide all insurance including third
the various equipments and components of the work shall be deemed to have
party insurance as may be necessary to cover the risk. No extra
been included in the tender, irrespective of the fact whether such items are
payment would be made to the contractor due to the above provisions
specifically mentioned in the tender or not.
thereof.
ii) Submission of programme
1.4 WORKS TO BE ARRANGED BY THE DEPARTMENT
Within fifteen days from the date of receipt of the letter of acceptance, the
successful tenderer shall submit his programme for submission of drawings, Unless otherwise specified in the tender documents, the following works shall
supply of equipment, installation, testing, commissioning and handing over of be arranged by the Department:
the installation to the Engineer-in-Charge. This programme shall be framed
keeping in view the milestones stipulated in the contract, building progress. (i) Space for accommodating all the equipments and components involved
Items like ducting, piping etc. that directly affect the building progress shall be in the work,
given priority. (ii) False ceiling and/ or return air enclosure excluding return air duct
wherever provided as required,
iii) Submission of Drawings
(iii) Make up water tank for condenser water,
The contractor shall submit the drawings to the Engineer-in-Charge as per (iv) Power supply, Water supply and Drain points as per para 1.6,
para 1.18.2 for approval before start of work.
(v) Masonry ducts/ service trench within and outside the building for
iv) Commencement of Work carrying pipe lines and cables wherever specified.
(vi) If top floor is air conditioned, over-deck insulation.
The contractor shall commence work as soon as the drawings submitted by
him are approved. .

1.9 DISPATCH OF MATERIALS TO SITE AND THEIR SAFE CUSTODY 1.5 WORKS TO BE DONE BY THE CONTRACTOR

The contractor shall dispatch materials to site in consultation with the Unless otherwise mentioned in the tender documents, the following works shall
Engineer-in-Charge. Suitable lockable storage accommodation shall be made be done by the contractor and therefore, their cost shall be deemed to be
available free of charge temporarily. Watch & ward however, shall be the included in their tendered cost whether specifically indicated in the schedule of
responsibility of contractor. Programme of dispatch of material shall be framed work or not: -
keeping in view the building progress. Safe custody of all machinery and i) Foundations for equipments including foundation bolts and vibration
equipment supplied by the contractor shall be the responsibility of the isolation spring/ pads,
contractor till final taking over by the department. ii) Support columns and beams for cooling towers,
1.10 CO-ORDINATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES iii) Suspenders, brackets and floor/ wall supports for suspending/
supporting ducts and pipes,
The contractor shall co-ordinate with all other agencies involved in the work so iv) Suspenders and/ or cable trays for laying the cables,
that the work of other agencies is not hampered due to delay in his work.

6 3
v) Excavation and refilling of trenches in soil wherever the pipes are to be iv) Where the power supply has to be arranged by the Department at more
laid directly in ground, including necessary base treatment and than one point as per the terms of the contract, the termination of all such
supports, power feeders in the incomer of respective control panels (provided by
the contactor) shall be the responsibility of the contractor.
vi) Sealing of all floor slab/ wall openings provided by the Department or
contractor for pipes and cables, from fire safety point of view, after v) The contractor shall not use the power supply for any other purpose than
laying of the same, that for which it is intended for. No major fabrication work shall be done
at site. Power shall be used only for welding/ cutting works. The power
vii) Painting of all exposed metal surfaces of equipments and components
supply shall be disconnected in case of such default and the contractor
with appropriate colour as per para 1.13.
shall then have to arrange the required power supply at his cost.
viii) Making openings in the walls/ floors/ slabs or modification in the
vi) Wherever there is a possibility of lower supply voltage, which does not
existing openings wherever provided for carrying pipe line, ducts,
allow motors to be operated, necessary voltage correction devices like
cables etc.
HT voltage regulator/ ON- Load tap changer/ Servo Stabilizer etc. may
ix) Providing wooden/ metallic frames for fixing grills/ diffusers. be provided to ensure proper voltage.
vii) Power supply shall also be backed by suitable standby DG set. It is
x) Making good all damages caused to the structure during installation necessary to provide stand by supply to fan motors of all AHUs, to
and restoring the same to their original finish. ensure air circulation in air conditioning areas when the AC plant is not
xi) Balancing of all HVAC systems in accordance with generally accepted working due to non availability of normal electrical supply.
engineering standards. A written balance report shall be provided viii) Additionally where the air conditioning is a functional/ critical
(wherever asked for) to the Engineer-in-Charge or his representative requirement such as hospitals, computer centers, labs, or in buildings of
for HVAC systems serving zones with a total conditioned area Operational/ National importance etc., provision shall be made by the
exceeding 500m2. department for operation of suitable number of chilling units on standby
xii) A set of three copies of operations manual shall be provided to the power supply.
Engineer-in-Charge or his representative containing following
information at a minimum- 1.6.2 Water Supply
a) HVAC equipment capacity,
b) Equipment operation and maintenance manuals, i) Water supply shall be made available to the contractor by the
c) HVAC system control maintenance and calibration information, Department free of charge at only one point for installation. Further
including wiring diagrams, schedules, and control sequence extension if required shall be done by the contractor.
descriptions,
ii) Water shall be made available by the Department free of charge in
d) A complete written narrative of how each system is intended to
makeup water tank near the cooling tower, AC plant room, AHU room,
operate.
expansion tank, hot water generator, air washer, etc. as required for
testing and commissioning. Further connection from makeup water tank
to cooling tower shall be carried out by the contractor and shall be
1.6 POWER SUPPLY, WATER SUPPLY AND DRAINAGE
separately measured & paid for as per contract.
1.6.1 Power Supply iii) Water analysis should be obtained of the water available at site and if
required water softening plant may be provided.
i) Unless otherwise specified, 3 phase, 415 Volts, 50 Hz power supply shall
be provided by the department free of charge to the contractor at one
1.6.3 Drainage
point for installation at site. Termination switchgear however, shall be
provided by the contractor. Further extension if required shall be done by
i) Drain traps in A.C. plant room, AHU room, Air washer room, hot water
the contractor.
generator and near cooling tower shall be arranged by the department.
ii) The power supply for testing and commissioning of the complete
ii) All drainage arrangements from the drain traps in the A.C. plant room,
installation shall be made available by the Department free of charge to
AHU room, air washer room, hot water generator room etc. to the drain
the contractor. For this purpose, the power supply shall be given at the
line shall be arranged by the Department as required.
main incomer unit of the main electrical panel (provided by the
contractor) through U.G. cable, or bus-trunking arrangement. The iii) Piping Connections from the equipment to the drain trap including
termination of this feeder in the main incomer unit shall be the providing valves at the drain points shall be done by the contractor.
responsibility of the contractor and nothing extra shall be paid on this These items of work shall be separately measured and paid as per
account. contract.
iii) Unless otherwise specified in the contract, further power distribution to
the various equipments shall be done by the contractor.

4 5
v) Excavation and refilling of trenches in soil wherever the pipes are to be iv) Where the power supply has to be arranged by the Department at more
laid directly in ground, including necessary base treatment and than one point as per the terms of the contract, the termination of all such
supports, power feeders in the incomer of respective control panels (provided by
the contactor) shall be the responsibility of the contractor.
vi) Sealing of all floor slab/ wall openings provided by the Department or
contractor for pipes and cables, from fire safety point of view, after v) The contractor shall not use the power supply for any other purpose than
laying of the same, that for which it is intended for. No major fabrication work shall be done
at site. Power shall be used only for welding/ cutting works. The power
vii) Painting of all exposed metal surfaces of equipments and components
supply shall be disconnected in case of such default and the contractor
with appropriate colour as per para 1.13.
shall then have to arrange the required power supply at his cost.
viii) Making openings in the walls/ floors/ slabs or modification in the
vi) Wherever there is a possibility of lower supply voltage, which does not
existing openings wherever provided for carrying pipe line, ducts,
allow motors to be operated, necessary voltage correction devices like
cables etc.
HT voltage regulator/ ON- Load tap changer/ Servo Stabilizer etc. may
ix) Providing wooden/ metallic frames for fixing grills/ diffusers. be provided to ensure proper voltage.
vii) Power supply shall also be backed by suitable standby DG set. It is
x) Making good all damages caused to the structure during installation necessary to provide stand by supply to fan motors of all AHUs, to
and restoring the same to their original finish. ensure air circulation in air conditioning areas when the AC plant is not
xi) Balancing of all HVAC systems in accordance with generally accepted working due to non availability of normal electrical supply.
engineering standards. A written balance report shall be provided viii) Additionally where the air conditioning is a functional/ critical
(wherever asked for) to the Engineer-in-Charge or his representative requirement such as hospitals, computer centers, labs, or in buildings of
for HVAC systems serving zones with a total conditioned area Operational/ National importance etc., provision shall be made by the
exceeding 500m2. department for operation of suitable number of chilling units on standby
xii) A set of three copies of operations manual shall be provided to the power supply.
Engineer-in-Charge or his representative containing following
information at a minimum- 1.6.2 Water Supply
a) HVAC equipment capacity,
b) Equipment operation and maintenance manuals, i) Water supply shall be made available to the contractor by the
c) HVAC system control maintenance and calibration information, Department free of charge at only one point for installation. Further
including wiring diagrams, schedules, and control sequence extension if required shall be done by the contractor.
descriptions,
ii) Water shall be made available by the Department free of charge in
d) A complete written narrative of how each system is intended to
makeup water tank near the cooling tower, AC plant room, AHU room,
operate.
expansion tank, hot water generator, air washer, etc. as required for
testing and commissioning. Further connection from makeup water tank
to cooling tower shall be carried out by the contractor and shall be
1.6 POWER SUPPLY, WATER SUPPLY AND DRAINAGE
separately measured & paid for as per contract.
1.6.1 Power Supply iii) Water analysis should be obtained of the water available at site and if
required water softening plant may be provided.
i) Unless otherwise specified, 3 phase, 415 Volts, 50 Hz power supply shall
be provided by the department free of charge to the contractor at one
1.6.3 Drainage
point for installation at site. Termination switchgear however, shall be
provided by the contractor. Further extension if required shall be done by
i) Drain traps in A.C. plant room, AHU room, Air washer room, hot water
the contractor.
generator and near cooling tower shall be arranged by the department.
ii) The power supply for testing and commissioning of the complete
ii) All drainage arrangements from the drain traps in the A.C. plant room,
installation shall be made available by the Department free of charge to
AHU room, air washer room, hot water generator room etc. to the drain
the contractor. For this purpose, the power supply shall be given at the
line shall be arranged by the Department as required.
main incomer unit of the main electrical panel (provided by the
contractor) through U.G. cable, or bus-trunking arrangement. The iii) Piping Connections from the equipment to the drain trap including
termination of this feeder in the main incomer unit shall be the providing valves at the drain points shall be done by the contractor.
responsibility of the contractor and nothing extra shall be paid on this These items of work shall be separately measured and paid as per
account. contract.
iii) Unless otherwise specified in the contract, further power distribution to
the various equipments shall be done by the contractor.

4 5
1.7 MACHINERY FOR ERECTION contractor at his own expense, will arrange for the safety provisions as
per the statutory provisions, B.I.S recommendations, factory act,
All tools and tackles, heavy machinery handling equipment, etc. required for workmans compensation act, CPWD code and instructions issued from
unloading/ handling of equipments and materials at site, their assembly, time to time. Failure to provide such safety requirements would make
erection, testing and commissioning shall be the responsibility of the the tenderer liable for penalty as provided in the labour laws/ GCC for
contractor. each violation. In addition the Engineer-in-charge, shall be at liberty to
make arrangements and provide facilities as aforesaid and recover the
1.8 COMPLETENESS OF THE TENDER, SUBMISSION OF PROGRAMME, cost from the contractor.
APPROVAL OF DRAWINGS AND COMMENCEMENT OF WORK
iii) The contractor shall provide necessary barriers, warning signals and
other safety measures while laying pipelines, ducts cables etc. or
i) Completeness of the tender
wherever necessary so as to avoid accident. He shall also indemnify
CPWD against claims for compensation arising out of negligence in this
All sundry equipments, fittings, assemblies, accessories, hardware items,
respect. Contractor shall be liable, in accordance with the Indian Law
gaskets, masonry platforms/ foundation for Chilling Units, pumps, Cooling
and Regulations for any accident occurring due to any cause. The
Towers etc., supports for pipes foundation bolts, supports, termination lugs
department shall not be responsible for any accident occurred or
for electrical connections, cable glands, junction boxes and all other items
damage incurred or claims arising there from during the execution of
which are useful and necessary for proper assembly and efficient working of
work. The contractor shall also provide all insurance including third
the various equipments and components of the work shall be deemed to have
party insurance as may be necessary to cover the risk. No extra
been included in the tender, irrespective of the fact whether such items are
payment would be made to the contractor due to the above provisions
specifically mentioned in the tender or not.
thereof.
ii) Submission of programme
1.4 WORKS TO BE ARRANGED BY THE DEPARTMENT
Within fifteen days from the date of receipt of the letter of acceptance, the
successful tenderer shall submit his programme for submission of drawings, Unless otherwise specified in the tender documents, the following works shall
supply of equipment, installation, testing, commissioning and handing over of be arranged by the Department:
the installation to the Engineer-in-Charge. This programme shall be framed
keeping in view the milestones stipulated in the contract, building progress. (i) Space for accommodating all the equipments and components involved
Items like ducting, piping etc. that directly affect the building progress shall be in the work,
given priority. (ii) False ceiling and/ or return air enclosure excluding return air duct
wherever provided as required,
iii) Submission of Drawings
(iii) Make up water tank for condenser water,
The contractor shall submit the drawings to the Engineer-in-Charge as per (iv) Power supply, Water supply and Drain points as per para 1.6,
para 1.18.2 for approval before start of work.
(v) Masonry ducts/ service trench within and outside the building for
iv) Commencement of Work carrying pipe lines and cables wherever specified.
(vi) If top floor is air conditioned, over-deck insulation.
The contractor shall commence work as soon as the drawings submitted by
him are approved. .

1.9 DISPATCH OF MATERIALS TO SITE AND THEIR SAFE CUSTODY 1.5 WORKS TO BE DONE BY THE CONTRACTOR

The contractor shall dispatch materials to site in consultation with the Unless otherwise mentioned in the tender documents, the following works shall
Engineer-in-Charge. Suitable lockable storage accommodation shall be made be done by the contractor and therefore, their cost shall be deemed to be
available free of charge temporarily. Watch & ward however, shall be the included in their tendered cost whether specifically indicated in the schedule of
responsibility of contractor. Programme of dispatch of material shall be framed work or not: -
keeping in view the building progress. Safe custody of all machinery and i) Foundations for equipments including foundation bolts and vibration
equipment supplied by the contractor shall be the responsibility of the isolation spring/ pads,
contractor till final taking over by the department. ii) Support columns and beams for cooling towers,
1.10 CO-ORDINATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES iii) Suspenders, brackets and floor/ wall supports for suspending/
supporting ducts and pipes,
The contractor shall co-ordinate with all other agencies involved in the work so iv) Suspenders and/ or cable trays for laying the cables,
that the work of other agencies is not hampered due to delay in his work.

6 3
1.1.3 Terminology Ducting, piping, cabling or any other work, which directly affect the progress of
building work, shall be given priority.
The definition of terms used in these specifications shall be in accordance with
IS: 3615- Glossary of terms used in refrigeration and air-conditioning. Some 1.11 QUALITY OF MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP
of the commonly used terms are defined in Appendix `A.
i) The components of the installation shall be of such design so as to
1.1.4 Site Information satisfactorily function under all conditions of operation.
ii) The entire work of manufacture/ fabrication, assembly and installation
The tenderer should, in his own interest, visit the site and familiarise himself
shall conform to sound engineering practice. The entire installation
with the site conditions before tendering. For any clarification, tenderer may
shall be such as to cause minimum transmission of noise and vibration
discuss with the Engineer-in-Charge.
to the building structure.
1.1.5 Heat Load Calculations and Equipment Selection iii) All equipments and materials to be used in work shall be manufactured
in factories of good repute having excellent track record of quality
i) The successful bidder/ contractor should give detailed heat load manufacturing, performance and proper after sales service.
calculations , immediately after award of work as per Appendix`D iv) None of the equipment/ machines supplied shall be more than Six
separately for all the seasons in which, the specified conditions are to months old from date of supply at site, Copy of Excise Gate Pass/
be maintained. Invoice/ Shipment /Custom Clearance certificate/ details (in case of
ii) The successful Bidder/Contractor should also give the above heat load Imported equipments) shall be submitted to prove the date of
calculations wherever required separately for the areas served by each manufacture & genuineness of the equipments/ machines supplied.
AHU in a central air conditioning/ heating system.
iii) The equipment selection and duct design shall be made on the basis 1.12 CARE OF THE BUILDING
of the above heat load calculations wherever required.
Care shall be taken by the contractor during execution of the work to avoid
iv) The Contractor can refer and utilize the design done by the department/
damage to the building. He shall be responsible for repairing all such damages
consultants for the department, however, there shall be no commitment
and restoring the same to the original finish at his cost. He shall also remove
to provide the same to the contractor, nor the contractor shall be
all unwanted and waste materials arising out of the installation from the site of
absolved of the responsibility of correct design and performance of the
work from time to time.
air-conditioning system provided by him.
1.13 COLOUR SCHEME FOR THE EQUIPMENTS AND COMPONENTS
1.2 CONFORMITY WITH STATUTORY ACTS, RULES, STANDARDS AND
CODES i) Colour scheme for equipment like chilling unit, pumps, AHUs, cooling
tower etc. shall be as per manufacturers standard colour scheme.
i) All components shall conform to relevant Indian Standard
Specifications, wherever existing, amended to date. A list of such ii) The scheme of colour code painting of pipe work services for air
standards is appended in Appendix `B. conditioning installation shall be as per National building code and is
indicated below:
ii) All works shall conform to National Building code as well as
Description Ground colour Lettering First colour band
relevant BIS codes.
colour
iii) All electrical works shall be carried out in accordance with the Condenser water piping Sea Green Black French Blue
provisions of Indian Electricity Act, 2003 and Indian Electricity Rules, Chilled water piping Sea Green Black Black
1956 amended to date. They shall also conform to CPWD General Central heating piping Sea Green Black Canary Yellow
Specifications for Electrical works, Part-I: Internal, 2013 and Part-II: Below 60 deg C
External, 1994 and Part IV (Sub-station), 2013, as amended to date. Central heating piping Sea Green Black Dark Violet
iv) All components shall conform to Energy Conservation Building 60 deg C to 100 deg C
Code 2007 of India as amended or revised up to date. Drain pipe Black White
Vents White Black
Valves and pipe line White with black Black
1.3 SAFETY CODES AND LABOUR REGULATIONS fittings handles
Belt guard Black & Yellow
i) All the safety procedures outlined in the safety codes listed in diagonal strips
Appendix`C shall be complied with. Machine Bases, Inertia Charcoal Grey
Bases and Plinth
ii) In respect of all labour employed directly or indirectly on the work for
the performance of the air conditioning contractors part of work, the

2 7
iii) Colour bands shall be 150mm wide, superimposed on ground colour to CHAPTER -1
distinguish type and condition of fluids. The spacing of band shall not
exceed 4.0m. GENERAL

iv) In addition to the colour bands specified above all pipe work shall be 1.1 INTRODUCTION
legibly marked with black or white letters to indicate the type of service
and the direction of flow identified as follows:- 1.1.1 Scope

High temperature Hot water : HTHW 1.1.1.1 These specifications cover the following types of air-conditioning, heating,
Medium temperature Hot water : MTHW ventilation and cold room works:
Low temperature Hot water : LTHW
Chilled water : CHW i) Window AC , Split AC
Condenser water : CDW ii) VRV/ VRF type Air-conditioning System
Steam : ST iii) Packaged type Air- conditioning plants
Condensate : C iv) Central air-conditioning system
v) Central heating system.
1.14 INSPECTION AND TESTING vi) Mechanical ventilation system :
a) General Ventilation
1.14.1 Initial Inspection & testing b) Basement Parking & Shaft Ventilation
vii) Evaporative type Air Cooling Plant.
i) Initial inspection of materials & equipments at manufacturers as per viii) Cold rooms.
details given in chapter 17 will be done by the engineer-in-charge or his
representative. For item/ equipment requiring initial inspection at 1.1.1.2 Central air-conditioning system included in these specifications is by means
manufacturers works, the contractor will intimate the date of testing of of reciprocating / Scroll or centrifugal or screw type compressors. Therefore,
equipments at the manufacturers works before dispatch. The contractor only vapour compression type refrigeration equipments are covered herein.
shall give sufficient advance notice regarding the dates proposed for Absorption type refrigeration equipments are excluded from the scope of
such tests to the departments representative(s) to facilitate his presence these specifications.
during testing. The Engineer-in-charge at his discretion may witness
such testing. Equipments will be inspected at the manufacturer/ 1.1.1.3 Water coolers / desert coolers and water softening plants for treatment of
authorised dealers premises, before dispatch to the site by the water are also excluded from the scope of these specifications.
contractor. For equipment sourced from abroad, the contractor shall
include in his bid the costs of journey & stay, other costs if any, for 1.1.1.4 These General Specifications cover the equipments and materials for the
sending his technically competent representative to witness the system, their testing and/ or inspection as may be necessary before their
performance and pre-dispatch tests at the manufacturers works. dispatch from their respective works, their delivery at site, all preparatory
Evidence to this effect by way of travel documents etc. shall be produced works, assembling, installation and adjustments, commissioning, final testing,
before the payment against delivery is released. The Engineer-in-charge, putting into operation, equipment capacity computation and handing over of
at his discretion, may also witness such testing subject to Government the complete system.
Orders at that time.
ii) The department also reserves the right to inspect the fabrication job at 1.1.1.5 These General Specifications are subject to revision from time to time.
factory and the successful tenderer has to make arrangements for the
same. 1.1.1.6 Each air-conditioning work has its own particular requirements. These
General Specifications shall be supplemented with tender specifications as
v) The materials duly inspected by Engineer-in-Charge or his authorised may be required for a particular work. The tender specifications, wherever
representative shall be dispatched to site by the contractor. they differ from these General Specifications, shall have over- riding value
vi) No additional payment shall be made to the contractor for initial and shall be followed for that particular work.
inspection /testing at the manufacturers works by the representative of
the Engineer-in-Charge. However, the department will bear the expenses 1.1.2 Related Documents
of its representative deputed for carrying out initial inspection/testing.
These General Specifications shall be read in conjunction with the General
conditions of contract. These General Specifications shall also be read in
1.14.2 Final Inspection & Testing conjunction with the tender specifications, schedule of work, drawings and
other documents connected with the work.
Final Inspection & testing will be done by the Engineer-in-Charge or his
representative as per details indicated in Chapter 17.

8 1
1.14.3 Safety measures
APPENDICES
Page All equipments shall incorporate suitable safety provisions to ensure safety of
the operating personnel at all times. The initial and final inspection reports shall
bring out explicitly the safety provisions incorporated in each equipment.
A. Terminology 177

B. List of Relevant Indian Standards 182 1.15 RUNNING IN PERIOD & DATE OF ACCEPTANCE

C. I.S. Safety Codes 183 i) After the installation work has been completed by the contractor, he will
conduct tests and make adjustments as may be necessary to satisfy
D. Heat Load Calculation Proforma 184 himself that the plant including low side equipments is capable of
continuous running. There after he will offer to the department a running-
E. Heat Load Calculation Proforma For Cold Storage 185 in period of 7 days subject to a minimum aggregate of 120 hrs at his
cost. The duty cycle of the plant during this running in period shall be
F. Proforma for Schedule of Technical particulars 187 same as that specified in the tender documents. In case of multiple
compressor installations, all the compressors should be run by rotation.
The plant will be operated and a log of all parameters will be maintained
G. Proforma For Test Results And Notes On Test 194 during this period. The contractor will be free to carry out necessary
Instruments And Capacity Computations. adjustments etc. during this period without stopping the plant. Record of
inside conditions will be made during this period to check that the same
H. Maintenance 197 are as per NIT requirements. The plant will be said to have successfully
completed the running-in-period, if no break down or abnormal/
I. Typical A.C. Plant room Layout 203 unsatisfactory operation of any machinery occurs during this period. After
this the plant will be made available for beneficial use. After the plant
J. Typical AHU room Layout 204 has operated without any major break down/ trouble and inside
conditions are maintained as per NIT requirements for the above
K. Typical Piping connection for AHU, 205 specified running in period, it shall be taken over by the department
subject to guarantee clause mentioned below. This date of taking over of
Condenser/ Chiller & Pumps
plant after trouble free operation during the running in period shall be the
date of acceptance.
L. Air Side Economizer Acceptance Procedures 206
ii) Any loss of refrigerant or oil during the running in period shall be made
M Values Of Performance Characteristics of 207 good by the contractor free of charge.
Energy Efficiency Induction Motors iii) Capacity test of the chilling unit & other major equipments shall be
carried out as and when conditions become stabilized as per details
N List of CFC and HCFC Free Refrigerants 211 given under Appendix `G.
iv) Seasonal testing may be carried out as & when outside conditions
become suitable for the Major Season Test.

1.16 GUARANTEE

i) The contractor shall guarantee the complete system to maintain the


specified conditions under all conditions of ambience and internal loads
subject to the condition that designed outside conditions & designed
internal loads are not exceeded. Also the inlet/ outlet temperatures at
the specified flow of water in the chiller unit shall be guaranteed.
ii) All equipments shall be guaranteed for a period of 12 months from the
date of acceptance and taking over of the installation by the
Department against unsatisfactory performance and/or breakdown due
to defective design, material, manufacture, workmanship or installation.
The equipment or component or any part thereof so found defective
during the guarantee period shall be repaired or replaced free of cost to

XX
9
the satisfaction of the Engineer-in-Charge. In case it is felt by the 18.3 Interface And Integration 169
department that undue delay is being caused by the contractor in doing
this, the same will be got done by the department at the risk & cost of 18.4 Digital Controllers 169
the contractor. The decision of Engineer-in-Charge in this regard shall
be final.
18.5 Field Devices 171
iii) Any leakage of refrigerant and/or oil due to defective design,
manufacture, workmanship or installation during the guarantee period 18.6 BMS I-O (Input-Output) Summary 174
shall be made good by the contractor free of charge.

1.17 PAYMENT TERMS

1.17.1 The following percentage of contract rates shall be payable against the stages
of work shown herein:

Machinery & All other


S.No. Stage of work
Equipment items
I After initial inspection (wherever
specified) & delivery at site in good 80% 70%
condition on pro-rata basis
II On completion of pro-rata installation 10 % 20 %
III On commissioning and completion of 5% 5%
successful running in period
IV On completion of major seasonal test 5% 5%

1.17.2 When the major seasonal test cannot be carried out on commissioning of the
installation due to any reason not attributable to the contractor, the installation
will he handed over to the Department for beneficial use after completion of
successful running in test of 7 days subject to a minimum aggregate of 120
hours as per para 1.15 above. The balance payment shall be released to the
contractor on his furnishing a bank guarantee in the specified format from a
scheduled bank for an equivalent amount. The bank guarantee shall be valid
for a period of 6 months. However it will be extended till the successful
completion of the major seasonal test. This bank guarantee shall be
independent of the one furnished for performance guarantee.

1.17.3 The following shall be considered major seasonal test for the purpose of the
above payment terms: -
a) Air-conditioning system : Summer or monsoon
b) Central heating system : Winter
c) ETAC : Summer
d) Cold room/ Walk in cooler : Summer

1.18 TENDER DRAWINGS, DRAWINGS FOR APPROVAL & COMPLETION


DRAWINGS

1.18.1 Tender Drawings

The drawings appended/ uploaded with the tender documents are intended to
show the areas to be conditioned, space allotted for various equipments,
tentative duct, cable and pipe routes. The equipments offered shall be suitable
for installation in the spaces shown in these drawings.

XIX
10
1.18.2 Drawings for approval on award of the work (Not applicable in case of Window
15.7 Exhaust Unit 152 and Split AC)

15.8 Two Stage Evaporative Coolers 152 The contractor shall prepare & submit three sets of hard copy & one Digital/
soft copy in AutoCAD format of following drawings and get them approved
15.9 Package Type Air Washers 153 from the Engineer-in-Charge before the start of the work. The approval of
drawings however does not absolve the contractor not to supply the
equipments/ materials as per agreement, if there is any contradiction between
15.10 Scrubber 154 the approved drawings and agreement.
15.11 Painting 156 i) Lay out drawings of the equipments to be installed in various rooms such
as plant room, AHU rooms, hot water generator room, cooling tower and
Chapter-16 COLD ROOMS other equipments.
ii) Drawings including section, showing the details of erection of entire
16.1 Scope 157 equipments including their foundations, water basin for the cooling towers /
air washers, etc.
16.2 Compressor 157 iii) Plumbing drawings showing the layout of entire piping, dia & length of
pipes, valves and isometric drawings showing connections to various
equipment.
16.3 Drive Arrangement 157
iv) Ducting drawings showing sizes, locations of dampers, grilles & diffusers.
v) Electrical wiring diagrams for all electrical equipments and controls
16.4 Motor 157 including the sizes and capacities of the various cables and equipments,
vi) Dimensioned drawings of all electrical and control panels,
16.5 Condenser 157 vii) Drawings showing the details of all insulations and vapour barrier works,
viii) Drawings showing details of supports for pipes, cable trays, ducts etc.
16.6 Product Cooler 158 ix) Any other drawings relevant to the work.

16.7 Refrigeration Piping 158 The department shall, at its discretion, use the soft copy of such drawings to
prepare and examine the integrated services layout, resolve conflicts, and
16.8 Defrosting & Reheat Arrangement 158 advise the contractor to modify the execution drawings suiting & adjusting to all
the services requirements. The contractor shall be bound to modify & execute
accordingly.
16.9 Painting 158
1.18.3 Completion Drawings (Not applicable in case of Window and Split AC)
Chapter-17 INSPECTION, TESTING AND COMMISSIONING
One set of Digital/ soft Copy and one set of the following laminated drawings
17.1 Scope 159 shall be submitted by the contractor while handing over the installation to the
Department. Out of this one of the sets shall be laminated on a hard base for
17.2 Initial Inspection At Manufacturers Works 159 display in the A.C. plant room. In addition one set will be given on compact
disc.
17.3 Initial Inspection At Site 161
(i) Plant installation drawings giving complete details of all the equipments,
including their foundations,
17.4 Final Inspection 163
(ii) AHU room installation drawings,
(iii) Plumbing layout drawings including insulation giving sizes and lengths of
17.5 Testing Requirements And Procedures 163 all the pipes and the sizes and locations of all types of valves, and
including isometric drawings for the entire piping including the pipe
Chapter 18 BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM connections to the various equipments and insulation details wherever
required,
18.1 Scope 168 (iv) Duct layout drawings with their sizes and locations, and sizes and
locations of all dampers, grills & diffusers,
18.2 System Architecture 168 (v) Line diagram and layout of all electrical control panels giving switchgear
ratings and their disposition, cable feeder sizes and their layout,
(vi) Control wiring drawings with all control components and sequence of
operations to explain the operation of control circuits,

XVIII
11
(vii) BMS drawings (wherever applicable) 12.12 Temperature Control 138

1.19 AFTER SALES SERVICES 12.13 Demand Based Control 138


The contractor shall ensure adequate and prompt after sales service in the Chapter 13 ELECTRICAL WORK
form of maintenance, spares and personnel as and when required and shall
minimise the breakdown period. In case of equipment supplied by other
manufacturers the firm shall furnish a guarantee from the manufacturer for the 13.1 Scope 140
same before the plant is taken over.
13.2 General 140
1.20 DOCUMENTS TO BE FURNISHED ON COMPLETION OF INSTALLATION
13.3 Switch Boards 140
Three sets of the following documents shall be furnished to the department by
the contractor on completion of work:- 13.4 Power Cabling 141
a) Completion drawings as per 1.18.3, 13.5 Control Wiring 142
b) One set in Digital form and 1 set in printed form of manufacturers
technical catalogues of all equipments and accessories,
c) Operation and maintenance manual of all major equipments, detailing all
13.6 Earthing 143
adjustments, operation and maintenance procedure.
13.7 Power Factor Capacitors 143

13.8 Remote Control Cum Indicating Panel 144

13.9 Motor Starter 144

13.10 Painting 145

13.11 Motor Efficiency 145

Chapter 14 CENTRAL HEATING SYSTEM

14.1 Scope 146

14.2 Electrically Operated Hot Water Generator 146

14.3 Painting 147

Chapter-15 MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM AND ETAC PLANTS

15.1 Scope 148

15.2 Centrifugal Fans 148

15.3 Axial Flow Fans 148

15.4 Propeller Fans 150

15.5 Roof Mounted Fans 150

15.6 Evaporative Type Air Cooling (ETAC) 151

XVII
12
Ventilation Requirement for various areas in various buildings : CHAPTER -2

S.No. Application Air Change per hour SYSTEMS AND SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS

1. Assembly Rooms 4-8 2.1 AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM

2. Bank/building societies 4-8 An air-conditioning system is a means of cooling/ heating, dehumidification/


humidification, filtration and its distribution to the various conditioned spaces ,
3. Bathrooms 6-10 maintaining indoor air quality, energy efficiency and other resources . Various
types of air-conditioning systems commonly used are:-
4. Bedrooms 2-4 a) Unit type equipments, which may be a window type room air-
conditioner or a split type air-conditioner.
5. Canteens 8-12
b) Packaged type units, which may be fully self contained (factory
6. Cinemas and theatres 10-15 assembled), or split type units.
c) VRV/ VRF system
7. Club rooms 12, Min d) Central plants, which are of two types :-
8. Conference rooms 8-12 i) Central DX-Plants with AHUs etc.

9. Corridors 5-10 ii) Central chilled water plants with AHUs, Fan Coil Units, Chilled
Beams, Embedded chilled water pipes in slabs & walls, etc.
10. Dance halls 12, Min
For each application there will specifically be only one system, which
11. Engine Room 15-30 will be just right for it.

12. Entrance halls 3-5


2.1.1 DRAWINGS
13. Garages 6-8
2.1.1.1 Following drawings shall be enclosed with tender documents :
14. Glass Houses 25-60 a) All floors HVAC layout
b) Chilled & Condenser water SLD
15. Gymnasium 6, Min c) Electrical SLD for HVAC Panels
16. Hospital sterilizing 15-25 2.1.1.2 No other drawings shall be made available. The contractor may
visit the site or discuss with Engineer-in-charge for any other site
17. Hospital ward 6-8 particular that he may need before submitting the tender.
18. Hospital domestic 15-20 2.1.1.3 Drawings have been prepared showing the areas to be Air
conditioned & space allocated for the equipment. Adequacy of the
19. Laboratories 6-15 plant room, AHU rooms etc for the equipment offered should be
checked &confirmed by tenderer.
20. Laundries 10-30

21. Lavatories 6-15 2.1.1.4 The above drawings represent a feasible scheme. Equipment
layout, chilled water piping scheme, duct layout, sizes of grilles etc.
22. Lecture theatres 5-8 shown in the drawings can be rearranged/ changed as per site/
Architectural requirements in consultation and with prior approval
23. Libraries 3-5 of Engineer-in-charge.

24. Living rooms 3-6 2.1.1.5 These are not working drawings. The contractor shall prepare
detailed working drawings &execute the work as per working
25. Offices 6-10 drawings approved by the Engineer-in-charge.

26. Photo and X- ray dark 10-15


room

28 13
2.1.2 DESIGN PARAMETERS d) This system can be used in places where winter ambient
temperature is more than 7.20C (W.B) & Quality of water shall have
2.1.2.1 CHILLING UNIT hardness less than 60 PPM.
ii) Limitations :
i) Centrifugal chilling unit : CFC and HCFC free refrigerant.
a) The reverse cycle heating cannot be resorted to when the outside wet
ii) Suction temperature : As per manufacturer standard bulb temperature drops below 7. 2 0C.

iii) Condensing temperature : design to suit duty of Water Chilling Unit b) Further, if the quality of condenser water is bad, circulation of
condenser water through the cooling coils may foul the tubes of the
cooling coil and may also lead to scale formation inside the tubes of the
cooling coils. Hence this system is used where hardness of water is
iv) Condenser :
less than 60 PPM.
a) Water temperature IN 32.2deg C
b) Water temperature OUT 36.4 deg C 2.8.5 Central Heating through Heat Pumps:
c) Temperature rise 4.2 deg C
d) Fouling factor 0.001(British unit) For cold areas having RH below 55% throughout the year, heat pumps may
e) Maximum permissible pressure drop: 10 m of water- head be used, if economical.

2.9 Mechanical Ventilation (For Non Air Conditioned Areas)


v) Chiller :
2.9.1 Ventilation
a) Water temperature IN 12.2 deg C
Ventilation is the process of changing air in an enclosed space. A proportion of
b) Water temperature OUT 6.67 deg C
the air in the space should be continuously withdrawn and replaced by fresh air
c) Temperature drop 5.5 deg C
drawn from outside to maintain the required level of air purity. Ventilation is
d) Fouling factor 0.0005 (British unit)
required to control the following:
e) Maximum permissible pressure drop: 10 m of water- head
a) Oxygen Content Prevent depletion of the oxygen content of the air;
b) Carbon dioxide and Moisture Prevent undue accumulation;
2.1.2.2 PIPING
c) Contaminants Prevent undue rise in concentration of body odours and
i) Maximum flow velocity : 2.5 m/s other contaminants such as tobacco smoke;
d) Bacteria Oxidize colonies of bacteria and fungus to prevent their
ii) Maximum friction : 5 m/100 m run proliferation.
e) Heat Remove body heat, heat generated by electrical & mechanical
2.1.2.3 AIR HANDLING UNIT equipment, solar heat gains through walls & glass, etc.
i) Maximum face velocity across cooling coil : 155 m/min
Mechanical ventilation is one of several forms of ventilation options available. It
ii) Maximum outlet air velocity : 610 m/min usually consists of fans, filters, ducts, air diffusers and outlets for air distribution
within the building. It may include either mechanical exhaust system or exhaust
iii) Maximum velocity across filters : can occur through natural means.
a) Ordinary filters 155 m/min
b) Micro-vee filters 155 m/min Natural ventilation and natural exhaust are also options. The scope of this
c) HEPA filters 155 m/min section is therefore restricted to mechanical ventilation.

iv) Minimum spray density for humidification : 10 lpm/sq.m 2.9.2 Design Considerations.

Following considerations provide details regarding the various parameters that


affect the type of ventilation system selected for a particular application, and
2.1.2.4 DUCTING FOR AIRCONDITIONING (office Building)
the sizing of the ventilation plant:
MainDuct Branch duct
i) Maximum flow velocity : 400 m/min 250 m/min 2.9.2.1 National Building Code of India 2005 specified the ventilation
requirement as per following table:

14 27
ii) System Component : ii) Maximum velocity at supply air grilles/ diffusers : 150 m/min

A complete central heating system may include the following components : iii) Maximum friction in duct : 1cm WG/100 m run
a) Hot water generator,
b) Hot water pump, 2.1.2.5 DUCTING FOR AUDITORIUM ,CONFERENCE HALL ,
c) Hot water piping, OT's :
d) Convector/ radiator
e) Heat transfer units (AHUs), variable air volume (VAV) valves, fire Value of all above parameters be kept as three fourth of
control dampers, grills & diffusers values specified at 2.1.2.4 above.
f) Treated fresh air system (TFA),
g) Demand Control Ventilation System.
2.1.2.6 DUCTING FOR ETAC system and VENTILATION
h) Heat Recover Wheel.
i) Air filters, System ( normal operation ) in Basement :
j) Air distribution system,
k) Controls and control wiring and, Value of all above parameters be kept as 1.5 times of values
l) Power supply control and distribution arrangement. specified at 2.1.2.4 above.
Some or all of the above components shall have to be arranged in a
proper sequence to condition the air. 2.2 RECOMMENDED COOLING DEMAND DENSITIES

iii) System Design and plant selection: Following table from ASHRAE GRP 158, Load Calculation Manual (Heating &
Cooling), provides the recommended cooling demand densities (m2 /TR) for
It shall be done as per para 2.7.2.4 above. different building types using air conditioning systems. The requirements given
in the table may be used for preliminary calculations. However, final sizing
2.8.3 Central Heating through electric strip heaters : shall be based on the actual heat load calculations.

Strip heaters used earlier are not allowed due to Fire Protection consideration. Example of Building air conditioning load (TR) calculation using the table
given below.
2.8.4 Central Heating through Reverse Cycle :
To estimate the cooling demand (air conditioning load TR) of an office building
i) General Description. having air conditioned area of 1,000 m2
a) The chilled water air-conditioning system which is used for cooling in
summer can also be used for heating in winter by providing additional Using the *Lo values (m2/TR) given below in the table for office category
valves & piping for interchanging the condenser water & chilled water building, the estimated total air conditioning load (TR) of the building will be
flow circuits.
Preliminary estimated air conditioning load (TR) = area (m2)/ Cooling
b) During summer when cooling is required, the chilled water plant is demand density (m2/TR) = 1000/36
operated as a conventional system with the chilled water being circulated
through the cooling coils of the AHUs and FCUs to cool and dehumidify Notes:
areas and condenser water being circulated through the cooling tower.
c) During winter, when heating is required, the condenser water is Refrigeration loads are for entire application.
circulated through the cooling coils of AHUs and FCUs. The warm
condenser water heats the air passing over AHU/ FCU cooling coils and # Air quantities for heavy manufacturing areas are based on supplementary
gets cooled in the process. The cooled condenser water is then means to remove excessive heat.
circulated through the condenser to condense the refrigerant vapour and
it gets heated up in the process. The cooling coils thus perform the * Air quantities for hospital patient rooms and office buildings (except internal
function of the cooling tower. The chilled water from the chiller is areas) are based on induction (air-water) system.
circulated through the cooling tower. The temperature of chilled water
being lower than the ambient air, the chilled water gets heated by the Refrigeration and air quantities for applications listed in this table of cooling
ambient air. The chilled water from the cooling tower is then circulated load check figures are based on all-air system and normal outdoor air
through the chiller to evaporate the refrigerant & it gets cooled in the quantities for ventilation except as noted.
process. The cooled water is then circulated through the cooling tower.
The cooling tower performs the function of the cooling coil. This winter
heating is known as reverse cycle heating and can be accomplished by
interconnection of chilled water and condenser water supply and return
headers through change over valves.

26 15
Cooling Demand Densities Sulphur dioxide 13 mg/cum. 5
Refrigeration
Total Suspended Particulates = 100 g/m/cum. 1 hrs
m2/Ton
* Threshold value - 600ppm (NIOSH)
Classifications Lo* Av* Hi* ** 3200 piococuries
Apartment, High rise 45 40 35
Auditoriums, Churches, Theatres 40 25 9
Educational Facilities 24 18.5 15 2.8 CENTRAL HEATING SYSTEM
Schools, College, Universities
2.8.1 A central heating system is a means of heating the air in a conditioned space
Factories Assembly Areas 24 15 9 with or without humidification. Various methods used for central heating are:-
Light
Manufacturing 20 15 10 i) The most common method of heating is with the help of a hot water generator.
Heavy This is achieved by circulating the hot water so generated either through: -
Manufacturing# 10 8 6
Hospitals Patient Rooms* 27.5 22 16.5 a) Heat convectors or radiators positioned in the conditioned spaces, or
Public Areas 17.5 14 11 b) Heating coils of AHUs and circulating the heated air through the
conditioned spaces, analogous to the central chilled water air
Hotels, Motels, Dormitories 35 30 22
conditioning system.
Libraries and Museums 34 28 20
Office Buildings* 36 28 19 ii) Reverse cycle by providing changeover valves in the chilled and condenser
Private Offices* - - - water piping.
Stenographic Department - - -
Use of Strip Heaters is now discontinued due to fire hazard.
Residential Large
60 50 38
Medium
15 12 10
Shopping Centres, Department 2.8.2 Central Heating through Hot Water Generators
Stores and Specialty Shops
Department Stores Basement 34 28.5 22.5 i) General Description of System
Main Floors 35 24.5 15
The hot water generator be electrically operated. Coal & Oil fired hot water
Upper Floors 40 34 28
generators are now not in use due to very low energy efficiency and pollution
Dress Shops 34.5 28 18.5 considerations.
Drug Stores 18 13.5 11
Shoe Stores 30 22 15 The hot water so generated is piped through either heat convectors/ radiators
or AHUs, depending upon the system followed. Heat convectors/ radiators are
Malls 36.5 23 16
used where no humidity control is required. In order to provide better comfort
Refrigeration for Central Heating
conditions, this type of heating can be supplemented with preheated fresh air
and Cooling Plant
circulated through AHUs and ducts. The central heating scheme can also be
Urban Districts 47.5 38 28.5 designed along with the central chilled water air-conditioning scheme where
College Campuses 40 32 24 cooling during summer and heating during winter are required in one of
Commercial Centres 33 26.5 20 following manners:
Residential Centres 62.5 50 37.5
a) Laying separate pipe lines for chilled and hot water flow from A.C. plant
Source: ASHRAE GRP 158, Load Calculation Manual (Heating & Cooling), Table room to AHUs. Here AHUs will have separate cooling and heating coils. For
A1.1- Cooling load Check figures humidity control in monsoon re-heat coils in the main initial section of S.A. duct
shall be provided.
* Hi values of cooling demand density may be used for existing buildings where
building envelope cannot be improved b) In case of space constraints in respect to laying of separate pipe lines
* Av values may be used for unitary (WT or Split type) units and for AC areas & cooling, heating coils, same water lines and heat transfer coils may be
surrounded by non AC area else designed to carry chilled water during summer/ monsoon for cooling and hot
* Lo values may be used for new buildings. water during winter for heating. In this case however humidity control by reheat
shall not be possible, as strip heaters used earlier are not allowed due to Fire
2.3 WINDOW TYPE A.C. Protection consideration.

16 25
vii) Areas with different requirements of fresh air, degree of filtration and/ or
operating hours shall need different and independent AHUs. APPLICATIONS:
viii) From the fire safety point of view, storage areas of combustible articles Window A.C. are available in standard rating of 1, 1.5, 2 TR these are provided
such as film stores and explosives shall not be served by the AHUs, where-
which are serving other areas. Other fire precautions as per National (i) Window for fixing the AC is available or necessary opening in wall is
Building Code, local municipal byelaws and other statutory requirements provided for the purpose.
shall be complied with. (ii) Sound level of up to 50 dB inside the room is acceptable.
ix) For 24 hrs A/C areas & where the secondary chilled water pumps are (iii) These types of A.C.s are efficient & easy to maintain as compared to
provided, to save energy, the secondary pumps may be provided with split A.C.
variable speed drive (VSD) to regulate water flow as per load (iv) BEE star rated WTACs are available. As far as possible 5 star rated A.C.
requirement.
may be provided in all new installation for conserving electrical energy.
x) For 100% (Fresh air) AHUs requiring 24 hrs. operation, variable speed
drive (VSD) may be provided to regulate the flow of dehumidified air as INSTALLATION:
per load requirement.
(i) While installing the A.C care be take that WTAC is not provided at back
xi) In case the cooling is done by positioning fan coil units (FCUs) within the of sitting/ chair in room.
conditioned spaces and circulated chilled water through them, it should (ii) Standard A.C are provided with control plate and wire at right side of A.C
also be supplemented by circulating conditioned air through 100 % FA
(as seen from front) hence power outlet points should be provide at right
AHU (Treated Fresh Air AHU) by a network of ducting, grills and diffusers
to the conditioned spaces for better comfort conditions in terms of side of window etc.
ventilation, & humidity control and Oxygen requirements. (iii) Standard installation procedures, as given by the manufacturers, may be
followed.
xii) For areas like operation theatre, animal house and where specifically
required functionally, AHUs with 100% fresh air shall be used. The
return/ used air in such cases shall be exhausted to atmosphere by 2.4 SPLIT TYPE A.C.
installing a suitable exhaust air system. This exhaust air system shall
consist of single skin blower section and a filter section. This exhaust air APPLICATIONS:
system may be ceiling suspended/ floor mounted as per the site (i) Where window for installation of WTAC is not available, Split Type AC
availability. are planned.
xiii) In 100% fresh air areas and areas having high occupancy such as (ii) Almost Silent (Low dB level) operation of A.C is important, considering
lecture theatres, auditoria, etc., requiring high volume of fresh air, pre- VIP rooms, conference rooms, etc.
cooling of fresh air be done by providing Heat Recovery Wheel.
xiv) In addition to controlling the inside temperature it is necessary to control INSTALLATION
the concentration limit of various pollutants as per ISHRAE handbook i) Wherever split A.C. are planned in the new buildings, necessary
table no. 29, which are listed below. This is done by providing Demand openings in wall may be provided by with use of 75 mm PVC pipe
Control Ventilation System using sensors for detecting the concentration
sleeves at suitable locations for taking refrigerant pipes and cable to
and varying the Fresh Air Supply through motorised dampers.
outdoor unit, so as to avoid unnecessary cutting/ damage to walls at a
later stage. The slope of sleeve of PVC pipe should be towards exterior
Contaminant Concentration Ppm Exposure time to avoid seepage of water into the room. This opening should be sealed
properly after installation to avoid entry of vermin and rain water.
Carbon dioxide* 1.8 g/cum. 1000 Continuous
ii) For condensate drain, 40 mm PVC/ HDPE pipe be also provided and
Carbon 55 mg/cum. 50 8 hr taken to nearest drain or up to the stack for collection & disposal of
monoxide condensate. The slope of such pipe also should be downwards. As far as
Chlordane 55 g/cum. 0.0003 Continuous possible, joints should be avoided in this pipe.
iii) The length of connecting refrigerant pipes between outdoor and indoor
Ozone 100g/cum. 0.05 Continuous unit be kept to minimum feasible at site. However it should not exceed 9
m , as the efficiency of the unit gets severely affected on increase of
Radon** 0.027/WL - Annual Average distance. The refrigerant pipes should be taken along the walls/ columns
etc. duly clamped to their surface by saddles. If walls etc. are not
Nitrogen dioxide 9 mg/cum. 5 Continuous
available, tray be used to support the refrigerant pipes. Where bending of

24 17
refrigerant pipes is required, proper pipe bending tool should be used to i) Reciprocating type central air conditioning plant.
avoid pinching of pipes.
These plant use reciprocating compressor. These are available in
capacities ranging from 30 TR to 110 TR. However these are slowly
iv) The refrigerant pipes should be properly insulated as per the
being discontinued due to poor compressor efficiency and being
recommendations of the manufacturer of split type AC units. The replaced with scroll & screw type compressors.
insulation over refrigerant pipes be examined once in a year and in case
of any deficiency/ defect the same may be replaced. ii) Screw type central air conditioning plant.

2.5 VRV/ VRF SYSTEM: These plants use screw type compressors. These are generally used in
capacities ranging from 80 TR and up to 400 TR at present.
In a generalising definition, Variable refrigerant flow (VRF) can be explained
as a multiple Split Air-conditioning system using principle of control of flow/ iii) Centrifugal type central air conditioning plant.
quantity of refrigerant through the Indoor Unit to control the cooling/ heating
These plants use centrifugal compressors. Centrifugal compressors are
effect. VRF system uses refrigerant as the cooling and heating medium. This not suitable for circulating and expanding the liquid refrigerant in
refrigerant is compressed and liquefied by a single outdoor condensing unit remote heat exchange surface. They are, therefore, used only to chill
(ODU), and is circulated within the building through copper refrigerant pipes to water/ brine for circulation through remote heat exchanger surface
multiple fan-coil units (FCUs) called the IDUs( Indoor Units). (AHU coils).

VRF ODUs are typically provided with rectifier-inverter power system, which 2.7.2.4 System Design & plant selection
provided a Variable Voltage & Variable Frequency (V3F) supply to compressor
motor, in order to support variable speed. This in turn provides i) The system design shall be done after detailed heat load calculations
considering the outside and inside design conditions, ventilation
variable refrigerant flow through the refrigerant lines meeting the demand of
requirements and internal loads. The plant selection shall be made on
cooling/ heating. The speed of the motor is controlled through a feedback the basis of the calculated peak load, load diversity, partial load
system sensing the refrigeration demand from the IDUs. requirements and standby capacity. Normally the size of chillers is so
VRFs come in two system format, two pipe and three pipe systems. In a 2 pipe chosen that at least two chillers, each of 50% of full load requirement are
provided. In case of very large requirements, sometimes the architectural
system all of the zones must either be all in cooling or all in heating. A three
& structural limitations may dictate the compulsions to limit the size of
pipe Heat Recovery (HR) systems has the ability to heat certain zones while individual chillers to smaller capacity. The standby capacity in turn will
others require cooling. In this case the heat extracted from the zone requiring depend upon the number of hours of operation of the plant per day,
cooling is put to use in the zone requiring heating. This is made possible relative importance of the installation and functional requirements.
because the heating units are functioning as a condenser. Normally for 12 hrs operation of plant one number additional unit of the
same capacity as standby may be provided. For 24 hrs operation of
APPLICATIONS: plant, 100% standby may be provided.
ii) The type, capacity and quantities of the various components of the
These systems are basically extensions of split type A.Cs and are much less system shall then have to be worked out and specified.
efficient as compared to central A.C. plant hence should not be provided iii) It is also a good practice to simulate cost of operation of the plant by
except in following cases- considering different capacity of chillers for the type of applications. It is
established that by properly selecting the chiller size we can save up to
i. In the existing building, requiring central AC but the space for providing AC 10 % in operational cost.
plant, height of ceiling for ducting, water supply for chilled water based AC
iv) The various components of the system shall be so selected as to match
plant, is not available.
each other under operating conditions of full load as well as anticipated
partial loads.
ii. It is not possible to provide central A.C. plant and run the chilled water lines
v) Having selecting the size of chillers it may be decided whether single
up to cool the rooms with fan coil units to cool the rooms.
circuit or dual circuit chiller be provided.
Such system is normally provided where high diversity in demand is available vi) The overall dimensions of various equipments in the system shall be
i.e. small Guest houses, small hotels, small offices, Art Galleries, etc. suitable for installation in the available space. The permissible loading of
the building structure, acceptable noise level and aesthetics should also
be considered.

18 23
vi) Chilled / Hot water piping (required in central chilled water system). A comparison of the VRF/ VRV systems with the Central Chilled water system
vii) Condenser water piping. was got done. Also recommendations of BEE were taken in case of a large
viii) Air handling units (AHUs) comprising of supply air blower, cooling coil building AC requirement. It is added below for making decision.
and/ or heating coil, humidification system (wherever specified), &
filters (the room in which AHU is installed is called weather maker
room). S. Points VRF AC Chilled Water Remarks
ix) Air distribution system comprising of ducting, variable air volume No. based AC
(VAV) valves, fire control dampers, grilles & diffusers. 1 Peak Power 1.6KW/TR peak. 1.3KW/TR Peak. Higher size & cost of Power
x) Treated fresh air system (TFA), Free Cooling System, Demand (Efficiency (IKW/TR<0.6 Supply Capital Equipment like
xi) Demand Control Ventilation System. drastically reduces now for chilling Transformers etc. & thus higher
xii) Heat Recovery Wheel / Heat recovery pipe/any other measure for at high ambient as units.) Cu losses (recurring) in
energy conservation for areas, requiring high fresh air intake. Delhi summers) VRF system.
xiii) Electric power supply & distribution. 2 Annual 1.15 to 1.20 1 Annually extra expenditure of
xiv) Controls & control wiring. Power 15 to 20% in electricity bills
Consumption in VRF system.
Depending upon the application and design requirements, which the air- 3 Security & Copper piping on MS piping VRF system equipments/
Safety Of terrace & in building materials prone
conditioning system must meet, some of above components shall have to be
Equipment & to theft & damage by
arranged in certain sequence to condition the air. System miscreants & monkeys.
4 Terrace Almost 80% terrace Only Cooling With VRF loss of space for SPV
2.7.2 Type of Central plants Space is used for ODUs Towers need to Generation to meet the Green
& Cu pipe & be installed at terrace. Building Norms. Problem of
Refrigeration unit (Central plants) as mentioned under para 2.7.1 (i) above may power cables cleaning terrace & loss of water
be of DX type or chilled water type as per following details:- proofing also occurs over time.
5 Water No water required Regular Supply of Major advantage in VRF system
2.7.2.1 DX (Direct Expansion) type central plant:- Scarcity Water required but, now STPs are generating
for condenser cooling water for meeting up to 75% of AC
i) In this type of central plant the evaporator(s) component of the central plant is Plant demand. Water drift losses
also being reduced by use of
located in the air handling unit(s) & works there as DX-type cooling coil. The
Geothermal Energy.
components-chiller, chilled water pumps & chilled water piping are, therefore, 6 Air Quality of RH ,Co2, Bacteria, Full control Sick building syndrome is taken
not required in this type of plant. Conditioned dust & other care of in Water based system
space pollutants Control with AHUs and demand based
ii) This type of plant is commonly installed under following circumstances- only to very fresh air supply.
a) When the air conditioning load is not very large say up to 100 TR & limited extent.
space for plant room is available adjacent to AHU room(s). 7 Service / Personnel have to Such problems No disturbance to officers in water
b) When the temperature to be maintained in air conditioning space is attending go into the room. limited only in AHUs. based system.
below 210C, the use of DX type plant becomes technically essential to faults Problems of
due to the limiting factors of evaporation temperature of the refrigerant condensate dripping
& the temperature difference between the primary & secondary cooling in rooms.
8 Long Term Maintenance Low Cost
medium.
Benefits Expensive Maintenance
9 Fire Safety Refrigerant in Only water in AHUs Water based system is safer.
2.7.2.2 Chilled water type central plant
system goes to all and Air only in rooms
areas in building and through ducts.
i) The chilled water type central plant becomes necessary when a number of is combustible at Refrigerant is limited
smaller zones require air-conditioning. In this case, the chilled water is high temperatures, to only within the
generated in a centrally located plant room and is piped to various AHUs, releasing toxic Chilling Units.
which in turn are individually located near the space they air-condition. products of
combustion.
ii) The BHP per tonne of refrigeration in the case of chilled water system is high 10 Life 10 Years 15-20 Years Longer Life in water based system.
compared to the direct expansion system. In areas with proximity to sewage
nallahs,the life is drastically
reduced due to corrosion of Copper.
11 Applications Home or Small Large office, Even with AHUs individual room
2.7.2.3 Depending upon the type of compressor used, Central air conditioning plants
office continuously large air temperature control possible with
are of three types. with variable conditioning loads, Variable Air Volume Valves.
occupancy. More proper controlled
cost effective in conditioning of space.
room redundancy
cases.
22 19
12 ARI No Yes Standards applicable and products fan coil units for rooms and chambers can provide the necessary level of control to
Certification certified in case of water based ensure that appropriate cooling as per needs, is provided in different spaces within
Chilling machines.
the complex. This will ensure that the overall demand for cooling is managed, and
waste full air conditioning can be minimized.
Comparison between VRF/VRV System with Central Chilled Water
System:
2.6. PACKAGED TYPE UNITS
S.No. Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) Chiller based Air conditioners
system 2.6.1 Application
1. Power consumption in VRF system Power consumption in this system These are best suited for air conditioning of areas up to about 450 sqm (about
ranges up to 1.6 KW/TR of range up to 1.3 KW/TR of refrigeration. 30 TR A/C load) located adjacent to each other. Beyond this central plant is
refrigeration. generally more economical. These are generally available in 5 TR, 7.5 TR, 10
2. Most of the VRF units are Customization in design of the Chiller TR , 15 TR and 20 TR capacities. The components are housed in a vertical
designed at an ambient temperature system can be done with respect cabinet. These units can be used singly or in multiples of two/ three units.
of 36C, and so its use would not to ambient temperature.
2.6.2 Type: A packaged unit can be either water cooled or air cooled.
be suitable if the system is used
in places with hotter temperature. 2.6.3 System components-
3. If the system is used at hotter place, This is not the case in chiller based i) A water cooled packaged type unit includes the following basic
then system de-rates. system.
components:
4. It requires more space for its It can be managed by a single plant room.
outdoor unit as maximum size of (a) Refrigeration compressor
outdoor unit available is 60 hp, so a (b) Condenser (water cooled)
large no. of outdoor units would be (c) Evaporator
required to fulfill the requirement of (d) Expansion Valve
3500-4000 TR (e) Refrigerant piping along with controls
5. Its design is very complex Its design is comparatively less complex. (f) Supply air blower
6. Its CoP (Coefficient of Performance) Its CoP varies from 5.4 (for 750 TR chiller)
(g) Filters
varies from 3 to 4.2; a higher CoP to 6.3 (for 1000 TR chiller)
implies greater efficiency
7. Its part load efficiency is good if Its part load efficiency is good even at Condenser in this system is cooled by a system of cooling tower(s),
used at more than 50 % rated one third of the rated capacity. condenser water pumps & connecting condenser water piping.
capacity
ii) An air-cooled packaged unit is in two portions-Indoor unit and outdoor
Source: Information by Bureau of Energy Efficiency while designing A.C. system of unit. Compressor, Evaporator, Expansion Valve, SA blower & filters are
one of the largest CPWD Projects.
in indoor unit & condenser along with condenser fan is in outdoor unit.
VRF systems are best as alternative to room (window or split) air conditioner. Here condenser is cooled by a propeller fan.

For an installation of 3500-4000 TR, as is proposed for the new Supreme Court
2.7 CENTRAL PLANTS
building, a central chiller- based system will be more efficient than VRF system. In
order to maintain the peak efficiency of the chiller based system, when the load is less
For capacities larger than 100 TR, it is generally economical to go in for central
than peak load, the following design strategy could be considered:
plants.
a. Installation of 3 or 4 modules of 750-1000 TR capacity: Each chiller could serve
2.7.1 System components-
a different part of the building, and so air conditioning could be managed in
different area accordingly to usage requirements. Further each chiller can deliver A central air-conditioning system may comprise of following basic components.
near peak efficiency delivery upto about 1/3rd of its rated capacity, and so high i) Refrigeration unit (Central plant) comprising of compressor, condenser,
efficiency can be delivered even with large variations due to usage variance and expansion valve, evaporator & interconnecting refrigerant piping.
climatic conditions. ii) Hot water generators.
iii) Cooling towers.
iv) Condenser water pumps
b. Appropriate control systems could be installed to manage cooling in various
v) Chilled / Hot water pumps (Primary and Secondary System as
kinds of usage areas: Independent AHUs for common areas, and independent applicable).

20 21
12 ARI No Yes Standards applicable and products fan coil units for rooms and chambers can provide the necessary level of control to
Certification certified in case of water based ensure that appropriate cooling as per needs, is provided in different spaces within
Chilling machines.
the complex. This will ensure that the overall demand for cooling is managed, and
waste full air conditioning can be minimized.
Comparison between VRF/VRV System with Central Chilled Water
System:
2.6. PACKAGED TYPE UNITS
S.No. Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) Chiller based Air conditioners
system 2.6.1 Application
1. Power consumption in VRF system Power consumption in this system These are best suited for air conditioning of areas up to about 450 sqm (about
ranges up to 1.6 KW/TR of range up to 1.3 KW/TR of refrigeration. 30 TR A/C load) located adjacent to each other. Beyond this central plant is
refrigeration. generally more economical. These are generally available in 5 TR, 7.5 TR, 10
2. Most of the VRF units are Customization in design of the Chiller TR , 15 TR and 20 TR capacities. The components are housed in a vertical
designed at an ambient temperature system can be done with respect cabinet. These units can be used singly or in multiples of two/ three units.
of 36C, and so its use would not to ambient temperature.
2.6.2 Type: A packaged unit can be either water cooled or air cooled.
be suitable if the system is used
in places with hotter temperature. 2.6.3 System components-
3. If the system is used at hotter place, This is not the case in chiller based i) A water cooled packaged type unit includes the following basic
then system de-rates. system.
components:
4. It requires more space for its It can be managed by a single plant room.
outdoor unit as maximum size of (a) Refrigeration compressor
outdoor unit available is 60 hp, so a (b) Condenser (water cooled)
large no. of outdoor units would be (c) Evaporator
required to fulfill the requirement of (d) Expansion Valve
3500-4000 TR (e) Refrigerant piping along with controls
5. Its design is very complex Its design is comparatively less complex. (f) Supply air blower
6. Its CoP (Coefficient of Performance) Its CoP varies from 5.4 (for 750 TR chiller)
(g) Filters
varies from 3 to 4.2; a higher CoP to 6.3 (for 1000 TR chiller)
implies greater efficiency
7. Its part load efficiency is good if Its part load efficiency is good even at Condenser in this system is cooled by a system of cooling tower(s),
used at more than 50 % rated one third of the rated capacity. condenser water pumps & connecting condenser water piping.
capacity
ii) An air-cooled packaged unit is in two portions-Indoor unit and outdoor
Source: Information by Bureau of Energy Efficiency while designing A.C. system of unit. Compressor, Evaporator, Expansion Valve, SA blower & filters are
one of the largest CPWD Projects.
in indoor unit & condenser along with condenser fan is in outdoor unit.
VRF systems are best as alternative to room (window or split) air conditioner. Here condenser is cooled by a propeller fan.

For an installation of 3500-4000 TR, as is proposed for the new Supreme Court
2.7 CENTRAL PLANTS
building, a central chiller- based system will be more efficient than VRF system. In
order to maintain the peak efficiency of the chiller based system, when the load is less
For capacities larger than 100 TR, it is generally economical to go in for central
than peak load, the following design strategy could be considered:
plants.
a. Installation of 3 or 4 modules of 750-1000 TR capacity: Each chiller could serve
2.7.1 System components-
a different part of the building, and so air conditioning could be managed in
different area accordingly to usage requirements. Further each chiller can deliver A central air-conditioning system may comprise of following basic components.
near peak efficiency delivery upto about 1/3rd of its rated capacity, and so high i) Refrigeration unit (Central plant) comprising of compressor, condenser,
efficiency can be delivered even with large variations due to usage variance and expansion valve, evaporator & interconnecting refrigerant piping.
climatic conditions. ii) Hot water generators.
iii) Cooling towers.
iv) Condenser water pumps
b. Appropriate control systems could be installed to manage cooling in various
v) Chilled / Hot water pumps (Primary and Secondary System as
kinds of usage areas: Independent AHUs for common areas, and independent applicable).

20 21
vi) Chilled / Hot water piping (required in central chilled water system). A comparison of the VRF/ VRV systems with the Central Chilled water system
vii) Condenser water piping. was got done. Also recommendations of BEE were taken in case of a large
viii) Air handling units (AHUs) comprising of supply air blower, cooling coil building AC requirement. It is added below for making decision.
and/ or heating coil, humidification system (wherever specified), &
filters (the room in which AHU is installed is called weather maker
room). S. Points VRF AC Chilled Water Remarks
ix) Air distribution system comprising of ducting, variable air volume No. based AC
(VAV) valves, fire control dampers, grilles & diffusers. 1 Peak Power 1.6KW/TR peak. 1.3KW/TR Peak. Higher size & cost of Power
x) Treated fresh air system (TFA), Free Cooling System, Demand (Efficiency (IKW/TR<0.6 Supply Capital Equipment like
xi) Demand Control Ventilation System. drastically reduces now for chilling Transformers etc. & thus higher
xii) Heat Recovery Wheel / Heat recovery pipe/any other measure for at high ambient as units.) Cu losses (recurring) in
energy conservation for areas, requiring high fresh air intake. Delhi summers) VRF system.
xiii) Electric power supply & distribution. 2 Annual 1.15 to 1.20 1 Annually extra expenditure of
xiv) Controls & control wiring. Power 15 to 20% in electricity bills
Consumption in VRF system.
Depending upon the application and design requirements, which the air- 3 Security & Copper piping on MS piping VRF system equipments/
Safety Of terrace & in building materials prone
conditioning system must meet, some of above components shall have to be
Equipment & to theft & damage by
arranged in certain sequence to condition the air. System miscreants & monkeys.
4 Terrace Almost 80% terrace Only Cooling With VRF loss of space for SPV
2.7.2 Type of Central plants Space is used for ODUs Towers need to Generation to meet the Green
& Cu pipe & be installed at terrace. Building Norms. Problem of
Refrigeration unit (Central plants) as mentioned under para 2.7.1 (i) above may power cables cleaning terrace & loss of water
be of DX type or chilled water type as per following details:- proofing also occurs over time.
5 Water No water required Regular Supply of Major advantage in VRF system
2.7.2.1 DX (Direct Expansion) type central plant:- Scarcity Water required but, now STPs are generating
for condenser cooling water for meeting up to 75% of AC
i) In this type of central plant the evaporator(s) component of the central plant is Plant demand. Water drift losses
also being reduced by use of
located in the air handling unit(s) & works there as DX-type cooling coil. The
Geothermal Energy.
components-chiller, chilled water pumps & chilled water piping are, therefore, 6 Air Quality of RH ,Co2, Bacteria, Full control Sick building syndrome is taken
not required in this type of plant. Conditioned dust & other care of in Water based system
space pollutants Control with AHUs and demand based
ii) This type of plant is commonly installed under following circumstances- only to very fresh air supply.
a) When the air conditioning load is not very large say up to 100 TR & limited extent.
space for plant room is available adjacent to AHU room(s). 7 Service / Personnel have to Such problems No disturbance to officers in water
b) When the temperature to be maintained in air conditioning space is attending go into the room. limited only in AHUs. based system.
below 210C, the use of DX type plant becomes technically essential to faults Problems of
due to the limiting factors of evaporation temperature of the refrigerant condensate dripping
& the temperature difference between the primary & secondary cooling in rooms.
8 Long Term Maintenance Low Cost
medium.
Benefits Expensive Maintenance
9 Fire Safety Refrigerant in Only water in AHUs Water based system is safer.
2.7.2.2 Chilled water type central plant
system goes to all and Air only in rooms
areas in building and through ducts.
i) The chilled water type central plant becomes necessary when a number of is combustible at Refrigerant is limited
smaller zones require air-conditioning. In this case, the chilled water is high temperatures, to only within the
generated in a centrally located plant room and is piped to various AHUs, releasing toxic Chilling Units.
which in turn are individually located near the space they air-condition. products of
combustion.
ii) The BHP per tonne of refrigeration in the case of chilled water system is high 10 Life 10 Years 15-20 Years Longer Life in water based system.
compared to the direct expansion system. In areas with proximity to sewage
nallahs,the life is drastically
reduced due to corrosion of Copper.
11 Applications Home or Small Large office, Even with AHUs individual room
2.7.2.3 Depending upon the type of compressor used, Central air conditioning plants
office continuously large air temperature control possible with
are of three types. with variable conditioning loads, Variable Air Volume Valves.
occupancy. More proper controlled
cost effective in conditioning of space.
room redundancy
cases.
22 19
refrigerant pipes is required, proper pipe bending tool should be used to i) Reciprocating type central air conditioning plant.
avoid pinching of pipes.
These plant use reciprocating compressor. These are available in
capacities ranging from 30 TR to 110 TR. However these are slowly
iv) The refrigerant pipes should be properly insulated as per the
being discontinued due to poor compressor efficiency and being
recommendations of the manufacturer of split type AC units. The replaced with scroll & screw type compressors.
insulation over refrigerant pipes be examined once in a year and in case
of any deficiency/ defect the same may be replaced. ii) Screw type central air conditioning plant.

2.5 VRV/ VRF SYSTEM: These plants use screw type compressors. These are generally used in
capacities ranging from 80 TR and up to 400 TR at present.
In a generalising definition, Variable refrigerant flow (VRF) can be explained
as a multiple Split Air-conditioning system using principle of control of flow/ iii) Centrifugal type central air conditioning plant.
quantity of refrigerant through the Indoor Unit to control the cooling/ heating
These plants use centrifugal compressors. Centrifugal compressors are
effect. VRF system uses refrigerant as the cooling and heating medium. This not suitable for circulating and expanding the liquid refrigerant in
refrigerant is compressed and liquefied by a single outdoor condensing unit remote heat exchange surface. They are, therefore, used only to chill
(ODU), and is circulated within the building through copper refrigerant pipes to water/ brine for circulation through remote heat exchanger surface
multiple fan-coil units (FCUs) called the IDUs( Indoor Units). (AHU coils).

VRF ODUs are typically provided with rectifier-inverter power system, which 2.7.2.4 System Design & plant selection
provided a Variable Voltage & Variable Frequency (V3F) supply to compressor
motor, in order to support variable speed. This in turn provides i) The system design shall be done after detailed heat load calculations
considering the outside and inside design conditions, ventilation
variable refrigerant flow through the refrigerant lines meeting the demand of
requirements and internal loads. The plant selection shall be made on
cooling/ heating. The speed of the motor is controlled through a feedback the basis of the calculated peak load, load diversity, partial load
system sensing the refrigeration demand from the IDUs. requirements and standby capacity. Normally the size of chillers is so
VRFs come in two system format, two pipe and three pipe systems. In a 2 pipe chosen that at least two chillers, each of 50% of full load requirement are
provided. In case of very large requirements, sometimes the architectural
system all of the zones must either be all in cooling or all in heating. A three
& structural limitations may dictate the compulsions to limit the size of
pipe Heat Recovery (HR) systems has the ability to heat certain zones while individual chillers to smaller capacity. The standby capacity in turn will
others require cooling. In this case the heat extracted from the zone requiring depend upon the number of hours of operation of the plant per day,
cooling is put to use in the zone requiring heating. This is made possible relative importance of the installation and functional requirements.
because the heating units are functioning as a condenser. Normally for 12 hrs operation of plant one number additional unit of the
same capacity as standby may be provided. For 24 hrs operation of
APPLICATIONS: plant, 100% standby may be provided.
ii) The type, capacity and quantities of the various components of the
These systems are basically extensions of split type A.Cs and are much less system shall then have to be worked out and specified.
efficient as compared to central A.C. plant hence should not be provided iii) It is also a good practice to simulate cost of operation of the plant by
except in following cases- considering different capacity of chillers for the type of applications. It is
established that by properly selecting the chiller size we can save up to
i. In the existing building, requiring central AC but the space for providing AC 10 % in operational cost.
plant, height of ceiling for ducting, water supply for chilled water based AC
iv) The various components of the system shall be so selected as to match
plant, is not available.
each other under operating conditions of full load as well as anticipated
partial loads.
ii. It is not possible to provide central A.C. plant and run the chilled water lines
v) Having selecting the size of chillers it may be decided whether single
up to cool the rooms with fan coil units to cool the rooms.
circuit or dual circuit chiller be provided.
Such system is normally provided where high diversity in demand is available vi) The overall dimensions of various equipments in the system shall be
i.e. small Guest houses, small hotels, small offices, Art Galleries, etc. suitable for installation in the available space. The permissible loading of
the building structure, acceptable noise level and aesthetics should also
be considered.

18 23
vii) Areas with different requirements of fresh air, degree of filtration and/ or
operating hours shall need different and independent AHUs. APPLICATIONS:
viii) From the fire safety point of view, storage areas of combustible articles Window A.C. are available in standard rating of 1, 1.5, 2 TR these are provided
such as film stores and explosives shall not be served by the AHUs, where-
which are serving other areas. Other fire precautions as per National (i) Window for fixing the AC is available or necessary opening in wall is
Building Code, local municipal byelaws and other statutory requirements provided for the purpose.
shall be complied with. (ii) Sound level of up to 50 dB inside the room is acceptable.
ix) For 24 hrs A/C areas & where the secondary chilled water pumps are (iii) These types of A.C.s are efficient & easy to maintain as compared to
provided, to save energy, the secondary pumps may be provided with split A.C.
variable speed drive (VSD) to regulate water flow as per load (iv) BEE star rated WTACs are available. As far as possible 5 star rated A.C.
requirement.
may be provided in all new installation for conserving electrical energy.
x) For 100% (Fresh air) AHUs requiring 24 hrs. operation, variable speed
drive (VSD) may be provided to regulate the flow of dehumidified air as INSTALLATION:
per load requirement.
(i) While installing the A.C care be take that WTAC is not provided at back
xi) In case the cooling is done by positioning fan coil units (FCUs) within the of sitting/ chair in room.
conditioned spaces and circulated chilled water through them, it should (ii) Standard A.C are provided with control plate and wire at right side of A.C
also be supplemented by circulating conditioned air through 100 % FA
(as seen from front) hence power outlet points should be provide at right
AHU (Treated Fresh Air AHU) by a network of ducting, grills and diffusers
to the conditioned spaces for better comfort conditions in terms of side of window etc.
ventilation, & humidity control and Oxygen requirements. (iii) Standard installation procedures, as given by the manufacturers, may be
followed.
xii) For areas like operation theatre, animal house and where specifically
required functionally, AHUs with 100% fresh air shall be used. The
return/ used air in such cases shall be exhausted to atmosphere by 2.4 SPLIT TYPE A.C.
installing a suitable exhaust air system. This exhaust air system shall
consist of single skin blower section and a filter section. This exhaust air APPLICATIONS:
system may be ceiling suspended/ floor mounted as per the site (i) Where window for installation of WTAC is not available, Split Type AC
availability. are planned.
xiii) In 100% fresh air areas and areas having high occupancy such as (ii) Almost Silent (Low dB level) operation of A.C is important, considering
lecture theatres, auditoria, etc., requiring high volume of fresh air, pre- VIP rooms, conference rooms, etc.
cooling of fresh air be done by providing Heat Recovery Wheel.
xiv) In addition to controlling the inside temperature it is necessary to control INSTALLATION
the concentration limit of various pollutants as per ISHRAE handbook i) Wherever split A.C. are planned in the new buildings, necessary
table no. 29, which are listed below. This is done by providing Demand openings in wall may be provided by with use of 75 mm PVC pipe
Control Ventilation System using sensors for detecting the concentration
sleeves at suitable locations for taking refrigerant pipes and cable to
and varying the Fresh Air Supply through motorised dampers.
outdoor unit, so as to avoid unnecessary cutting/ damage to walls at a
later stage. The slope of sleeve of PVC pipe should be towards exterior
Contaminant Concentration Ppm Exposure time to avoid seepage of water into the room. This opening should be sealed
properly after installation to avoid entry of vermin and rain water.
Carbon dioxide* 1.8 g/cum. 1000 Continuous
ii) For condensate drain, 40 mm PVC/ HDPE pipe be also provided and
Carbon 55 mg/cum. 50 8 hr taken to nearest drain or up to the stack for collection & disposal of
monoxide condensate. The slope of such pipe also should be downwards. As far as
Chlordane 55 g/cum. 0.0003 Continuous possible, joints should be avoided in this pipe.
iii) The length of connecting refrigerant pipes between outdoor and indoor
Ozone 100g/cum. 0.05 Continuous unit be kept to minimum feasible at site. However it should not exceed 9
m , as the efficiency of the unit gets severely affected on increase of
Radon** 0.027/WL - Annual Average distance. The refrigerant pipes should be taken along the walls/ columns
etc. duly clamped to their surface by saddles. If walls etc. are not
Nitrogen dioxide 9 mg/cum. 5 Continuous
available, tray be used to support the refrigerant pipes. Where bending of

24 17
Cooling Demand Densities Sulphur dioxide 13 mg/cum. 5
Refrigeration
Total Suspended Particulates = 100 g/m/cum. 1 hrs
m2/Ton
* Threshold value - 600ppm (NIOSH)
Classifications Lo* Av* Hi* ** 3200 piococuries
Apartment, High rise 45 40 35
Auditoriums, Churches, Theatres 40 25 9
Educational Facilities 24 18.5 15 2.8 CENTRAL HEATING SYSTEM
Schools, College, Universities
2.8.1 A central heating system is a means of heating the air in a conditioned space
Factories Assembly Areas 24 15 9 with or without humidification. Various methods used for central heating are:-
Light
Manufacturing 20 15 10 i) The most common method of heating is with the help of a hot water generator.
Heavy This is achieved by circulating the hot water so generated either through: -
Manufacturing# 10 8 6
Hospitals Patient Rooms* 27.5 22 16.5 a) Heat convectors or radiators positioned in the conditioned spaces, or
Public Areas 17.5 14 11 b) Heating coils of AHUs and circulating the heated air through the
conditioned spaces, analogous to the central chilled water air
Hotels, Motels, Dormitories 35 30 22
conditioning system.
Libraries and Museums 34 28 20
Office Buildings* 36 28 19 ii) Reverse cycle by providing changeover valves in the chilled and condenser
Private Offices* - - - water piping.
Stenographic Department - - -
Use of Strip Heaters is now discontinued due to fire hazard.
Residential Large
60 50 38
Medium
15 12 10
Shopping Centres, Department 2.8.2 Central Heating through Hot Water Generators
Stores and Specialty Shops
Department Stores Basement 34 28.5 22.5 i) General Description of System
Main Floors 35 24.5 15
The hot water generator be electrically operated. Coal & Oil fired hot water
Upper Floors 40 34 28
generators are now not in use due to very low energy efficiency and pollution
Dress Shops 34.5 28 18.5 considerations.
Drug Stores 18 13.5 11
Shoe Stores 30 22 15 The hot water so generated is piped through either heat convectors/ radiators
or AHUs, depending upon the system followed. Heat convectors/ radiators are
Malls 36.5 23 16
used where no humidity control is required. In order to provide better comfort
Refrigeration for Central Heating
conditions, this type of heating can be supplemented with preheated fresh air
and Cooling Plant
circulated through AHUs and ducts. The central heating scheme can also be
Urban Districts 47.5 38 28.5 designed along with the central chilled water air-conditioning scheme where
College Campuses 40 32 24 cooling during summer and heating during winter are required in one of
Commercial Centres 33 26.5 20 following manners:
Residential Centres 62.5 50 37.5
a) Laying separate pipe lines for chilled and hot water flow from A.C. plant
Source: ASHRAE GRP 158, Load Calculation Manual (Heating & Cooling), Table room to AHUs. Here AHUs will have separate cooling and heating coils. For
A1.1- Cooling load Check figures humidity control in monsoon re-heat coils in the main initial section of S.A. duct
shall be provided.
* Hi values of cooling demand density may be used for existing buildings where
building envelope cannot be improved b) In case of space constraints in respect to laying of separate pipe lines
* Av values may be used for unitary (WT or Split type) units and for AC areas & cooling, heating coils, same water lines and heat transfer coils may be
surrounded by non AC area else designed to carry chilled water during summer/ monsoon for cooling and hot
* Lo values may be used for new buildings. water during winter for heating. In this case however humidity control by reheat
shall not be possible, as strip heaters used earlier are not allowed due to Fire
2.3 WINDOW TYPE A.C. Protection consideration.

16 25
ii) System Component : ii) Maximum velocity at supply air grilles/ diffusers : 150 m/min

A complete central heating system may include the following components : iii) Maximum friction in duct : 1cm WG/100 m run
a) Hot water generator,
b) Hot water pump, 2.1.2.5 DUCTING FOR AUDITORIUM ,CONFERENCE HALL ,
c) Hot water piping, OT's :
d) Convector/ radiator
e) Heat transfer units (AHUs), variable air volume (VAV) valves, fire Value of all above parameters be kept as three fourth of
control dampers, grills & diffusers values specified at 2.1.2.4 above.
f) Treated fresh air system (TFA),
g) Demand Control Ventilation System.
2.1.2.6 DUCTING FOR ETAC system and VENTILATION
h) Heat Recover Wheel.
i) Air filters, System ( normal operation ) in Basement :
j) Air distribution system,
k) Controls and control wiring and, Value of all above parameters be kept as 1.5 times of values
l) Power supply control and distribution arrangement. specified at 2.1.2.4 above.
Some or all of the above components shall have to be arranged in a
proper sequence to condition the air. 2.2 RECOMMENDED COOLING DEMAND DENSITIES

iii) System Design and plant selection: Following table from ASHRAE GRP 158, Load Calculation Manual (Heating &
Cooling), provides the recommended cooling demand densities (m2 /TR) for
It shall be done as per para 2.7.2.4 above. different building types using air conditioning systems. The requirements given
in the table may be used for preliminary calculations. However, final sizing
2.8.3 Central Heating through electric strip heaters : shall be based on the actual heat load calculations.

Strip heaters used earlier are not allowed due to Fire Protection consideration. Example of Building air conditioning load (TR) calculation using the table
given below.
2.8.4 Central Heating through Reverse Cycle :
To estimate the cooling demand (air conditioning load TR) of an office building
i) General Description. having air conditioned area of 1,000 m2
a) The chilled water air-conditioning system which is used for cooling in
summer can also be used for heating in winter by providing additional Using the *Lo values (m2/TR) given below in the table for office category
valves & piping for interchanging the condenser water & chilled water building, the estimated total air conditioning load (TR) of the building will be
flow circuits.
Preliminary estimated air conditioning load (TR) = area (m2)/ Cooling
b) During summer when cooling is required, the chilled water plant is demand density (m2/TR) = 1000/36
operated as a conventional system with the chilled water being circulated
through the cooling coils of the AHUs and FCUs to cool and dehumidify Notes:
areas and condenser water being circulated through the cooling tower.
c) During winter, when heating is required, the condenser water is Refrigeration loads are for entire application.
circulated through the cooling coils of AHUs and FCUs. The warm
condenser water heats the air passing over AHU/ FCU cooling coils and # Air quantities for heavy manufacturing areas are based on supplementary
gets cooled in the process. The cooled condenser water is then means to remove excessive heat.
circulated through the condenser to condense the refrigerant vapour and
it gets heated up in the process. The cooling coils thus perform the * Air quantities for hospital patient rooms and office buildings (except internal
function of the cooling tower. The chilled water from the chiller is areas) are based on induction (air-water) system.
circulated through the cooling tower. The temperature of chilled water
being lower than the ambient air, the chilled water gets heated by the Refrigeration and air quantities for applications listed in this table of cooling
ambient air. The chilled water from the cooling tower is then circulated load check figures are based on all-air system and normal outdoor air
through the chiller to evaporate the refrigerant & it gets cooled in the quantities for ventilation except as noted.
process. The cooled water is then circulated through the cooling tower.
The cooling tower performs the function of the cooling coil. This winter
heating is known as reverse cycle heating and can be accomplished by
interconnection of chilled water and condenser water supply and return
headers through change over valves.

26 15
2.1.2 DESIGN PARAMETERS d) This system can be used in places where winter ambient
temperature is more than 7.20C (W.B) & Quality of water shall have
2.1.2.1 CHILLING UNIT hardness less than 60 PPM.
ii) Limitations :
i) Centrifugal chilling unit : CFC and HCFC free refrigerant.
a) The reverse cycle heating cannot be resorted to when the outside wet
ii) Suction temperature : As per manufacturer standard bulb temperature drops below 7. 2 0C.

iii) Condensing temperature : design to suit duty of Water Chilling Unit b) Further, if the quality of condenser water is bad, circulation of
condenser water through the cooling coils may foul the tubes of the
cooling coil and may also lead to scale formation inside the tubes of the
cooling coils. Hence this system is used where hardness of water is
iv) Condenser :
less than 60 PPM.
a) Water temperature IN 32.2deg C
b) Water temperature OUT 36.4 deg C 2.8.5 Central Heating through Heat Pumps:
c) Temperature rise 4.2 deg C
d) Fouling factor 0.001(British unit) For cold areas having RH below 55% throughout the year, heat pumps may
e) Maximum permissible pressure drop: 10 m of water- head be used, if economical.

2.9 Mechanical Ventilation (For Non Air Conditioned Areas)


v) Chiller :
2.9.1 Ventilation
a) Water temperature IN 12.2 deg C
Ventilation is the process of changing air in an enclosed space. A proportion of
b) Water temperature OUT 6.67 deg C
the air in the space should be continuously withdrawn and replaced by fresh air
c) Temperature drop 5.5 deg C
drawn from outside to maintain the required level of air purity. Ventilation is
d) Fouling factor 0.0005 (British unit)
required to control the following:
e) Maximum permissible pressure drop: 10 m of water- head
a) Oxygen Content Prevent depletion of the oxygen content of the air;
b) Carbon dioxide and Moisture Prevent undue accumulation;
2.1.2.2 PIPING
c) Contaminants Prevent undue rise in concentration of body odours and
i) Maximum flow velocity : 2.5 m/s other contaminants such as tobacco smoke;
d) Bacteria Oxidize colonies of bacteria and fungus to prevent their
ii) Maximum friction : 5 m/100 m run proliferation.
e) Heat Remove body heat, heat generated by electrical & mechanical
2.1.2.3 AIR HANDLING UNIT equipment, solar heat gains through walls & glass, etc.
i) Maximum face velocity across cooling coil : 155 m/min
Mechanical ventilation is one of several forms of ventilation options available. It
ii) Maximum outlet air velocity : 610 m/min usually consists of fans, filters, ducts, air diffusers and outlets for air distribution
within the building. It may include either mechanical exhaust system or exhaust
iii) Maximum velocity across filters : can occur through natural means.
a) Ordinary filters 155 m/min
b) Micro-vee filters 155 m/min Natural ventilation and natural exhaust are also options. The scope of this
c) HEPA filters 155 m/min section is therefore restricted to mechanical ventilation.

iv) Minimum spray density for humidification : 10 lpm/sq.m 2.9.2 Design Considerations.

Following considerations provide details regarding the various parameters that


affect the type of ventilation system selected for a particular application, and
2.1.2.4 DUCTING FOR AIRCONDITIONING (office Building)
the sizing of the ventilation plant:
MainDuct Branch duct
i) Maximum flow velocity : 400 m/min 250 m/min 2.9.2.1 National Building Code of India 2005 specified the ventilation
requirement as per following table:

14 27
Ventilation Requirement for various areas in various buildings : CHAPTER -2

S.No. Application Air Change per hour SYSTEMS AND SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS

1. Assembly Rooms 4-8 2.1 AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM

2. Bank/building societies 4-8 An air-conditioning system is a means of cooling/ heating, dehumidification/


humidification, filtration and its distribution to the various conditioned spaces ,
3. Bathrooms 6-10 maintaining indoor air quality, energy efficiency and other resources . Various
types of air-conditioning systems commonly used are:-
4. Bedrooms 2-4 a) Unit type equipments, which may be a window type room air-
conditioner or a split type air-conditioner.
5. Canteens 8-12
b) Packaged type units, which may be fully self contained (factory
6. Cinemas and theatres 10-15 assembled), or split type units.
c) VRV/ VRF system
7. Club rooms 12, Min d) Central plants, which are of two types :-
8. Conference rooms 8-12 i) Central DX-Plants with AHUs etc.

9. Corridors 5-10 ii) Central chilled water plants with AHUs, Fan Coil Units, Chilled
Beams, Embedded chilled water pipes in slabs & walls, etc.
10. Dance halls 12, Min
For each application there will specifically be only one system, which
11. Engine Room 15-30 will be just right for it.

12. Entrance halls 3-5


2.1.1 DRAWINGS
13. Garages 6-8
2.1.1.1 Following drawings shall be enclosed with tender documents :
14. Glass Houses 25-60 a) All floors HVAC layout
b) Chilled & Condenser water SLD
15. Gymnasium 6, Min c) Electrical SLD for HVAC Panels
16. Hospital sterilizing 15-25 2.1.1.2 No other drawings shall be made available. The contractor may
visit the site or discuss with Engineer-in-charge for any other site
17. Hospital ward 6-8 particular that he may need before submitting the tender.
18. Hospital domestic 15-20 2.1.1.3 Drawings have been prepared showing the areas to be Air
conditioned & space allocated for the equipment. Adequacy of the
19. Laboratories 6-15 plant room, AHU rooms etc for the equipment offered should be
checked &confirmed by tenderer.
20. Laundries 10-30

21. Lavatories 6-15 2.1.1.4 The above drawings represent a feasible scheme. Equipment
layout, chilled water piping scheme, duct layout, sizes of grilles etc.
22. Lecture theatres 5-8 shown in the drawings can be rearranged/ changed as per site/
Architectural requirements in consultation and with prior approval
23. Libraries 3-5 of Engineer-in-charge.

24. Living rooms 3-6 2.1.1.5 These are not working drawings. The contractor shall prepare
detailed working drawings &execute the work as per working
25. Offices 6-10 drawings approved by the Engineer-in-charge.

26. Photo and X- ray dark 10-15


room

28 13
iv) All the doors/ windows of air-conditioned areas shall be made airtight. 27. Recording control rooms 15-25
Air leakage for glazed swinging entrance doors and revolving doors
shall not exceed 5.0 l/s m2. Air leakage for other fenestration and doors 28. Restaurants 8-12
shall not exceed 2.0 l/s m2.
29. School room 5-7
v) The following areas of the enclosed building envelopes shall be sealed,
caulked, gasketed, or weather stripped to minimize air leakage: 30. Shops and supermarkets 8-15

a) Joints around fenestration and door frames 31. Shower baths 15-20
b) Openings between walls and foundation and between walls and roof and
wall panels. 32. Stores and Warehouses 3-6
c) Opening at penetrations of utility services through roof, walls, and floors
d) Site-built fenestration and doors 33. Swimming Bath 10-15
e) Building assemblies used as ducts and plenums
f) All other openings in the building envelope 34. Toilets 6-10

vi) For air conditioning areas, where the return air is collected/ carried
back to AHU rooms above false ceiling, the false ceiling shall be airtight Note: - The ventilation rates may be increased by 50 percent
& preferably shall be of Gypsum Board. where heavy smoking occurs or if the room is below
ground.
vii) Total water requirements of air conditioning plant shall be assessed @
15 litre/TR/Hr of plant operation. For 24 hour operation the number of
2.9.2.2 CMM required for ventilation system is thus calculated Based on the
operating hours shall be taken as 16. For small central plants a makeup
water tank of same capacity shall be provided along the cooling towers volume of the room and from the above table as-
with bottom of this make up tank being at least 0.75 mtrs above the
sump level of cooling tower. For large size central plants an (no. of air changes/ hour) X (volume in cu. m of space to
underground tank of total water requirement capacity shall have to be be ventilated)
provided near the A.C. Plant room and a makeup water tank of part CMM = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
water requirement shall be provided along with cooling towers. 60

3.10 CHECK LIST FOR SPACE PROVISIONS FOR CENTRAL AIR


CONDITIONING WORKS
2.9.2.3 CMM required for Pressurisation of lifts lobby, lift shaft, stair case shaft
i) A.C Plant room is calculated from closed door as well as opened door area as-
ii) AC plant room water connection & drainage i) Leakage area = total nos. of doors x gap in doors (normally taken as 2
iii) Cooling tower location mm) x perimeter of doors.
iv) AHU room ii) Leakage form closed door = 0.821 x leakage area x pressure difference.
v) AHU room water connection & drainage iii) Opened door leakage = door area x no. of opened door (normally
vi) Shaft for carrying chilled water pipes considered 1 door) x velocity (normally considered as 0.76 m / sec) of
vii) False ceiling co-ordination
viii) Ceiling height to accommodate ducting air.
ix) Water requirement iv) Total air leakage = closed door + opened door leakage.
x) Routes of piping/ cable v) Add 10% safety factor/ duct leakage etc., which will give CMM required.
xi) Thermal/ acoustic insulation
xii) Air tightness of windows/ doors 2.9.2.4 CMM required for Basement Parking Ventilation
xiii) Insulation for AC areas on top floors. i) Divide the basement in zones of area not exceeding 3000 sqm. in case
sprinkler system is provided in basement, if not, then not exceeding else
750 sqm.
ii) For each zone separate set of supply air fans and exhaust air fans shall
be provided. Supply air fans shall not be required in areas in zone near
Ramps or zone with natural ventilation, however sufficiency may be
examined.
iii) Minimum 12 air changes/hrs. are required to be provided.

44 29
iv) Calculate the CMM required for each Zone as per 2.9.2.2. Opaque Wall Assembly U-Factor and Insulation R-Value Requirements
v) The recommended ventilation rate will ensure that the CO level will Climate zone 24-Hour use buildings- Hospitals, Daytime use buildings
maintained within 29 mg/m with peak level not to exceed 137 mg/m. Hotels, etc. Other building Types
Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum
U-Factor of R-value of U-Factor of the R-value of
the overall Insulation overall insulation
2.9.2.5 Calculation of Fan Static- Assembly alone Assembly alone (m2.K/W)
2 2 2
(W/m -C) (m .K/W) (W/m -C)
i) Pressurization system for lifts lobby, lift shaft, stair case shaft -. Composite R-2.1
U-0.44 R-2.1
U-0.44
As per NBC part 5 fire and light safety the following pressure are to be Hot and Dry R-2.1
U-0.44 R-2.1
U-0.44
Warm and Humid R-2.1
U-0.44 R-2.1
U-0.44
maintained for various shafts in high-rise building more than 25 mtr. in
Moderate R-2.1
U-0.44 R-2.1
U-0.44
height- Cold R-2.2
U-0.369 R-2.35
U-0.352

Pressure Difference ii) All the glazed window of air-conditioning areas shall preferably be
Reduce Operation Emergency operation provided with double pane glass windows.
Building Height
(Stage 1 of a 2 (Stage 2 of a 2 stage or
Stage system)(Pa) single stage system)(Pa) iii) Buildings or complexes that have a connected load of 100kW or greater
Less than 15 m 8 50 or an air-conditioned area of 1000 m2 or more should comply with the
15 m or above 15 50 fenestration requirements (as applicable) specified below:

ii) If possible the same levels shall be used for lobbies and corridors, but Vertical fenestration U-Factor ( W/m2-C) and SHGC
level slightly lower may be used for these spaces if desired. The Climate zone
requirements
difference in pressurization levels between staircase and lobbies (for 40% < WWR < 60%
corridors) shall not be greater than 5 Pa. WWR < 40%
iii) For Basement Parking Ventilation the static can be calculated by duct Maximum U-Factor Maximum SHGC Maximum SHGC
friction method using a ductolator. Composite 3.3 0.25 0.2
Hot and Dry 3.3 0.25 0.2
2.9.2.6 Selection & Installation of Fans : Warm and Humid 3.3 0.25 0.2
Moderate 6.9 0.4 0.3
Having defined the fan CMM & static to be developed, the fan is
selected on basis of following criterion- Cold 3.3 0.51 0.51

i) Pressurization system for lifts lobby, lift shaft, stair case shaft :
(a) Fans are normally installed at terrace and are to be enclosed in Minimum VLT Requirements
GI housing.
Window Wall ratio Minimum VLT
(b) Some duct work is required for connecting up to the shaft.
0-0.3 0.27
(c) These fans shall be operated automatically in case of fire on 0.31-0.4 0.2
signal from IBMS or directly from Fire Control Panel of AFAS. 0.41-0.5 0.16
Panels for these fans can be provided in lifts machine rooms. 0.51 - 0.6 0.13
Auto manual switch is required to be provided to facilitate local
testing.
ii) Basement car parking ventilation : Climate zone Skylight U-Factor ( W/m2-C) and SHGC requirements
Maximum U-Factor Maximum SHGC
(a) Normally centrifugal fan are provided in fan room in basement. In
case fan room is not available, ceiling mounted axial fans may With curb w/o curb 0-2% SRR 2.1-5% SRR
be provide. Composite 11.24 7.71 0.4 0.25
Hot and Dry 11.24 7.71 0.4 0.25
(b) All exhaust fan provided for the scheme, shall be fire rated for Warm and Humid 11.24 7.71 0.4 0.25
900C for 2 hrs. Moderate 11.24 7.71 0.61 0.4
(c) Normal ventilation fans for min. 12 air change/ hrs are kept on Cold 11.24 7.71 0.61 0.4
during working hours. However CO2 sensor may be provide
which will continuously monitor the air quality and operate the
normal fans only when required and there by conserve energy.

30 43
for men and materials and shall be well ventilated. In an air-cooled (d) For each zone, zonal electrical panel is required to be provided
system, the condenser shall have to be located in a well ventilated which shall get the signal from fire alarm panel to activate the
space and preferably within the equipment room. fans in case of fire to achieve 30 air changes per hr.
(e) While selecting the fans noise level of fans may be kept under
ii) AHUs Rooms and Cooling Towers
consideration to make sure that the noise level is kept below 80
These shall be located as under 3.4.2 & 3.5
decimal at all times except in case of fire.
3.8.3 Floor loading and other Structural Requirements (f) Selection of Fan type for Ventilation System
The characteristics and applications of fans & the efficiencies of various type of fans
i) The floor loading for the equipment room shall be 2000 kg /sq. m. are tabulated below for selection of fans-
ii) The floor loading/ weight of the equipment for AHU rooms and cooling Centrifugal Fans
towers shall be as under 3.3.4 & 3.5. Type Characteristics Typical Applications Efficiency (%)
High pressure, medium
iii) Where the cold rooms are located in the uppermost floor, the roof slab Various industrial applications,
flow, efficiency close to
Radial suitable for dust laden, moist 7279
shall be provided with effective water proofing treatment to avoid any tube-axial fans, power
air/ gases
damage to the insulation of the cold room. For the same reason, the increases continuously
cold rooms shall be located away from the wet areas such as toilets. Medium pressure, high
Forward- flow, dip in pressure Low pressure HVAC, packaged
iv) Where the cold rooms are located on the ground floor, the flooring shall curved curve, efficiency higher units, suitable for clean and 6065
blades than radial fans, power dust laden air/ gases
be effectively treated to prevent any seepage of water from the ground
rises continuously
into the cold room. High pressure, high flow,
Backward High efficiency, power HVAC, various industrial
v) Suitable insulation along with vapour barrier shall be provided on all the curved reduces as flow applications forced draft fans, 7983
sides of the cold room including the roof and flooring, especially in low blades increases beyond point etc.
humidity applications. of highest efficiency

3.9 GENERAL STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS Same as backward


Airfoil Same as backward curved, but
curved type, highest 7983
type for clean air applications
efficiency
i) If the building is air conditioned, the roof of the air conditioned areas &
W.M. room shall have insulation on the roof (preferably over deck
insulation wherever possible) and insulation in the walls. Buildings or Axial Flow Fans
complexes that have a connected load of 100kW or greater or an air- Type Characteristics Typical Applications Efficiency (%)
conditioned area of 1000 m2 or more should comply with the thermal Propeller Low pressure, high flow, Air-circulation, ventilation, 4550
transmittance value (U-factor) requirements or R- value of insulation low efficiency, peak exhausts.
specified below. The U-factor takes into account all elements or layers in efficiency close to point
the construction assembly, including the sheathing, interior finishes, and of free air delivery (zero
air gaps, as well as exterior and interior air films. The roof insulation shall static pressure)
not be located on a suspended ceiling with removable ceiling panels. Tube- Medium pressure, high HVAC, drying ovens, exhaust 6772
axial flow, higher efficiency Systems
Roof Assembly U-Factor and Insulation R-Value Requirements than propeller type, dip in
pressure-flow curve
Climate zone 24-Hour use buildings- Daytime use buildings Other before peak pressure
Hospitals, Hotels, etc. building Types point.
Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum R-value Vane- High pressure, medium High pressure applications 7885
U-Factor R-value of U-Factor of insulation alone axial flow, dip in pressure-flow including
of the overall Insulation of the overall (m2.K/W) curve, use of guide vanes HVAC systems
improves
Assembly Alone Assembly
Efficiency exhausts
(W/m2-C) (m2.K/W) (W/m2-C)
Composite R-3.5
U-0.261 R-2.1
U-0.409
Hot and Dry R-3.5
U-0.261 R-2.1
U-0.409 2.10 ETAC Plants
Warm and R-3.5 R-2.1
U-0.261 U-0.409
Humid A mechanical ventilation system is a means to dispense of unwanted odours,
Moderate R-2.1
U-0.409 R-2.1
U-0.409 fumes and heat content to maintain freshness in the ventilated space. When
Cold R-3.5
U-0.261 R-2.1
U-0.409 this is supplemented with an air washer for lowering dry bulb temperature and

42 31
providing better comfort conditions in dry climates, the system is known as i) The space requirement for the equipments, air washers etc., shall be
Evaporative Type Air Cooling (ETAC). as per the manufacturers recommendations.

ii) Space shall also be provided as required for the installation of the
2.10.1 Design Considerations pumps along with the air washers.

iii) The minimum clear height of the equipment and air washer rooms shall
(i) The climatic zone in which the building is located is a major
be 3.6 m. The actual height required would depend upon the capacity
consideration. An important distinction that must be made is between hot
of the equipment and manufacturers recommendation.
dry and warm-moist conditions. Hot-dry work situations occur around
furnaces, forges, metal-extruding and rolling mills, glass forming
3.7.2 Equipment Location
machines, and so forth.
(ii) Typical warm-moist operations are found in textile mills, laundries, dye i) The plant room shall be located contiguous to the space to be
houses, and deep mines where water is used extensively for dust ventilated to reduce the pressure drop in the system.
control. Warm-moist conditions are more hazardous than the hot-dry
conditions. ii) Where air washers are also to be installed the room shall be treated with
(iii) Siting (and orientation) of the building is also an important factor. Solar waterproof treatment and shall be located adjacent to the blower room.
heat gain and high outside temperature increase the load significantly.
How significantly depends, on the magnitude of these gains particularly iii) The plant room shall be so located that it is conveniently possible to
in relation to other gains for example the internal load. exhaust or inject the air to / from the ambient.

(iv) The comfort level required is another consideration. In many cases, 3.7.3 Floor loading & other Structural Requirements
comfort levels (as understood in the context of Residential Buildings,
Commercial Blocks, Office Establishments) cannot be achieved at all and i) The floor loading of the plant room and air washer room shall be 2000
therefore, what is often aimed at will be acceptable working conditions kg./sq.m.
rather than comfort.
(v) Evaporative cooling units (air washers) should be located preferably on ii) The doors of the plant room and air washer room shall be single leaf,
summer-windward side. They should be painted white or with reflective air tight and open able outside. The floor and walls of the air washer
coating or thermally insulated, so as to minimize solar heat absorption. room shall be properly treated, preferably with tiles to prevent seepage
of water to the adjoining areas. The floor of the air washer room shall
(vi) In locating the units, care should be taken to ensure that their noise level be properly sloped towards the drain point.
will not be objectionable to the neighbours. Appropriate acoustic
treatment should be considered, if the noise levels cannot be kept down iii) The air washer room shall be provided with water and drain points.
to permissible limits.
(vii) Exhaust air devices, preferably to leeward and overhead side may be iv) Fresh air opening along with masonry louvers, fresh water connection
provided for effective movement of air. and drain outlet shall be provided in the plant room / air washer room.

(viii) In the case of large installations it is advisable to have a separate 3.8 COLD ROOMS
isolated equipment room if possible.
(ix) The equipment room should be adequately dimensioned keeping in view 3.8.1 Space Requirements
the need to provide required movement space for personnel, space for
entry and exit of ducts, the need to accommodate air intakes and i) The space requirement shall have to be worked out in individual cases
discharge, operation, maintenance and service requirements. depending upon the system selected.
(x) Arrangements for draining the floors shall be provided. The trap in floor ii) Sufficient space should be kept around the equipments for operation
drain shall provide a water seal between the equipment room and the and maintenance purposes.
drain line. Water proofing shall be provided for floor slabs of equipment
rooms housing, evaporative cooling units. iii) Normal room height in the building should be adequate for the
(xi) Wherever necessary, acoustic treatment should be provided in plant equipment room as well as the cold room.
room space to prevent noise transmission to adjacent occupied areas.
3.8.2 Equipment Location
(xii) In case the equipment is located in basement, equipment movement
route shall be planned to facilitate future replacement and maintenance. i) Plant Room
Service ramps or hatch in ground floor slab should be provided in such The plant room shall have to be necessarily adjacent to the cold room
cases. Also arrangements for floor draining should be provided. where DX system is used. The plant room shall have easy accessibility

32 41
building, the structural loading of the terrace shall be considered. For this (xiii) In the case of large and multi-storied buildings, independent Ventilation/
respective columns are to be raised by two feet at the terrace. Cooling towers Air Washer Units should be provided for each floor. The area to be
shall be installed in such a way that their load is transferred directly to the served by the air-handling unit should be decided depending upon the
columns for which necessary Mild steel-I sections shall be provided by Air- provision of fire protection measures adopted. The Units should
conditioning contractor. The cooling towers shall be rested on Mild Steel-I preferably be located vertically one above the other to simplify location of
sections & not on terrace slab. Sufficient free space shall be left all around for pipe shafts, cable shafts, drainers.
efficient operation of the cooling tower.
2.10.2 General Description of System
3.6 CENTRAL HEATING SYSTEM
i) The air in the ventilated space is exhausted into the atmosphere. This
3.6.1 Space Requirements
i) The space requirement shall depend upon the type and capacity of the air is made up by injecting fresh air from outside. In a simple ventilation
hot water generator chosen for the work and its overall dimensions. system, this fresh air (makeup air) is supplied untreated with the help of
blower and duct network. However, in ETAC system, most suitable in a
ii) Sufficient space shall be left all around the hot water generator for dry climate, this fresh air (make up air) is treated in an air washer before
maintenance and operation purpose. its supply to the ventilated space for providing better comfort conditions.
ii) The air washer is basically a spray chamber where the air and the
iii) Space shall also be provided for the auxiliary equipments such as hot
cooling medium are brought into contact with each other. The air is
water circulating pumps and electrical control panels.
drawn through the spray chamber by means of a fan and water is
iv) The minimum clear height of hot water generator room shall be 4.5 m. sprayed by means of a water pump & piping network. Such a spray
chamber, complete with water collecting tank, eliminator plates, inlet
v) Sufficient space should also be provided for the storage of fuel in case louvers and other auxiliary equipments are known as air washers.
of oil fired hot water generator. Though the daily service tank shall be During the course of flow through the air washer, the air may get cooled
provided within the room, bulk storage tank may be provided outside & humidified or cooled & dehumidified or heated & humidified depending
the buildings, either above or below ground level.
on the temperature of spray water as is given hereunder:-
vi) Use of HSD/ LDO oil fired hot water generator has been discontinued a) When the water used in the spray is simply re-circulated, the air passing
due to pollution & fire safety considerations. through air washer will get cooled & humidified.
b) When the water used in the spray is chilled (by some external devise) &
vii) Space requirement for AHUs shall be as under 3.4.1. its temperature is higher than the dew point temperature of entering air,
the air on passing through air washer will get cooled & humidified.
3.6.2 Equipment Location
c) When the water used in the spray is chilled (by some external devise) &
i) The hot water generator room shall preferably be located in a separate its temperature is lower than the dew point temperature of entering air,
service building from the fire safety point of view. The room shall have the air on passing through air washer will get cooled & dehumidified.
easy accessibility for moving in and out the equipments. d) When the water used in the spray is heated (by some external devise),
the air on passing through air washer will get heated & humidified.
ii) Electrically operated hot water generator shall preferably be located in
close proximity to the electrical substation, especially in the case of The air washers are usually constructed in two different lengths of 2.75
large capacity hot water generator. mtrs long and 4.25 mtrs long. The 2.75 mtrs long air washers are
equipped with two banks of spray opposing each other. These air
iii) The AHU rooms shall be located as under 3.4.2 washers are used for humidification or dehumidification purpose. The
4.25 mtrs long air washers are usually with three banks of sprays. These
3.6.3 Structural Requirements air washers are generally used for certain special applications where
high percentage of saturation of air is required.
i) The floor loading of the hot water generator room shall be 2000 Kg/sq m.
iii) Where ex-filtration of air from the ventilated space is to be prevented
ii) The floor loading of the AHU rooms and other requirements shall be as from reaching the other areas, a slight negative pressure is to be
under 3.4.3 maintained in the ventilated space. This can be achieved by keeping the
exhaust air quantity slightly higher than supply air (make up air) quantity.
3.7 MECHANICALVENTILATION/ EVAPORATIVE COOLING SYSTEM
This is especially necessary where odours and fumes are required to be
3.7.1 Space Requirement prevented from reaching other areas.

40 33
be provided for each AHU from the AHU room for the supply and return air,
from the fire safety point of view.
2.10.3 System Components
3.4.3 Floor loading and other structural requirements.
i) A complete mechanical ventilation system with air washers includes the
following components: - i) The floor loading of AHU room shall be 800 Kg/ sq m

a) Means of exhausting and / or injecting the air, ii) The doors of the AHU rooms shall be single leaf, air tight having a
b) Air filters, minimum width of 1.2 m and openable outside. The floor of the AHU
c) Air distribution, room shall slope towards the drain point. For clean room applications
d) Air washer, and other special requirements the internal finish of the AHU room shall
e) Water spray pump, nozzles & piping network, be suitable for these special applications.
f) Controls and control wiring, and
g) Power supply and distribution arrangement. iii) All cutouts in the floor for the pipelines and cable shall be effectively
sealed from the fire safety point of view.
ii) Depending upon the application and design requirements, which the
mechanical ventilation / ETAC system must meet, some or all of the above iv) The clear height required to be maintained under the false ceiling shall
components shall have to be arranged in a certain sequence to condition the take into consideration the ducting design and after allowing for the
air. depth of the beams, thickness of the false ceiling including its frame
work, recessed light fittings, etc.
2.10.4 System Design
v) The cutouts required in the floor slabs for installing the pipes, ducts and
i) The system design shall be done by first deciding upon the number of air / or cables shall be decided at the initial planning stage and marked in
changes per hour required to be maintained in the space. The capacity of the the architectural drawings.
exhausting and/or the injecting equipments can then be worked out on the
basis of the volume of the space and the number of air changes required per vi) Requirements for fresh air openings, water and drain in the AHU rooms
hour. as well as insulation of exposed roof slabs of conditioned areas as well
as AHU room shall also be detailed in the initial planning stage.
ii) The recommended number of air changes per hour for various applications are
as given at 2.9.2.1. vii) The beams in the ceiling of AHU rooms shall be of low depth to
facilitate installing of supply air duct and return air duct.
iii) The other requirements shall be as given under paras 2.10.1 to 2.10.3
3.5 COOLING TOWERS
iv) A brief system design for some of the applications is given below:
3.5.1 The space occupied by each cooling tower & approximate operating weight for
a) Kitchens: each cooling tower is given as under. In addition there shall be ample open
The exhaust system should take care of all the heat, smoke and odours space all around cooling towers for free flow of air.
produced during the cooking process and also maintain a hygienic atmosphere
within the kitchen. The exhaust of air should be done through hoods equipped Capacity Space requirement per cooling Weight per cooling tower
with grease filters, duct network and a exhaust blower. The hood should be of tower
such a size as to capture, as nearly as possible, all the above pollutants Upto 40 TR 4m x4m 1000 Kg
produced in the cooking process and to contain them until the fan can exhaust 50- 100 TR 5m x4m 2500 Kg
them. Grease filters are used with the hood to protect the exhaust system. 125-175 TR 6m x4m 5000 Kg
The exhaust air is made up by using fresh air from outside with the help of a 200-300 TR 7m x4m 6000 Kg
blower and a duct network. The makeup air can be supplied untreated, or 325-400 TR 7m x5m 7500 Kg
treated in an air washer so that slight negative pressure is maintained in the 425-600 TR 8m x5m 10000 Kg
kitchen to prevent exfiltration of the pollutants to the public areas. This is
achieved by exhausting approximately 10% more air than the supply air However the NIT approving authority may give the exact weight after finalizing
quantity. Air curtains can also be used at entry / exit points of the kitchen to the makes and getting information from the manufacturers.
prevent the kitchen pollutants from going into the public areas.
3.5.2 Equipment location
b) Toilets:
Where the toilets are scattered and located at different places, a local exhaust These may be located at a well ventilated place either at ground level and
system with propeller type exhaust fans mounted on the toilet walls exposed to contiguous to the plant room, or on the terrace of the building in consultation
the atmosphere is recommended. However, in multi-storied buildings, where with the Architect. In case the cooling towers are located on the terrace of the

34 39
f) Control panel - 20-25 sq.m the toilets are generally located one above the other in the various floors, the
toilet shaft can be used for exhausting the air through sheet metal ducts with a
ii) Additional space for circulation shall be taken as 20-25% of the above centrifugal fan installed on the rooftop.
total space.
c) Car Parks
iii) Provision shall also be kept for anticipated future requirements.
In the case of basement floor parking areas, a push-pull arrangement of
iv) The minimum clear height of the plant room shall be 3.6 m in case of ventilation can be used. One set of axial flow fans can push fresh air into the
Reciprocating plants and 4.5 m in case of Centrifugal & Screw type basement area and another similar set can evacuate the fume-laden air.
plants.
d) Mechanical Plant Rooms:
v) The entrance to A.C. plant room for centrifugal / screw type units shall
be through rolling shutter/ suitable door shutters of steel or strong In the case of air conditioning plant rooms, generator rooms, substation, boiler
material to take self load having minimum width of 3 m & height not room etc., located in the building basement, a push-pull arrangement of
less than 4 m for centrifugal/ screw type units & 3.5 m for reciprocating ventilation as mentioned at (c) above may be used.
type units.
e) Designated Smoking Rooms
3.3.2 Equipment location
To curb any movement of contaminated air from the smoking zone to non-
The plant room shall have easy accessibility for moving in and out of smoking areas, it should be ensured that the smoking zone operates at a
equipments and shall be well ventilated. The location of the plant room shall negative pressure in comparison with the surrounding non-smoking areas.
also take into consideration the routing of the chilled water and condenser
water lines from the plant room. As far as possible the plant room should be in Ventilation system of the smoking zone should be separate from that of the
close proximity to the electrical substation, since AC plant is main power load. non-smoking areas. To maintain the required indoor air quality standards in the
The plant room shall be preferably located in a separate service building along smoking zones, the smoking zones should have higher ventilation rates than
with the substation. Basements shall be avoided from the fire safety point of non-smoking areas and should be designed for at least 60 cubic feet per
view. minute per person.

3.3.3 Floor loading and other structural requirements The contaminated air from the smoking zone should be exhausted directly to
i) The floor loading of the AC plant shall be 2000 Kg/sq m the outdoors. It should be ensured that there is no recirculation of this air
contaminated with tobacco smoke, to the non-smoking zones of the building.
ii) The Plant room should have a fresh water connection & drain trap.
If the smoking zone is mechanically ventilated, it should have an air circulation
3.4 WEATHER MAKER / AHU ROOMS rate of not less than 30 air changes per hour.

3.4.1 Space requirements


2.11 COLD ROOMS
i) Floor area requirement for the AHU room shall be as under:
For AHUs upto 340 CMM : 4.5 m X 3.5 m A cold storage system is a means of achieving and maintaining low
For AHUs between 340 CMM & 680 CMM : 5.5 m X 4.5 m temperature conditions, with or without humidity control, in an enclosed space.
For smaller capacities these can be of factory assembled units such as deep
ii) The minimum clear height of the AHU room shall be the same as that freezers, bottle coolers and walk-in-coolers. For larger capacities and to meet
of the air-conditioned space to facilitate laying of ducts. the specific requirements, site assembled or built up cold storage systems are
resorted to. These General Specifications only cover the latter type, viz., built
3.4.2 Equipment Location up cold storage systems.

AHU rooms should be contiguous to the respective areas to be air-conditioned 2.11.1 General Description of the System
by them. Their location should also take into consideration the feasibility of
routing the ducts as well as provision of chilled water lines, water connections i) A cold storage system involves refrigeration equipment, with or without
for the humidification equipments, fresh air inlet point and drain outlets. In humidity control equipment depending upon the application. Where
multistoried constructions, the AHUs should be located in a vertical humidity control is required, dehumidifiers or driers as are more
configuration to facilitate laying of chilled water lines. Individual AHUs shall not commonly called, are used, especially in very low temperature
serve more than one floor from the fire safety point of view. Similarly each fire applications. In normal cases, it should be possible to achieve the
compartment shall have a separate AHU. Where the AHUs are located in the required humidity conditions with the normal refrigeration cycle.
basement or in any floor below the air-conditioned floors, individual shafts shall

38 35
ii) The conventional method is to provide a product cooler, which is nothing CHAPTER-3
but an evaporator in the refrigeration cycle, within the cold room.
Alternatively, conditioned air through AHUs can also be fed to the cold ARCHITECTURAL AND STRUCTURAL REQUIRMENTS
room.
3.1 SCOPE
iii) The cold room has to be properly insulated to reduce the refrigeration
load and to maintain the desired inside conditions. This chapter outlines the general guidelines for planning space requirements,
equipment location, floor loading & other structural requirements for various
2.11.2 System Components types of HVAC systems

A built up cold storage system shall include the following components: - 3.2 PACKAGED TYPE PLANT

i) Refrigeration unit comprising of compressor, condenser, expansion 3.2.1 Space Requirements


valve, evaporator & refrigerant piping,
ii) Cooling Tower, i) The floor area requirement for installation of the packaged type plant
iii) Product Cooler/ AHU, room shall be as under:
iv) Air filtration and distribution,
v) Piping systems which include refrigerant piping, condenser water a) Single Unit : 3 m X 2.5 m
piping, hot water/steam piping for defrosting, b) Double Units : 3mX4m
vi) Controls and control wiring, c) Triple Units : 3mX5m
vii) Power supply control and distribution arrangement.
viii) Dehumidifier ii) Dimensions indicated are clear space requirements. The minimum
clear height of the packaged unit room shall be same as that of the
Depending upon the application and design requirements, which the cold space to be air-conditioned to facilitate laying of ducts.
storage system must meet, some of the above components shall have to be
arranged in a certain sequence to give the required conditions. 3.2.2 Equipment Location

The packaged type plant room should be adjacent to the space to be air-
2.11.3 System Design conditioned.

i) The system design shall be done as per para 2.1.2.3. 3.2.3 Floor loading & other structural requirements
In addition, provision for automatic defrost and disposal of collected
water should be made. The selection of the type of defrosting shall be i) Floor loading of the packaged type unit plant room shall not be less
appropriate to the inside conditions. than 1200 Kg/ sqm
ii) The plant room should have a fresh air intake point, fresh water
ii) Provision shall also be kept for safety alarm bell with high intensity connection and drain point for draining out condensate.
blinking LED to assist any one trapped in the cold room.
3.3 CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONING PLANT
iii) Standby product cooler shall be provided as required.
3.3.1 Space requirements

i) Space requirement for central air conditioning plant shall be worked out
on following basis:
Chilling unit
a) Reciprocating - 25-30 sq.m per unit (in case of single
compressor unit).

b) Reciprocating - 40 sq.m. per unit (in case of multi


compressor unit)

c) Centrifugal/ screw - 40-50 sq.m. per unit

d) Centrifugal pump - 8-10 sq.m each pump

e) Electrical panel - 20-25 sq.m per chilling unit

36 37
ii) The conventional method is to provide a product cooler, which is nothing CHAPTER-3
but an evaporator in the refrigeration cycle, within the cold room.
Alternatively, conditioned air through AHUs can also be fed to the cold ARCHITECTURAL AND STRUCTURAL REQUIRMENTS
room.
3.1 SCOPE
iii) The cold room has to be properly insulated to reduce the refrigeration
load and to maintain the desired inside conditions. This chapter outlines the general guidelines for planning space requirements,
equipment location, floor loading & other structural requirements for various
2.11.2 System Components types of HVAC systems

A built up cold storage system shall include the following components: - 3.2 PACKAGED TYPE PLANT

i) Refrigeration unit comprising of compressor, condenser, expansion 3.2.1 Space Requirements


valve, evaporator & refrigerant piping,
ii) Cooling Tower, i) The floor area requirement for installation of the packaged type plant
iii) Product Cooler/ AHU, room shall be as under:
iv) Air filtration and distribution,
v) Piping systems which include refrigerant piping, condenser water a) Single Unit : 3 m X 2.5 m
piping, hot water/steam piping for defrosting, b) Double Units : 3mX4m
vi) Controls and control wiring, c) Triple Units : 3mX5m
vii) Power supply control and distribution arrangement.
viii) Dehumidifier ii) Dimensions indicated are clear space requirements. The minimum
clear height of the packaged unit room shall be same as that of the
Depending upon the application and design requirements, which the cold space to be air-conditioned to facilitate laying of ducts.
storage system must meet, some of the above components shall have to be
arranged in a certain sequence to give the required conditions. 3.2.2 Equipment Location

The packaged type plant room should be adjacent to the space to be air-
2.11.3 System Design conditioned.

i) The system design shall be done as per para 2.1.2.3. 3.2.3 Floor loading & other structural requirements
In addition, provision for automatic defrost and disposal of collected
water should be made. The selection of the type of defrosting shall be i) Floor loading of the packaged type unit plant room shall not be less
appropriate to the inside conditions. than 1200 Kg/ sqm
ii) The plant room should have a fresh air intake point, fresh water
ii) Provision shall also be kept for safety alarm bell with high intensity connection and drain point for draining out condensate.
blinking LED to assist any one trapped in the cold room.
3.3 CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONING PLANT
iii) Standby product cooler shall be provided as required.
3.3.1 Space requirements

i) Space requirement for central air conditioning plant shall be worked out
on following basis:
Chilling unit
a) Reciprocating - 25-30 sq.m per unit (in case of single
compressor unit).

b) Reciprocating - 40 sq.m. per unit (in case of multi


compressor unit)

c) Centrifugal/ screw - 40-50 sq.m. per unit

d) Centrifugal pump - 8-10 sq.m each pump

e) Electrical panel - 20-25 sq.m per chilling unit

36 37
f) Control panel - 20-25 sq.m the toilets are generally located one above the other in the various floors, the
toilet shaft can be used for exhausting the air through sheet metal ducts with a
ii) Additional space for circulation shall be taken as 20-25% of the above centrifugal fan installed on the rooftop.
total space.
c) Car Parks
iii) Provision shall also be kept for anticipated future requirements.
In the case of basement floor parking areas, a push-pull arrangement of
iv) The minimum clear height of the plant room shall be 3.6 m in case of ventilation can be used. One set of axial flow fans can push fresh air into the
Reciprocating plants and 4.5 m in case of Centrifugal & Screw type basement area and another similar set can evacuate the fume-laden air.
plants.
d) Mechanical Plant Rooms:
v) The entrance to A.C. plant room for centrifugal / screw type units shall
be through rolling shutter/ suitable door shutters of steel or strong In the case of air conditioning plant rooms, generator rooms, substation, boiler
material to take self load having minimum width of 3 m & height not room etc., located in the building basement, a push-pull arrangement of
less than 4 m for centrifugal/ screw type units & 3.5 m for reciprocating ventilation as mentioned at (c) above may be used.
type units.
e) Designated Smoking Rooms
3.3.2 Equipment location
To curb any movement of contaminated air from the smoking zone to non-
The plant room shall have easy accessibility for moving in and out of smoking areas, it should be ensured that the smoking zone operates at a
equipments and shall be well ventilated. The location of the plant room shall negative pressure in comparison with the surrounding non-smoking areas.
also take into consideration the routing of the chilled water and condenser
water lines from the plant room. As far as possible the plant room should be in Ventilation system of the smoking zone should be separate from that of the
close proximity to the electrical substation, since AC plant is main power load. non-smoking areas. To maintain the required indoor air quality standards in the
The plant room shall be preferably located in a separate service building along smoking zones, the smoking zones should have higher ventilation rates than
with the substation. Basements shall be avoided from the fire safety point of non-smoking areas and should be designed for at least 60 cubic feet per
view. minute per person.

3.3.3 Floor loading and other structural requirements The contaminated air from the smoking zone should be exhausted directly to
i) The floor loading of the AC plant shall be 2000 Kg/sq m the outdoors. It should be ensured that there is no recirculation of this air
contaminated with tobacco smoke, to the non-smoking zones of the building.
ii) The Plant room should have a fresh water connection & drain trap.
If the smoking zone is mechanically ventilated, it should have an air circulation
3.4 WEATHER MAKER / AHU ROOMS rate of not less than 30 air changes per hour.

3.4.1 Space requirements


2.11 COLD ROOMS
i) Floor area requirement for the AHU room shall be as under:
For AHUs upto 340 CMM : 4.5 m X 3.5 m A cold storage system is a means of achieving and maintaining low
For AHUs between 340 CMM & 680 CMM : 5.5 m X 4.5 m temperature conditions, with or without humidity control, in an enclosed space.
For smaller capacities these can be of factory assembled units such as deep
ii) The minimum clear height of the AHU room shall be the same as that freezers, bottle coolers and walk-in-coolers. For larger capacities and to meet
of the air-conditioned space to facilitate laying of ducts. the specific requirements, site assembled or built up cold storage systems are
resorted to. These General Specifications only cover the latter type, viz., built
3.4.2 Equipment Location up cold storage systems.

AHU rooms should be contiguous to the respective areas to be air-conditioned 2.11.1 General Description of the System
by them. Their location should also take into consideration the feasibility of
routing the ducts as well as provision of chilled water lines, water connections i) A cold storage system involves refrigeration equipment, with or without
for the humidification equipments, fresh air inlet point and drain outlets. In humidity control equipment depending upon the application. Where
multistoried constructions, the AHUs should be located in a vertical humidity control is required, dehumidifiers or driers as are more
configuration to facilitate laying of chilled water lines. Individual AHUs shall not commonly called, are used, especially in very low temperature
serve more than one floor from the fire safety point of view. Similarly each fire applications. In normal cases, it should be possible to achieve the
compartment shall have a separate AHU. Where the AHUs are located in the required humidity conditions with the normal refrigeration cycle.
basement or in any floor below the air-conditioned floors, individual shafts shall

38 35
be provided for each AHU from the AHU room for the supply and return air,
from the fire safety point of view.
2.10.3 System Components
3.4.3 Floor loading and other structural requirements.
i) A complete mechanical ventilation system with air washers includes the
following components: - i) The floor loading of AHU room shall be 800 Kg/ sq m

a) Means of exhausting and / or injecting the air, ii) The doors of the AHU rooms shall be single leaf, air tight having a
b) Air filters, minimum width of 1.2 m and openable outside. The floor of the AHU
c) Air distribution, room shall slope towards the drain point. For clean room applications
d) Air washer, and other special requirements the internal finish of the AHU room shall
e) Water spray pump, nozzles & piping network, be suitable for these special applications.
f) Controls and control wiring, and
g) Power supply and distribution arrangement. iii) All cutouts in the floor for the pipelines and cable shall be effectively
sealed from the fire safety point of view.
ii) Depending upon the application and design requirements, which the
mechanical ventilation / ETAC system must meet, some or all of the above iv) The clear height required to be maintained under the false ceiling shall
components shall have to be arranged in a certain sequence to condition the take into consideration the ducting design and after allowing for the
air. depth of the beams, thickness of the false ceiling including its frame
work, recessed light fittings, etc.
2.10.4 System Design
v) The cutouts required in the floor slabs for installing the pipes, ducts and
i) The system design shall be done by first deciding upon the number of air / or cables shall be decided at the initial planning stage and marked in
changes per hour required to be maintained in the space. The capacity of the the architectural drawings.
exhausting and/or the injecting equipments can then be worked out on the
basis of the volume of the space and the number of air changes required per vi) Requirements for fresh air openings, water and drain in the AHU rooms
hour. as well as insulation of exposed roof slabs of conditioned areas as well
as AHU room shall also be detailed in the initial planning stage.
ii) The recommended number of air changes per hour for various applications are
as given at 2.9.2.1. vii) The beams in the ceiling of AHU rooms shall be of low depth to
facilitate installing of supply air duct and return air duct.
iii) The other requirements shall be as given under paras 2.10.1 to 2.10.3
3.5 COOLING TOWERS
iv) A brief system design for some of the applications is given below:
3.5.1 The space occupied by each cooling tower & approximate operating weight for
a) Kitchens: each cooling tower is given as under. In addition there shall be ample open
The exhaust system should take care of all the heat, smoke and odours space all around cooling towers for free flow of air.
produced during the cooking process and also maintain a hygienic atmosphere
within the kitchen. The exhaust of air should be done through hoods equipped Capacity Space requirement per cooling Weight per cooling tower
with grease filters, duct network and a exhaust blower. The hood should be of tower
such a size as to capture, as nearly as possible, all the above pollutants Upto 40 TR 4m x4m 1000 Kg
produced in the cooking process and to contain them until the fan can exhaust 50- 100 TR 5m x4m 2500 Kg
them. Grease filters are used with the hood to protect the exhaust system. 125-175 TR 6m x4m 5000 Kg
The exhaust air is made up by using fresh air from outside with the help of a 200-300 TR 7m x4m 6000 Kg
blower and a duct network. The makeup air can be supplied untreated, or 325-400 TR 7m x5m 7500 Kg
treated in an air washer so that slight negative pressure is maintained in the 425-600 TR 8m x5m 10000 Kg
kitchen to prevent exfiltration of the pollutants to the public areas. This is
achieved by exhausting approximately 10% more air than the supply air However the NIT approving authority may give the exact weight after finalizing
quantity. Air curtains can also be used at entry / exit points of the kitchen to the makes and getting information from the manufacturers.
prevent the kitchen pollutants from going into the public areas.
3.5.2 Equipment location
b) Toilets:
Where the toilets are scattered and located at different places, a local exhaust These may be located at a well ventilated place either at ground level and
system with propeller type exhaust fans mounted on the toilet walls exposed to contiguous to the plant room, or on the terrace of the building in consultation
the atmosphere is recommended. However, in multi-storied buildings, where with the Architect. In case the cooling towers are located on the terrace of the

34 39
building, the structural loading of the terrace shall be considered. For this (xiii) In the case of large and multi-storied buildings, independent Ventilation/
respective columns are to be raised by two feet at the terrace. Cooling towers Air Washer Units should be provided for each floor. The area to be
shall be installed in such a way that their load is transferred directly to the served by the air-handling unit should be decided depending upon the
columns for which necessary Mild steel-I sections shall be provided by Air- provision of fire protection measures adopted. The Units should
conditioning contractor. The cooling towers shall be rested on Mild Steel-I preferably be located vertically one above the other to simplify location of
sections & not on terrace slab. Sufficient free space shall be left all around for pipe shafts, cable shafts, drainers.
efficient operation of the cooling tower.
2.10.2 General Description of System
3.6 CENTRAL HEATING SYSTEM
i) The air in the ventilated space is exhausted into the atmosphere. This
3.6.1 Space Requirements
i) The space requirement shall depend upon the type and capacity of the air is made up by injecting fresh air from outside. In a simple ventilation
hot water generator chosen for the work and its overall dimensions. system, this fresh air (makeup air) is supplied untreated with the help of
blower and duct network. However, in ETAC system, most suitable in a
ii) Sufficient space shall be left all around the hot water generator for dry climate, this fresh air (make up air) is treated in an air washer before
maintenance and operation purpose. its supply to the ventilated space for providing better comfort conditions.
ii) The air washer is basically a spray chamber where the air and the
iii) Space shall also be provided for the auxiliary equipments such as hot
cooling medium are brought into contact with each other. The air is
water circulating pumps and electrical control panels.
drawn through the spray chamber by means of a fan and water is
iv) The minimum clear height of hot water generator room shall be 4.5 m. sprayed by means of a water pump & piping network. Such a spray
chamber, complete with water collecting tank, eliminator plates, inlet
v) Sufficient space should also be provided for the storage of fuel in case louvers and other auxiliary equipments are known as air washers.
of oil fired hot water generator. Though the daily service tank shall be During the course of flow through the air washer, the air may get cooled
provided within the room, bulk storage tank may be provided outside & humidified or cooled & dehumidified or heated & humidified depending
the buildings, either above or below ground level.
on the temperature of spray water as is given hereunder:-
vi) Use of HSD/ LDO oil fired hot water generator has been discontinued a) When the water used in the spray is simply re-circulated, the air passing
due to pollution & fire safety considerations. through air washer will get cooled & humidified.
b) When the water used in the spray is chilled (by some external devise) &
vii) Space requirement for AHUs shall be as under 3.4.1. its temperature is higher than the dew point temperature of entering air,
the air on passing through air washer will get cooled & humidified.
3.6.2 Equipment Location
c) When the water used in the spray is chilled (by some external devise) &
i) The hot water generator room shall preferably be located in a separate its temperature is lower than the dew point temperature of entering air,
service building from the fire safety point of view. The room shall have the air on passing through air washer will get cooled & dehumidified.
easy accessibility for moving in and out the equipments. d) When the water used in the spray is heated (by some external devise),
the air on passing through air washer will get heated & humidified.
ii) Electrically operated hot water generator shall preferably be located in
close proximity to the electrical substation, especially in the case of The air washers are usually constructed in two different lengths of 2.75
large capacity hot water generator. mtrs long and 4.25 mtrs long. The 2.75 mtrs long air washers are
equipped with two banks of spray opposing each other. These air
iii) The AHU rooms shall be located as under 3.4.2 washers are used for humidification or dehumidification purpose. The
4.25 mtrs long air washers are usually with three banks of sprays. These
3.6.3 Structural Requirements air washers are generally used for certain special applications where
high percentage of saturation of air is required.
i) The floor loading of the hot water generator room shall be 2000 Kg/sq m.
iii) Where ex-filtration of air from the ventilated space is to be prevented
ii) The floor loading of the AHU rooms and other requirements shall be as from reaching the other areas, a slight negative pressure is to be
under 3.4.3 maintained in the ventilated space. This can be achieved by keeping the
exhaust air quantity slightly higher than supply air (make up air) quantity.
3.7 MECHANICALVENTILATION/ EVAPORATIVE COOLING SYSTEM
This is especially necessary where odours and fumes are required to be
3.7.1 Space Requirement prevented from reaching other areas.

40 33
providing better comfort conditions in dry climates, the system is known as i) The space requirement for the equipments, air washers etc., shall be
Evaporative Type Air Cooling (ETAC). as per the manufacturers recommendations.

ii) Space shall also be provided as required for the installation of the
2.10.1 Design Considerations pumps along with the air washers.

iii) The minimum clear height of the equipment and air washer rooms shall
(i) The climatic zone in which the building is located is a major
be 3.6 m. The actual height required would depend upon the capacity
consideration. An important distinction that must be made is between hot
of the equipment and manufacturers recommendation.
dry and warm-moist conditions. Hot-dry work situations occur around
furnaces, forges, metal-extruding and rolling mills, glass forming
3.7.2 Equipment Location
machines, and so forth.
(ii) Typical warm-moist operations are found in textile mills, laundries, dye i) The plant room shall be located contiguous to the space to be
houses, and deep mines where water is used extensively for dust ventilated to reduce the pressure drop in the system.
control. Warm-moist conditions are more hazardous than the hot-dry
conditions. ii) Where air washers are also to be installed the room shall be treated with
(iii) Siting (and orientation) of the building is also an important factor. Solar waterproof treatment and shall be located adjacent to the blower room.
heat gain and high outside temperature increase the load significantly.
How significantly depends, on the magnitude of these gains particularly iii) The plant room shall be so located that it is conveniently possible to
in relation to other gains for example the internal load. exhaust or inject the air to / from the ambient.

(iv) The comfort level required is another consideration. In many cases, 3.7.3 Floor loading & other Structural Requirements
comfort levels (as understood in the context of Residential Buildings,
Commercial Blocks, Office Establishments) cannot be achieved at all and i) The floor loading of the plant room and air washer room shall be 2000
therefore, what is often aimed at will be acceptable working conditions kg./sq.m.
rather than comfort.
(v) Evaporative cooling units (air washers) should be located preferably on ii) The doors of the plant room and air washer room shall be single leaf,
summer-windward side. They should be painted white or with reflective air tight and open able outside. The floor and walls of the air washer
coating or thermally insulated, so as to minimize solar heat absorption. room shall be properly treated, preferably with tiles to prevent seepage
of water to the adjoining areas. The floor of the air washer room shall
(vi) In locating the units, care should be taken to ensure that their noise level be properly sloped towards the drain point.
will not be objectionable to the neighbours. Appropriate acoustic
treatment should be considered, if the noise levels cannot be kept down iii) The air washer room shall be provided with water and drain points.
to permissible limits.
(vii) Exhaust air devices, preferably to leeward and overhead side may be iv) Fresh air opening along with masonry louvers, fresh water connection
provided for effective movement of air. and drain outlet shall be provided in the plant room / air washer room.

(viii) In the case of large installations it is advisable to have a separate 3.8 COLD ROOMS
isolated equipment room if possible.
(ix) The equipment room should be adequately dimensioned keeping in view 3.8.1 Space Requirements
the need to provide required movement space for personnel, space for
entry and exit of ducts, the need to accommodate air intakes and i) The space requirement shall have to be worked out in individual cases
discharge, operation, maintenance and service requirements. depending upon the system selected.
(x) Arrangements for draining the floors shall be provided. The trap in floor ii) Sufficient space should be kept around the equipments for operation
drain shall provide a water seal between the equipment room and the and maintenance purposes.
drain line. Water proofing shall be provided for floor slabs of equipment
rooms housing, evaporative cooling units. iii) Normal room height in the building should be adequate for the
(xi) Wherever necessary, acoustic treatment should be provided in plant equipment room as well as the cold room.
room space to prevent noise transmission to adjacent occupied areas.
3.8.2 Equipment Location
(xii) In case the equipment is located in basement, equipment movement
route shall be planned to facilitate future replacement and maintenance. i) Plant Room
Service ramps or hatch in ground floor slab should be provided in such The plant room shall have to be necessarily adjacent to the cold room
cases. Also arrangements for floor draining should be provided. where DX system is used. The plant room shall have easy accessibility

32 41
for men and materials and shall be well ventilated. In an air-cooled (d) For each zone, zonal electrical panel is required to be provided
system, the condenser shall have to be located in a well ventilated which shall get the signal from fire alarm panel to activate the
space and preferably within the equipment room. fans in case of fire to achieve 30 air changes per hr.
(e) While selecting the fans noise level of fans may be kept under
ii) AHUs Rooms and Cooling Towers
consideration to make sure that the noise level is kept below 80
These shall be located as under 3.4.2 & 3.5
decimal at all times except in case of fire.
3.8.3 Floor loading and other Structural Requirements (f) Selection of Fan type for Ventilation System
The characteristics and applications of fans & the efficiencies of various type of fans
i) The floor loading for the equipment room shall be 2000 kg /sq. m. are tabulated below for selection of fans-
ii) The floor loading/ weight of the equipment for AHU rooms and cooling Centrifugal Fans
towers shall be as under 3.3.4 & 3.5. Type Characteristics Typical Applications Efficiency (%)
High pressure, medium
iii) Where the cold rooms are located in the uppermost floor, the roof slab Various industrial applications,
flow, efficiency close to
Radial suitable for dust laden, moist 7279
shall be provided with effective water proofing treatment to avoid any tube-axial fans, power
air/ gases
damage to the insulation of the cold room. For the same reason, the increases continuously
cold rooms shall be located away from the wet areas such as toilets. Medium pressure, high
Forward- flow, dip in pressure Low pressure HVAC, packaged
iv) Where the cold rooms are located on the ground floor, the flooring shall curved curve, efficiency higher units, suitable for clean and 6065
blades than radial fans, power dust laden air/ gases
be effectively treated to prevent any seepage of water from the ground
rises continuously
into the cold room. High pressure, high flow,
Backward High efficiency, power HVAC, various industrial
v) Suitable insulation along with vapour barrier shall be provided on all the curved reduces as flow applications forced draft fans, 7983
sides of the cold room including the roof and flooring, especially in low blades increases beyond point etc.
humidity applications. of highest efficiency

3.9 GENERAL STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS Same as backward


Airfoil Same as backward curved, but
curved type, highest 7983
type for clean air applications
efficiency
i) If the building is air conditioned, the roof of the air conditioned areas &
W.M. room shall have insulation on the roof (preferably over deck
insulation wherever possible) and insulation in the walls. Buildings or Axial Flow Fans
complexes that have a connected load of 100kW or greater or an air- Type Characteristics Typical Applications Efficiency (%)
conditioned area of 1000 m2 or more should comply with the thermal Propeller Low pressure, high flow, Air-circulation, ventilation, 4550
transmittance value (U-factor) requirements or R- value of insulation low efficiency, peak exhausts.
specified below. The U-factor takes into account all elements or layers in efficiency close to point
the construction assembly, including the sheathing, interior finishes, and of free air delivery (zero
air gaps, as well as exterior and interior air films. The roof insulation shall static pressure)
not be located on a suspended ceiling with removable ceiling panels. Tube- Medium pressure, high HVAC, drying ovens, exhaust 6772
axial flow, higher efficiency Systems
Roof Assembly U-Factor and Insulation R-Value Requirements than propeller type, dip in
pressure-flow curve
Climate zone 24-Hour use buildings- Daytime use buildings Other before peak pressure
Hospitals, Hotels, etc. building Types point.
Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum R-value Vane- High pressure, medium High pressure applications 7885
U-Factor R-value of U-Factor of insulation alone axial flow, dip in pressure-flow including
of the overall Insulation of the overall (m2.K/W) curve, use of guide vanes HVAC systems
improves
Assembly Alone Assembly
Efficiency exhausts
(W/m2-C) (m2.K/W) (W/m2-C)
Composite R-3.5
U-0.261 R-2.1
U-0.409
Hot and Dry R-3.5
U-0.261 R-2.1
U-0.409 2.10 ETAC Plants
Warm and R-3.5 R-2.1
U-0.261 U-0.409
Humid A mechanical ventilation system is a means to dispense of unwanted odours,
Moderate R-2.1
U-0.409 R-2.1
U-0.409 fumes and heat content to maintain freshness in the ventilated space. When
Cold R-3.5
U-0.261 R-2.1
U-0.409 this is supplemented with an air washer for lowering dry bulb temperature and

42 31
iv) Calculate the CMM required for each Zone as per 2.9.2.2. Opaque Wall Assembly U-Factor and Insulation R-Value Requirements
v) The recommended ventilation rate will ensure that the CO level will Climate zone 24-Hour use buildings- Hospitals, Daytime use buildings
maintained within 29 mg/m with peak level not to exceed 137 mg/m. Hotels, etc. Other building Types
Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum
U-Factor of R-value of U-Factor of the R-value of
the overall Insulation overall insulation
2.9.2.5 Calculation of Fan Static- Assembly alone Assembly alone (m2.K/W)
2 2 2
(W/m -C) (m .K/W) (W/m -C)
i) Pressurization system for lifts lobby, lift shaft, stair case shaft -. Composite R-2.1
U-0.44 R-2.1
U-0.44
As per NBC part 5 fire and light safety the following pressure are to be Hot and Dry R-2.1
U-0.44 R-2.1
U-0.44
Warm and Humid R-2.1
U-0.44 R-2.1
U-0.44
maintained for various shafts in high-rise building more than 25 mtr. in
Moderate R-2.1
U-0.44 R-2.1
U-0.44
height- Cold R-2.2
U-0.369 R-2.35
U-0.352

Pressure Difference ii) All the glazed window of air-conditioning areas shall preferably be
Reduce Operation Emergency operation provided with double pane glass windows.
Building Height
(Stage 1 of a 2 (Stage 2 of a 2 stage or
Stage system)(Pa) single stage system)(Pa) iii) Buildings or complexes that have a connected load of 100kW or greater
Less than 15 m 8 50 or an air-conditioned area of 1000 m2 or more should comply with the
15 m or above 15 50 fenestration requirements (as applicable) specified below:

ii) If possible the same levels shall be used for lobbies and corridors, but Vertical fenestration U-Factor ( W/m2-C) and SHGC
level slightly lower may be used for these spaces if desired. The Climate zone
requirements
difference in pressurization levels between staircase and lobbies (for 40% < WWR < 60%
corridors) shall not be greater than 5 Pa. WWR < 40%
iii) For Basement Parking Ventilation the static can be calculated by duct Maximum U-Factor Maximum SHGC Maximum SHGC
friction method using a ductolator. Composite 3.3 0.25 0.2
Hot and Dry 3.3 0.25 0.2
2.9.2.6 Selection & Installation of Fans : Warm and Humid 3.3 0.25 0.2
Moderate 6.9 0.4 0.3
Having defined the fan CMM & static to be developed, the fan is
selected on basis of following criterion- Cold 3.3 0.51 0.51

i) Pressurization system for lifts lobby, lift shaft, stair case shaft :
(a) Fans are normally installed at terrace and are to be enclosed in Minimum VLT Requirements
GI housing.
Window Wall ratio Minimum VLT
(b) Some duct work is required for connecting up to the shaft.
0-0.3 0.27
(c) These fans shall be operated automatically in case of fire on 0.31-0.4 0.2
signal from IBMS or directly from Fire Control Panel of AFAS. 0.41-0.5 0.16
Panels for these fans can be provided in lifts machine rooms. 0.51 - 0.6 0.13
Auto manual switch is required to be provided to facilitate local
testing.
ii) Basement car parking ventilation : Climate zone Skylight U-Factor ( W/m2-C) and SHGC requirements
Maximum U-Factor Maximum SHGC
(a) Normally centrifugal fan are provided in fan room in basement. In
case fan room is not available, ceiling mounted axial fans may With curb w/o curb 0-2% SRR 2.1-5% SRR
be provide. Composite 11.24 7.71 0.4 0.25
Hot and Dry 11.24 7.71 0.4 0.25
(b) All exhaust fan provided for the scheme, shall be fire rated for Warm and Humid 11.24 7.71 0.4 0.25
900C for 2 hrs. Moderate 11.24 7.71 0.61 0.4
(c) Normal ventilation fans for min. 12 air change/ hrs are kept on Cold 11.24 7.71 0.61 0.4
during working hours. However CO2 sensor may be provide
which will continuously monitor the air quality and operate the
normal fans only when required and there by conserve energy.

30 43
iv) All the doors/ windows of air-conditioned areas shall be made airtight. 27. Recording control rooms 15-25
Air leakage for glazed swinging entrance doors and revolving doors
shall not exceed 5.0 l/s m2. Air leakage for other fenestration and doors 28. Restaurants 8-12
shall not exceed 2.0 l/s m2.
29. School room 5-7
v) The following areas of the enclosed building envelopes shall be sealed,
caulked, gasketed, or weather stripped to minimize air leakage: 30. Shops and supermarkets 8-15

a) Joints around fenestration and door frames 31. Shower baths 15-20
b) Openings between walls and foundation and between walls and roof and
wall panels. 32. Stores and Warehouses 3-6
c) Opening at penetrations of utility services through roof, walls, and floors
d) Site-built fenestration and doors 33. Swimming Bath 10-15
e) Building assemblies used as ducts and plenums
f) All other openings in the building envelope 34. Toilets 6-10

vi) For air conditioning areas, where the return air is collected/ carried
back to AHU rooms above false ceiling, the false ceiling shall be airtight Note: - The ventilation rates may be increased by 50 percent
& preferably shall be of Gypsum Board. where heavy smoking occurs or if the room is below
ground.
vii) Total water requirements of air conditioning plant shall be assessed @
15 litre/TR/Hr of plant operation. For 24 hour operation the number of
2.9.2.2 CMM required for ventilation system is thus calculated Based on the
operating hours shall be taken as 16. For small central plants a makeup
water tank of same capacity shall be provided along the cooling towers volume of the room and from the above table as-
with bottom of this make up tank being at least 0.75 mtrs above the
sump level of cooling tower. For large size central plants an (no. of air changes/ hour) X (volume in cu. m of space to
underground tank of total water requirement capacity shall have to be be ventilated)
provided near the A.C. Plant room and a makeup water tank of part CMM = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
water requirement shall be provided along with cooling towers. 60

3.10 CHECK LIST FOR SPACE PROVISIONS FOR CENTRAL AIR


CONDITIONING WORKS
2.9.2.3 CMM required for Pressurisation of lifts lobby, lift shaft, stair case shaft
i) A.C Plant room is calculated from closed door as well as opened door area as-
ii) AC plant room water connection & drainage i) Leakage area = total nos. of doors x gap in doors (normally taken as 2
iii) Cooling tower location mm) x perimeter of doors.
iv) AHU room ii) Leakage form closed door = 0.821 x leakage area x pressure difference.
v) AHU room water connection & drainage iii) Opened door leakage = door area x no. of opened door (normally
vi) Shaft for carrying chilled water pipes considered 1 door) x velocity (normally considered as 0.76 m / sec) of
vii) False ceiling co-ordination
viii) Ceiling height to accommodate ducting air.
ix) Water requirement iv) Total air leakage = closed door + opened door leakage.
x) Routes of piping/ cable v) Add 10% safety factor/ duct leakage etc., which will give CMM required.
xi) Thermal/ acoustic insulation
xii) Air tightness of windows/ doors 2.9.2.4 CMM required for Basement Parking Ventilation
xiii) Insulation for AC areas on top floors. i) Divide the basement in zones of area not exceeding 3000 sqm. in case
sprinkler system is provided in basement, if not, then not exceeding else
750 sqm.
ii) For each zone separate set of supply air fans and exhaust air fans shall
be provided. Supply air fans shall not be required in areas in zone near
Ramps or zone with natural ventilation, however sufficiency may be
examined.
iii) Minimum 12 air changes/hrs. are required to be provided.

44 29
v) condenser high pressure CHAPTER- 4
vi) condenser pressure transducer out of range
vii) auxiliary safety contacts closed PACKAGED TYPE AIR CONDITIONING PLANTS AND VARIBALE REFRIGERANT
viii) discharge high temperature FLOW/ VOLUME SYSTEM
ix) discharge low temperature
4.1 WATER COOLED PACKAGED TYPE PLANTS
x) oil high temperature
xi) oil low differential pressure 4.1.1 Scope
xii) oil high differential pressure
xiii) oil sump pressure transducer out of range This chapter covers the requirements of packaged type air-conditioning plants
xiv) oil differential pressure calibration with water-cooled condensers of 5, 7.5, 10 , 15 and 20 TR capacities.
xv) oil variable speed pump pressure setpoint not achieved
xvi) control panel power failure 4.1.2 General Construction :
xvii) motor or starter current imbalance
i) The packaged type plants shall be self-contained units generally
xviii) thrust bearing proximity probe clearance conforming to IS: 8148 1976 (packaged air- conditioner). The plant
xix) thrust bearing - proximity probe out of range may have a single or multi refrigeration circuit as per design of
xx) thrust bearing high oil temperature respective manufacturers. Each compressor, however, shall have a
xxi) thrust bearing oil temperature sensor independent condenser, evaporator & refrigerant circuit.
xxii) watchdog software reboot
ii) The packaged unit shall be constructed with adequate strength and
rigidity to withstand handling, transportation and usage.
5.1 Safety shutdowns with a VSD Shall include:
iii) The unit shall be fabricated so as to be free from undue noise and
i) VSD shutdown requesting fault data vibration. All valves and refrigerant piping shall be suitably clamped.
ii) VSD stop contacts open
iv) The internal components of the unit shall be located so as to be easily
iii) VSD 110 % motor current overload
accessible for inspection and maintenance. All parts which are
iv) VSD high phase A, B,C inverter heat-sink temp. accident hazard shall be effectively guarded.
v) VSD high converter heat-sink temperature
v) Due care shall be taken in the use of materials likely to come in contact
with water, namely, condensate tray, etc. by the use of corrosion
6. Cycling shutdowns enunciated through the display and the status bar, and resistant material, or by treatment with corrosion resistant coating.
consists of system status, system details, day, time, cause of shutdown, and
type of restart required. Cycling shutdowns with a fixed speed drive shall vi) The unit shall be completely factory assembled.
include:
i) multiunit cycling contacts open 4.1.3 Cabinet :
ii) system cycling - contacts open
iii) oil low temperature differential i) The cabinet will have a frame work of either M.S. angles or formed
iv) oil low temperature M.S. sheet sections in order to provide structural rigidity. Properly
v) control panel - power failure formed close fittings and easily removable sheet metal panels shall be
provided all around this frame work to make a closed & streamlined
vi) leaving chilled liquid - low temperature
cabinet. The sheet used shall be of minimum 1.25mm thickness.
vii) leaving chilled liquid - flow switch open
viii) motor controller contacts open ii) Inside and outside surfaces shall be finished with polyester epoxy
ix) motor controller loss of current powder coating.
x) power fault
xi) control panel - schedule iii) The fan section and coil section of cabinet shall be insulated with at
xii) starter low supply line voltage least 25mm resin bonded fibre glass lining on the inside duly finished
with minimum 0.5mm thick aluminium sheet.
xiii) starter high supply line voltage
xiv) proximity probe low supply voltage iv) An insulated condensate tray shall be provided beneath the cooling coil
xv) oil - variable speed pump - drive contacts open so as to avoid dripping over the equipment installed in the lower portion
of the cabinet. The drip tray should have a drain connection for leading
away the condensate.

60 45
The chiller shall be controlled by a stand-alone microprocessor based control
v) A conditioned air outlet from the cabinet should be provided with center. The chiller control panel shall provide control of chiller operation and
suitable flanges in order to connect it to the canvas of the supply air monitoring of chiller sensors, actuators, relays and switches.
ducting at the cabinet top.
The chiller control panel shall also provide:

vi) A return grill of streamlined design shall be provided in the elevation in 1. System operating information including:
front of the filter section. This grill should be easily removable for i) return and leaving chilled water temperature
inspection / maintenance of filter. ii) return and leaving condenser water temperature
iii) evaporator and condenser saturation temperature
4.1.4 Compressor :
iv) differential oil pressure
i) Compressor shall be scroll hermetic or semi hermetic type suitable for v) percent motor current
CFC/HCFC free refrigerant. vi) evaporator and condenser saturation temperature
vii) compressor discharge temperature
ii) It shall be fitted with suction and discharge stop valves, permitting full viii) oil reservoir temperature
servicing facilities, built in safety controls, filters, release valves, control ix) compressor thrust bearing positioning and oil temperature
valve and other standard accessories. x) operating hours
xi) number of compressor starts
iii) The compressor shall be installed on vibration isolating resilient
material, so as to ensure operation with the minimum noise and
vibrations. 2. Digital programming of setpoints through the universal keypad including:
i) leaving chilled water temperature
iv) Each compressor shall be provided with protection against high
refrigerant pressure and low refrigerant pressure, anti-cycle timer, ii) percent current limit
indication lamps, fault alarm etc through microprocessor controller. iii) pull-down demand limiting
iv) six-week schedule for starting and stopping the chiller, pumps and
v) Compressor shall be designed for 4.4 deg C suction temperature and tower
43.3 deg C discharge temperature. v) remote reset temperature range

4.1.5 Compressor Drive :


3. Status messages indicating:
i) The compressor motor shall be squirrel cage induction motor capable i) system ready to start
of continuous operation at 415 V + 10% , 50 Hz, 3 phase AC supply. ii) system running
iii) system coast down
ii) The motor shall be suction cooled, in case of sealed semi-hermatic
type units. iv) system safety shutdown-manual restart
v) system cycling shutdown-auto restart
iii) The starter shall be as per para 13.9 and shall be provided on the vi) system pre-lube
packaged unit itself. vii) start inhibit

4.1.6 Condenser :
4. The text displayed within the system status and system details field shall be
i) Condenser shall be of horizontal shell and tube construction with M.S. displayed as a color coded message to indicate severity: red for safety fault,
shell and integrally finned copper tubes. Thickness of tube shall be orange for cycling faults, yellow for warnings, and green for normal
minimum 1.0 mm before finning. messages.

ii) The end covers shall be removable type and suitable provision shall be 5. Safety shutdowns enunciated through the display and the status bar, and
made in the unit cabinet, enabling easy cleaning of condenser tubes. consist of system status, system details, day, time, cause of shutdown, and
type of restart required. Safety shutdowns with a fixed speed drive shall
iii) The condenser shall serve as liquid receiver for the refrigerant circuit & include:
shall be complete with following: - i) evaporator low pressure
a) Inlet and outlet refrigerant connections. ii) evaporator transducer or leaving liquid probe
b) Inlet and outlet water connections. iii) evaporator transducer or temperature sensor
c) Relief / purge valve and connections. iv) condenser high pressure contacts open

46 59
5.4.7 Capacity Control : d) Drain valve, air vent, test cock connection, facility with valves for
descaling of tubes etc.
a) The compressor shall be equipped for modulating the capacity from
100% upto the 25% at constant condenser entering water 4.1.7 Cooling Coil
temperature without surging and hot gas bypass. The pre rotation
vanes located at the impeller inlet for controlling the capacity shall be i) Cooling coil shall be 3 or 4 rows deep, as per manufacturer's
aerofoil shaped and shall be made as per manufacturers standard. The standards, made of copper tubes of minimum 0.5 mm thickness and
vane position shall be controlled through hydraulic/ linkage system. aluminium fins of minimum 0.15 mm thickness, mechanically bonded to
the coils.
b) The positioning of the vane shall be through microprocessor-based
controller with its sensing elements in the outgoing chilled water lines. ii) No of fins per cm of tube shall be 4 to 5.
The automatic damper will enable maintenance of specified chilled
water temperature within + 0.11 deg C. iii) Coil shall be fitted with equalizing copper distributor to ensure that each
coil circuit receives equal amount of refrigerant.
5.4.8 Safety Control :
iv) The coil shall be designed for a face velocity of not more than 155
Safety controls shall be provided as per details given under para 12.2 m/min. Coil shall be thoroughly evacuated, dried and pressure tested
Equipment Safety controls. to 21 Kg /sq.cm (300 psi).

5.4.9 Inter locking 4.1.8 Refrigerant Plumbing

It shall be as per details given in para 5.2.8. i) The unit shall be complete with refrigerant plumbing using copper
tubes. Plumbing work shall be in accordance with para 5.7 of these
5.4.10 Drive motor: specifications.

i) The drive motor shall be an independent and coupler type or semi- ii) The refrigerant circuit shall include thermo-static expansion valve and
hermetic/ hermetic type depending on the design adopted by the suction gas stainer.
manufacturer.
iii) The work shall include provision of suction line insulation as per
ii) The electric motor shall be of squirrel cage type and shall be suitable for manufacturer standards.
operation on 400/415 V + 10%, 3 phase, 50 Hz, AC supply. All
Compressor motors in Screw and Centrifugal chillers with variable 4.1.9 Fan and Drive
speed compressors shall be provided with VFD and shall also be
suitably designed for use with Variable Frequency Drive. i) Fan shall be statically and dynamically balanced single/double inlet
centrifugal type, designed for quiet operation. The fan wheel shall be
iii) Synchronous speed of the motor shall not exceed 3000 RPM. constructed of aluminium or galvanised steel. Self-oiling bearing easily
accessible for maintenance, with thrust collar shall be provided.
iv) Continuous BHP rating of the motor shall not be less than the Preferably, the bearings shall be life lubricated sealed type, mounted
maximum power requirement of the compressor and drive under on vibration absorbing resilient supports.
specified design conditions.
ii) The fan shall be belt driven through adjustable pulley permitting air
v) The motor shall be TEFC or SPDP as per installation requirement for quantity to be varied by adjusting the fan speed. Suitable fan belt
open type chiller unit and Totally Enclosed refrigerant cooled for tension adjusting arrangement shall be provided.
hermatic / semi hermatic type chiller unit. For outdoor (exposed to
atmosphere) chiller applications , TEFC motor shall be used . iii) The fan motor shall be mounted within the cabinet. This shall be of
TEFC enclosure, squirrel cage, induction motor of suitable HP for the
vi) Motor protection during over current shall be provided through winding duty involved. This shall be located with proper alignment with fan
temperature sensor in case of refrigerant cooled motors/ current pulley for the belt drive.
sensing in each phase through microprocessor in case of open type air
cooled motors. iv) Starter (DOL) and independent SPP shall be provided.
vii) Power factor correction capacitors as required to maintain a displace-
ment power factor of 95% at all load conditions shall be provided. v) The CMH and static pressure of the fan shall be as specified in the
schedule of work.
5.4.11 Control Console :

58 47
4.1.10 Interlocking i) The centrifugal compressor shall be preferably variable speed.
ii) The variable speed compressor shall have compressor/ chiller
The compressor motor shall be interlocked with the following: manufacturers factory matched variable speed drive.
i) Air flow switch in the evaporator fan discharge iii) Where the impeller is designed for operation at speed higher than the
ii) Differential pressure switch in the condenser water line drive motor, necessary speed increasing gear shall be connected to the
iii) Condenser water pump impeller shaft in a self aligning and balanced way. The gears and pinion
iv) Cooling tower fan motor shall be pressure lubricated.
iv) Variable speed drive (VSD) drive shall be installed with appropriate
controls in accordance with section 5.3.11 and 5.3.12
4.1.11 Filters
5.4.3 Bearings :
i) Cleanable aluminium wire mesh/ synthetic media type air filters, at least
25 mm thick, shall be provided, swung fit to prevent air by pass. The compressor shall incorporate the necessary design features to take both
ii) Face velocity across the filters shall not exceed 100 m/min. axial and radial thrusts. The bearings shall be of self aligning type. The bearing
shall be pressure lubricated during operation and shall be completely
4.1.12 Humidification sequenced and interlocked with the start up of the machine in such a way that
oil pump should start earlier than the machine and the machine should start
Where close control of RH is required provision of pan type humidifier shall be after some time, provided the required oil temperature and pressure is
made as per para 6.2.3.6.2. maintained during the start up period.

4.1.13 Micro process controller 5.4.4 Shaft seal :

Each packaged units shall be equipped with a micro-processor controller The compressor shaft seal (in case of open type machines) shall be as per
having all operating & safety controls. manufacturers standard design.

4.1.14 Insulation The seal should have small face area and low rubbing speed. It should provide
an efficient seal under both vacuum and pressure lubricated during
Insulation of packaged units shall be as per para 4.1.3 (iii) & Chapter 11 of compressor operation. The seal must effectively prevent the leakage of
these specification. refrigerant along the shaft during shut down periods. During operation an oil
film should prevent outward leakage of refrigerant.

4.1.15 Power Consumption Rating for Packaged Air Conditioner under test conditions 5.4.5 Lubrication system :

Lubrication system must ensure complete forced and speed lubrication (at a
Cooling Capacity Maximum Power Consumption in pressure and controlled temperature) to all bearing surfaces under any speed
Watts conditions, at start up, at shut down and during operation at various loads.
Watts Tons of Refrigeration Water Cooled Air Cooled Adequate arrangement shall be provided to take care of lubrication during
10,000 3 3,750 4,750 failure of power or abnormal shutdown. Full lubrication must be available to the
17,500 5 6,000 7,000 machine during acceleration and deceleration periods through an automatic
26,250 7.5 9,000 10,000 auxiliary motor driven pump. The lubrication system should include the
35,000 10 11,500 13,500 following:
52,000 15 17,000 20,000
a) Filter mesh size shall be as per manufacturers standard.

4.2 AIRCOOLED PACKAGED TYPE PLANTS b) Oil level indicator

4.2.1 Scope c) Oil coolers and oil heaters (with built-in thermostat to aid maintaining
constant temperature)
This chapter covers the requirements of packaged type air-conditioning plants
with air-cooled condensers of 5, 7.5, 10 , 15 and 20 TR capacities. 5.4.6 The compressor shall be complete with all accessories such as drive
arrangement (for open drive machines), capacity control, safety controls.
4.2.2 General Construction

i) The air-cooled package unit shall be supplied in two portions outdoor


portion made up of the condenser & condenser fan and indoor unit

48 57
50 HZ alternating current supply, unless otherwise specified. The motor made up of the evaporator & evaporator fan. The compressor can be
synchronous speed shall not exceed 1500 r.p.m. provided along with the condenser or the evaporator depending upon
the manufacturer's practice or the required application at site.
ii) For open type compressor, the continuous B.H.P. rating of the motor ii) The two portions shall be piped together at site.
shall be at least 110% of the maximum power requirement of iii) General construction shall be as per 4.1.2.
compressor and drive under specified design conditions.
4.2.3 Cabinet
5.2.10 Motor Starter
The cabinet shall be provided separately for the two portions as shown per
These shall be same as per details given under para 13.9 Motor Starter. para 4.1.3.

IKW / TR (Input Kilo Watt / TR) shall not exceed 0.84 at ARI condition or COP 4.2.4 Compressor and Compressor Drive
at ARI condition shall not be lower than 4.2.
These shall be as per 4.1.4 and 4.1.5
5.3 SCROLL COMPRESSORS:
A) Compressors: Shall be hermetic, scroll-type, including: 4.2.5 Condenser

i) Compliant design for axial and radial sealing. The condenser shall be air-cooled and shall be in general conforming to para
ii) Refrigerant flow through the compressor with 100% suction cooled 5.5.4
motor.
4.2.6 Cooling Coil
iii) Large suction side free volume and oil sump to provide liquid handling
capability. This shall be as per 4.1.7
iv) Compressor crankcase heaters to provide extra liquid migration
protection.
v) Annular discharge check valve and reverse vent assembly to provide 4.2.7 Refrigerant Piping
low-pressure drop, silent shutdown and reverse rotation protection.
vi) Initial oil charge. This shall be as per 4.1.8.
vii) Oil level sight glass.
4.2.8 Fan and Drive
viii) Vibration isolator mounts for compressors.
ix) Brazed-type/ shell and tube connections for fully hermetic refrigerant i) These shall be as per 4.1.9.
circuits.
x) Compressor Motor overloads capable of monitoring compressor motor ii) Separate fans along with their drives shall be provided for the
current. Provides extra protection against compressor reverse rotation, condenser and evaporator portions.
phase-loss and phase-imbalance.
4.2.9 The compressor motor shall be interlocked with the following:
Chiller power consumption values shall be as per ECBC norms.
i) Air flow switch in the evaporator fan discharge.
5.4 CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS (CONSTANT SPEED AND VARIABLE ii) Air flow switch in the condenser fan discharge.
SPEED)
4.2.10 Filters
5.4.1 Type- Centrifugal compressor shall be open/ semi-sealed/ totally sealed type.
It shall be working on CFC and HCFC free refrigerant.The impeller shall be These shall be as per 4.1.11
of shrouded design and made of cast aluminium alloy of high strength and
protected against corrosion. This shall be statically and dynamically balanced 4.2.11 Humidification
and over speed tested so as to ensure vibration free operation. The impeller
shaft or drive end of the gear shaft, as the case may be, shall be connected Where specified, this shall be provided as per 4.1.12
with the motor through a flexible coupling in case of open design and rotor
shaft in case of hermetic design. The compressor casing shall be of high 4.2.12 Insulation
strength ductile casting and of such design that servicing can be carried out
without disturbing connections. Insulation of packaged units shall be as per para 4.1.3 (iii) & Chapter 11 of
these specification.
5.4.2 Drive gear

56 49
4.3 VARIBALE REFRIGERANT VOLUME/ FLOW SYSTEM d) Connection for oil pressure gauge with control valve

The system selected is a modular system, with number of indoors connected


to centrally located outdoor units. The outdoor units for all the system shall be
air cooled type. 5.2.5 Isolating valves and accessories

4.3.1 General Description i) Suction and discharge isolating valves shall be provided for each
All the VRF air conditioners shall be fully factory assembled, wired, internally compressor.
piped & tested. The outdoor unit shall be pre-charged with first charge of
refrigerant. Additional charge shall be added as per refrigerant piping at site. ii) The compressor shall be complete with all accessories such as pipe
All the units shall be suitable for operation with 415 V +/- 10%, 50 Hz + 3%, 3 flanges, suction strainers, etc.
Phase supply for outdoor units; & 220 V +/- 10%, 50 Hz +/- 3%, 1 Phase
supply for indoor units. 5.2.6 Safety Controls

Safety controls shall be provided as per details given under para 12.2
4.3.2 Specifications of Outdoor units : Equipment Safety controls.

5.2.7 Capacity controls


i) Outdoors units of the VRV system shall be compact air cooled type.
ii) The outdoor unit should comprise of Inverter controlled Twin Rotary Each compressor shall be equipped for capacity control by cylinder unloading.
Compressor / Scroll Compressor Unloading shall be achieved by lifting of suction valves or through bypass
iii) Each module of outdoor unit must have at least 50 % of Variable valves in the discharge chamber. The capacity control mechanism shall be so
compressor which can work on Part load Suitable to operate at heat arranged that the compressor starts unloaded and shall be loaded in stages up
load proportional to indoor requirement. to 100% loading of the compressor.
iv) The ODU must deliver COP of minimum 4.7 at 50 % load.
v) The outdoor units must be suitable for up to 225 m refrigerant piping 5.2.8 Interlocking
between outdoor unit & the farthest indoor units. Allowable level
difference between outdoor unit & indoor units shall be 50 m in case of
outdoor unit on top & 40 m in case of outdoor unit at bottom. The compressor motor shall be interlocked with the following: -
vi) Allowable level difference between various indoor units connected to
one out door unit shall be up to 15 m. i) Differential pressure switch in the chilled water line(s) in case of chilled
vii) The outdoor units shall be suitable to operate within an ambient water system, and air flow switch in the evaporator fan discharge in the
temperature range of 5 Deg C to 43 Deg C in cooling mode; & -20 Deg case of direct expansion system.
C to 15 Deg C in heating mode.
viii) The entire operation of outdoor units shall be through independent ii) Differential pressure switch in the condenser water line(s) in case of
remotes of indoor units. No separate Start/ Stop function shall be water cooled condenser and air flow switch in the condenser fan
required. discharge in the case of air cooled condenser.
ix) Starter for the Outdoor Unit compressor shall be Direct on Line type.
Inverter compressor of the unit shall start first & at the minimum iii) Anti-freeze thermostat in case of chiller.
frequency, to reduce the inrush current during starting.
x) Complete refrigerant circuit, oil balancing/ equalizing circuit shall be iv) Condenser water pump in case of water cooled condenser and
factory assembled & tested condenser fan in case of air cooled condenser.

4.3.3 Specifications of Indoor units : v) Chilled water pump in case of chilled water system and evaporator fan
in case of direct expansion system.
The units include pre-filter, fan section and DX coil section. The housing of
units shall be light weight powder coated galvanized steel. Units shall have The interlocks shall be provided with indicating lamps or flags in the
external casing of ABS Plastic for supply and return air. control panel in the refrigeration plant room.

i) 4 Way Cassette type indoor units : 5.2.9 Drive Motor


(a) These units shall be installed between the bottom of finished
slab & top of false ceiling. i) The electrical motor driving the compressor shall be squirrel cage
(b) Unit shall have provision of connecting fresh air without any induction motor class `F insulation, fan cooled for open type unit; and
special chamber & without increasing the total height of the unit totally enclosed, (refrigerant cooled) for hermetic/ semi-hermetic unit.
The motor shall be suitable for operation on 415 + 10% volts, 3 phase,
(320 mm maximum).

50 55
CHAPTER 5 (c) The unit must have in built drain pump, suitable for vertical lift of
750 mm.
CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONING PLANT (d) Unit must be insulated with sound absorbing thermal insulation
material, Polyurethane foam. The sound pressure level of unit at
5.1 SCOPE the highest operating level shall not exceed 46 dB (A).
(e) The unit must have drain pump kit if. The drain pump must be
This chapter describes central Air-conditioning plant with factory assembled &
tested chilling units comprising of reciprocating/ scroll/ centrifugal/ screw suitable to lift drain up to 1000 mm from the bottom of the unit.
compressor, as the case may be, direct driven with electric motor, water/ air-
cooled condenser, chiller, connecting refrigerant plumbing, microprocessor
based safeties and controls including first charge of refrigerant & compressor ii) 4 Way Compact Cassette type indoor units.
oil.
(a) The compact cassette unit should perfectly fit into ceilings and
5.2. RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS match the standard architectural modules, without the need to
cut ceiling tiles.
5.2.1 Type (b) The flaps fold tightly against the ceiling when operation stops so
that the ceiling is affected only slightly even if air conditioning is
installed.
Reciprocating compressor shall be multi cylinder open type, semi-sealed
(semi-hermatic), or totally (hermetically) sealed type. It shall be using CFC/ (c) Designed for simple & easy installation and maintenance. It
should be slim in design only 268 mm in height even when an
HCFC free refrigerant only. The suction chamber of the compressor should be
of generous proportions and should have changes of direction of flow to electrical box is located inside the unit.
(d) The unit must have drain pump kit if. The drain pump must be
ensure separation of entrained oil and liquid refrigerant from the gas before it
enters suction manifold. suitable to lift drain up to 1000 mm from the bottom of the unit.

5.2.2 Drive
iii) Concealed duct type units
The compressor shall be direct driven.
(a) These units shall be ceiling suspended with suitable supports to take
5.2.3 Crankcase heaters. care of operating weight of the unit, without causing any excessive
vibration & noise.
i) The compressors shall be equipped with electrical crankcase heaters. (b) The cold air supplied by these units will be supplied to the area to be air
These heaters shall be fitted in steel pockets to avoid the oil coming in conditioned, through duct system specified in the tender.
direct contact with the heating element. The heater elements shall (c) Each indoor unit must have electronic expansion valve operated by
remain energized only during the off cycle of the compressor and shall microprocessor thermostat based temperature control to deliver
be de-energized when the compressor is operating to prevent the cooling/ heating as per the heat load of the room
mixing of oil and refrigerant and their accumulation in the crankcase (d) The Sound Pressure level of unit at the highest operating level shall not
when the compressor is off. exceed 38 dB (A), at a vertical distance of 1.5 m below the units with
duct connected to the unit.
ii) An indicating light and a push button switch shall be provided for testing (e) The unit must have provision of adding drain pump kit if required &
the continuity of the heater element. specified. The drain pump must be suitable to lift drain up to 1000 mm
from the bottom of the unit.
5.2.4 Lubrication system

i) The lubrication system shall be force feed type with a reversible iv) Wall Mounted Units.
positive displacement type oil pump to provide pressure lubrication to
bearings and other wearing surfaces. (a) Wall mounted units must be compact & stylish design that does
not detract from the dcor of the room.
ii) The crankcase shall be fitted with the following: - (b) Each indoor unit must have electronic expansion valve operated
by microprocessor thermostat based temperature control to
a) A pump suction strainer, deliver cooling/ heating as per the heat load of the room.
(c) The unit must have provision of adding drain pump kit if
b) An oil level bulls eye to check the oil level, required & specified. The drain pump must be suitable to lift
drain up to 1000 mm from the bottom of the unit.
c) An oil drain with a magnetic drain plug, (d) The sound pressure level of unit at the highest operating level
shall not exceed 46 dB(A).

54 51
(e) Refrigerant control in the indoor unit shall be through Electronic vacuum shall not exceed 12 cm of mercury.
Expansion Valve. (f) All refrigerant piping shall be installed strictly as per the instructions
and recommendations of air conditioning equipment manufacturers.
v) Installation:
ix) Power Supply:
(a) The units shall be mounted on ribbed rubber pads for vibration
isolation. The contractor shall supply the required charge of (a) Power supply near the indoor unit will be provided by the
refrigerant, lubricant and other consumables, for commissioning department with suitable 6A plug point socket & switch.
and testing of the equipment. (b) However, where the power requirement is of central control from
(b) All the equipment shall be thoroughly tested and checked for ODUs, as per the design of the system, the entire power supply
leaks. All safety controls shall be suitably set and a record of all then shall be done by the contractor.
setting shall be furnished to the project supervisor.
(c) Providing and fixing M.S. structural support for condensing unit
with vibration isolator pad in-between support and structure and
vibration isolation suspender and pads for evaporating units
shall be in scope of contractor.

vi) Painting:

Shop coats of paint that have become marred during transportation or


erection shall be cleaned off with mineral spirits, wire brushed and spot
primed over the affected areas, then coated with enamel paint to match
the finish over the adjoining shop- painted surfaces.

vii) Condensate Drain Piping:

All pipes to be used for condensate drain shall be PVC pipe


conforming to IS: 4985 - Class I & all joints should be Gluing or solvent
cementing as per manufacturer recommendation.

viii ) Refrigerant Piping:

(a) All refrigerant pipes and fittings shall be type 'L' hard drawn copper
tubes and wrought copper fitting suitable for connection with silver
solder. The copper thickness of wall shall be 20G/ 22G(0.7 to 1
mm)
(b) All joints in copper piping shall be swaged joints using low
temperature brazing and/ or silver solder. Before jointing any copper
pipe or fittings, its interior shall be thoroughly cleaned be passing a
clean cloth via wire or cable through its entire length. The piping
shall be continuously kept clean of dirt etc. while construction of the
joints. Subsequently, it shall be thoroughly blown out using nitrogen.
(c) Refrigerant lines shall be sized to limit pressure drop between
evaporator and condensing unit to less than 0.2 kg per Sq.cm.
(d) After the refrigerant piping installation has been completed the
refrigerant piping system shall be pressure tested using, Freon
mixed with nitrogen at a pressure of 20 Kg per Sq. cm. (High side)
and 10 Kg per Sq. cm (Low side). Pressure shall be maintained on
the system for 24 hours.
(e) The system shall then be evacuated to a minimum vacuum of 70
cm. of mercury and held for 24 hours, during which time; change in

52 53
(e) Refrigerant control in the indoor unit shall be through Electronic vacuum shall not exceed 12 cm of mercury.
Expansion Valve. (f) All refrigerant piping shall be installed strictly as per the instructions
and recommendations of air conditioning equipment manufacturers.
v) Installation:
ix) Power Supply:
(a) The units shall be mounted on ribbed rubber pads for vibration
isolation. The contractor shall supply the required charge of (a) Power supply near the indoor unit will be provided by the
refrigerant, lubricant and other consumables, for commissioning department with suitable 6A plug point socket & switch.
and testing of the equipment. (b) However, where the power requirement is of central control from
(b) All the equipment shall be thoroughly tested and checked for ODUs, as per the design of the system, the entire power supply
leaks. All safety controls shall be suitably set and a record of all then shall be done by the contractor.
setting shall be furnished to the project supervisor.
(c) Providing and fixing M.S. structural support for condensing unit
with vibration isolator pad in-between support and structure and
vibration isolation suspender and pads for evaporating units
shall be in scope of contractor.

vi) Painting:

Shop coats of paint that have become marred during transportation or


erection shall be cleaned off with mineral spirits, wire brushed and spot
primed over the affected areas, then coated with enamel paint to match
the finish over the adjoining shop- painted surfaces.

vii) Condensate Drain Piping:

All pipes to be used for condensate drain shall be PVC pipe


conforming to IS: 4985 - Class I & all joints should be Gluing or solvent
cementing as per manufacturer recommendation.

viii ) Refrigerant Piping:

(a) All refrigerant pipes and fittings shall be type 'L' hard drawn copper
tubes and wrought copper fitting suitable for connection with silver
solder. The copper thickness of wall shall be 20G/ 22G(0.7 to 1
mm)
(b) All joints in copper piping shall be swaged joints using low
temperature brazing and/ or silver solder. Before jointing any copper
pipe or fittings, its interior shall be thoroughly cleaned be passing a
clean cloth via wire or cable through its entire length. The piping
shall be continuously kept clean of dirt etc. while construction of the
joints. Subsequently, it shall be thoroughly blown out using nitrogen.
(c) Refrigerant lines shall be sized to limit pressure drop between
evaporator and condensing unit to less than 0.2 kg per Sq.cm.
(d) After the refrigerant piping installation has been completed the
refrigerant piping system shall be pressure tested using, Freon
mixed with nitrogen at a pressure of 20 Kg per Sq. cm. (High side)
and 10 Kg per Sq. cm (Low side). Pressure shall be maintained on
the system for 24 hours.
(e) The system shall then be evacuated to a minimum vacuum of 70
cm. of mercury and held for 24 hours, during which time; change in

52 53
CHAPTER 5 (c) The unit must have in built drain pump, suitable for vertical lift of
750 mm.
CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONING PLANT (d) Unit must be insulated with sound absorbing thermal insulation
material, Polyurethane foam. The sound pressure level of unit at
5.1 SCOPE the highest operating level shall not exceed 46 dB (A).
(e) The unit must have drain pump kit if. The drain pump must be
This chapter describes central Air-conditioning plant with factory assembled &
tested chilling units comprising of reciprocating/ scroll/ centrifugal/ screw suitable to lift drain up to 1000 mm from the bottom of the unit.
compressor, as the case may be, direct driven with electric motor, water/ air-
cooled condenser, chiller, connecting refrigerant plumbing, microprocessor
based safeties and controls including first charge of refrigerant & compressor ii) 4 Way Compact Cassette type indoor units.
oil.
(a) The compact cassette unit should perfectly fit into ceilings and
5.2. RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS match the standard architectural modules, without the need to
cut ceiling tiles.
5.2.1 Type (b) The flaps fold tightly against the ceiling when operation stops so
that the ceiling is affected only slightly even if air conditioning is
installed.
Reciprocating compressor shall be multi cylinder open type, semi-sealed
(semi-hermatic), or totally (hermetically) sealed type. It shall be using CFC/ (c) Designed for simple & easy installation and maintenance. It
should be slim in design only 268 mm in height even when an
HCFC free refrigerant only. The suction chamber of the compressor should be
of generous proportions and should have changes of direction of flow to electrical box is located inside the unit.
(d) The unit must have drain pump kit if. The drain pump must be
ensure separation of entrained oil and liquid refrigerant from the gas before it
enters suction manifold. suitable to lift drain up to 1000 mm from the bottom of the unit.

5.2.2 Drive
iii) Concealed duct type units
The compressor shall be direct driven.
(a) These units shall be ceiling suspended with suitable supports to take
5.2.3 Crankcase heaters. care of operating weight of the unit, without causing any excessive
vibration & noise.
i) The compressors shall be equipped with electrical crankcase heaters. (b) The cold air supplied by these units will be supplied to the area to be air
These heaters shall be fitted in steel pockets to avoid the oil coming in conditioned, through duct system specified in the tender.
direct contact with the heating element. The heater elements shall (c) Each indoor unit must have electronic expansion valve operated by
remain energized only during the off cycle of the compressor and shall microprocessor thermostat based temperature control to deliver
be de-energized when the compressor is operating to prevent the cooling/ heating as per the heat load of the room
mixing of oil and refrigerant and their accumulation in the crankcase (d) The Sound Pressure level of unit at the highest operating level shall not
when the compressor is off. exceed 38 dB (A), at a vertical distance of 1.5 m below the units with
duct connected to the unit.
ii) An indicating light and a push button switch shall be provided for testing (e) The unit must have provision of adding drain pump kit if required &
the continuity of the heater element. specified. The drain pump must be suitable to lift drain up to 1000 mm
from the bottom of the unit.
5.2.4 Lubrication system

i) The lubrication system shall be force feed type with a reversible iv) Wall Mounted Units.
positive displacement type oil pump to provide pressure lubrication to
bearings and other wearing surfaces. (a) Wall mounted units must be compact & stylish design that does
not detract from the dcor of the room.
ii) The crankcase shall be fitted with the following: - (b) Each indoor unit must have electronic expansion valve operated
by microprocessor thermostat based temperature control to
a) A pump suction strainer, deliver cooling/ heating as per the heat load of the room.
(c) The unit must have provision of adding drain pump kit if
b) An oil level bulls eye to check the oil level, required & specified. The drain pump must be suitable to lift
drain up to 1000 mm from the bottom of the unit.
c) An oil drain with a magnetic drain plug, (d) The sound pressure level of unit at the highest operating level
shall not exceed 46 dB(A).

54 51
4.3 VARIBALE REFRIGERANT VOLUME/ FLOW SYSTEM d) Connection for oil pressure gauge with control valve

The system selected is a modular system, with number of indoors connected


to centrally located outdoor units. The outdoor units for all the system shall be
air cooled type. 5.2.5 Isolating valves and accessories

4.3.1 General Description i) Suction and discharge isolating valves shall be provided for each
All the VRF air conditioners shall be fully factory assembled, wired, internally compressor.
piped & tested. The outdoor unit shall be pre-charged with first charge of
refrigerant. Additional charge shall be added as per refrigerant piping at site. ii) The compressor shall be complete with all accessories such as pipe
All the units shall be suitable for operation with 415 V +/- 10%, 50 Hz + 3%, 3 flanges, suction strainers, etc.
Phase supply for outdoor units; & 220 V +/- 10%, 50 Hz +/- 3%, 1 Phase
supply for indoor units. 5.2.6 Safety Controls

Safety controls shall be provided as per details given under para 12.2
4.3.2 Specifications of Outdoor units : Equipment Safety controls.

5.2.7 Capacity controls


i) Outdoors units of the VRV system shall be compact air cooled type.
ii) The outdoor unit should comprise of Inverter controlled Twin Rotary Each compressor shall be equipped for capacity control by cylinder unloading.
Compressor / Scroll Compressor Unloading shall be achieved by lifting of suction valves or through bypass
iii) Each module of outdoor unit must have at least 50 % of Variable valves in the discharge chamber. The capacity control mechanism shall be so
compressor which can work on Part load Suitable to operate at heat arranged that the compressor starts unloaded and shall be loaded in stages up
load proportional to indoor requirement. to 100% loading of the compressor.
iv) The ODU must deliver COP of minimum 4.7 at 50 % load.
v) The outdoor units must be suitable for up to 225 m refrigerant piping 5.2.8 Interlocking
between outdoor unit & the farthest indoor units. Allowable level
difference between outdoor unit & indoor units shall be 50 m in case of
outdoor unit on top & 40 m in case of outdoor unit at bottom. The compressor motor shall be interlocked with the following: -
vi) Allowable level difference between various indoor units connected to
one out door unit shall be up to 15 m. i) Differential pressure switch in the chilled water line(s) in case of chilled
vii) The outdoor units shall be suitable to operate within an ambient water system, and air flow switch in the evaporator fan discharge in the
temperature range of 5 Deg C to 43 Deg C in cooling mode; & -20 Deg case of direct expansion system.
C to 15 Deg C in heating mode.
viii) The entire operation of outdoor units shall be through independent ii) Differential pressure switch in the condenser water line(s) in case of
remotes of indoor units. No separate Start/ Stop function shall be water cooled condenser and air flow switch in the condenser fan
required. discharge in the case of air cooled condenser.
ix) Starter for the Outdoor Unit compressor shall be Direct on Line type.
Inverter compressor of the unit shall start first & at the minimum iii) Anti-freeze thermostat in case of chiller.
frequency, to reduce the inrush current during starting.
x) Complete refrigerant circuit, oil balancing/ equalizing circuit shall be iv) Condenser water pump in case of water cooled condenser and
factory assembled & tested condenser fan in case of air cooled condenser.

4.3.3 Specifications of Indoor units : v) Chilled water pump in case of chilled water system and evaporator fan
in case of direct expansion system.
The units include pre-filter, fan section and DX coil section. The housing of
units shall be light weight powder coated galvanized steel. Units shall have The interlocks shall be provided with indicating lamps or flags in the
external casing of ABS Plastic for supply and return air. control panel in the refrigeration plant room.

i) 4 Way Cassette type indoor units : 5.2.9 Drive Motor


(a) These units shall be installed between the bottom of finished
slab & top of false ceiling. i) The electrical motor driving the compressor shall be squirrel cage
(b) Unit shall have provision of connecting fresh air without any induction motor class `F insulation, fan cooled for open type unit; and
special chamber & without increasing the total height of the unit totally enclosed, (refrigerant cooled) for hermetic/ semi-hermetic unit.
The motor shall be suitable for operation on 415 + 10% volts, 3 phase,
(320 mm maximum).

50 55
50 HZ alternating current supply, unless otherwise specified. The motor made up of the evaporator & evaporator fan. The compressor can be
synchronous speed shall not exceed 1500 r.p.m. provided along with the condenser or the evaporator depending upon
the manufacturer's practice or the required application at site.
ii) For open type compressor, the continuous B.H.P. rating of the motor ii) The two portions shall be piped together at site.
shall be at least 110% of the maximum power requirement of iii) General construction shall be as per 4.1.2.
compressor and drive under specified design conditions.
4.2.3 Cabinet
5.2.10 Motor Starter
The cabinet shall be provided separately for the two portions as shown per
These shall be same as per details given under para 13.9 Motor Starter. para 4.1.3.

IKW / TR (Input Kilo Watt / TR) shall not exceed 0.84 at ARI condition or COP 4.2.4 Compressor and Compressor Drive
at ARI condition shall not be lower than 4.2.
These shall be as per 4.1.4 and 4.1.5
5.3 SCROLL COMPRESSORS:
A) Compressors: Shall be hermetic, scroll-type, including: 4.2.5 Condenser

i) Compliant design for axial and radial sealing. The condenser shall be air-cooled and shall be in general conforming to para
ii) Refrigerant flow through the compressor with 100% suction cooled 5.5.4
motor.
4.2.6 Cooling Coil
iii) Large suction side free volume and oil sump to provide liquid handling
capability. This shall be as per 4.1.7
iv) Compressor crankcase heaters to provide extra liquid migration
protection.
v) Annular discharge check valve and reverse vent assembly to provide 4.2.7 Refrigerant Piping
low-pressure drop, silent shutdown and reverse rotation protection.
vi) Initial oil charge. This shall be as per 4.1.8.
vii) Oil level sight glass.
4.2.8 Fan and Drive
viii) Vibration isolator mounts for compressors.
ix) Brazed-type/ shell and tube connections for fully hermetic refrigerant i) These shall be as per 4.1.9.
circuits.
x) Compressor Motor overloads capable of monitoring compressor motor ii) Separate fans along with their drives shall be provided for the
current. Provides extra protection against compressor reverse rotation, condenser and evaporator portions.
phase-loss and phase-imbalance.
4.2.9 The compressor motor shall be interlocked with the following:
Chiller power consumption values shall be as per ECBC norms.
i) Air flow switch in the evaporator fan discharge.
5.4 CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS (CONSTANT SPEED AND VARIABLE ii) Air flow switch in the condenser fan discharge.
SPEED)
4.2.10 Filters
5.4.1 Type- Centrifugal compressor shall be open/ semi-sealed/ totally sealed type.
It shall be working on CFC and HCFC free refrigerant.The impeller shall be These shall be as per 4.1.11
of shrouded design and made of cast aluminium alloy of high strength and
protected against corrosion. This shall be statically and dynamically balanced 4.2.11 Humidification
and over speed tested so as to ensure vibration free operation. The impeller
shaft or drive end of the gear shaft, as the case may be, shall be connected Where specified, this shall be provided as per 4.1.12
with the motor through a flexible coupling in case of open design and rotor
shaft in case of hermetic design. The compressor casing shall be of high 4.2.12 Insulation
strength ductile casting and of such design that servicing can be carried out
without disturbing connections. Insulation of packaged units shall be as per para 4.1.3 (iii) & Chapter 11 of
these specification.
5.4.2 Drive gear

56 49
4.1.10 Interlocking i) The centrifugal compressor shall be preferably variable speed.
ii) The variable speed compressor shall have compressor/ chiller
The compressor motor shall be interlocked with the following: manufacturers factory matched variable speed drive.
i) Air flow switch in the evaporator fan discharge iii) Where the impeller is designed for operation at speed higher than the
ii) Differential pressure switch in the condenser water line drive motor, necessary speed increasing gear shall be connected to the
iii) Condenser water pump impeller shaft in a self aligning and balanced way. The gears and pinion
iv) Cooling tower fan motor shall be pressure lubricated.
iv) Variable speed drive (VSD) drive shall be installed with appropriate
controls in accordance with section 5.3.11 and 5.3.12
4.1.11 Filters
5.4.3 Bearings :
i) Cleanable aluminium wire mesh/ synthetic media type air filters, at least
25 mm thick, shall be provided, swung fit to prevent air by pass. The compressor shall incorporate the necessary design features to take both
ii) Face velocity across the filters shall not exceed 100 m/min. axial and radial thrusts. The bearings shall be of self aligning type. The bearing
shall be pressure lubricated during operation and shall be completely
4.1.12 Humidification sequenced and interlocked with the start up of the machine in such a way that
oil pump should start earlier than the machine and the machine should start
Where close control of RH is required provision of pan type humidifier shall be after some time, provided the required oil temperature and pressure is
made as per para 6.2.3.6.2. maintained during the start up period.

4.1.13 Micro process controller 5.4.4 Shaft seal :

Each packaged units shall be equipped with a micro-processor controller The compressor shaft seal (in case of open type machines) shall be as per
having all operating & safety controls. manufacturers standard design.

4.1.14 Insulation The seal should have small face area and low rubbing speed. It should provide
an efficient seal under both vacuum and pressure lubricated during
Insulation of packaged units shall be as per para 4.1.3 (iii) & Chapter 11 of compressor operation. The seal must effectively prevent the leakage of
these specification. refrigerant along the shaft during shut down periods. During operation an oil
film should prevent outward leakage of refrigerant.

4.1.15 Power Consumption Rating for Packaged Air Conditioner under test conditions 5.4.5 Lubrication system :

Lubrication system must ensure complete forced and speed lubrication (at a
Cooling Capacity Maximum Power Consumption in pressure and controlled temperature) to all bearing surfaces under any speed
Watts conditions, at start up, at shut down and during operation at various loads.
Watts Tons of Refrigeration Water Cooled Air Cooled Adequate arrangement shall be provided to take care of lubrication during
10,000 3 3,750 4,750 failure of power or abnormal shutdown. Full lubrication must be available to the
17,500 5 6,000 7,000 machine during acceleration and deceleration periods through an automatic
26,250 7.5 9,000 10,000 auxiliary motor driven pump. The lubrication system should include the
35,000 10 11,500 13,500 following:
52,000 15 17,000 20,000
a) Filter mesh size shall be as per manufacturers standard.

4.2 AIRCOOLED PACKAGED TYPE PLANTS b) Oil level indicator

4.2.1 Scope c) Oil coolers and oil heaters (with built-in thermostat to aid maintaining
constant temperature)
This chapter covers the requirements of packaged type air-conditioning plants
with air-cooled condensers of 5, 7.5, 10 , 15 and 20 TR capacities. 5.4.6 The compressor shall be complete with all accessories such as drive
arrangement (for open drive machines), capacity control, safety controls.
4.2.2 General Construction

i) The air-cooled package unit shall be supplied in two portions outdoor


portion made up of the condenser & condenser fan and indoor unit

48 57
5.4.7 Capacity Control : d) Drain valve, air vent, test cock connection, facility with valves for
descaling of tubes etc.
a) The compressor shall be equipped for modulating the capacity from
100% upto the 25% at constant condenser entering water 4.1.7 Cooling Coil
temperature without surging and hot gas bypass. The pre rotation
vanes located at the impeller inlet for controlling the capacity shall be i) Cooling coil shall be 3 or 4 rows deep, as per manufacturer's
aerofoil shaped and shall be made as per manufacturers standard. The standards, made of copper tubes of minimum 0.5 mm thickness and
vane position shall be controlled through hydraulic/ linkage system. aluminium fins of minimum 0.15 mm thickness, mechanically bonded to
the coils.
b) The positioning of the vane shall be through microprocessor-based
controller with its sensing elements in the outgoing chilled water lines. ii) No of fins per cm of tube shall be 4 to 5.
The automatic damper will enable maintenance of specified chilled
water temperature within + 0.11 deg C. iii) Coil shall be fitted with equalizing copper distributor to ensure that each
coil circuit receives equal amount of refrigerant.
5.4.8 Safety Control :
iv) The coil shall be designed for a face velocity of not more than 155
Safety controls shall be provided as per details given under para 12.2 m/min. Coil shall be thoroughly evacuated, dried and pressure tested
Equipment Safety controls. to 21 Kg /sq.cm (300 psi).

5.4.9 Inter locking 4.1.8 Refrigerant Plumbing

It shall be as per details given in para 5.2.8. i) The unit shall be complete with refrigerant plumbing using copper
tubes. Plumbing work shall be in accordance with para 5.7 of these
5.4.10 Drive motor: specifications.

i) The drive motor shall be an independent and coupler type or semi- ii) The refrigerant circuit shall include thermo-static expansion valve and
hermetic/ hermetic type depending on the design adopted by the suction gas stainer.
manufacturer.
iii) The work shall include provision of suction line insulation as per
ii) The electric motor shall be of squirrel cage type and shall be suitable for manufacturer standards.
operation on 400/415 V + 10%, 3 phase, 50 Hz, AC supply. All
Compressor motors in Screw and Centrifugal chillers with variable 4.1.9 Fan and Drive
speed compressors shall be provided with VFD and shall also be
suitably designed for use with Variable Frequency Drive. i) Fan shall be statically and dynamically balanced single/double inlet
centrifugal type, designed for quiet operation. The fan wheel shall be
iii) Synchronous speed of the motor shall not exceed 3000 RPM. constructed of aluminium or galvanised steel. Self-oiling bearing easily
accessible for maintenance, with thrust collar shall be provided.
iv) Continuous BHP rating of the motor shall not be less than the Preferably, the bearings shall be life lubricated sealed type, mounted
maximum power requirement of the compressor and drive under on vibration absorbing resilient supports.
specified design conditions.
ii) The fan shall be belt driven through adjustable pulley permitting air
v) The motor shall be TEFC or SPDP as per installation requirement for quantity to be varied by adjusting the fan speed. Suitable fan belt
open type chiller unit and Totally Enclosed refrigerant cooled for tension adjusting arrangement shall be provided.
hermatic / semi hermatic type chiller unit. For outdoor (exposed to
atmosphere) chiller applications , TEFC motor shall be used . iii) The fan motor shall be mounted within the cabinet. This shall be of
TEFC enclosure, squirrel cage, induction motor of suitable HP for the
vi) Motor protection during over current shall be provided through winding duty involved. This shall be located with proper alignment with fan
temperature sensor in case of refrigerant cooled motors/ current pulley for the belt drive.
sensing in each phase through microprocessor in case of open type air
cooled motors. iv) Starter (DOL) and independent SPP shall be provided.
vii) Power factor correction capacitors as required to maintain a displace-
ment power factor of 95% at all load conditions shall be provided. v) The CMH and static pressure of the fan shall be as specified in the
schedule of work.
5.4.11 Control Console :

58 47
The chiller shall be controlled by a stand-alone microprocessor based control
v) A conditioned air outlet from the cabinet should be provided with center. The chiller control panel shall provide control of chiller operation and
suitable flanges in order to connect it to the canvas of the supply air monitoring of chiller sensors, actuators, relays and switches.
ducting at the cabinet top.
The chiller control panel shall also provide:

vi) A return grill of streamlined design shall be provided in the elevation in 1. System operating information including:
front of the filter section. This grill should be easily removable for i) return and leaving chilled water temperature
inspection / maintenance of filter. ii) return and leaving condenser water temperature
iii) evaporator and condenser saturation temperature
4.1.4 Compressor :
iv) differential oil pressure
i) Compressor shall be scroll hermetic or semi hermetic type suitable for v) percent motor current
CFC/HCFC free refrigerant. vi) evaporator and condenser saturation temperature
vii) compressor discharge temperature
ii) It shall be fitted with suction and discharge stop valves, permitting full viii) oil reservoir temperature
servicing facilities, built in safety controls, filters, release valves, control ix) compressor thrust bearing positioning and oil temperature
valve and other standard accessories. x) operating hours
xi) number of compressor starts
iii) The compressor shall be installed on vibration isolating resilient
material, so as to ensure operation with the minimum noise and
vibrations. 2. Digital programming of setpoints through the universal keypad including:
i) leaving chilled water temperature
iv) Each compressor shall be provided with protection against high
refrigerant pressure and low refrigerant pressure, anti-cycle timer, ii) percent current limit
indication lamps, fault alarm etc through microprocessor controller. iii) pull-down demand limiting
iv) six-week schedule for starting and stopping the chiller, pumps and
v) Compressor shall be designed for 4.4 deg C suction temperature and tower
43.3 deg C discharge temperature. v) remote reset temperature range

4.1.5 Compressor Drive :


3. Status messages indicating:
i) The compressor motor shall be squirrel cage induction motor capable i) system ready to start
of continuous operation at 415 V + 10% , 50 Hz, 3 phase AC supply. ii) system running
iii) system coast down
ii) The motor shall be suction cooled, in case of sealed semi-hermatic
type units. iv) system safety shutdown-manual restart
v) system cycling shutdown-auto restart
iii) The starter shall be as per para 13.9 and shall be provided on the vi) system pre-lube
packaged unit itself. vii) start inhibit

4.1.6 Condenser :
4. The text displayed within the system status and system details field shall be
i) Condenser shall be of horizontal shell and tube construction with M.S. displayed as a color coded message to indicate severity: red for safety fault,
shell and integrally finned copper tubes. Thickness of tube shall be orange for cycling faults, yellow for warnings, and green for normal
minimum 1.0 mm before finning. messages.

ii) The end covers shall be removable type and suitable provision shall be 5. Safety shutdowns enunciated through the display and the status bar, and
made in the unit cabinet, enabling easy cleaning of condenser tubes. consist of system status, system details, day, time, cause of shutdown, and
type of restart required. Safety shutdowns with a fixed speed drive shall
iii) The condenser shall serve as liquid receiver for the refrigerant circuit & include:
shall be complete with following: - i) evaporator low pressure
a) Inlet and outlet refrigerant connections. ii) evaporator transducer or leaving liquid probe
b) Inlet and outlet water connections. iii) evaporator transducer or temperature sensor
c) Relief / purge valve and connections. iv) condenser high pressure contacts open

46 59
v) condenser high pressure CHAPTER- 4
vi) condenser pressure transducer out of range
vii) auxiliary safety contacts closed PACKAGED TYPE AIR CONDITIONING PLANTS AND VARIBALE REFRIGERANT
viii) discharge high temperature FLOW/ VOLUME SYSTEM
ix) discharge low temperature
4.1 WATER COOLED PACKAGED TYPE PLANTS
x) oil high temperature
xi) oil low differential pressure 4.1.1 Scope
xii) oil high differential pressure
xiii) oil sump pressure transducer out of range This chapter covers the requirements of packaged type air-conditioning plants
xiv) oil differential pressure calibration with water-cooled condensers of 5, 7.5, 10 , 15 and 20 TR capacities.
xv) oil variable speed pump pressure setpoint not achieved
xvi) control panel power failure 4.1.2 General Construction :
xvii) motor or starter current imbalance
i) The packaged type plants shall be self-contained units generally
xviii) thrust bearing proximity probe clearance conforming to IS: 8148 1976 (packaged air- conditioner). The plant
xix) thrust bearing - proximity probe out of range may have a single or multi refrigeration circuit as per design of
xx) thrust bearing high oil temperature respective manufacturers. Each compressor, however, shall have a
xxi) thrust bearing oil temperature sensor independent condenser, evaporator & refrigerant circuit.
xxii) watchdog software reboot
ii) The packaged unit shall be constructed with adequate strength and
rigidity to withstand handling, transportation and usage.
5.1 Safety shutdowns with a VSD Shall include:
iii) The unit shall be fabricated so as to be free from undue noise and
i) VSD shutdown requesting fault data vibration. All valves and refrigerant piping shall be suitably clamped.
ii) VSD stop contacts open
iv) The internal components of the unit shall be located so as to be easily
iii) VSD 110 % motor current overload
accessible for inspection and maintenance. All parts which are
iv) VSD high phase A, B,C inverter heat-sink temp. accident hazard shall be effectively guarded.
v) VSD high converter heat-sink temperature
v) Due care shall be taken in the use of materials likely to come in contact
with water, namely, condensate tray, etc. by the use of corrosion
6. Cycling shutdowns enunciated through the display and the status bar, and resistant material, or by treatment with corrosion resistant coating.
consists of system status, system details, day, time, cause of shutdown, and
type of restart required. Cycling shutdowns with a fixed speed drive shall vi) The unit shall be completely factory assembled.
include:
i) multiunit cycling contacts open 4.1.3 Cabinet :
ii) system cycling - contacts open
iii) oil low temperature differential i) The cabinet will have a frame work of either M.S. angles or formed
iv) oil low temperature M.S. sheet sections in order to provide structural rigidity. Properly
v) control panel - power failure formed close fittings and easily removable sheet metal panels shall be
provided all around this frame work to make a closed & streamlined
vi) leaving chilled liquid - low temperature
cabinet. The sheet used shall be of minimum 1.25mm thickness.
vii) leaving chilled liquid - flow switch open
viii) motor controller contacts open ii) Inside and outside surfaces shall be finished with polyester epoxy
ix) motor controller loss of current powder coating.
x) power fault
xi) control panel - schedule iii) The fan section and coil section of cabinet shall be insulated with at
xii) starter low supply line voltage least 25mm resin bonded fibre glass lining on the inside duly finished
with minimum 0.5mm thick aluminium sheet.
xiii) starter high supply line voltage
xiv) proximity probe low supply voltage iv) An insulated condensate tray shall be provided beneath the cooling coil
xv) oil - variable speed pump - drive contacts open so as to avoid dripping over the equipment installed in the lower portion
of the cabinet. The drip tray should have a drain connection for leading
away the condensate.

60 45
i) In a package water chilling machine, the chiller shall match the 6.1 Cycling shutdowns with a VSD shall include:
compressor capacity specified in the tender specifications. The chiller i) VSD shutdown requesting fault data
shall be selected for 4.4 degree C temperature drop of water through ii) VSD stop contacts open
the chiller for reciprocating/scroll compressor & 5.5.deg C for
iii) VSD initialization failed
centrifugal & screw type compressors.
iv) VSD - high phase A,B,C instantaneous current
ii) The fouling factor shall be 0.0001 hr. sq.mtr. degree C temperature v) VSD phase A,B,C gate driver
difference/K. Cal. unless otherwise specified in the tender vi) VSD single phase input power
specifications. vii) VSD high DC bus voltage
viii) VSD pre charge DC bus voltage imbalance
ix) VSD high internal ambient temperature
5.8.3.2 Material and Construction
x) VSD invalid current scale selection
i) The water chiller shall be horizontal, shell and tube type, designed, xi) VSD low phase A, B, C inverter heatsink temp.
constructed and tested for the refrigerant specified in the tender xii) VSD low converter heatsink temperature
specifications. xiii) VSD pre-charge - low DC bus voltage
xiv) VSD logic board processor
ii) The chiller shall be designed for a working pressure on the refrigerant xv) VSD run signal
side suitable for the refrigerant offered, and on the water side for 10 xvi) VSD serial communications
kg./sq.cm. gauge.

iii) The end plates of chiller shall be made of MS of thickness not less 5.4.12 Motor starter
than 25mm.
i) For constant speed compressor
iv) The shell of the chiller shall be made of MS of thickness not less than Starter for motor shall be as per details given under para 13.9 Motor
8mm with electric fusion welded seams. Starter.
v) The tubes shall be of seamless, hard drawn copper with a minimum ii) For variable speed compressor
tube wall thickness of 0.71 mm for plain tubes & minimum 0.63mm at
the root of fins. a) In Case of VSD starter, it will vary the compressor motor speed
by controlling the frequency and voltage of the electrical power to
vi) The tubes shall be plain for DX type chillers and may be either plain or
internally finned for flooded type chillers as per manufacturers design. the motor. The adaptive capacity control logic shall automatically
adjust motor speed and compressor pre-rotation vane position
vii) The tubes shall be rolled into grooves in the tube sheets and flared at ends. independently for maximum part-load efficiency by analyzing
information fed to it by sensors located throughout the chiller.
viii) Intermediate tube supports of steel or polypropylene shall be provided b) To Limit Harmonic generation from VSD, Active Harmonic Filters
at spacing not less than 1250 mm for flooded type chiller and 500mm as per IEEE 519 must be used at the source itself.
for DX type chiller to prevent sagging / vibration of tubes.
c) Drive will be PWM type utilizing IGBTs with a power factor of
ix) The flooded chillers shall have water boxes designed for multipass 0.95 or better at all loads and speeds.
flow. The DX type chillers shall be provided with adequate number of d) Make of VSD shall be exactly same as per global catalogue /
properly spaced baffles so that the water passes through the tube practice. The variable speed drive shall be with all power and
bundle many times. control wiring between the drive and chiller factory installed,
including power to the chiller oil pump.
x) The chiller shall be smooth finished with one coat of zinc chromate e) Field power wiring shall be a single point connection and
primer before the insulation is applied.
electrical lugs for incoming power wiring will be provided.
xi) The chiller shall be sand blasted from both inside (before insertion of
tubes) & outside.
iii) The following features will be provided:
5.8.3.3 Connections and Accessories
(a) Door interlocked circuit breaker capable of being padlocked.
(b) UL listed ground fault protection.
5.8.3.3.1 For DX Type Chiller
(c) Over voltage and under voltage protection.
(d) 3-phase sensing motor over current protection.

76 61
(e) Single phase protection.
(f) Insensitive to phase rotation.
(g) Over temperature protection. 5.7.4.2 Connections and Accessories

Digital readout at the chiller unit control panel of output frequency, output The following connections and accessories shall be provided on the
voltage, 3-phase output current, input Kilowatts and Kilowatt-hours, self- condenser and conforming to Section Refrigeration Piping where
diagnostic service parameters. Separate meters for this information will applicable: -
not be acceptable.
a) Hot gas inlet and liquid outlet connections. The liquid outlet
connections shall be provided with isolating valves,
5.4.13 IKW / TR :
For constant speed compressor b) Pressure relief device,
For capacity < 150 TR, IKW/TR shall not exceed 0.61
For capacity >150 TR and <300 TR, IKW/TR shall not exceed 0.61 5.7.4.3 Pressure Testing
For capacity > 300 TR, IKW/TR shall not exceed 0.56
The pressure testing shall be done at 31 kg/sq.cm on refrigerant side.
For variable speed compressor
IPLV of the compressor shall not exceed 0.35.
5.7.4.4 Condenser Locations

5.5 SCREW TYPE COMPRESSOR (CONSTANT SPEED AND Care shall be exercised in locating the condensers in such a manner that the
VARIABLE SPEED) heat sink is free of interference from heat discharge by devices located in
adjoining spaces and also does not interfere with such other systems installed
5.5.1 The screw compressor shall have a rotary mono/ twin screw, and may nearby.
be of open/ Semi-sealed / totally (hermetic) sealed type. It shall be Condensers should be located in such a manner that there is no restriction to
using only CFC and HCFC free refrigerant. the air flow around the condenser coils, there is no short-circuiting of discharge
5.5.2 The screw compressor shall be preferably variable speed. The air to the intake side, and the heat discharge of other adjacent equipment is
variable speed compressor shall have factory mounted variable speed not anywhere the air intake of the condenser.
drive.
5.5.3 The mono/ twin rotary screw shall be manufactured from forged steel.
The profile of screws shall permit safe operation upto a speed of 3000 5.8 CHILLER
RPM for 50 Hz operation. The compressor shall unload from fully
loaded to the minimum capacity by means of hydraulically actuated 5.8.1 Scope
slide valve positioned over the screw rotor/ pilot operated solenoid
valve & VFD (in case of VFD chillers). This chapter covers the requirements of chillers suitable for reciprocating,
centrifugal and screw types of refrigerating machines for air-conditioning.
5.5.4 The compressor housing shall be of high grade cast iron, machined
with precision, to provide a very close tolerance between the rotor(s) 5.8.2 Types
and the housing.
This section covers the shell and tube type water chillers. These may be again
5.5.5 The rotor(s) shall be mounted on antifriction bearings designed to of the following types: -
reduce friction and power input. There shall be multiple cylindrical a) For reciprocating type units the chiller shall be Direct expansion (DX)
bearings to handle the radial and axial loads. type

5.5.6 There shall be built in oil reservoir to ensure full supply of lubricants to b) For centrifugal type units the chiller shall be of Flooded type or falling
all bearings and a check valve to prevent backspin during shut down. film type.

5.5.7 There shall be oil pump or other means of differential pressure inside c) For screw type units the chiller shall be of Direct expansion (DX) type
the compressor for forced lubrication of all parts during startup, running or Flooded type or falling film type..
and during shut down. An oil sump heater shall be provided in the
casing. 5.8.3 Shell and Tube Type Water Chillers

5.5.8 The open type compressor shall also have a suitable shaft seal, to 5.8.3.1 Rating
prevent leakage of refrigerant.

62 75
x) The condenser shall include necessary provision for sub-cooling of the 5.5.9 The units shall be complete with automatic capacity control
refrigerant where the refrigerating machine is selected with such sub- mechanism, to permit modulation between 25% to 100% of capacity
cooling requirement. The arrangement shall be such that the cold range.
water entering the condenser first cools the liquid refrigerant in the sub-
cooler. 5.5.10 Interlocking

xi) The condenser shall be sand blasted from both inside & outside. It shall be as per details given in para 5.2.8.

5.7.3.3 Connections and Accessories 5.5.11 The driving motor shall be double squirrel cage type or suitable
hermetic/ Semi hermetic/ open type as required, protected against
The condenser shall be provided with the following connections and damage by means of built in protection devices.
accessories and conforming to Section Refrigerant Piping where applicable: -
5.5.12 Compressor motor and starters
a) Hot gas inlet and liquid outlet connections. The liquid line connections
shall be provided with isolating valves. i) These shall be as per details given under para 5.2.9, its synchronous
b) Water inlet and outlet connections speed, however, shall be 3000 RPM. All compressor motors in screw
c) Pressure relief device, chillers shall be provided with VFD wherever feasible.
d) Drain connection with valve for water side.
e) Differential flow switch/ pressure switch/ flow switch / flow sensor in the ii) Continuous BHP rating shall be as per para 5.3.10
water line(s).
iii) Motor Starters: Motor starters shall be zero electrical inrush current
5.7.3.4 Pressure Testing (Variable Frequency Drives) or reduced inrush type (Closed transition
Star-Delta or Solid State) for minimum electrical inrush. Open transition
a) The condenser shall be tested at the works to 1.5 times the maximum Star-Delta and Across the Line type starters will not be acceptable.
working pressure for the refrigerant specified in the tender
specifications. iv) Power factor correction capacitors as required to maintain a displace-
b) The water side of the condenser shall also be tested to a hydraulic ment power factor of 95% at all load conditions shall be provided.
pressure of 10 kg./sq.cm. in the works.
c) Pressure test certificates shall be produced in respect of each 5.5.13 IKW / TR (Input Kilo Watt / TR)
condenser. For constant speed compressor,
i) For chiller capacity < 150 TR, IKW/TR shall not exceed 0.75
5.7.3.5 Treated Water for Condensers ii) For chiller capacity >150 TR and <300 TR, IKW/TR shall not
exceed 0.65
All high-rise buildings using centralized cooling water system shall use soft iii) For chiller capacity > 300 TR, IKW/TR shall not exceed 0.61
water for the condenser and chilled water system.
For variable speed compressor,
5.7.4 Air Cooled Condensers IPLV shall not exceed 0.40.

5.7.4.1 Material and Construction 5.5.14 Controls

i) The condenser coil shall be fabricated of seamless hard drawn copper 5.5.14.1 General:
tubes and aluminium fins of 0.18 mm minimum thickness, fins spacing i. Provide automatic control of chiller operation including compressor start/
ranging from 3 to 5 fins per cm. The minimum wall thickness of tubes stop and load/ unload, anti-recycle timer, evaporator pump, condenser
shall be 1.0 mm. pump, evaporator heater, condenser heater, unit alarm contacts and run
signal contacts.
ii) The coil shall normally be 2/3/4 rows deep unless otherwise specified.
ii. Chiller shall automatically reset to normal chiller operation after power
failure.
iii) The condenser shall be designed so as to hold 1.25 times the
refrigerant charge in the system during the idle periods. iii. Unit operating software shall be stored in non-volatile memory. Field
programmed set points shall be retained in lithium battery backed regu-
iv) Suitable number and capacity of propeller type fans shall be provided lated time clock (RTC) memory for minimum 5 years.
for moving the air through the entire condenser coils. For more uniform iv. Alarm controls shall be provided to remote alert for any unit or system
flow over the condenser coil, the condenser shall be designed on the safety fault.
draw through principle. The air velocity over the condenser coil shall
be maintained upto 200 mpm maximum. 5.5.14.2 Display and Keypad:

74 63
i. Provide minimum 80 character liquid crystal display that is both viewable the tender specifications. The condenser shall be selected for 4.2
in direct sunlight and has LED backlighting for nighttime viewing. Provide degree C temperature rise of water through the condenser unless
one keypad and display panel per chiller. otherwise specified in the tender specifications.
ii. Display and keypad shall be accessible without opening main
control/electrical cabinet doors. ii) The condenser shall be designed for a fouling factor of 0.0002 hr. sq.m.
iii. Display shall provide a minimum of unit setpoints, status, electrical data, degree C difference / K.Cal unless otherwise specified in the tender
temperature data, pressures, safety lockouts and diagnostics without the specifications.
use of a coded display.
iii) Unless otherwise specified, the condenser shall be designed for a
iv. Descriptions in English (or available language options), numeric data in
entering water temperature of 32.2 degree C.
English (or Metric) units.
v. Sealed keypad shall include unit On/ Off switch. 5.7.3.2 Material and Construction
vi. Programmable Setpoints (within Manufacturer limits): Display language,
chilled liquid cooling mode, local/ remote control mode, display units i) The condenser shall be horizontal, shell and tube type, designed,
mode, system lead/lag control mode, remote temperature reset, remote constructed and tested for the refrigerant specified in the tender
current limit, remote heat recovery kit, leaving chilled liquid setpoint and specifications.
range, maximum remote temperature reset.
5.5.14.3 Display Data: ii) The shell of the condenser shall be made of MS of thickness not less
Chilled liquid leaving and entering temperatures; lead system; flow than 8mm, with electric fusion welded seams. The shell capacity shall
switch status; evaporator/condenser pump status; active remote be such as to hold 1.25 times the refrigerant charge in the machine of
control; evaporator pressure, discharge, and oil pressures, condenser which the condenser is a part, under pumped down conditions.
and economizer pressures per refrigerant circuit; economizer
temperature and superheat; sub cooler liquid temperature and iii) The end plates of condenser shall be made of MS of thickness not less
superheat; compressor discharge temperature and superheat, motor; than 25mm.
temperatures, educator temperature, per refrigerant circuit; compressor
speed, condenser level, condenser level control valve; economizer iv) The condenser shall be designed for a working pressure on the
superheat; economizer feed valve percentage open, evaporator/ refrigerant side suitable for the refrigerant offered, and on the water
condenser heater status; oil pump status; compressor number of starts; side for 10 kg./sq.cm. gauge.
run time; operating hours; evaporator and condenser heater status;
history data for last ten shutdown faults; history data for last 20 normal v) The tubes shall be of seamless hard drawn copper and finned, unless
(non-fault) shutdowns. otherwise specified. The minimum wall thickness shall be 1.0 mm with
5.5.14.4 Predictive Control Points: root thickness of 0.63 mm below the fins.
Unit controls shall avoid safety shutdown when operating outside
design conditions by optimizing the chiller controls and cooling load vi) Intermediate tube supports of steel shall be provided at not more than
output to stay online and avoid safety limits being reached. The system 1250 mm intervals to prevent sagging and vibration of the tubes. The
shall monitor the following parameters and maintain the maximum condensers shall have water boxes designed for multi pass flow.
cooling output possible without shutdown of the equipment: motor
current, evaporator pressure, condenser pressure, discharge pressure, vii) The tubes may be provided with special tabulating arrangement to
starter internal ambient temperature, and starter baseplate improve heat transfer where such an arrangement is a standard design
temperature. of the manufacturer.
5.5.14.5 System Safeties: viii) The condensers shall be provided with removable heads on either side
Shall cause individual compressor systems to perform auto-reset shut made of cast iron or steel with neatly machined surface for effective
down if: high discharge pressure or temperature, low evaporator jointing with the shell for easy accessibility for cleaning/replacement of
pressure, low motor current, high/low differential oil pressure, low oil the tubes. Suitable baffles shall be incorporated to achieve the
level, low discharge and economizer superheat, smart freeze point required number of passes. It should be possible to descale the tubes
protection, high motor temperature, system control voltage, educator without disconnecting the water line connections, wherever marine
clog. water boxes have been specified in the tender documents.
5.5.14.6 Unit Safeties:
Shall be automatic reset and cause compressors to shut down if:, low
leaving chilled liquid temperature, under voltage, flow switch operation. ix) The condenser shall be provided with baffle arrangement for preventing
Contractor shall provide flow switch and wiring per chiller manufacturer direct impingement of hot gas over the tubes and to enable even
requirements. distribution of the gas over the tube bundles.
5.5.14.7 Manufacturer shall provide any controls not listed above, necessary for
automatic chiller operation. Mechanical Contractor shall provide field

64 73
starting current exceeding 115% of design inrush starting current for 1 control wiring necessary to interface sensors to the chiller control
second. system.
c) Phase rotation insensitivity
5.6 MAGNETIC BEARING VARIABLE SPEED CENTRIFUGAL WATER
d) Single phase failure protection circuit with indicating light shut unit CHILLERS
down if power loss occurs in any phase at startup.
5.6.1 General Description
e) High temperature safety protection system on IGBTs with indicating light
and reset button; via thermistors embedded on IGBT heat sinks shut i. Packaged centrifugal chiller including the following: evaporator, motor
unit down if IGBT temperature exceeds acceptable limits. and compressor, capacity control device, condenser with integral sub
cooler, refrigerant metering device, lubrication system, motor starter,
f) Power fault protection for momentary power interruptions interrupt control panel with user interface, and if required a refrigerant purge
power to the compressor motor within 4 line cycles upon detection of system.
power interruptions longer than of a line cycle.
ii. Chiller shall be utilizing an CFC and HCFC free refrigerant that has an
g) High and low line voltage protection. Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) of ZERO, and that has no refrigerant
xiii. Control panel readouts: Display on the control panel and provide to BMS/ production phase-out date and no phase out date for equipment that
IBMS via communication port the following as a minimum: uses that refrigerant.
a) Output frequency iii. Refrigerant isolation valves: two butterfly valves, one on the compressor
discharge line and one on the liquid line.
b) Output voltage
5.6.2 Refrigerant flow control
c) Output current (each phase)
i. Variable orifice
d) Input power (kW)
ii. Refrigerant level sensing: Monitor refrigerant level in the condenser;
e) Energy consumption (kWh) report refrigerant level back to unit control panel and control chiller
f) Elapsed running time accordingly.
g) Three phase voltage total harmonic distortion (THD) iii. Refrigerant level control: Adjust valve position via control panel to
optimize refrigerant level.
h) Three phase current total demand distortion (TDD)
i) Total unit power factor 5.6.3 Compressor
j) Total supply KVA i. Single stage or multi stage
ii. Fully accessible housing with vertical circular joints.
5.7 CONDENSER
iii. Direct driven
5.7.1 Scope iv. Magnetic bearings
This chapter covers the requirements of condensers suitable for reciprocating,
screw and centrifugal types of refrigeration machines for central air- a) Levitated shaft position shall be actively controlled and monitored by an
conditioning and cold room applications. X-, Y-, and Z-axis digital position sensor.
b) The compressor shall be capable of coming to a controlled, safe stop in
5.7.2 Type the event of a power failure by diverting stored power from the DC bus to
the magnetic bearing control system.
This section covers the following types of condensers: -
i) Water cooled condensers, and v. Pre-rotation guide vanes positioned by solid rod linkage and connected
ii) Air cooled condensers. to an easily serviceable, externally mounted electric actuator.
vi. Mechanical linkage system that continuously monitors compressor-
discharge gas characteristics and optimizes diffuser spacing to minimize
Evaporative condensers are excluded from the scope of these specifications. impeller gas-flow disruptions.

5.7.3 Water Cooled Condensers vii. The driveline (compressor and motor) and chiller starter shall be
individual unit assemblies allowing for independent inspection, service,
5.7.3.1 Rating and repair/replacement. If an integrated driveline and starter package is
utilized which is not fully field repairable, the supplier must provide one
i) Where a package condensing or water chilling unit is required, the spare package with the unit.
condenser capacity shall match the compressor capacity specified in

72 65
viii. The chiller shall utilize a single compressor that delivers the specified xxiii. History: Store last ten shutdowns and display all system parameters at
performance at all load and lift conditions. the time of shutdown.
xxiv. Memory: Non-volatile type containing operating program and setpoints,
capable of retention for 10 years without memory loss, despite AC or
5.6.4 Motor
backup battery power loss.
i. Semi-hermetic permanent magnet motor.
xxv. Terminal strip has be clearly numbered to accept field interlock wiring.
ii. Electrical connection: Steel terminal box with gasketed front access
cover; overload and overcurrent transformers.
5.6.6 Compressor Motor Starter: Variable Speed Drive
i. General: Variable Speed Drive (VSD) compressor motor starter to start
motor and control motor speed be controlling the frequency and voltage
5.6.5 Control panel
of the electrical power supplied to the motor.
i. Type: Microprocessor based, stand alone/unit mounted.
ii. Drive type: Pulse width modulated (PWM) utilizing insulated gate bipolar
ii. Scope: Chiller operation, monitoring of chiller sensors, actuators, relays transistors (IGBTs).
and switches, and display of all operating parameters.
iii. Control Logic: Independently control motor speed and pre rotation vane
iii. Capability: Stable chiller operation at 4 leaving chilled water (PRV) position for optimum efficiency and operational stability. Base
temperature without warnings or shutdowns; no freezing or slushing of motor speed and PRV position on a minimum of 4 inputs: leaving chilled
chilled water. water temperature, return chilled water temperature, evaporator
refrigerant pressure, condenser refrigerant pressure; Verify motor speed
iv. Enclosure: Lockable, NEMA 1
and PRV position and also use as inputs to the control logic.
v. Information Display: 10.4 (minimum) color liquid crystal display (LCD)
iv. Power Factor: At all loads and speeds, provide a minimum of a 0.95
mounted on control panel enclosure door.
power factor.
vi. User interface: Operating parameters displayed in a user-friendly, color
v. Enclosure: IP42 or higher type with hinged access door with door
and graphical format.
interlock, lock and keys, and padlockable
vii. Keypad: Universal type with soft-keys
vi. Packaging: Factory mounted on chiller, piped to cooling circuit; wired to
viii. Height: Eye level and readable and operable without the need for ladder control panel and compressor motor; entire package (including active
or stool. harmonic filter) shall be UL listed.
ix. Temperature rating: 0 to 40 C vii. Cooling: Cool drive pole assembly components and internal ambient air
x. System status information: Displayed on screen at all times, including the via fluid-cooled, closed loop; all starter components accessible for
following as a minimum: service and replacement without opening the chillers main refrigerant
circuit.
a) System status
viii. Factory run test: Perform an electrical and mechanical run test of VSD
b) System details starter prior to shipment to verify proper wiring and phasing.
c) Control source (remote or local) ix. Factory settings: Set starting design current and current overload
d) User access level settings prior to shipment.

e) Date and time x. Harmonic Distortion: Provide a drive and chiller system with an
integrated active harmonic filter mounted inside the starter cabinet.
f) Startup sequence timer System must generate harmonic distortion levels less than the following,
g) Shutdown sequence timer measured at the input side of the drive:

xi. Status messages: In color according to importance, indicate the following a) Current: 5% maximum current total demand distortion
as a minimum: xi. Inrush amperage: Limited to the design full load amperage of the chiller.
a) Ready to start xii. Protective devices:
b) Cycling shutdown chiller will automatically restart a) Electronic current-sensing overloads (1 per phase) with indicating
c) Safety shutdown chiller requires manual restart message on the control panel and reset button; shut down chiller upon
detection of operating current exceeding 105% full load amperage.
d) Soft shutdown chiller requires manual restart
b) High instantaneous current overload with indicating message on the
e) Motor bearing controller (MBC) start-up control panel and reset button; shut down chiller upon detection of
f) System run (with countdown timers)

66 71
s) MBC serial communications fault g) Systems coast down (with countdown timers)
t) VSD shutdown requesting fault data h) Start inhibit and inhibit mode (anti-recycle, vane motor switch open,
excess motor current)
u) VSD stop contacts open
i) Vanes closing before shutdown
v) VSD initialization failed
xii. System operating information, including the following as a minimum:
w) VSD high instantaneous current (indicate phase)
a) Return and leaving chilled water and condenser water temperatures
x) VSD gate driver (indicate phase)
b) Evaporator and condenser refrigerant saturation temperatures
y) VSD single phase input power
c) Sub-cooling refrigerant temperature
z) VSD high or low DC bus voltage
d) Evaporator and condenser pressure
aa) VSD DC bus voltage imbalance
e) Evaporator tube and condenser tube small temperature difference
bb) VSD pre charge: low DC bus voltage
f) Compressor discharge temperature
cc) VSD pre charge: DC bus voltage imbalance
g) Oil sump temperature (if applicable)
dd) VSD high internal ambient temperature
h) Oil pump pressure differential (if applicable)
ee) VSD logic board power supply
i) Percent of motor full load current
ff) VSD low rectifier heat sink temperature (indicate phase)
j) Input power
gg) VSD low inverter heat sink temperature (indicate phase)
k) Kilowatt hours
hh) VSD logic board processor
l) Operating hours
ii) VSD run signal
m) Prerotation vane position
jj) VSD serial communications
n) Refrigerant level position (condenser)
xx. Security Access: Through ID and password recognition defined by a
minimum of three different levels of user capability: o) Motor winding temperature (each phase)
a) View: prevent unauthorized changing of setpoints p) Average motor winding temperature
b) Operator: allow local or remote control of chiller q) VSD Output frequency
c) Service: allow manual operation of pre-rotation vanes r) VSD Output voltage (each phase)
xxi. Chiller information screen including on-screen display of the following, as s) VSD Current (each phase)
a minimum:
t) VSD Input current limit set point
a) Model number
u) VSD Total supply KVA
b) Chiller serial number
v) VSD Total power factor
c) Control panel serial number
w) VSD - Voltage total harmonic distortion (each phase)
d) Manufacturer contract number
x) VSD Current total demand distortion (each phase)
e) Design voltage
y) VSD DC bus voltage
f) Refrigerant type
z) VSD DC bus current
g) Starter type
aa) VSD Input and output RMS voltages and currents (each phase)
h) Original factory chiller rating information
bb) VSD Internal ambient temperature
xxii. Data tracking and trend display including on-screen graphical display of
xiii. Programmable setpoints including the following, as a minimum:
the following, as a minimum:
a) Chilled liquid temperature (setpoint and range)
a) Parameters selected from a list of a minimum of 140 possibilities
b) Chilled liquid temperature cycling offset (shutdown and restart)
b) Data collected once per second up to once per hour for each parameter
c) Motor current limit (%)
c) Data trend lines displayed for a minimum of 5 parameters at once
d) Pull-down demand (limit and time)

70 67
xiv. Schedule function: Programmable six week schedule for starting and w) MBC unauthorized rotation
stopping the chiller, pumps and cooling tower.
x) MBC no rotation
xv. Regional functionality: System language and units selection
y) VSD shutdown, requesting fault data
xvi. Warning messages including the following, as a minimum:
z) VSD stop contacts open
a) Real time clock failure
aa) VSD 105% motor current overload
b) Condenser or evaporator transducer error
bb) VSD high rectifier heat sink temperature (indicate phase)
c) Refrigerant level out of range
cc) VSD high inverter heat sink temperature (indicate phase)
d) Setpoint overridde
dd) VSD pre charge lockout
e) Condenser high pressure limit
ee) VSD ground fault
f) Evaporator low pressure limit
ff) VSD motor current total harmonic distortion (THD) fault
g) MBC High bearing temperature
gg) VSD motor synchronization fault
h) MBC Vibration
hh) VSD inverter or rectifier program fault
i) MBC Landing counter high
xviii. Safety Shutdowns: For each safety shutdown, indicate the following, as a
j) MBC Rotor elongation minimum:
xvii. Safety Shutdowns: Trigger a safety shutdown for any of the following, as a) System status and details
a minimum:
b) Day and time of shutdown
a) Evaporator low pressure
c) Cause of shutdown
b) Condenser high pressure
d) Type of restart required
c) Condenser high pressure contacts open
xix. Cycling Shutdowns: For each cycling shutdown, indicate the following, as
d) Auxiliary safety contacts closed a minimum:
e) Compressor discharge high or low refrigerant temperature a) Multiunit cycling contacts open
f) Oil high temperature (if applicable) b) System cycling contacts open
g) Oil high or low differential pressure (if applicable) c) Oil low temperature (if applicable)
h) Oil pump pressure setpoint not achieved (if applicable) d) Oil low temperature differential (if applicable)
i) Control panel power failure e) Control panel power failure
j) Motor or starter current imbalance f) Leaving chilled liquid low temperature
k) Watchdog software reboot g) Leaving chilled liquid flow switch open
l) Sensor failure or out of range h) Condenser flow switch open
m) Transducer failure or out of range i) Motor controller contacts open
n) MBC internal fault j) Motor controller loss of current
o) MBC high bearing temperature or current k) Power fault
p) MBC cable fault l) Control panel schedule
q) MBC speed signal fault m) MBC - position
r) MBC over speed fault n) MBC low frequency displacement
s) MBC communication o) MBC vibration
t) MBC rotor elongation p) MBC high amplifier temperature
u) MBC oscillator fault q) MBC high DC/DC temperature
v) MBC power supply fault r) MBC no levitation

68 69
xiv. Schedule function: Programmable six week schedule for starting and w) MBC unauthorized rotation
stopping the chiller, pumps and cooling tower.
x) MBC no rotation
xv. Regional functionality: System language and units selection
y) VSD shutdown, requesting fault data
xvi. Warning messages including the following, as a minimum:
z) VSD stop contacts open
a) Real time clock failure
aa) VSD 105% motor current overload
b) Condenser or evaporator transducer error
bb) VSD high rectifier heat sink temperature (indicate phase)
c) Refrigerant level out of range
cc) VSD high inverter heat sink temperature (indicate phase)
d) Setpoint overridde
dd) VSD pre charge lockout
e) Condenser high pressure limit
ee) VSD ground fault
f) Evaporator low pressure limit
ff) VSD motor current total harmonic distortion (THD) fault
g) MBC High bearing temperature
gg) VSD motor synchronization fault
h) MBC Vibration
hh) VSD inverter or rectifier program fault
i) MBC Landing counter high
xviii. Safety Shutdowns: For each safety shutdown, indicate the following, as a
j) MBC Rotor elongation minimum:
xvii. Safety Shutdowns: Trigger a safety shutdown for any of the following, as a) System status and details
a minimum:
b) Day and time of shutdown
a) Evaporator low pressure
c) Cause of shutdown
b) Condenser high pressure
d) Type of restart required
c) Condenser high pressure contacts open
xix. Cycling Shutdowns: For each cycling shutdown, indicate the following, as
d) Auxiliary safety contacts closed a minimum:
e) Compressor discharge high or low refrigerant temperature a) Multiunit cycling contacts open
f) Oil high temperature (if applicable) b) System cycling contacts open
g) Oil high or low differential pressure (if applicable) c) Oil low temperature (if applicable)
h) Oil pump pressure setpoint not achieved (if applicable) d) Oil low temperature differential (if applicable)
i) Control panel power failure e) Control panel power failure
j) Motor or starter current imbalance f) Leaving chilled liquid low temperature
k) Watchdog software reboot g) Leaving chilled liquid flow switch open
l) Sensor failure or out of range h) Condenser flow switch open
m) Transducer failure or out of range i) Motor controller contacts open
n) MBC internal fault j) Motor controller loss of current
o) MBC high bearing temperature or current k) Power fault
p) MBC cable fault l) Control panel schedule
q) MBC speed signal fault m) MBC - position
r) MBC over speed fault n) MBC low frequency displacement
s) MBC communication o) MBC vibration
t) MBC rotor elongation p) MBC high amplifier temperature
u) MBC oscillator fault q) MBC high DC/DC temperature
v) MBC power supply fault r) MBC no levitation

68 69
s) MBC serial communications fault g) Systems coast down (with countdown timers)
t) VSD shutdown requesting fault data h) Start inhibit and inhibit mode (anti-recycle, vane motor switch open,
excess motor current)
u) VSD stop contacts open
i) Vanes closing before shutdown
v) VSD initialization failed
xii. System operating information, including the following as a minimum:
w) VSD high instantaneous current (indicate phase)
a) Return and leaving chilled water and condenser water temperatures
x) VSD gate driver (indicate phase)
b) Evaporator and condenser refrigerant saturation temperatures
y) VSD single phase input power
c) Sub-cooling refrigerant temperature
z) VSD high or low DC bus voltage
d) Evaporator and condenser pressure
aa) VSD DC bus voltage imbalance
e) Evaporator tube and condenser tube small temperature difference
bb) VSD pre charge: low DC bus voltage
f) Compressor discharge temperature
cc) VSD pre charge: DC bus voltage imbalance
g) Oil sump temperature (if applicable)
dd) VSD high internal ambient temperature
h) Oil pump pressure differential (if applicable)
ee) VSD logic board power supply
i) Percent of motor full load current
ff) VSD low rectifier heat sink temperature (indicate phase)
j) Input power
gg) VSD low inverter heat sink temperature (indicate phase)
k) Kilowatt hours
hh) VSD logic board processor
l) Operating hours
ii) VSD run signal
m) Prerotation vane position
jj) VSD serial communications
n) Refrigerant level position (condenser)
xx. Security Access: Through ID and password recognition defined by a
minimum of three different levels of user capability: o) Motor winding temperature (each phase)
a) View: prevent unauthorized changing of setpoints p) Average motor winding temperature
b) Operator: allow local or remote control of chiller q) VSD Output frequency
c) Service: allow manual operation of pre-rotation vanes r) VSD Output voltage (each phase)
xxi. Chiller information screen including on-screen display of the following, as s) VSD Current (each phase)
a minimum:
t) VSD Input current limit set point
a) Model number
u) VSD Total supply KVA
b) Chiller serial number
v) VSD Total power factor
c) Control panel serial number
w) VSD - Voltage total harmonic distortion (each phase)
d) Manufacturer contract number
x) VSD Current total demand distortion (each phase)
e) Design voltage
y) VSD DC bus voltage
f) Refrigerant type
z) VSD DC bus current
g) Starter type
aa) VSD Input and output RMS voltages and currents (each phase)
h) Original factory chiller rating information
bb) VSD Internal ambient temperature
xxii. Data tracking and trend display including on-screen graphical display of
xiii. Programmable setpoints including the following, as a minimum:
the following, as a minimum:
a) Chilled liquid temperature (setpoint and range)
a) Parameters selected from a list of a minimum of 140 possibilities
b) Chilled liquid temperature cycling offset (shutdown and restart)
b) Data collected once per second up to once per hour for each parameter
c) Motor current limit (%)
c) Data trend lines displayed for a minimum of 5 parameters at once
d) Pull-down demand (limit and time)

70 67
viii. The chiller shall utilize a single compressor that delivers the specified xxiii. History: Store last ten shutdowns and display all system parameters at
performance at all load and lift conditions. the time of shutdown.
xxiv. Memory: Non-volatile type containing operating program and setpoints,
capable of retention for 10 years without memory loss, despite AC or
5.6.4 Motor
backup battery power loss.
i. Semi-hermetic permanent magnet motor.
xxv. Terminal strip has be clearly numbered to accept field interlock wiring.
ii. Electrical connection: Steel terminal box with gasketed front access
cover; overload and overcurrent transformers.
5.6.6 Compressor Motor Starter: Variable Speed Drive
i. General: Variable Speed Drive (VSD) compressor motor starter to start
motor and control motor speed be controlling the frequency and voltage
5.6.5 Control panel
of the electrical power supplied to the motor.
i. Type: Microprocessor based, stand alone/unit mounted.
ii. Drive type: Pulse width modulated (PWM) utilizing insulated gate bipolar
ii. Scope: Chiller operation, monitoring of chiller sensors, actuators, relays transistors (IGBTs).
and switches, and display of all operating parameters.
iii. Control Logic: Independently control motor speed and pre rotation vane
iii. Capability: Stable chiller operation at 4 leaving chilled water (PRV) position for optimum efficiency and operational stability. Base
temperature without warnings or shutdowns; no freezing or slushing of motor speed and PRV position on a minimum of 4 inputs: leaving chilled
chilled water. water temperature, return chilled water temperature, evaporator
refrigerant pressure, condenser refrigerant pressure; Verify motor speed
iv. Enclosure: Lockable, NEMA 1
and PRV position and also use as inputs to the control logic.
v. Information Display: 10.4 (minimum) color liquid crystal display (LCD)
iv. Power Factor: At all loads and speeds, provide a minimum of a 0.95
mounted on control panel enclosure door.
power factor.
vi. User interface: Operating parameters displayed in a user-friendly, color
v. Enclosure: IP42 or higher type with hinged access door with door
and graphical format.
interlock, lock and keys, and padlockable
vii. Keypad: Universal type with soft-keys
vi. Packaging: Factory mounted on chiller, piped to cooling circuit; wired to
viii. Height: Eye level and readable and operable without the need for ladder control panel and compressor motor; entire package (including active
or stool. harmonic filter) shall be UL listed.
ix. Temperature rating: 0 to 40 C vii. Cooling: Cool drive pole assembly components and internal ambient air
x. System status information: Displayed on screen at all times, including the via fluid-cooled, closed loop; all starter components accessible for
following as a minimum: service and replacement without opening the chillers main refrigerant
circuit.
a) System status
viii. Factory run test: Perform an electrical and mechanical run test of VSD
b) System details starter prior to shipment to verify proper wiring and phasing.
c) Control source (remote or local) ix. Factory settings: Set starting design current and current overload
d) User access level settings prior to shipment.

e) Date and time x. Harmonic Distortion: Provide a drive and chiller system with an
integrated active harmonic filter mounted inside the starter cabinet.
f) Startup sequence timer System must generate harmonic distortion levels less than the following,
g) Shutdown sequence timer measured at the input side of the drive:

xi. Status messages: In color according to importance, indicate the following a) Current: 5% maximum current total demand distortion
as a minimum: xi. Inrush amperage: Limited to the design full load amperage of the chiller.
a) Ready to start xii. Protective devices:
b) Cycling shutdown chiller will automatically restart a) Electronic current-sensing overloads (1 per phase) with indicating
c) Safety shutdown chiller requires manual restart message on the control panel and reset button; shut down chiller upon
detection of operating current exceeding 105% full load amperage.
d) Soft shutdown chiller requires manual restart
b) High instantaneous current overload with indicating message on the
e) Motor bearing controller (MBC) start-up control panel and reset button; shut down chiller upon detection of
f) System run (with countdown timers)

66 71
starting current exceeding 115% of design inrush starting current for 1 control wiring necessary to interface sensors to the chiller control
second. system.
c) Phase rotation insensitivity
5.6 MAGNETIC BEARING VARIABLE SPEED CENTRIFUGAL WATER
d) Single phase failure protection circuit with indicating light shut unit CHILLERS
down if power loss occurs in any phase at startup.
5.6.1 General Description
e) High temperature safety protection system on IGBTs with indicating light
and reset button; via thermistors embedded on IGBT heat sinks shut i. Packaged centrifugal chiller including the following: evaporator, motor
unit down if IGBT temperature exceeds acceptable limits. and compressor, capacity control device, condenser with integral sub
cooler, refrigerant metering device, lubrication system, motor starter,
f) Power fault protection for momentary power interruptions interrupt control panel with user interface, and if required a refrigerant purge
power to the compressor motor within 4 line cycles upon detection of system.
power interruptions longer than of a line cycle.
ii. Chiller shall be utilizing an CFC and HCFC free refrigerant that has an
g) High and low line voltage protection. Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) of ZERO, and that has no refrigerant
xiii. Control panel readouts: Display on the control panel and provide to BMS/ production phase-out date and no phase out date for equipment that
IBMS via communication port the following as a minimum: uses that refrigerant.
a) Output frequency iii. Refrigerant isolation valves: two butterfly valves, one on the compressor
discharge line and one on the liquid line.
b) Output voltage
5.6.2 Refrigerant flow control
c) Output current (each phase)
i. Variable orifice
d) Input power (kW)
ii. Refrigerant level sensing: Monitor refrigerant level in the condenser;
e) Energy consumption (kWh) report refrigerant level back to unit control panel and control chiller
f) Elapsed running time accordingly.
g) Three phase voltage total harmonic distortion (THD) iii. Refrigerant level control: Adjust valve position via control panel to
optimize refrigerant level.
h) Three phase current total demand distortion (TDD)
i) Total unit power factor 5.6.3 Compressor
j) Total supply KVA i. Single stage or multi stage
ii. Fully accessible housing with vertical circular joints.
5.7 CONDENSER
iii. Direct driven
5.7.1 Scope iv. Magnetic bearings
This chapter covers the requirements of condensers suitable for reciprocating,
screw and centrifugal types of refrigeration machines for central air- a) Levitated shaft position shall be actively controlled and monitored by an
conditioning and cold room applications. X-, Y-, and Z-axis digital position sensor.
b) The compressor shall be capable of coming to a controlled, safe stop in
5.7.2 Type the event of a power failure by diverting stored power from the DC bus to
the magnetic bearing control system.
This section covers the following types of condensers: -
i) Water cooled condensers, and v. Pre-rotation guide vanes positioned by solid rod linkage and connected
ii) Air cooled condensers. to an easily serviceable, externally mounted electric actuator.
vi. Mechanical linkage system that continuously monitors compressor-
discharge gas characteristics and optimizes diffuser spacing to minimize
Evaporative condensers are excluded from the scope of these specifications. impeller gas-flow disruptions.

5.7.3 Water Cooled Condensers vii. The driveline (compressor and motor) and chiller starter shall be
individual unit assemblies allowing for independent inspection, service,
5.7.3.1 Rating and repair/replacement. If an integrated driveline and starter package is
utilized which is not fully field repairable, the supplier must provide one
i) Where a package condensing or water chilling unit is required, the spare package with the unit.
condenser capacity shall match the compressor capacity specified in

72 65
i. Provide minimum 80 character liquid crystal display that is both viewable the tender specifications. The condenser shall be selected for 4.2
in direct sunlight and has LED backlighting for nighttime viewing. Provide degree C temperature rise of water through the condenser unless
one keypad and display panel per chiller. otherwise specified in the tender specifications.
ii. Display and keypad shall be accessible without opening main
control/electrical cabinet doors. ii) The condenser shall be designed for a fouling factor of 0.0002 hr. sq.m.
iii. Display shall provide a minimum of unit setpoints, status, electrical data, degree C difference / K.Cal unless otherwise specified in the tender
temperature data, pressures, safety lockouts and diagnostics without the specifications.
use of a coded display.
iii) Unless otherwise specified, the condenser shall be designed for a
iv. Descriptions in English (or available language options), numeric data in
entering water temperature of 32.2 degree C.
English (or Metric) units.
v. Sealed keypad shall include unit On/ Off switch. 5.7.3.2 Material and Construction
vi. Programmable Setpoints (within Manufacturer limits): Display language,
chilled liquid cooling mode, local/ remote control mode, display units i) The condenser shall be horizontal, shell and tube type, designed,
mode, system lead/lag control mode, remote temperature reset, remote constructed and tested for the refrigerant specified in the tender
current limit, remote heat recovery kit, leaving chilled liquid setpoint and specifications.
range, maximum remote temperature reset.
5.5.14.3 Display Data: ii) The shell of the condenser shall be made of MS of thickness not less
Chilled liquid leaving and entering temperatures; lead system; flow than 8mm, with electric fusion welded seams. The shell capacity shall
switch status; evaporator/condenser pump status; active remote be such as to hold 1.25 times the refrigerant charge in the machine of
control; evaporator pressure, discharge, and oil pressures, condenser which the condenser is a part, under pumped down conditions.
and economizer pressures per refrigerant circuit; economizer
temperature and superheat; sub cooler liquid temperature and iii) The end plates of condenser shall be made of MS of thickness not less
superheat; compressor discharge temperature and superheat, motor; than 25mm.
temperatures, educator temperature, per refrigerant circuit; compressor
speed, condenser level, condenser level control valve; economizer iv) The condenser shall be designed for a working pressure on the
superheat; economizer feed valve percentage open, evaporator/ refrigerant side suitable for the refrigerant offered, and on the water
condenser heater status; oil pump status; compressor number of starts; side for 10 kg./sq.cm. gauge.
run time; operating hours; evaporator and condenser heater status;
history data for last ten shutdown faults; history data for last 20 normal v) The tubes shall be of seamless hard drawn copper and finned, unless
(non-fault) shutdowns. otherwise specified. The minimum wall thickness shall be 1.0 mm with
5.5.14.4 Predictive Control Points: root thickness of 0.63 mm below the fins.
Unit controls shall avoid safety shutdown when operating outside
design conditions by optimizing the chiller controls and cooling load vi) Intermediate tube supports of steel shall be provided at not more than
output to stay online and avoid safety limits being reached. The system 1250 mm intervals to prevent sagging and vibration of the tubes. The
shall monitor the following parameters and maintain the maximum condensers shall have water boxes designed for multi pass flow.
cooling output possible without shutdown of the equipment: motor
current, evaporator pressure, condenser pressure, discharge pressure, vii) The tubes may be provided with special tabulating arrangement to
starter internal ambient temperature, and starter baseplate improve heat transfer where such an arrangement is a standard design
temperature. of the manufacturer.
5.5.14.5 System Safeties: viii) The condensers shall be provided with removable heads on either side
Shall cause individual compressor systems to perform auto-reset shut made of cast iron or steel with neatly machined surface for effective
down if: high discharge pressure or temperature, low evaporator jointing with the shell for easy accessibility for cleaning/replacement of
pressure, low motor current, high/low differential oil pressure, low oil the tubes. Suitable baffles shall be incorporated to achieve the
level, low discharge and economizer superheat, smart freeze point required number of passes. It should be possible to descale the tubes
protection, high motor temperature, system control voltage, educator without disconnecting the water line connections, wherever marine
clog. water boxes have been specified in the tender documents.
5.5.14.6 Unit Safeties:
Shall be automatic reset and cause compressors to shut down if:, low
leaving chilled liquid temperature, under voltage, flow switch operation. ix) The condenser shall be provided with baffle arrangement for preventing
Contractor shall provide flow switch and wiring per chiller manufacturer direct impingement of hot gas over the tubes and to enable even
requirements. distribution of the gas over the tube bundles.
5.5.14.7 Manufacturer shall provide any controls not listed above, necessary for
automatic chiller operation. Mechanical Contractor shall provide field

64 73
x) The condenser shall include necessary provision for sub-cooling of the 5.5.9 The units shall be complete with automatic capacity control
refrigerant where the refrigerating machine is selected with such sub- mechanism, to permit modulation between 25% to 100% of capacity
cooling requirement. The arrangement shall be such that the cold range.
water entering the condenser first cools the liquid refrigerant in the sub-
cooler. 5.5.10 Interlocking

xi) The condenser shall be sand blasted from both inside & outside. It shall be as per details given in para 5.2.8.

5.7.3.3 Connections and Accessories 5.5.11 The driving motor shall be double squirrel cage type or suitable
hermetic/ Semi hermetic/ open type as required, protected against
The condenser shall be provided with the following connections and damage by means of built in protection devices.
accessories and conforming to Section Refrigerant Piping where applicable: -
5.5.12 Compressor motor and starters
a) Hot gas inlet and liquid outlet connections. The liquid line connections
shall be provided with isolating valves. i) These shall be as per details given under para 5.2.9, its synchronous
b) Water inlet and outlet connections speed, however, shall be 3000 RPM. All compressor motors in screw
c) Pressure relief device, chillers shall be provided with VFD wherever feasible.
d) Drain connection with valve for water side.
e) Differential flow switch/ pressure switch/ flow switch / flow sensor in the ii) Continuous BHP rating shall be as per para 5.3.10
water line(s).
iii) Motor Starters: Motor starters shall be zero electrical inrush current
5.7.3.4 Pressure Testing (Variable Frequency Drives) or reduced inrush type (Closed transition
Star-Delta or Solid State) for minimum electrical inrush. Open transition
a) The condenser shall be tested at the works to 1.5 times the maximum Star-Delta and Across the Line type starters will not be acceptable.
working pressure for the refrigerant specified in the tender
specifications. iv) Power factor correction capacitors as required to maintain a displace-
b) The water side of the condenser shall also be tested to a hydraulic ment power factor of 95% at all load conditions shall be provided.
pressure of 10 kg./sq.cm. in the works.
c) Pressure test certificates shall be produced in respect of each 5.5.13 IKW / TR (Input Kilo Watt / TR)
condenser. For constant speed compressor,
i) For chiller capacity < 150 TR, IKW/TR shall not exceed 0.75
5.7.3.5 Treated Water for Condensers ii) For chiller capacity >150 TR and <300 TR, IKW/TR shall not
exceed 0.65
All high-rise buildings using centralized cooling water system shall use soft iii) For chiller capacity > 300 TR, IKW/TR shall not exceed 0.61
water for the condenser and chilled water system.
For variable speed compressor,
5.7.4 Air Cooled Condensers IPLV shall not exceed 0.40.

5.7.4.1 Material and Construction 5.5.14 Controls

i) The condenser coil shall be fabricated of seamless hard drawn copper 5.5.14.1 General:
tubes and aluminium fins of 0.18 mm minimum thickness, fins spacing i. Provide automatic control of chiller operation including compressor start/
ranging from 3 to 5 fins per cm. The minimum wall thickness of tubes stop and load/ unload, anti-recycle timer, evaporator pump, condenser
shall be 1.0 mm. pump, evaporator heater, condenser heater, unit alarm contacts and run
signal contacts.
ii) The coil shall normally be 2/3/4 rows deep unless otherwise specified.
ii. Chiller shall automatically reset to normal chiller operation after power
failure.
iii) The condenser shall be designed so as to hold 1.25 times the
refrigerant charge in the system during the idle periods. iii. Unit operating software shall be stored in non-volatile memory. Field
programmed set points shall be retained in lithium battery backed regu-
iv) Suitable number and capacity of propeller type fans shall be provided lated time clock (RTC) memory for minimum 5 years.
for moving the air through the entire condenser coils. For more uniform iv. Alarm controls shall be provided to remote alert for any unit or system
flow over the condenser coil, the condenser shall be designed on the safety fault.
draw through principle. The air velocity over the condenser coil shall
be maintained upto 200 mpm maximum. 5.5.14.2 Display and Keypad:

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(e) Single phase protection.
(f) Insensitive to phase rotation.
(g) Over temperature protection. 5.7.4.2 Connections and Accessories

Digital readout at the chiller unit control panel of output frequency, output The following connections and accessories shall be provided on the
voltage, 3-phase output current, input Kilowatts and Kilowatt-hours, self- condenser and conforming to Section Refrigeration Piping where
diagnostic service parameters. Separate meters for this information will applicable: -
not be acceptable.
a) Hot gas inlet and liquid outlet connections. The liquid outlet
connections shall be provided with isolating valves,
5.4.13 IKW / TR :
For constant speed compressor b) Pressure relief device,
For capacity < 150 TR, IKW/TR shall not exceed 0.61
For capacity >150 TR and <300 TR, IKW/TR shall not exceed 0.61 5.7.4.3 Pressure Testing
For capacity > 300 TR, IKW/TR shall not exceed 0.56
The pressure testing shall be done at 31 kg/sq.cm on refrigerant side.
For variable speed compressor
IPLV of the compressor shall not exceed 0.35.
5.7.4.4 Condenser Locations

5.5 SCREW TYPE COMPRESSOR (CONSTANT SPEED AND Care shall be exercised in locating the condensers in such a manner that the
VARIABLE SPEED) heat sink is free of interference from heat discharge by devices located in
adjoining spaces and also does not interfere with such other systems installed
5.5.1 The screw compressor shall have a rotary mono/ twin screw, and may nearby.
be of open/ Semi-sealed / totally (hermetic) sealed type. It shall be Condensers should be located in such a manner that there is no restriction to
using only CFC and HCFC free refrigerant. the air flow around the condenser coils, there is no short-circuiting of discharge
5.5.2 The screw compressor shall be preferably variable speed. The air to the intake side, and the heat discharge of other adjacent equipment is
variable speed compressor shall have factory mounted variable speed not anywhere the air intake of the condenser.
drive.
5.5.3 The mono/ twin rotary screw shall be manufactured from forged steel.
The profile of screws shall permit safe operation upto a speed of 3000 5.8 CHILLER
RPM for 50 Hz operation. The compressor shall unload from fully
loaded to the minimum capacity by means of hydraulically actuated 5.8.1 Scope
slide valve positioned over the screw rotor/ pilot operated solenoid
valve & VFD (in case of VFD chillers). This chapter covers the requirements of chillers suitable for reciprocating,
centrifugal and screw types of refrigerating machines for air-conditioning.
5.5.4 The compressor housing shall be of high grade cast iron, machined
with precision, to provide a very close tolerance between the rotor(s) 5.8.2 Types
and the housing.
This section covers the shell and tube type water chillers. These may be again
5.5.5 The rotor(s) shall be mounted on antifriction bearings designed to of the following types: -
reduce friction and power input. There shall be multiple cylindrical a) For reciprocating type units the chiller shall be Direct expansion (DX)
bearings to handle the radial and axial loads. type

5.5.6 There shall be built in oil reservoir to ensure full supply of lubricants to b) For centrifugal type units the chiller shall be of Flooded type or falling
all bearings and a check valve to prevent backspin during shut down. film type.

5.5.7 There shall be oil pump or other means of differential pressure inside c) For screw type units the chiller shall be of Direct expansion (DX) type
the compressor for forced lubrication of all parts during startup, running or Flooded type or falling film type..
and during shut down. An oil sump heater shall be provided in the
casing. 5.8.3 Shell and Tube Type Water Chillers

5.5.8 The open type compressor shall also have a suitable shaft seal, to 5.8.3.1 Rating
prevent leakage of refrigerant.

62 75
i) In a package water chilling machine, the chiller shall match the 6.1 Cycling shutdowns with a VSD shall include:
compressor capacity specified in the tender specifications. The chiller i) VSD shutdown requesting fault data
shall be selected for 4.4 degree C temperature drop of water through ii) VSD stop contacts open
the chiller for reciprocating/scroll compressor & 5.5.deg C for
iii) VSD initialization failed
centrifugal & screw type compressors.
iv) VSD - high phase A,B,C instantaneous current
ii) The fouling factor shall be 0.0001 hr. sq.mtr. degree C temperature v) VSD phase A,B,C gate driver
difference/K. Cal. unless otherwise specified in the tender vi) VSD single phase input power
specifications. vii) VSD high DC bus voltage
viii) VSD pre charge DC bus voltage imbalance
ix) VSD high internal ambient temperature
5.8.3.2 Material and Construction
x) VSD invalid current scale selection
i) The water chiller shall be horizontal, shell and tube type, designed, xi) VSD low phase A, B, C inverter heatsink temp.
constructed and tested for the refrigerant specified in the tender xii) VSD low converter heatsink temperature
specifications. xiii) VSD pre-charge - low DC bus voltage
xiv) VSD logic board processor
ii) The chiller shall be designed for a working pressure on the refrigerant xv) VSD run signal
side suitable for the refrigerant offered, and on the water side for 10 xvi) VSD serial communications
kg./sq.cm. gauge.

iii) The end plates of chiller shall be made of MS of thickness not less 5.4.12 Motor starter
than 25mm.
i) For constant speed compressor
iv) The shell of the chiller shall be made of MS of thickness not less than Starter for motor shall be as per details given under para 13.9 Motor
8mm with electric fusion welded seams. Starter.
v) The tubes shall be of seamless, hard drawn copper with a minimum ii) For variable speed compressor
tube wall thickness of 0.71 mm for plain tubes & minimum 0.63mm at
the root of fins. a) In Case of VSD starter, it will vary the compressor motor speed
by controlling the frequency and voltage of the electrical power to
vi) The tubes shall be plain for DX type chillers and may be either plain or
internally finned for flooded type chillers as per manufacturers design. the motor. The adaptive capacity control logic shall automatically
adjust motor speed and compressor pre-rotation vane position
vii) The tubes shall be rolled into grooves in the tube sheets and flared at ends. independently for maximum part-load efficiency by analyzing
information fed to it by sensors located throughout the chiller.
viii) Intermediate tube supports of steel or polypropylene shall be provided b) To Limit Harmonic generation from VSD, Active Harmonic Filters
at spacing not less than 1250 mm for flooded type chiller and 500mm as per IEEE 519 must be used at the source itself.
for DX type chiller to prevent sagging / vibration of tubes.
c) Drive will be PWM type utilizing IGBTs with a power factor of
ix) The flooded chillers shall have water boxes designed for multipass 0.95 or better at all loads and speeds.
flow. The DX type chillers shall be provided with adequate number of d) Make of VSD shall be exactly same as per global catalogue /
properly spaced baffles so that the water passes through the tube practice. The variable speed drive shall be with all power and
bundle many times. control wiring between the drive and chiller factory installed,
including power to the chiller oil pump.
x) The chiller shall be smooth finished with one coat of zinc chromate e) Field power wiring shall be a single point connection and
primer before the insulation is applied.
electrical lugs for incoming power wiring will be provided.
xi) The chiller shall be sand blasted from both inside (before insertion of
tubes) & outside.
iii) The following features will be provided:
5.8.3.3 Connections and Accessories
(a) Door interlocked circuit breaker capable of being padlocked.
(b) UL listed ground fault protection.
5.8.3.3.1 For DX Type Chiller
(c) Over voltage and under voltage protection.
(d) 3-phase sensing motor over current protection.

76 61
sensing thermostat in each room. It shall sense room temperature and vary the The DX type chiller shall be provided with the following connections and
supply air when cooling. accessories and conforming to the Section Refrigeration Piping where
applicable: -

6.8 RADIANT COOLING SYSTEM a) Refrigerant inlet and outlet connections

6.8.1 Scope b) Thermostatic / Electronic type expansion valve(s) with adjustable


This section describes the basic requirement of Radiant cooling system with superheat control and external equalizer part,
embedded pipes inside the slab during casting of the floors/slab of a building.
c) Line solenoid valve, or pilot solenoid valves as required.
6.8.2 Principle
The principle of Radiant cooling system is based on the utilization of the d) Water inlet and water outlet connections
thermal mass of building components. Due to the large thermal storage mass
of walls, cool room temperatures can comfortably be enjoyed even in the e) Drain connection with stop valve for water side only.
summer when the outside temperature is high.
f) Vent connection with valve.
The heat loads arising in the room are absorbed by cool solid building
elements. g) Flow switch in water line.
The storage characteristic of solid concrete parts is utilised by polymers pipes
carrying cooling realising "limitless" thermal storage.
5.8.3.3.2 For Flooded Type Chiller
6.8.3 Features
i. The pipe shall be of high-quality and all central components of laying The flooded type chiller shall be provided with the following connections and
systems shall be pressure-resistant, rugged and impermeable to accessories and conforming to section Refrigeration Piping where applicable:
oxygen. a) Refrigeration inlet and outlet connections.

ii. For subsurface heating and cooling permanently sealed compression b) Liquid refrigerant float for level control/ expansion valve/ fixed or
sleeve jointing technique shall be used. variable orifice.

iii. The system shall be corrosion resistance. c) Pressure relief device.

iv. The pipe shall have good abrasion resistance. d) Charging connection with valve.

v. Even temperature profiles shall be maintained. e) Eliminator plate.

vi. The pipe material shall be such that minimum noise gets transmitted f) Drain and vent connections with valves
along the pipe.
g) Water inlet and outlet connections
6.8.4 System advantages and benefits
h) Proper oil return system.
i. Easy and quick assembly
i) Flow switch/pressure switch/differential flow switch/ flow sensor in the
ii. Comfortably temperature-controlled floor surface water line (s).

iii. Minimal air speeds 5.8.3.4 Pressure Testing

iv. No upsetting of dust a) The chiller shall be tested in the works to 1.5 times the maximum
working pressure for the refrigerant specified in the tender
v. Optimum room arrangement flexibility specifications, or 21 kg./sq.cm. (Pneumatic), whichever is higher.
b) The water side of the chiller shall also be tested to a hydraulic pressure
vi. Low operating temperatures of 10 kg./sq.cm. at the works.
c) Pressure test certificates shall be produced in respect of each chiller.
vii. Suitable for heat pump and solar power systems
5.8.3.5 Insulation
viii. No maintenance costs

92 77
The insulation shall be done as per chapter 11. vii) Outdoor airflow rate/ floor area: 1.5-2.5 (6) l/s/m2
viii) Outdoor airflow rate/ effective length: 5-12 l/s/m
5.8.4 Minimum Efficiency of Chillers ix) Cooling capacity / floor area: 120 (200) W/m2
x) Cooling capacity / beam effective length: 350 (500) W/m
Cooling equipment shall meet or exceed the minimum efficiency requirements xi) Heating capacity / floor area: 60 (80) W /m2
presented in the table below: xii) Heating capacity / beam effective length: 200 (300) W/m

6.6.5 Technical specifications


Maximum Minimum Minim- Test
Equipment Class IkW/TR at ARI COP * at ARI um Standard i) The active chilled beam shall have an integral recirculation air path
conditions conditions IPLV through the perforated front panel. The induced room air flow rate shall
Air Cooled Chiller <530 kW be manually adjustable via three setting positions without influencing
1.21 2.9 3.16 ARI 550/590-1998 the primary air supply flow rate. The airflow rate of the chilled beam
(<150tons)
Air Cooled Chiller 530 kW shall be adjustable without plugging or changing the nozzles.
1.15 3.05 3.32 ARI 550/590-1998 ii) The primary air flow rate shall be adjustable over a wide range via a
(150 tons)
supply air unit integrated into the chilled beam.
Centrifugal Water Cooled Chiller
0.61 5.8 6.09 ARI 550/590-1998 iii) Outdoor air flow rate control shall not have any effect on coil cooling
<530 kW (<150tons)
and heating capacities.
Centrifugal Water Cooled Chiller iv) The beam with adjustable air flow rate shall have only one duct
530 kW and <1050 kW ( 150 0.61 5.8 6.17 ARI 550/590-1998 connection. The appearance of the chilled beams with constant air flow
tons and <300 tons) and variable air flow rate shall be the same.
Centrifugal Water Cooled Chiller v) The front panel shall be openable from either side in order to allow
0.56 6.3 6.61 ARI 550/590-1998
1050 kW (300 tons) general maintenance and cleaning. The front panel shall be removable
Reciprocating Compressor, without any special tools.
0.84 4.2 5.05 ARI 550/590-1998
Water Cooled Chiller all sizes vi) The air supply to the room space shall be either unidirectional or bi-
Rotary Screw and Scroll directional.
Compressor, Water cooled 0.75 4.7 5.49 ARI 550/590-1998 vii) The position of the duct connection shall be changeable without the use
chiller <530 kW (<150 tons) of any special tools.
Rotary Screw and Scroll viii) The frame, front, and side panels shall be made of galvanized steel
Compressor, Water cooled plate.
0.65 5.4 6.17 ARI 550/590-1998 ix) All visible parts shall be white/ painted to match the ceiling colour.
chiller 530 kW and <1050 kW
( 150 tons and <300 tons) x) All pipes shall be manufactured from copper, and connection pipes with
Rotary Screw and Scroll a wall thickness of 0.9-1.0 mm.
Compressor, Water cooled 0.61 5.75 6.43 ARI 550/590-1998 xi) The fins shall be manufactured from aluminium.
chiller 1050 kW (300 tons) xii) Optionally, heating shall be incorporated within the heat exchanger by
means of two 10-mm pipes, connected in series.
xiii) All joints shall be soldered and factory pressure-tested.
5.9 Chiller Plant Optimizer: xiv) The pipeworks operation pressure should be 1.0 MPa.
xv) The active chilled beam shall have an air flow adjustment damper as an
Chiller Plant Optimizer shall be provided in the plant room for Chilling Unit option and a measurement tap to allow air flow measurement.
(s),Chilled Water Pumps /Primary Chilled Water Pumps, Condenser Water xvi) As an option, an exhaust valve shall be integrated into the chilled beam.
Pumps and Cooling Towers . The Chiller Plant Optimizer shall be of the xvii) In tropical countries like India, The chilled beam should have drain pan
same manufacturer/ OEM as that of the Chilling Unit. and pump to collect and dispose-off the condensate.

6.7 VARIABLE AIR VOLUME SYSTEM


5.10 REFRIGERANT PLUMBING The Variable air volume system uses Variable speed drives for fan volume
control providing a great deal of flexibility for multiple zones in temperature
5.10.1 Design aspects of Refrigerant Plumbing control and efficiency, good control of ventilation air quantities, and opportunity
for higher levels of filtration.
i) Refrigerant piping shall be designed and installed so as to:
6.7.1 VAV Diffusers
a) ensure circulation of adequate refrigerant at all loads.
b) ensure oil return to crank case of compressor positively and continuously. The modules shall vary the supply air volume to provide both VAV heating and
c) keep pressure losses within limits, especially in suction lines. VAV cooling in individual rooms controlled through a room temperature

78 91
All equipment shall be supplied as per manufacturers standard finish painting. d) prevent oil/liquid refrigerant from entering the compressor when
the compressor is working as well as when it has stopped.

6.6 CHILLED BEAMS e) prevent trapping of oil in evaporator or suction lines, which may
return to the compressor in the form of slug.
6.6.1 System description
ii) Hot gas lines:
Chilled beam system is an air conditioning system for cooling, heating and
ventilation in spaces for good indoor climate and individual space control. The a) Oil shall be entrained and carried by hot gas under all load conditions
chilled beam system is an air/water system that utilizes the heat transfer likely to be encountered in normal operation.
properties of water and provides comfortable indoor climate energy efficiently.
iii) Liquid Lines :
6.6.2 System mounting
a) Liquid lines shall be designed to ensure that flashing of liquid
The Chilled Beams shall be ceiling mounted and consisting of a heat refrigerant does not occur by minimising the pressure drop
exchanger, a number of nozzles and a plenum in which dehumidified air is suitably, by avoiding long vertical risers, and appropriate sub
supplied. cooling.
b) Each liquid line shall be provided with a permanently installed
6.6.3 System operation refrigerant drier of throw away or rechargeable type. The drier
shall be installed in a valved line.
Chilled beam systems are designed to use the dry cooling principle operating c) Flow indicator (moisture indicating type) shall be installed on all
with conditions in which condensation is prevented by control applications. liquid lines.

iv) Suction Lines :


6.6.3.1 Ventilation
a) Oil shall be entrained and carried by the suction gas under all
Ventilation using active chilled beams is an efficient mixing ventilation conditions of load likely to be encountered in normal operation.
application that results in uniform air quality. Supply air is diffused from linear b) Piping shall be designed for a suitable velocity of refrigerant
slots on either both sides or on only one side of the chilled beam. Ventilation in (similar to hot gas line) to ensure that oil will not separate from
passive chilled beam systems is typically arranged using mixing ventilation the gas and drain to the compressor in slugs.
with ceiling or wall diffusers. Alternatively, floor diffusers can be used. c) The refrigeration system shall be equipped with controls for
pump down system so that the evaporator and suction line are
6.6.3.2 Cooling emptied before the compressor shuts off, thus preventing liquid
refrigerant and oil from entering the compressor when restarted.
Active chilled beams use the primary air to induce and recirculate the room air d) Refrigerant lines shall be sized to limit pressure drop between
through the heat exchanger of the unit, resulting in high cooling capacities and evaporator and condensing unit to less than 0.2 kg. per sq.cm.
excellent thermal conditions in the space. Passive beam operation is based on (3 psi).
free convection in the heat exchanger and supply air distribution is realized
with separate diffusers. v) Isolating valve shall be provided to enable isolation of each compressor
in case of multiple compressor units (as built in valves), strainer, drier
and any other components as may be required for proper operation and
6.6.3.3 Heating maintenance.

Integration of heating into chilled beams is recommended when heating vi) Thermostatic / Electronic type expansion valve/ float valve shall be
capacity is low enough (200-300 W/m) and the U-value of the windows prevent provided in refrigerant circuit of DX system/ flooded system.
a down-draught under the window.
5.10.2 Material
6.6.4 Typical input values and operation range
i) Refrigerant plumbing for reciprocating type refrigeration plant and
i) Room temperature: 23-25 C packaged type AC plants shall be with copper tubes, with tube
ii) Supply air temperature: 16-19 C thickness conforming to L type to ATM standards. The tubes shall be
iii) Water inlet temperature: 14-16 C bright annealed copper upto and including 15 mm size. The tube shall
iv) Target duct pressure level: 70 -120 Pa be suitable for the duty involved.
v) Target water flow rate: 0.02-0.08 kg/s
vi) Sound pressure level < 35 db (A)

90 79
ii) Fittings like bends, tees, sockets etc. shall be of wrought copper or coil circuit should be sized for adequate water velocity but not exceeding 1.8
forged brass and shall be suitable for the duty involved. Flare type m/s. The air velocity across the coil shall not exceed 155 m/min.
compression fittings of forged brass shall be allowed upto 15 mm piping
size. Tubes upto and including 15 mm size may be bent to form 90 6.3.4 Fan
degree bends with inside radius not less than 3 tube diameters. For This shall consist of two light weight aluminium impellers of forward curved
bigger sizes, bend fittings as mentioned above must be used. type, both statically and dynamically balanced, along with properly designed GI
sheet casings.

iii) Where specified in the tender specification, mild steel may be provided The two impellers shall be directly mounted on to a double shaft, single phase
for refrigeration piping, with seamless MS tubes and fittings of heavy multiple winding motor capable of running at three speeds.
class conforming to IS: 1239. All liquid lines and instruments lines shall
however be of copper only. 6.3.5 Drain Pan
Drain pan shall be fabricated out of minimum 1.00 mm thick stainless steel
iv) Refrigerant plumbing for centrifugal/ screw type chilling machine shall sheet overing the whole of coil section and extended on one side for
be of mild steel or wrought iron / copper to manufacturer's standards. accommodating coil connection valve etc. and complete with a 25mm drain
connection. The drain pan shall be insulated with 10mm thick closed cell
v) Valves shall be of the packed, back-seating type for both copper and polythylene foam insulation and jacketed from outside with single piece
MS refrigerant plumbing work, and these shall be of forged or cast moulded FRP tray.
brass construction.
6.3.6 Air Filter
5.10.3 Pressure Testing:
The filter shall be cleanable type 15mm thick with 90% efficiency down to 10
i) After completion of the piping installation, the entire chilling unit shall be micron of dry cleanable synthetic type to be mounted behind the return air grill
pressure tested with dry nitrogen or any other inert gas at the following in the unit casing.
pressures for the particular refrigerant to be used: -
Refrigerant Test pressure (Kg./Sq.cm. (Gauge) 6.3.7 Speed control

High pressure side Low pressure side A sturdy switch shall be provided with the unit complete with wiring, for
ON/OFF operation and with minimum three speed control of the fan.
R-134a 20 8
6.3.8 Automatic controls

Each unit shall have a room type thermostat and a solenoid valve. The valve
This test shall be carried out as follows: -
shall be fixed at a convenient location. The thermostat shall be mounted along
with the speed control switch on a common plate. The plate shall clearly
a) The system shall be charged with nitrogen or inert gas to 1.0
indicate the fan positions.
Kg./sq.cm. gauge and all joints shall be checked for leakage with a
mixture of four part water, one part liquid soap and a small amount of
The water valves on inlet line shall be of gun metal ball type with internal water
glycerin. Leaks shall be marked, pressure released and repairs done.
strainers, having BSP female pipe thread inlet and flare type male pipe thread
Brazed joints, which leak, shall be opened and redone. These shall not
outlet connection. The valves on return line shall be as above, but without the
be repaired by addition of brazing alloy to the joints.
water strainer.
b) The system shall now be charged with nitrogen or the inert gas to the
pressure specified in the above table and the process of locating leaks
6.3.9 Water Connections
and repairs shall be repeated.
The water lines shall be finally connected to the coil of the fan coil unit, by at
ii) Final pressure test :
least 300mm long, type `L seamless solid drawn copper tubing, with flare
fittings and connections.
After all the leaks have been repaired, the system shall be retested with
the test pressure maintained for a period of not less than 8 hours. No
6.4 INSULATION
measurable drop in pressure should be detected after the pressure
readings are adjusted for temperature changes.
The drain pan shall be insulated as per para 6.3.5.
Pressure gauges, controls and compressors may be valved off during
pressure testing.
6.5 PAINTING

80 89
nearby objects and furniture). Any pathogens growing in the stagnant tank will 5.11 MICROPROCESSOR CONTROLLER
also be dispersed in the air. Ultrasonic humidifiers should be cleaned regularly
to prevent bacterial contamination from being spread throughout the air. 5.11.1 Each chilling unit shall be complete with a microprocessor based interactive
control console in a locked enclosure factory mounted (directly on the unit),
The amount of minerals and other materials can be greatly reduced by prewired with all operating and safety controls and tested.
using distilled water, though no water is absolutely pure. Special disposable
demineralization cartridges may also reduce the amount of airborne material, 5.11.2 It will provide start, stop, safety, interlock, capacity control and indications for
operation of the chiller units through a alphanumeric / graphical display.
6.2.4 Instruments and Valves
5.11.3 Controls shall provide to view and change digital programmable essential set
The following instruments shall be provided at the specified locations in the points, cause of shutdown and type of restart required.
AHUs for the chilled water / hot water system: - a) Leaving chilled water temperature,
i) Pressure gauges at the inlet and outlet of the coil with tubing and b) Percent current limit.
gauge cock. c) Remote reset temperature range.

ii) Stem type thermometers at the inlet & outlet of coil with tubing & gauge 5.11.4 All safety and cycling shutdowns shall be enunciated through the
cock. alphanumeric/ graphical display and consist of day, time, cause of shutdown
and type of restart required.
iii) Butterfly valve at the inlet and outlet of coil.
5.11.5 Cycling shutdown shall include low leaving chilled water temperature, chiller/
iv) Balancing valve at the outlet of coil. condenser water flow interruption, power fault, internal time clock and anti-
recycle.
v) Y-strainer at the inlet of coil.
5.11.6 Safety shutdowns shall include low oil pressure, high compressor discharge
vi) Motorised -way diverting/ mixing valve along with proportionate temperature, low evaporator pressure, motor controller fault and sensor
thermostat. malfunction.

6.2.5 Controls 5.11.7 The default display screen shall indicate the following minimum information
These shall be as per details given under chapter 12 `Controls.
i) date and time
6.2.6 Insulation ii) return and leaving chilled water temperatures
The insulation of casing shall be as per para 6.2.3.1 (ii) & that of drain pan iii) return and leaving condenser water temperatures
shall be as per 6.2.3.2. iv) differential oil pressure
v) percent motor rated current
6.2.7 Installation vi) evaporator & condenser refrigerant saturation temperatures
The air handling unit shall be so installed as to transmit minimum amount of vii) chiller operating hours (hour run) and
vibration to the building structure. Adequate vibration isolation shall be viii) number of compressor starts
provided by use of rubber/ neoprene pads and/or vibration isolation spring ix) oil sump temperature (not required for reciprocating compressor)
mountings. x) status message

5.11.8 Security access shall be provided to prevent unauthorised change of set


6.3 FAN COIL UNITS points, to allow local or remote control of the chiller and to allow manual
operation of the prerotation vanes and oil pump.
6.3.1 General
The fan coil units shall be floor/ wall/ ceiling mounted draw through type 5.11.9 The chiller shall be provided with ports compatible with open protocol building
complete with finned coil, fan with motor, insulated drain pan, cleanable air management system offered, to output all system operating information,
filters and fan speed regulator and other controls as described. shutdown/ cycling message and a record of last four cycling or safety
shutdowns to a remote printer (option) . The control centre shall be
6.3.2 Casing programmable to provide data logs to the printer at a set time interval.
The casing shall be fabricated out of minimum 1.25mm thick G.S.S. sheet.
5.11.10Control centre shall be able to interface with an automatic controls system to
6.3.3 Cooling coil provide remote chiller start/ stop; reset of chilled water temperature, reset of
The coil shall be of seamless copper tubes with aluminium fins. The fins shall current limit, and status messages indicating chiller is ready to start, chiller is
be uniformly bonded to the tubes by mechanical expansion of the tubes. The operating, chiller is shut down on a safety requiring reset and chiller is shut
down on a recycling safety.

88 81
shall not exceed 155 MPM. These filters shall be separately measured
5.11.11 The microprocessor control system shall include the interlocking of & paid for.
compressor motor with chilled and condenser water flows, guide vane position
of compressor in case of centrifugal units and lubricating oil pump pressure. 6.2.3.5.2 General Construction of filters

5.11.12 On initiation of start, the microprocessor control system shall check all pre- i) Each AHU shall be provided with a factory assembled filter section
start safeties to verify that all prestart safeties are within limits. (If one is not, an containing pre-filters made of cleanable metal viscous filters made of
indication of the fault will be displayed and the start aborted). corrugated aluminium wire mesh, or dry cleanable synthetic filters.
These shall be minimum 50 mm thick with a frame work of aluminium.
5.12 INSTALLATION
ii) The filter area shall be made up of panels of size convenient for
The complete chilling unit shall be installed over a RCC foundation and shall handling. The filter panels shall be held snugly within suitable
be adequately isolated against transmission of vibrations to the building aluminium framework made out of minimum 1.6 mm aluminium sheet
structure. Special attention shall be paid to the alignment of the driving and with sponge neoprene gaskets by sliding the panels between the
driven shaft. Final alignment shall be checked at site in presence of the sliding channels so as to avoid air leakage.
Engineer-in-charge using a dial indicator. Necessary foundation bolts, nuts,
leveling screws etc wherever required for mounting the unit shall be provided iii) In order to indicate the condition of these filters while in operation, a
by the contractor. manometer shall be provided to indicate the pressure drop across the
fine filters and absolute filters.
5.13 PAINTING
iv) Special filters, if any specified in the tender specifications shall be
The equipment shall be supplied as per manufacturers standard finish provided in addition to the above filters. In that event, the latter shall
painting. function as pre-filters.

v) Each fine and Hepa filter shall carry test certificate from manufacturer.

6.2.3.6 Humidification Arrangement

Wherever specified in the tender specifications, humidification arrangements


shall be provided with the AHUs. This shall consist of one of the following
arrangements. The particular arrangement to be followed shall be specified in
the tender specifications.

6.2.3.6.1 Pan type humidification arrangement

Pan type humidifier shall be complete with stainless steel sheet (minimum
2mm thick) tank duly insulated, steam outlet nozzle, top open able with
stainless steel bolts, immersion heaters, low level cut out, humidistat,
thermostat; safety stat, float value & sight glass etc. The tank shall be insulated
with 50mm thick expanded polystyrene (TF quality) slabs & finished with
0.5mm thick G.I. sheet.

6.2.3.6.2 Ultrasonic humidification arrangement

These humidifiers consume leser energy as compared to Pan type humidifiers.


Use of this type may be done where the cost is comparable to other types.
An ultrasonic humidifier uses a metal diaphragm vibrating at an ultrasonic
frequency to create water droplets that silently exit the humidifier in the form of
a cool fog. Ultrasonic humidifiers use a piezoelectric transducer to create a
high frequency mechanical oscillation in a film of water. This forms an
extremely fine mist of droplets about one micron in diameter, which is quickly
evaporated into the air flow. Unlike the humidifiers that boil water, these water
droplets will contain any impurities that are in the reservoir, including minerals
from hard water (which then forms a difficult-to-remove sticky white dust on

82 87
per IS 12615. The motor shall be suitably designed for use with
variable frequency drive.
CHAPTER- 6
vi) All AHU fan motors shall be provided with variable frequency
drive where VAVs (Variable Air Volume control) are provided in FACTORY BUILT AIR HANDLING UNIT (AHU), FAN COIL UNIT (FCU) AND
the ducts. OTHER AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
vii) For energy efficiency of system, where VAVs (Variable Air Volume 6.1 SCOPE
control) are provided in the ducts, VFD, in place of starter shall be
provided in Air Handling Units. VFD with harmonics filters should be This chapter covers the detailed requirements of factory built double skin air
specified. Whenever VFD is fitted, direct shaft driven motors are normally handling unit (AHU), single skin fan coil unit (FCU) and other air distribution
used. systems like chilled beam, floor radiant cooling, and variable air volume
systems for central air-conditioning system as well as for central heating
6.2.3.5 Air Filters systems.
The air used in an air-conditioning system must be filtered to maintain a 6.2 FACTORY BUILT AIR HANDLING UNIT (AHU)
clean atmosphere in the conditioned space. The concentration of
contaminants in the air and the degree of cleanliness required in the 6.2.1 Type
conditioned space will determine the type of filter or filters that must be
used. The air handling unit shall be of double skin construction, draw through type in
sectionalised construction consisting of blower section, coil section,
6.2.3.5.1 Type of filters humidification section (where specified), filter section and insulated drain pan.
Unless otherwise specified, the unit shall be horizontal type.
i) Pre-filters : Vertical type units are generally used whenever there is a space constraint.
Cleanable metallic viscous type filter made out of aluminium wire mesh The use of Ceiling Suspended AHUs should be discouraged due to
or of dry cleanable synthetic type minimum 50mm thick, shall be maintenance problems.
provided on the suction side of AHU as a standard equipment with the
unit. These filters shall have the efficiency of 90% down to 10 micron
particle size. When these filters become loaded or full of dirt, it is 6.2.2 Rating
removed from service and replaced by another filter. The dirty filter can
then be washed in a cleaning solution in a tank, dried and then given a i) The capacity of the cooling/heating coil, the air quantity from the blower
bath of viscous oil. Face velocity across these filters shall not exceed fan and static pressure of blower fan shall be as laid down in the tender
155 MPM. documents. Where these parameters as calculated by the tenderer
exceed the specified values, the coils and the blower fan shall satisfy
these calculated values.
ii) Dry fabric (fine) filters
ii) The coil shall be designed for a face velocity of air not exceeding 155
These filters shall have efficiency of 99% down to 5 micron particle size m/min.
as per EU 7 standard. These filters are provided only where special
cleanliness standard is required such as for library, lab, wards, OTs etc. iii) The requisite static pressure demanded by the air circuit shall be
These are provided on the discharge side of AHU after fan section and developed by the fan at the selected operating speed. The static
are always backed by pre-filters provided on the suction side of AHU. pressure value shall not in any case be less than 40 mm water gauge
Face velocity across these filters shall not exceed 155 MPM. These in normal cases, not less than 65 mm water gauge where microvee
filter shall be separately measured and paid for. filters are also used and not less than 100 mm water gauge where
absolute filters are also used. The fan motor HP shall be suitable to
iii) Absolute (HEPA) filters satisfy these requirements and the drive losses.
These filters shall have efficiency of 99.97% upto 0.3 micron particle iv) The air outlet velocity from the blower fan shall not exceed 610 m/min.
size as per EU 13 standard & are required for applications like
operation theatre, micro-labs etc. These are also provided in the AHU v) Noise level at a distance of 2M from AHU shall not exceed 75 dBA.
after fan section or at terminal point and always must be backed by fine
filters & pre filters. These filters after they become dirty, can not be 6.2.3 Material and Construction
reused and have to be thrown away. Face velocity across these filters
6.2.3.1 Housing/ Casing

86 83
i) The housing/ casing of the air handling unit shall be of double skin iv) Each section of the coil shall be fitted with flow and return headers to
construction. The housing shall be so made that it can be delivered at feed all the passes of the coil properly. The headers shall be of copper
site in total/ semi knocked down conditions depending upon the and shall be complete with water in/out connections, vent plug on top
requirements. The main framework shall be of extruded aluminium and drain at the bottom. The coil shall be designed to provide water
hollow structural sections. The entire framework shall be assembled velocity between 0.6 to 1.8 m/s in the tubes.
using mechanical joints to make a sturdy and strong framework for
various sections. For 100% fresh air application framework shall be v) The fins shall be of aluminium. The minimum thickness of the fins shall
made of thermal break hollow extruded aluminium profile. be 0.15 mm nominal. The no. of fins shall not be less than 4.7 per cm
length of coil. Fins may be of either spiral or plate type. The tubes shall
ii) Double skin panels shall be 25mm thick, made of 0.8mm pre- be mechanically expanded to ensure proper thermal contact between
plasticized and pre-painted with PVC guard, GSS sheet on outside and fins and tubes. The fins shall be evenly spaced and upright. The fins
0.8mm galvanized sheet inside with Polyurethane foam insulation of bent during installation shall be carefully realigned. For coastal areas
density not less than 38 kg/cu. m injected in between by injection fins shall be phenolic coated and for 100% F.A. application fins shall be
moulding machine. These panels shall be bolted from inside/ screwed hydrophilic type.
from outside on to the framework with soft rubber gasket in between to
make the joints airtight. The gaskets shall be inserted within groove in vi) The coil shall be suitable for use with the refrigerant specified or with
extruded aluminium profile of the framework. For units installed water as the case may be. Refrigerating coils shall be designed for the
outdoor, the thickness of double skin panels shall be minimum 40 mm. maximum working pressure under the operating conditions. Water
coils shall be designed for a maximum working pressure of 10
iii) Frame work for each section shall also be bolted together with soft kg./sq.cm.
rubber gasket in between to make the joints air tight. Suitable doors
with nylon handles, aluminium die-cast powder coated hinges & latches vii) Shut off and regulating valves at the inlet and outlet of water shall be
shall be provided for access to various panels for maintenance. provided. In the case of DX coils, solenoid valve and expansion valves
However, AHU in the form of complete single unit shall also be shall be provided at the inlet of coil.
acceptable with access door(s) for maintenance to various sections.
The entire housing shall be mounted on galvanised steel channel 6.2.3.4 Supply Air Fan and Drive
frame work made out of G.I. sheet of thickness not less than 2mm. For
higher capacity AHUs hot dip galvanized steel channel framework i) The supply air fan shall be AMCA certified centrifugal type with forward/
made of miniumum 3 mm thick G.S. sheet shall be used. backward curved blades double inlet double width type. For static
pressure upto 65mm forward curved blades shall be used and for
6.2.3.2 Drain Pan higher sizes backward curved blades shall be used.

Drain pan shall be made out of minimum 1.25 mm stainless steel ii) The fan housing of Galvanised sheet steel and the impellers shall be
sheet externally insulated with 10mm thick closed cell Polyethylene fabricated from heavy gauge steel sheet as per approved
foam insulation or nitrile rubber or PUF with necessary dual slope to manufacturers standard. The side plates shall be die formed for
facilitate fast removal of condensate. Necessary supports will be efficient, smooth airflow and minimum losses. Fan impeller shall be
provided to slide the coil in the drain pan. mounted on solid shaft supported to housing using heavy duty ball
bearings. Fan housing and motor shall be mounted on a common
6.2.3.3 Cooling / Heating coil extruded aluminium base mounted inside the fan section on anti-
vibration spring mounts or cushy- foot mount. The fan outlet shall be
i) The coil shall be made from seamless solid drawn copper tubes. The connected to casing with the help of fire retardant fabric.
minimum thickness of tube shall be 0.5 mm for cooling / heating /
heating-cum-cooling coils. iii) The fan impeller assembly shall be statically and dynamically balanced.

ii) The depth of the coil shall be such as to suit the requirements, viz. re- iv) The fan shall be fitted with vee belt drive arrangement consisting of not
circulated air applications, or 100 % fresh air applications and the less than two evenly matched belts. Belts shall be of oil resistant type.
bypass factor required shall be specified in the tender specifications. Adequate adjustments shall be provided to facilitate belt installation and
The coil shall be 4 or 6 rows deep for normal re-circulated air subsequent belt tensioning by movement of the motor on the slide rails.
application and 8 rows deep for all outdoor air application, unless A readily removable door guard shall be provided.
otherwise specified in the tender specifications. In case of 8 rows deep
coils, it shall be made of 2x4 rows deep coils with a spacing of 200mm v) The fan motor shall be totally enclosed fan cooled squirrel cage
between the two coils, access door and independent drain pan. induction motor with IP-54 protection & selected for quiet running. The
motor shall be suitable for operation on 415 + 10%V, 3 phase, 50 Hz.,
iii) U bends shall be of copper, jointed to the tubes by brazing, soft A.C. supply. The fan motor shall be premium efficiency IE3 class , as
soldering shall not be used.

84 85
i) The housing/ casing of the air handling unit shall be of double skin iv) Each section of the coil shall be fitted with flow and return headers to
construction. The housing shall be so made that it can be delivered at feed all the passes of the coil properly. The headers shall be of copper
site in total/ semi knocked down conditions depending upon the and shall be complete with water in/out connections, vent plug on top
requirements. The main framework shall be of extruded aluminium and drain at the bottom. The coil shall be designed to provide water
hollow structural sections. The entire framework shall be assembled velocity between 0.6 to 1.8 m/s in the tubes.
using mechanical joints to make a sturdy and strong framework for
various sections. For 100% fresh air application framework shall be v) The fins shall be of aluminium. The minimum thickness of the fins shall
made of thermal break hollow extruded aluminium profile. be 0.15 mm nominal. The no. of fins shall not be less than 4.7 per cm
length of coil. Fins may be of either spiral or plate type. The tubes shall
ii) Double skin panels shall be 25mm thick, made of 0.8mm pre- be mechanically expanded to ensure proper thermal contact between
plasticized and pre-painted with PVC guard, GSS sheet on outside and fins and tubes. The fins shall be evenly spaced and upright. The fins
0.8mm galvanized sheet inside with Polyurethane foam insulation of bent during installation shall be carefully realigned. For coastal areas
density not less than 38 kg/cu. m injected in between by injection fins shall be phenolic coated and for 100% F.A. application fins shall be
moulding machine. These panels shall be bolted from inside/ screwed hydrophilic type.
from outside on to the framework with soft rubber gasket in between to
make the joints airtight. The gaskets shall be inserted within groove in vi) The coil shall be suitable for use with the refrigerant specified or with
extruded aluminium profile of the framework. For units installed water as the case may be. Refrigerating coils shall be designed for the
outdoor, the thickness of double skin panels shall be minimum 40 mm. maximum working pressure under the operating conditions. Water
coils shall be designed for a maximum working pressure of 10
iii) Frame work for each section shall also be bolted together with soft kg./sq.cm.
rubber gasket in between to make the joints air tight. Suitable doors
with nylon handles, aluminium die-cast powder coated hinges & latches vii) Shut off and regulating valves at the inlet and outlet of water shall be
shall be provided for access to various panels for maintenance. provided. In the case of DX coils, solenoid valve and expansion valves
However, AHU in the form of complete single unit shall also be shall be provided at the inlet of coil.
acceptable with access door(s) for maintenance to various sections.
The entire housing shall be mounted on galvanised steel channel 6.2.3.4 Supply Air Fan and Drive
frame work made out of G.I. sheet of thickness not less than 2mm. For
higher capacity AHUs hot dip galvanized steel channel framework i) The supply air fan shall be AMCA certified centrifugal type with forward/
made of miniumum 3 mm thick G.S. sheet shall be used. backward curved blades double inlet double width type. For static
pressure upto 65mm forward curved blades shall be used and for
6.2.3.2 Drain Pan higher sizes backward curved blades shall be used.

Drain pan shall be made out of minimum 1.25 mm stainless steel ii) The fan housing of Galvanised sheet steel and the impellers shall be
sheet externally insulated with 10mm thick closed cell Polyethylene fabricated from heavy gauge steel sheet as per approved
foam insulation or nitrile rubber or PUF with necessary dual slope to manufacturers standard. The side plates shall be die formed for
facilitate fast removal of condensate. Necessary supports will be efficient, smooth airflow and minimum losses. Fan impeller shall be
provided to slide the coil in the drain pan. mounted on solid shaft supported to housing using heavy duty ball
bearings. Fan housing and motor shall be mounted on a common
6.2.3.3 Cooling / Heating coil extruded aluminium base mounted inside the fan section on anti-
vibration spring mounts or cushy- foot mount. The fan outlet shall be
i) The coil shall be made from seamless solid drawn copper tubes. The connected to casing with the help of fire retardant fabric.
minimum thickness of tube shall be 0.5 mm for cooling / heating /
heating-cum-cooling coils. iii) The fan impeller assembly shall be statically and dynamically balanced.

ii) The depth of the coil shall be such as to suit the requirements, viz. re- iv) The fan shall be fitted with vee belt drive arrangement consisting of not
circulated air applications, or 100 % fresh air applications and the less than two evenly matched belts. Belts shall be of oil resistant type.
bypass factor required shall be specified in the tender specifications. Adequate adjustments shall be provided to facilitate belt installation and
The coil shall be 4 or 6 rows deep for normal re-circulated air subsequent belt tensioning by movement of the motor on the slide rails.
application and 8 rows deep for all outdoor air application, unless A readily removable door guard shall be provided.
otherwise specified in the tender specifications. In case of 8 rows deep
coils, it shall be made of 2x4 rows deep coils with a spacing of 200mm v) The fan motor shall be totally enclosed fan cooled squirrel cage
between the two coils, access door and independent drain pan. induction motor with IP-54 protection & selected for quiet running. The
motor shall be suitable for operation on 415 + 10%V, 3 phase, 50 Hz.,
iii) U bends shall be of copper, jointed to the tubes by brazing, soft A.C. supply. The fan motor shall be premium efficiency IE3 class , as
soldering shall not be used.

84 85
per IS 12615. The motor shall be suitably designed for use with
variable frequency drive.
CHAPTER- 6
vi) All AHU fan motors shall be provided with variable frequency
drive where VAVs (Variable Air Volume control) are provided in FACTORY BUILT AIR HANDLING UNIT (AHU), FAN COIL UNIT (FCU) AND
the ducts. OTHER AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
vii) For energy efficiency of system, where VAVs (Variable Air Volume 6.1 SCOPE
control) are provided in the ducts, VFD, in place of starter shall be
provided in Air Handling Units. VFD with harmonics filters should be This chapter covers the detailed requirements of factory built double skin air
specified. Whenever VFD is fitted, direct shaft driven motors are normally handling unit (AHU), single skin fan coil unit (FCU) and other air distribution
used. systems like chilled beam, floor radiant cooling, and variable air volume
systems for central air-conditioning system as well as for central heating
6.2.3.5 Air Filters systems.
The air used in an air-conditioning system must be filtered to maintain a 6.2 FACTORY BUILT AIR HANDLING UNIT (AHU)
clean atmosphere in the conditioned space. The concentration of
contaminants in the air and the degree of cleanliness required in the 6.2.1 Type
conditioned space will determine the type of filter or filters that must be
used. The air handling unit shall be of double skin construction, draw through type in
sectionalised construction consisting of blower section, coil section,
6.2.3.5.1 Type of filters humidification section (where specified), filter section and insulated drain pan.
Unless otherwise specified, the unit shall be horizontal type.
i) Pre-filters : Vertical type units are generally used whenever there is a space constraint.
Cleanable metallic viscous type filter made out of aluminium wire mesh The use of Ceiling Suspended AHUs should be discouraged due to
or of dry cleanable synthetic type minimum 50mm thick, shall be maintenance problems.
provided on the suction side of AHU as a standard equipment with the
unit. These filters shall have the efficiency of 90% down to 10 micron
particle size. When these filters become loaded or full of dirt, it is 6.2.2 Rating
removed from service and replaced by another filter. The dirty filter can
then be washed in a cleaning solution in a tank, dried and then given a i) The capacity of the cooling/heating coil, the air quantity from the blower
bath of viscous oil. Face velocity across these filters shall not exceed fan and static pressure of blower fan shall be as laid down in the tender
155 MPM. documents. Where these parameters as calculated by the tenderer
exceed the specified values, the coils and the blower fan shall satisfy
these calculated values.
ii) Dry fabric (fine) filters
ii) The coil shall be designed for a face velocity of air not exceeding 155
These filters shall have efficiency of 99% down to 5 micron particle size m/min.
as per EU 7 standard. These filters are provided only where special
cleanliness standard is required such as for library, lab, wards, OTs etc. iii) The requisite static pressure demanded by the air circuit shall be
These are provided on the discharge side of AHU after fan section and developed by the fan at the selected operating speed. The static
are always backed by pre-filters provided on the suction side of AHU. pressure value shall not in any case be less than 40 mm water gauge
Face velocity across these filters shall not exceed 155 MPM. These in normal cases, not less than 65 mm water gauge where microvee
filter shall be separately measured and paid for. filters are also used and not less than 100 mm water gauge where
absolute filters are also used. The fan motor HP shall be suitable to
iii) Absolute (HEPA) filters satisfy these requirements and the drive losses.
These filters shall have efficiency of 99.97% upto 0.3 micron particle iv) The air outlet velocity from the blower fan shall not exceed 610 m/min.
size as per EU 13 standard & are required for applications like
operation theatre, micro-labs etc. These are also provided in the AHU v) Noise level at a distance of 2M from AHU shall not exceed 75 dBA.
after fan section or at terminal point and always must be backed by fine
filters & pre filters. These filters after they become dirty, can not be 6.2.3 Material and Construction
reused and have to be thrown away. Face velocity across these filters
6.2.3.1 Housing/ Casing

86 83
shall not exceed 155 MPM. These filters shall be separately measured
5.11.11 The microprocessor control system shall include the interlocking of & paid for.
compressor motor with chilled and condenser water flows, guide vane position
of compressor in case of centrifugal units and lubricating oil pump pressure. 6.2.3.5.2 General Construction of filters

5.11.12 On initiation of start, the microprocessor control system shall check all pre- i) Each AHU shall be provided with a factory assembled filter section
start safeties to verify that all prestart safeties are within limits. (If one is not, an containing pre-filters made of cleanable metal viscous filters made of
indication of the fault will be displayed and the start aborted). corrugated aluminium wire mesh, or dry cleanable synthetic filters.
These shall be minimum 50 mm thick with a frame work of aluminium.
5.12 INSTALLATION
ii) The filter area shall be made up of panels of size convenient for
The complete chilling unit shall be installed over a RCC foundation and shall handling. The filter panels shall be held snugly within suitable
be adequately isolated against transmission of vibrations to the building aluminium framework made out of minimum 1.6 mm aluminium sheet
structure. Special attention shall be paid to the alignment of the driving and with sponge neoprene gaskets by sliding the panels between the
driven shaft. Final alignment shall be checked at site in presence of the sliding channels so as to avoid air leakage.
Engineer-in-charge using a dial indicator. Necessary foundation bolts, nuts,
leveling screws etc wherever required for mounting the unit shall be provided iii) In order to indicate the condition of these filters while in operation, a
by the contractor. manometer shall be provided to indicate the pressure drop across the
fine filters and absolute filters.
5.13 PAINTING
iv) Special filters, if any specified in the tender specifications shall be
The equipment shall be supplied as per manufacturers standard finish provided in addition to the above filters. In that event, the latter shall
painting. function as pre-filters.

v) Each fine and Hepa filter shall carry test certificate from manufacturer.

6.2.3.6 Humidification Arrangement

Wherever specified in the tender specifications, humidification arrangements


shall be provided with the AHUs. This shall consist of one of the following
arrangements. The particular arrangement to be followed shall be specified in
the tender specifications.

6.2.3.6.1 Pan type humidification arrangement

Pan type humidifier shall be complete with stainless steel sheet (minimum
2mm thick) tank duly insulated, steam outlet nozzle, top open able with
stainless steel bolts, immersion heaters, low level cut out, humidistat,
thermostat; safety stat, float value & sight glass etc. The tank shall be insulated
with 50mm thick expanded polystyrene (TF quality) slabs & finished with
0.5mm thick G.I. sheet.

6.2.3.6.2 Ultrasonic humidification arrangement

These humidifiers consume leser energy as compared to Pan type humidifiers.


Use of this type may be done where the cost is comparable to other types.
An ultrasonic humidifier uses a metal diaphragm vibrating at an ultrasonic
frequency to create water droplets that silently exit the humidifier in the form of
a cool fog. Ultrasonic humidifiers use a piezoelectric transducer to create a
high frequency mechanical oscillation in a film of water. This forms an
extremely fine mist of droplets about one micron in diameter, which is quickly
evaporated into the air flow. Unlike the humidifiers that boil water, these water
droplets will contain any impurities that are in the reservoir, including minerals
from hard water (which then forms a difficult-to-remove sticky white dust on

82 87
nearby objects and furniture). Any pathogens growing in the stagnant tank will 5.11 MICROPROCESSOR CONTROLLER
also be dispersed in the air. Ultrasonic humidifiers should be cleaned regularly
to prevent bacterial contamination from being spread throughout the air. 5.11.1 Each chilling unit shall be complete with a microprocessor based interactive
control console in a locked enclosure factory mounted (directly on the unit),
The amount of minerals and other materials can be greatly reduced by prewired with all operating and safety controls and tested.
using distilled water, though no water is absolutely pure. Special disposable
demineralization cartridges may also reduce the amount of airborne material, 5.11.2 It will provide start, stop, safety, interlock, capacity control and indications for
operation of the chiller units through a alphanumeric / graphical display.
6.2.4 Instruments and Valves
5.11.3 Controls shall provide to view and change digital programmable essential set
The following instruments shall be provided at the specified locations in the points, cause of shutdown and type of restart required.
AHUs for the chilled water / hot water system: - a) Leaving chilled water temperature,
i) Pressure gauges at the inlet and outlet of the coil with tubing and b) Percent current limit.
gauge cock. c) Remote reset temperature range.

ii) Stem type thermometers at the inlet & outlet of coil with tubing & gauge 5.11.4 All safety and cycling shutdowns shall be enunciated through the
cock. alphanumeric/ graphical display and consist of day, time, cause of shutdown
and type of restart required.
iii) Butterfly valve at the inlet and outlet of coil.
5.11.5 Cycling shutdown shall include low leaving chilled water temperature, chiller/
iv) Balancing valve at the outlet of coil. condenser water flow interruption, power fault, internal time clock and anti-
recycle.
v) Y-strainer at the inlet of coil.
5.11.6 Safety shutdowns shall include low oil pressure, high compressor discharge
vi) Motorised -way diverting/ mixing valve along with proportionate temperature, low evaporator pressure, motor controller fault and sensor
thermostat. malfunction.

6.2.5 Controls 5.11.7 The default display screen shall indicate the following minimum information
These shall be as per details given under chapter 12 `Controls.
i) date and time
6.2.6 Insulation ii) return and leaving chilled water temperatures
The insulation of casing shall be as per para 6.2.3.1 (ii) & that of drain pan iii) return and leaving condenser water temperatures
shall be as per 6.2.3.2. iv) differential oil pressure
v) percent motor rated current
6.2.7 Installation vi) evaporator & condenser refrigerant saturation temperatures
The air handling unit shall be so installed as to transmit minimum amount of vii) chiller operating hours (hour run) and
vibration to the building structure. Adequate vibration isolation shall be viii) number of compressor starts
provided by use of rubber/ neoprene pads and/or vibration isolation spring ix) oil sump temperature (not required for reciprocating compressor)
mountings. x) status message

5.11.8 Security access shall be provided to prevent unauthorised change of set


6.3 FAN COIL UNITS points, to allow local or remote control of the chiller and to allow manual
operation of the prerotation vanes and oil pump.
6.3.1 General
The fan coil units shall be floor/ wall/ ceiling mounted draw through type 5.11.9 The chiller shall be provided with ports compatible with open protocol building
complete with finned coil, fan with motor, insulated drain pan, cleanable air management system offered, to output all system operating information,
filters and fan speed regulator and other controls as described. shutdown/ cycling message and a record of last four cycling or safety
shutdowns to a remote printer (option) . The control centre shall be
6.3.2 Casing programmable to provide data logs to the printer at a set time interval.
The casing shall be fabricated out of minimum 1.25mm thick G.S.S. sheet.
5.11.10Control centre shall be able to interface with an automatic controls system to
6.3.3 Cooling coil provide remote chiller start/ stop; reset of chilled water temperature, reset of
The coil shall be of seamless copper tubes with aluminium fins. The fins shall current limit, and status messages indicating chiller is ready to start, chiller is
be uniformly bonded to the tubes by mechanical expansion of the tubes. The operating, chiller is shut down on a safety requiring reset and chiller is shut
down on a recycling safety.

88 81
ii) Fittings like bends, tees, sockets etc. shall be of wrought copper or coil circuit should be sized for adequate water velocity but not exceeding 1.8
forged brass and shall be suitable for the duty involved. Flare type m/s. The air velocity across the coil shall not exceed 155 m/min.
compression fittings of forged brass shall be allowed upto 15 mm piping
size. Tubes upto and including 15 mm size may be bent to form 90 6.3.4 Fan
degree bends with inside radius not less than 3 tube diameters. For This shall consist of two light weight aluminium impellers of forward curved
bigger sizes, bend fittings as mentioned above must be used. type, both statically and dynamically balanced, along with properly designed GI
sheet casings.

iii) Where specified in the tender specification, mild steel may be provided The two impellers shall be directly mounted on to a double shaft, single phase
for refrigeration piping, with seamless MS tubes and fittings of heavy multiple winding motor capable of running at three speeds.
class conforming to IS: 1239. All liquid lines and instruments lines shall
however be of copper only. 6.3.5 Drain Pan
Drain pan shall be fabricated out of minimum 1.00 mm thick stainless steel
iv) Refrigerant plumbing for centrifugal/ screw type chilling machine shall sheet overing the whole of coil section and extended on one side for
be of mild steel or wrought iron / copper to manufacturer's standards. accommodating coil connection valve etc. and complete with a 25mm drain
connection. The drain pan shall be insulated with 10mm thick closed cell
v) Valves shall be of the packed, back-seating type for both copper and polythylene foam insulation and jacketed from outside with single piece
MS refrigerant plumbing work, and these shall be of forged or cast moulded FRP tray.
brass construction.
6.3.6 Air Filter
5.10.3 Pressure Testing:
The filter shall be cleanable type 15mm thick with 90% efficiency down to 10
i) After completion of the piping installation, the entire chilling unit shall be micron of dry cleanable synthetic type to be mounted behind the return air grill
pressure tested with dry nitrogen or any other inert gas at the following in the unit casing.
pressures for the particular refrigerant to be used: -
Refrigerant Test pressure (Kg./Sq.cm. (Gauge) 6.3.7 Speed control

High pressure side Low pressure side A sturdy switch shall be provided with the unit complete with wiring, for
ON/OFF operation and with minimum three speed control of the fan.
R-134a 20 8
6.3.8 Automatic controls

Each unit shall have a room type thermostat and a solenoid valve. The valve
This test shall be carried out as follows: -
shall be fixed at a convenient location. The thermostat shall be mounted along
with the speed control switch on a common plate. The plate shall clearly
a) The system shall be charged with nitrogen or inert gas to 1.0
indicate the fan positions.
Kg./sq.cm. gauge and all joints shall be checked for leakage with a
mixture of four part water, one part liquid soap and a small amount of
The water valves on inlet line shall be of gun metal ball type with internal water
glycerin. Leaks shall be marked, pressure released and repairs done.
strainers, having BSP female pipe thread inlet and flare type male pipe thread
Brazed joints, which leak, shall be opened and redone. These shall not
outlet connection. The valves on return line shall be as above, but without the
be repaired by addition of brazing alloy to the joints.
water strainer.
b) The system shall now be charged with nitrogen or the inert gas to the
pressure specified in the above table and the process of locating leaks
6.3.9 Water Connections
and repairs shall be repeated.
The water lines shall be finally connected to the coil of the fan coil unit, by at
ii) Final pressure test :
least 300mm long, type `L seamless solid drawn copper tubing, with flare
fittings and connections.
After all the leaks have been repaired, the system shall be retested with
the test pressure maintained for a period of not less than 8 hours. No
6.4 INSULATION
measurable drop in pressure should be detected after the pressure
readings are adjusted for temperature changes.
The drain pan shall be insulated as per para 6.3.5.
Pressure gauges, controls and compressors may be valved off during
pressure testing.
6.5 PAINTING

80 89
All equipment shall be supplied as per manufacturers standard finish painting. d) prevent oil/liquid refrigerant from entering the compressor when
the compressor is working as well as when it has stopped.

6.6 CHILLED BEAMS e) prevent trapping of oil in evaporator or suction lines, which may
return to the compressor in the form of slug.
6.6.1 System description
ii) Hot gas lines:
Chilled beam system is an air conditioning system for cooling, heating and
ventilation in spaces for good indoor climate and individual space control. The a) Oil shall be entrained and carried by hot gas under all load conditions
chilled beam system is an air/water system that utilizes the heat transfer likely to be encountered in normal operation.
properties of water and provides comfortable indoor climate energy efficiently.
iii) Liquid Lines :
6.6.2 System mounting
a) Liquid lines shall be designed to ensure that flashing of liquid
The Chilled Beams shall be ceiling mounted and consisting of a heat refrigerant does not occur by minimising the pressure drop
exchanger, a number of nozzles and a plenum in which dehumidified air is suitably, by avoiding long vertical risers, and appropriate sub
supplied. cooling.
b) Each liquid line shall be provided with a permanently installed
6.6.3 System operation refrigerant drier of throw away or rechargeable type. The drier
shall be installed in a valved line.
Chilled beam systems are designed to use the dry cooling principle operating c) Flow indicator (moisture indicating type) shall be installed on all
with conditions in which condensation is prevented by control applications. liquid lines.

iv) Suction Lines :


6.6.3.1 Ventilation
a) Oil shall be entrained and carried by the suction gas under all
Ventilation using active chilled beams is an efficient mixing ventilation conditions of load likely to be encountered in normal operation.
application that results in uniform air quality. Supply air is diffused from linear b) Piping shall be designed for a suitable velocity of refrigerant
slots on either both sides or on only one side of the chilled beam. Ventilation in (similar to hot gas line) to ensure that oil will not separate from
passive chilled beam systems is typically arranged using mixing ventilation the gas and drain to the compressor in slugs.
with ceiling or wall diffusers. Alternatively, floor diffusers can be used. c) The refrigeration system shall be equipped with controls for
pump down system so that the evaporator and suction line are
6.6.3.2 Cooling emptied before the compressor shuts off, thus preventing liquid
refrigerant and oil from entering the compressor when restarted.
Active chilled beams use the primary air to induce and recirculate the room air d) Refrigerant lines shall be sized to limit pressure drop between
through the heat exchanger of the unit, resulting in high cooling capacities and evaporator and condensing unit to less than 0.2 kg. per sq.cm.
excellent thermal conditions in the space. Passive beam operation is based on (3 psi).
free convection in the heat exchanger and supply air distribution is realized
with separate diffusers. v) Isolating valve shall be provided to enable isolation of each compressor
in case of multiple compressor units (as built in valves), strainer, drier
and any other components as may be required for proper operation and
6.6.3.3 Heating maintenance.

Integration of heating into chilled beams is recommended when heating vi) Thermostatic / Electronic type expansion valve/ float valve shall be
capacity is low enough (200-300 W/m) and the U-value of the windows prevent provided in refrigerant circuit of DX system/ flooded system.
a down-draught under the window.
5.10.2 Material
6.6.4 Typical input values and operation range
i) Refrigerant plumbing for reciprocating type refrigeration plant and
i) Room temperature: 23-25 C packaged type AC plants shall be with copper tubes, with tube
ii) Supply air temperature: 16-19 C thickness conforming to L type to ATM standards. The tubes shall be
iii) Water inlet temperature: 14-16 C bright annealed copper upto and including 15 mm size. The tube shall
iv) Target duct pressure level: 70 -120 Pa be suitable for the duty involved.
v) Target water flow rate: 0.02-0.08 kg/s
vi) Sound pressure level < 35 db (A)

90 79
The insulation shall be done as per chapter 11. vii) Outdoor airflow rate/ floor area: 1.5-2.5 (6) l/s/m2
viii) Outdoor airflow rate/ effective length: 5-12 l/s/m
5.8.4 Minimum Efficiency of Chillers ix) Cooling capacity / floor area: 120 (200) W/m2
x) Cooling capacity / beam effective length: 350 (500) W/m
Cooling equipment shall meet or exceed the minimum efficiency requirements xi) Heating capacity / floor area: 60 (80) W /m2
presented in the table below: xii) Heating capacity / beam effective length: 200 (300) W/m

6.6.5 Technical specifications


Maximum Minimum Minim- Test
Equipment Class IkW/TR at ARI COP * at ARI um Standard i) The active chilled beam shall have an integral recirculation air path
conditions conditions IPLV through the perforated front panel. The induced room air flow rate shall
Air Cooled Chiller <530 kW be manually adjustable via three setting positions without influencing
1.21 2.9 3.16 ARI 550/590-1998 the primary air supply flow rate. The airflow rate of the chilled beam
(<150tons)
Air Cooled Chiller 530 kW shall be adjustable without plugging or changing the nozzles.
1.15 3.05 3.32 ARI 550/590-1998 ii) The primary air flow rate shall be adjustable over a wide range via a
(150 tons)
supply air unit integrated into the chilled beam.
Centrifugal Water Cooled Chiller
0.61 5.8 6.09 ARI 550/590-1998 iii) Outdoor air flow rate control shall not have any effect on coil cooling
<530 kW (<150tons)
and heating capacities.
Centrifugal Water Cooled Chiller iv) The beam with adjustable air flow rate shall have only one duct
530 kW and <1050 kW ( 150 0.61 5.8 6.17 ARI 550/590-1998 connection. The appearance of the chilled beams with constant air flow
tons and <300 tons) and variable air flow rate shall be the same.
Centrifugal Water Cooled Chiller v) The front panel shall be openable from either side in order to allow
0.56 6.3 6.61 ARI 550/590-1998
1050 kW (300 tons) general maintenance and cleaning. The front panel shall be removable
Reciprocating Compressor, without any special tools.
0.84 4.2 5.05 ARI 550/590-1998
Water Cooled Chiller all sizes vi) The air supply to the room space shall be either unidirectional or bi-
Rotary Screw and Scroll directional.
Compressor, Water cooled 0.75 4.7 5.49 ARI 550/590-1998 vii) The position of the duct connection shall be changeable without the use
chiller <530 kW (<150 tons) of any special tools.
Rotary Screw and Scroll viii) The frame, front, and side panels shall be made of galvanized steel
Compressor, Water cooled plate.
0.65 5.4 6.17 ARI 550/590-1998 ix) All visible parts shall be white/ painted to match the ceiling colour.
chiller 530 kW and <1050 kW
( 150 tons and <300 tons) x) All pipes shall be manufactured from copper, and connection pipes with
Rotary Screw and Scroll a wall thickness of 0.9-1.0 mm.
Compressor, Water cooled 0.61 5.75 6.43 ARI 550/590-1998 xi) The fins shall be manufactured from aluminium.
chiller 1050 kW (300 tons) xii) Optionally, heating shall be incorporated within the heat exchanger by
means of two 10-mm pipes, connected in series.
xiii) All joints shall be soldered and factory pressure-tested.
5.9 Chiller Plant Optimizer: xiv) The pipeworks operation pressure should be 1.0 MPa.
xv) The active chilled beam shall have an air flow adjustment damper as an
Chiller Plant Optimizer shall be provided in the plant room for Chilling Unit option and a measurement tap to allow air flow measurement.
(s),Chilled Water Pumps /Primary Chilled Water Pumps, Condenser Water xvi) As an option, an exhaust valve shall be integrated into the chilled beam.
Pumps and Cooling Towers . The Chiller Plant Optimizer shall be of the xvii) In tropical countries like India, The chilled beam should have drain pan
same manufacturer/ OEM as that of the Chilling Unit. and pump to collect and dispose-off the condensate.

6.7 VARIABLE AIR VOLUME SYSTEM


5.10 REFRIGERANT PLUMBING The Variable air volume system uses Variable speed drives for fan volume
control providing a great deal of flexibility for multiple zones in temperature
5.10.1 Design aspects of Refrigerant Plumbing control and efficiency, good control of ventilation air quantities, and opportunity
for higher levels of filtration.
i) Refrigerant piping shall be designed and installed so as to:
6.7.1 VAV Diffusers
a) ensure circulation of adequate refrigerant at all loads.
b) ensure oil return to crank case of compressor positively and continuously. The modules shall vary the supply air volume to provide both VAV heating and
c) keep pressure losses within limits, especially in suction lines. VAV cooling in individual rooms controlled through a room temperature

78 91
sensing thermostat in each room. It shall sense room temperature and vary the The DX type chiller shall be provided with the following connections and
supply air when cooling. accessories and conforming to the Section Refrigeration Piping where
applicable: -

6.8 RADIANT COOLING SYSTEM a) Refrigerant inlet and outlet connections

6.8.1 Scope b) Thermostatic / Electronic type expansion valve(s) with adjustable


This section describes the basic requirement of Radiant cooling system with superheat control and external equalizer part,
embedded pipes inside the slab during casting of the floors/slab of a building.
c) Line solenoid valve, or pilot solenoid valves as required.
6.8.2 Principle
The principle of Radiant cooling system is based on the utilization of the d) Water inlet and water outlet connections
thermal mass of building components. Due to the large thermal storage mass
of walls, cool room temperatures can comfortably be enjoyed even in the e) Drain connection with stop valve for water side only.
summer when the outside temperature is high.
f) Vent connection with valve.
The heat loads arising in the room are absorbed by cool solid building
elements. g) Flow switch in water line.
The storage characteristic of solid concrete parts is utilised by polymers pipes
carrying cooling realising "limitless" thermal storage.
5.8.3.3.2 For Flooded Type Chiller
6.8.3 Features
i. The pipe shall be of high-quality and all central components of laying The flooded type chiller shall be provided with the following connections and
systems shall be pressure-resistant, rugged and impermeable to accessories and conforming to section Refrigeration Piping where applicable:
oxygen. a) Refrigeration inlet and outlet connections.

ii. For subsurface heating and cooling permanently sealed compression b) Liquid refrigerant float for level control/ expansion valve/ fixed or
sleeve jointing technique shall be used. variable orifice.

iii. The system shall be corrosion resistance. c) Pressure relief device.

iv. The pipe shall have good abrasion resistance. d) Charging connection with valve.

v. Even temperature profiles shall be maintained. e) Eliminator plate.

vi. The pipe material shall be such that minimum noise gets transmitted f) Drain and vent connections with valves
along the pipe.
g) Water inlet and outlet connections
6.8.4 System advantages and benefits
h) Proper oil return system.
i. Easy and quick assembly
i) Flow switch/pressure switch/differential flow switch/ flow sensor in the
ii. Comfortably temperature-controlled floor surface water line (s).

iii. Minimal air speeds 5.8.3.4 Pressure Testing

iv. No upsetting of dust a) The chiller shall be tested in the works to 1.5 times the maximum
working pressure for the refrigerant specified in the tender
v. Optimum room arrangement flexibility specifications, or 21 kg./sq.cm. (Pneumatic), whichever is higher.
b) The water side of the chiller shall also be tested to a hydraulic pressure
vi. Low operating temperatures of 10 kg./sq.cm. at the works.
c) Pressure test certificates shall be produced in respect of each chiller.
vii. Suitable for heat pump and solar power systems
5.8.3.5 Insulation
viii. No maintenance costs

92 77
dampers. Every damper shall have an indicating device clearly
showing the position of the dampers at all times.
ix. Toxicologically and physiologically harmless.
viii) Where electrical heaters are mounted in the duct, these shall be of low
temperature totally enclosed type fitted with radiation fins. A removable
panel for access to the heaters shall be provided in the duct. Any hole 6.8.5 Implementation
in the duct for electrical wiring must be provided with suitable bushes to
avoid leakage. 6 mm thick asbestos board lining shall be provided all i. The cooling/heating is highly economical due to the high proportion of
around the inside of the duct for a distance of 30 cms. on either side of radiated cool/ heat, a favourable room temperature profile and low
the electrical heaters. A manually reset thermostatic safety switch shall maintenance costs.
be provided near the duct section having heaters. In addition, the ii. The system shall have the following features
heaters must be interlocked with the connected fan motor of the AHU. iii. Apart from the low installation and operating costs, floor space shall be
completely used as the cooling/heating is integrated in the concrete
9.8.2 Air Outlets and Inlets floor.
iv. Competent support in the planning, appropriation of work and in
i) The locations of the air outlets and intakes shall be shown in the tender assigning specialised companies with onsite support at the building site
drawings and necessary openings and the wooden framework for fixing shall be provided during the installation of the system
the grilles shall be provided by the air conditioning contractor. The v. An ideal temperature profile shall be produced and heat trapped under
location of these outlets/ inlets is subject to change and the approval of the roof shall be reduced
the Engineer-in-Charge shall be obtained before finally fixing the vi. The heating/cooling system shall have no effect on the dynamic and
grilles/diffusers in position. static properties of the sprung floor.

ii) In installing fresh air intakes, no fixing device shall be visible from the
face of the frame. Where louvers are to be fixed in masonry or 6.9 GEOTHERMAL BASED AIR COOLING SYSTEM
concrete, fixing shall be with either expanding plugs or raw plugs.
Where the louvers are to be fixed in steel or wood, non-ferrous screws 6.9.1 Principle
or bolts shall be used. The principle of Air duct tunnel system is based on the utilization of the geo
thermal energy present in the ground. Due to the temperature difference
iii) Supply air outlets and return air intakes shall be anodized/ powder between the ground(below certain depth) and air present in the atmosphere
coated aluminium to the desired colour to match the surroundings the air when taken through a lesser temperature of the ground exchanges
wall/ceiling. The fresh air intakes shall be anodized/ powder coated heat/losses heat to the ground and becomes cool. This cooled air is then
aluminium as approved by the Engineer-in-Charge. The paint colour circulated in the building and give the comfortable cooled air into the area.
shall be approved by the Engineer-in-Charge.
6.9.2 Features
iv) All damages to the finish of the structure during the installation work The grounds ability to store energy is used to achieve on energy efficient
shall be made good by the air-conditioning contractor before handing controlled ventilation solution. An antimicrobial inner layer shall be provided to
over the installation to the Department. ensure quality supply of air inside the building.

9.9 BALANCING 6.9.3 Advantages and benefits


The unique advantage with this system is that the air duct tunnels in summer
Air systems shall be balanced in a manner to minimize throttling losses. The provided cooled air whereas in winter provides warm air to the building. Other
entire air distribution system shall be balanced with the help of an benefits should include
anemometer. The measured air quantities at fan discharge and at the various i. Easy and quick assembly
outlets shall be within + 5 percent of those specified/quoted. For fans greater ii. Comfortably temperature-controlled using ground heat exchange.
than 0.75 KW (1.0 HP), fans must then be adjusted to meet design flow iii. Anti microbial layer for non microbes formation.
conditions. Branch duct adjustments shall be permanently marked after the air iv. Minimal air speeds
balancing is completed so that these can be restored to their correct position if v. Inbuilt filtration option.
disturbed at any time. vi. No upsetting of dust
vii. Suitable for heat pump and solar power systems
9.10 MEASUREMENT viii. No maintenance costs
ix. Corrosion resistance: no pitting
i) Duct measurements (for insulated ducts) shall be taken before x. Does not tend to accumulate deposits
application of insulation. xi. Polymer pipe material gives high load bearing capacity.
xii. Toxicologically and physiologically harmless.

108 93
6.9.4 Support and process 9.7.2 Material
Air duct tunnel system design is highly specific to the site conditions and output
requirements however following steps are followed for installation of the same. i) An uninsulated flexible duct shall be made of double lamination of
i. Pipe transportation and storage metalized polyester film permanently bonded to a coated spring steel
ii. Digging the trench and installation of the pipes wire helix. Duct shall be in tear & puncture resistant construction.
iii. Lowering pipes into trenches and its connection.
iv. Cutting of pipe length ii) For insulated flexible duct where specified, inner core for the same
v. Visual inspection and leak tightness should be made of double lamination of metalized polyester film
vi. Embedment and main backfill permanently bonded to a coated spring steel wire helix. Fiberglass
vii. Compaction insulation of minimum 14 kg/cu.m density, 25 mm thickness shall be
wrapped over the inner core & covered with strong outer jacket cum
6.9.5 Design vapour barrier made of fibre glass reinforced metalized polyester film
Since every geological location has unique soil conditions, air tunnel system laminate.
needs to be designed and supplied as per the output requirements of the
building based on the soil test report or soil conditions. iii) Care must be taken to install all the flexible duct in fully extended
position & bends made with adequate radius as per manufacturer
recommended practices.

9.8 INSTALLATION OF METALLIC DUCT

9.8.1 Ducting
i) The fabrication and installation shall be in a workmanlike manner. Duct
work shall be rigid and straight without kinks.

ii) All exposed ducts within the conditioned space shall have slip joints.
Flanged joints shall not be used.

iii) All joints shall be airtight.

iv) Ducts shall be supported independently from the building structure and
adequately, to keep the ducts true to shape. The support spacing shall
be not more than 2 m. where ducts cannot be suspended from ceiling,
wall brackets or other suitable arrangements, as approved by the
Engineer-in-charge shall be adopted. Neoprene or other vibration
isolation packing of minimum 6 mm thickness shall be provided
between the ducts and the angle iron supports/brackets. Vertical duct
work shall be suitably supported at each floor by steel structural
members.

v) Where metal ducts or sleeves terminate in woodwork, tight joints shall


be made by means of closely fitting heavy flanged collars. Where
ducts pass through brick or masonry openings, wooden frame work
shall be provided within the openings and the crossing ducts shall be
provided with heavy flanged collars on either side of the wooden frame
work, so that duct crossing is made leak-proof.

vi) Duct connections to the air-handling unit shall be made by inserting a


double canvas sleeve 100 mm long. The sleeve shall be securely
bonded and bolted to the duct and unit casing.

vii) Dampers shall be provided in branch duct connections for proper


volume control and balancing the air quantities in the system, whether
indicated in the drawings or not. Suitable links, levers and quadrants
shall be provided for proper operation, control and setting of the

94 107
easily removable means of access to all internal parts. Access to all boxes
must be from the underside only. CHAPTER- 7
COOLING TOWERS
iv) The actuator shall be of 24V AC Bi-directional, direct coupled to the
damper shaft. The required transformer to step down of the voltage range
from 230V to 24V shall be part of the unit. The power point with an isolator 7.1 SCOPE
near the VAV will be provided by other agencies.
v) The unit shall be complete with transformer, access panel and other This chapter covers the general requirements of cooling towers for packaged
accessories as per the standard. units, central air-conditioning plants and cold rooms.
vi) The noise level shall be less than 35dbA.
vii) Maximum allowable static pressure to the boxes for its satisfactory 7.2 TYPE
operation shall not exceed 0.10WG, otherwise fan and motor selections
may be affected. The cooling tower shall be of Mechanical draft type. Fan on Mechanical draft
viii) Boxes shall be able to reset any air flow between 10% and the maximum towers may be on the inlet air side or exit air side. In case of former it is called
air quantity that the boxes can handle without changing orifices or other forced draft type and in case of later it is called Induced draft type. On the
parts. Air quantity limiters will not be accepted. basis of direction of air flow and water flow, Mechanical draft cooling tower can
ix) A suitable device shall be provided for the field adjustment of minimum be counter flow or cross flow type as per the manufacturer design.
airflow. All boxes shall be initially factory set at minimum air quantity of
10% and maximum quantity of 110%of the design requirements. This may be of any of the following construction as may be specified in the
x) Under shut-off conditions, all boxes shall not have air leakage more than tender specifications:-
2% of the maximum air quantity at 75mm static pressure.
xi) The VAVs shall be used in standalone mode complete with its own a) In wooden construction with wood or PVC fill and RCC basin,
temperature sensor and controller and shall perform the function of b) In fibre glass reinforced plastic (FRP) construction with PVC fill and
maintaining the temperature and airflow. FRP basin,
xii) Where ever specified, the VAVs shall be BMS compatible to enable to c) In masonry construction.
network the VAVs to a Network Control Unit and onto BMS. In this mode all
VAV data shall be available at the BMS workstation and it shall be possible The mechanical draft cooling towers of wooden construction and masonry
to change set points and flow settings from the BMS workstation. All such construction, being un-common now, have been excluded from the scope of
controllers used for the control of VAV boxes shall be compliant with these specification.
BACnet/ MODBUS protocol and be freely communicable to third party
BACnet/ MODBUS IP controllers. 7.3 DESIGN
xiii) All boxes shall be electrically controlled. The boxes shall be pressure
independent. i) Rating :
xiv) VAV Box shall have provision to support from floor/ wall/ ceiling and in
vertical/ horizontal condition. The cooling tower shall be rated for the heat rejection capacity
specified in the tender specifications. All cooling towers shall be
certified by CTI (Cooling Tower Institute).
9.6 ACOUSTIC LINING AND INSULATION
ii) Range:
This shall be done as per details given in para 11.8 and 11.9 (Chapter 11).
The Cooling tower shall be designed to cool the requisite quantity of
9.7 FLEXIBLE DUCTING water through 4.2 degree C or as specified in the tender specifications,
against the prevailing wet bulb temperature.
9.7.1 Application
iii) Wet Bulb approach:
Flexible Duct is a round, flexible light weight duct and is preliminary used for
The cooling tower shall be selected for a wet bulb approach of not more
i) Speedy completion of project than 2.77 degree C.
ii) Offers a high degree of flexibility, which allows it to be easily connected
to any desired position. iv) Outlet temperature:
iii) A quick and economical means of correcting misalignment between
system components. The cold water temperature from the cooling tower shall match the
iv) Allows ducting around obstacles where fabricated and fitted ducts entering temperature for which the condenser selection is made.
would be difficult and costly to install.

106 95
v) Flow rate: v) A bird wire screen made of 12 mm mesh in 1.6 mm steel wire held in
The water flow rate through the cooling tower shall match that through angle or channel frame shall be fixed to the rear face of the louver
the condenser. frame by screens.

vi) Multi cell design : 9.4 FIRE DAMPERS


The induced draft cooling tower shall be of one or more cells.
vii) Drive Motor : The fan motor shall be premium efficiency IE3 class , as i) Fire dampers shall be provided in all the supply air ducts and return air
per IS 12615. ducts (where provided), return air passage in the air-handling unit room
and at all floor crossings. Access door will be provided in the duct
before each set of fire dampers.
7.4 MATERIAL AND CONSTRUCTION
ii) Fire dampers shall be multi blade louvers type. The blade should
Fibreglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Cooling tower remain in the air stream in open position & shall allow maximum free
area to reduce pressure drop & noise in the air passage. The blades
i) The structural framework of the cooling tower including all members and frame shall be constructed with minimum 1.6mm thick galvanised
shall be designed for the load encountered during the normal operation sheet & shall be factory fitted in a sleeve made out of 1.6mm
of the cooling tower and its maintenance. The structure shall be galvanised sheet of minimum 400mm long. It shall be complete with
rugged and rigid to prevent distortion and shall include tie locking device, motorised actuator & control panel.
arrangements as may be necessary.
iii) Fire dampers shall be motorised smoke & fire dampers type. It shall be
ii) The cooling tower shall be induced draft type, with FRP casing in supplied with spring loaded UL stamped fusible link to close fire
square/ rectangular/ octagonal/ circular shape, and with an FRP basin damper in the event of rise in duct temperature. Fire damper shall also
to match the shape of the casing. close on receipt of fire alarm signal to cut off air supply instantaneously.
An electric limit switch shall also be operated by the closing of fire
iii) The air intake shall be from openings all along the circumference of the damper, which in turn shall switch off power supply to AHU blower
casing near its base in case of circular shape. Air Intake shall be along motor as well as strip heaters.
the sides in case of square or octagonal/ rectangular cooling tower.
These openings shall be covered with hot dip galvanised expanded iv) Fire dampers shall be CBRI tested & certified for 90 minutes rating
metal mesh screens. against collapse & flame penetration as per UL 555-1995.(Under
writers laboratories)
iv) The basin shall have a holding capacity adequate for operation for
atleast 30 minutes without addition of make-up water to the basin. The v) Fire dampers shall be compatible with the fire detection system of
construction should be such as to eliminate the danger of drawing air building & shall be capable of operating automatically through an
into the pump when operating with minimum water in the basin. electric motor on receiving signal from fire alarm panel.

v) The basin fittings shall include the following: - vi) Necessary wiring from fire alarm panel up to AHU electric panel shall
a) Bottom /side outlet, be provided by the department & further from AHU electric panel to fire
b) Drain connection with valve, damper shall be provided by air conditioning contractor.
c) Ball type automatic make-up connection with valve,
d) Overflow connection, 9.5 VARIABLE AIR VOLUME (VAV) BOXES
e) Bleed off with valve, from inlet header to overflow pipe. i) These shall of the low velocity variable air volume boxes without re-heat
coils, and shall be of open protocol as marketed by a firm specializing in
vi) The supporting framework for the tower casing and the water basin this field. The contractor shall supply and install units to the quantity and
shall be made of hot dip galvanised steel and it shall be further locations as specified.
protected with epoxy painting.
ii) The unit shall be complete with damper, airflow ring, and solid-state
vii) The filling shall be of PVC. Thickness of PVC fills shall not be less than electronic controls to provide accurate room temperature control. The
0.2mm. These shall be of such construction as to provide low air damper shall be aero foil type construction with bearings.
resistance, large wetted surface for a high heat transfer efficiency, and
easy replace ability.
iii) Boxes shall be supplied with all internal attenuation treatment and
viii) The water distribution may be either through self-rotating or fixed type acoustical damped casing necessary to achieve the required noise criteria.
sprinklers or through balancing, sub balancing and spreader troughs Casing shall be of 22G GSS minimum fitted with a completely sealed,
(unpressurised system) open gravity type with polypropylene nozzle,

96 105
on the ceiling adjacent to the air outlet. The metal sheet used for ensuring uniform water loading and distribution of water over the fill. All
construction of these shall be minimum 1.6 mm thick extruded pipes and fittings shall be of PVC. The sprinklers shall operate from
aluminium sheet. the residual velocity head at the headers. Due care shall be taken with
regard to corrosive effects and maintainability in the design of the water
v) Linear diffusers shall have a flanged frame with the outside edges distribution system.
returned 3.5 mm and shall have one to four slots as required. The air
quantity through each slot shall be adjustable. The metal sheet used ix) Drift eliminators of PVC shall be provided for maximum removal of
for the construction of these shall be minimum 1.6 mm thick extruded entrained water droplets. The spacers and tie rods used shall be of
aluminium sheet. plastic material.

vi) Grilles and diffusers constructed of extruded aluminium sections shall x) The fan shall be multi-blade axial flow type, made of aluminium alloy or
have grille bars set straight, or deflected as required. These shall be FRP. The fan assembly shall be statically and dynamically balanced.
assembled by mechanical interlocking of components to prevent
distortion. These grilles and diffusers shall have a rear set of xi) The fan drive shall be from a three phase induction motor of efficiency
adjustable blades, perpendicular to the face blades for deflection class IE3 as per IS 12615, either direct or through a spiral gear work.
purposes. The entire drive arrangement shall be designed for a minimum noise
and it shall be rigidly supported to the tower structure.
vii) All supply air outlets shall be fitted with a volume control device, made
of extruded aluminium gate section. The blades of the device shall be xii) The motor starter shall be in accordance with para 13.9.
mill finish/ block shade pivoted on nylon brushes to avoid rusting &
rattling noise, which shall be located immediately behind the outlet and xiii) To ensure safety of personnel at the time of working on cooling tower a
shall be fully adjustable from within the occupied space without steel ladder shall be provided in such a manner and location as
removing any access panel. The volume control device for circular necessary to give safe and complete access to all the parts of the
outlets shall be opposed blade radial /shutter type dampers, or two or cooling tower requiring inspection or adjustments. The ladder shall be
more butterfly dampers in conjunction with equalizing grid. Opposed bolted to the tower at the top and grouted in masonry at the bottom
blade dampers shall be used for square and rectangular ceiling/wall end.
outlets and intakes.
7.5 INSTALLATION
viii) All the products supplied by contractor should supplement in
performance by selection curves of product ratings from the The cooling tower shall be installed on M.S. girders fixed in masonry
manufacturer. foundations with cement concrete footing. Second class brick work and cement
mortar having one part cement & six parts sand shall be used for the masonry
ix) Laminar supply air diffusers shall be made of 2mm thick powder coated work. 12mm sand cement plaster shall be provided over the brickwork.
aluminium sheet duly insulated with 5mm thick closed cell polyethylene
foam insulation having factory laminated aluminium foil and joints These may be located at a well-ventilated place either at ground level and
covered with self adhesive aluminium tape and having holes 2/3 mm contiguous to the plant room, or on the terrace of the building in consultation
dia including frame work. with the Architect. In case the cooling towers are located on the terrace of the
building, the structural loading of the terrace shall be considered. For this
9.3.3 Fresh Air Intakes respective columns are to be raised by two feet at the terrace. Cooling towers
shall be installed in such a way that their load is transferred directly to the
i) Fresh air intake grills shall be made of extruded aluminium sections. columns for which necessary Mild steel-I sections shall be provided by the air-
conditioning contractor. The cooling towers shall be rested on Mild Steel-I
ii) A flanged frame using RS sections shall be provided on front face to sections & not on terrace slab. Sufficient free space shall be left all around for
conceal the gap between the louvers and the adjoining wall face. efficient operation of the cooling tower.
Corners of frame shall be welded. The frame shall be made structurally
rigid. Cooling tower shall be not less than 75cm above the ground/ floor level unless
otherwise stated in the tender specifications. 6mm neoprene pads shall be
iii) Louvers made from extruded aluminium section shall be in modular placed between the tower and the girder for vibration isolation whereas
panel form for ease of handling. These shall be free from waves and directed by the Engineer-in-charge. Guy-wires of suitable sized shall be used
buckles. Vertical blades shall be truly vertical and horizontal blades to secure firmly to its base wherever necessary.
shall be truly horizontal. Butt joints in blades shall not be accepted.
7.6 PAINTING
iv) Additional intermediate equally spaced supports and stiffeners shall be
provided to prevent sagging/ vibrating of the louvers, at not more than The cooling towers shall be supplied with the manufacturers standard finish
750mm centres where the louver's length is longer than 750mm. painting.

104 97
iv) As far as possible, long radius elbows and gradual changes in shape
CHAPTER- 8 shall be used to maintain uniform velocity accompanied by decreased
turbulence, lower resistance and minimum noise. The ratio of the size
CIRCULATING WATER PUMPS of the duct to the radius of the elbow shall be normally not less than
1:1.5.
8.1 SCOPE
v) Flanged joints shall be used at intervals not exceeding 2500 mm.
This chapter covers the general requirements of water circulating pumps for Flanges shall be welded at corners first and then riveted to the duct.
central air-conditioning, central heating, ETAC and cold room applications.
This section does not cover either humidification pumps or spray pumps for vi) Stiffening angles shall be fixed to the sides of the ducts by riveting at
spray over coils. 1.25 meters from joints for ducts of size 600 mm to 1500 mm, and 0.6
mm from joints for ducts of size larger than 1500 mm. Bracings for
8.2 TYPE ducts larger than 1500 mm can alternatively be by diagonal angles.

The pumps shall be centrifugal type direct driven with a 3 phase, 415 + vii) Plenums for filters shall be complete with suitable access door of size
10%volts, 50 Hz., A.C. motor. The motor for Chilled Water Pumps shall be 450 mm x 450 mm.
suitable for use with Variable Frequency Drive. The motor starter for
Condenser Water Pump shall be in accordance para 13.9. The motor shall be viii) All factory fabricated duct shall be supplied in L sections, the length of
screen protected drip proof (SPDP) fan cooled or TEFC type. The efficiency any piece shall not be more than 1800 mm for duct with longest side of
class of motors shall be IE 3 class as per IS 12615. The pumps may be either cross section as 600 mm and above and 3000 mm for rest.
of horizontal split casing (HSC) type with operating speed not exceeding 1500
rpm, or solid casing, mono block type with operating speed not exceeding
3000 rpm as specified in the tender documents. Efficiency of the pumps at 9.3.2 Air Outlet and Inlets (Supply and Return)
selection should be preferably 70 % or above.
8.3 RATING i) All air outlets and intakes shall be made of extruded aluminium sections
& shall present a neat appearance and shall be rigid with mechanical
The pumps shall be suitable for continuous operation in the system. The head joints.
and discharge requirements shall be as specified in the tender documents.
The discharge rating shall not be less than the flow rate requirement of the ii) Square and rectangular wall outlets shall have a flanged frame with the
respective equipments through which the water is pumped. The head shall be outside edges returned or curved 5 to 7 mm and fitted with a suitable
suitable for the system and shall take into consideration the pressure drops flexible gasket between the concealed face of the flanges and the
across the various equipments and components in the water circuit as well as finished wall face. The core of supply air register shall have adjustable
the frictional losses. The pumps offered shall be of high efficiency. front louvers parallel to the longer side to give upto 22.5 degrees
vertical deflection and adjustable back louvers parallel to the shorter
Pump motors greater than or equal to 3.7 kW (5 hp) shall be controlled by side to achieve a horizontal spread air pattern to at least 45 degrees.
variable speed drives. Return air grilles shall have only front louvers. The outer framework of
the grilles shall be made of not less than 1.6 mm thick aluminium sheet.
8.4 MATERIAL AND CONSTRUCTION The louvers shall be of aerofoil design of extruded aluminium section
with minimum thickness of 0.8mm at front and shall be made of 0.8mm
i) The centrifugal pumps shall conform to IS 1620. The motor for chilled thick aluminium sheet. Louvers may be spaced 18 mm apart.
water pumps shall be suitable for use with variable frequency
drive. The motor starter for condenser water pump shall be in iii) Square and rectangular ceiling outlets/intakes shall have a flange flush
accordance with para 13.9. The motor shall be screen protected with the ceiling into which it is fitted or shall be of anti smudge type.
drip proof (SPDP) fan cooled type. The efficiency class of motor The outlets shall comprise an outer shell with duct collar and removable
shall be IE 3. diffusing assembly. These shall be suitable for discharge in one or
more directions as required. The outer shell shall not be less than 1.6
ii) The pump casing shall be of heavy section close grained cast iron. mm thick extruded section aluminium sheet. The diffuser assembly
The casing shall be provided with air release cock, drain plug and shaft shall not be less than 0.80 mm thick extruded aluminium section.
seal arrangement as well as flanges for suction and delivery pipe
connections as required. iv) Circular ceiling outlets/intakes shall have either flush or anti smudge
iii) The impeller shall be of bronze or gunmetal. This shall be shrouded outer cone as specified in the tender specifications. Flush outer cones
type with machined collars. Wear rings, where fitted to the impeller, shall have the lower edge of the cone not more than 5 mm below the
shall be of the same material as the impeller. The impeller surface underside of the finished ceiling into which it is fitted. Anti smudge
cones shall have the outer cone profile designed to reduce dirt deposit

98 103
galvanised steel sheets, incase of G.I. sheet ducting or 1.8 mm thick shall be smooth finished for minimum frictional loss. The impeller shall
aluminium sheet, in case of aluminium sheet ducting and shall be be secured to the shaft by a key.
stiffened with 25 mm x 25 mm x 3 mm angle iron braces. iv) The shaft shall be of stainless steel and shall be accurately machined.
The shaft shall be balanced to avoid vibrations at any speed within the
v) Circular ducts, where provided shall be of thickness as specified in IS: operating range of the pump.
655 as amended upto date. v) The shaft sleeve shall be of bronze or gunmetal. This shall extend over
the full length of the stuffing box or seal housing. The sleeve shall be
vi) Aluminium ducting shall normally be used for clean room applications, machined all over and ground on the outside.
hospitals works and wherever high cleanliness standards are functional vii) The bearings shall be ball or roller type suitable for the duty involved.
requirements. These shall be grease lubricated and shall be provided with grease
nipples/cups. The bearings shall be effectively sealed against leakage
9.2.2 Associated Items of lubricant.
i) Supply/ return air outlets, F.A. grilles and accessories shall be
constructed from extruded aluminium sections. vii) The shaft seal shall be stuffing box type unless otherwise specified, so
as to allow minimum leakage compatible with the operation of the seal.
ii) Flanges for matching duct sections, stiffening angles (braces) and The stuffing box shall be of adequate length and shall be packed with
supporting angles shall be of rolled steel sections, and shall be of the graphite asbestos or any other suitable material for the operating
following sizes. temperature. A drip well shall be provided beneath the seal.
viii) In the case of HSC pumps, the same shall be directly coupled to the
Application Duct Width Angle size motor shaft through, a flexible coupling protected by a coupling guard.
In case of mono block pumps with solid casing, the motor and pumps
Flanges Upto 1000 mm 35 mm x 35 mm x 3 mm shall be on a common shaft.
-do- 1001 mm to 2250 mm 40 mm x 40 mm x 3 mm ix) The pump and motor shall be mounted on a common base plate either
-do- More than 2250 mm 50 mm x 50 mm x 3 mm of cast iron or fabricated from rolled steel section. The base plate shall
Bracings Upto 1000 mm 25 mm x 25 mm x 3 mm have rigid, flat and true surfaces to receive the pump and motor
-do- More than 1000 mm 40 mm x 40 mm x 3 mm mounting feet.
Support angles Upto 1000 mm 40 mm x 40 mm x 3 mm
-do- 1001 mm to 2250 mm 40 mm x 40 mm x 3 mm 8.5 ACCESSORIES
-do- More than 2250 mm Size and type of RS section
shall be decided in individual Each pump shall be provided with the following accessories: -
cases
a) Pressure gauges at suction and discharge sides,
iii) Hanger rods shall be of mild steel and of at least 10 mm dia for ducts b) Butterfly valves on suction and discharge, and
upto 2250 mm size, and 12 mm dia for larger sizes. c) Reducers, as may be required to match the sizes of the connected pipe
work.
iv) All nuts, bolts and washers shall be zinc plated steel. All rivets shall be d) Nonreturn valve at the discharge.
galvanised or shall be made of magnesium - aluminium alloy. Self
tapping screws shall not be used. 8.6 INSULATION

9.3 CONSTRUCTION The thermal insulation of the pump casing for hot/chilled water circulating
pumps shall be of the same type and thickness as provided for the connected
9.3.1 Ducts pipe work and is discussed in Chapter 11.

i) Ducts shall be fabricated at site or factory fabricated and shall be 8.7 INSTALLATION
generally as per IS: 655 "Specifications for metal air ducts", unless
otherwise deviated in these General Specifications. i) The pump and motor assembly shall be mounted and arranged for
ease of maintenance and to prevent transmission of vibration and noise
ii) The interior surfaces of the ducting shall be smooth. to the building structure or excess vibration to the pipe work.
ii) More than one pump and motor assembly shall not be installed on a
iii) All the ducts upto 600 mm longest side shall be cross broken between single base or cement concrete block. The mass of the inertia block
flanges by a single continuous breaking. Ducts of size 600 mm and shall not be less than the combined mass of the pump and motor
above shall be cross broken by single continuous breaking between assembly. The inertia block shall be vibration isolated from the plant
flanges and bracings. Alternatively, beading at 300 mm centres for room floor by 25 mm. neoprene or any other equivalent vibration
ducts upto 600 mm longest side, and 300 mm centres for ducts above isolation fittings. Where spring mountings are used for vibration
600 mm size shall be provided for stiffening. isolation, these shall be complete with leveling screws and lock nuts

102 99
and shall be placed over a concrete plinth for distribution of the mass of
the assembly over the plant room floor. The pump motor sets shall be CHAPTER 9
properly aligned to the satisfaction of the Engineer-in-charge.
DUCTING
8.8 PAINTING
9.1 SCOPE
The pumps shall be supplied with the manufacturer's standard finish painting. This chapter covers the general requirements for sheet metal ductwork for air
distribution with associated items such as air outlets and inlets, fresh air intake
and fire dampers.
8.9 VARIABLE FLOW HYDRONIC SYSTEMS
9.2 MATERIAL
8.9.1 Variable Fluid Flow in Chilled or Hot Water System 9.2.1 Ducts
Secondary Chilled or hot-water systems shall be designed for variable fluid i) All ducts shall be fabricated either from Galvanised Sheet Steel (GSS)
flow and shall be capable of reducing pump flow rates to no more than the conforming to IS: 277 or aluminium sheets conforming to IS:737. The
larger of: steel sheets shall be hot dip galvanized with MAT finish with coating of
minimum 120 grams per square meter (GSM) of Zinc, GI sheets shall
a) 50% of the design flow rate, be lead free, eco friendly and RoHS compliant
or ii) The thickness of sheets for fabrication of rectangular ductwork shall be
the minimum flow required by the equipment manufacturer for proper as under. The thickness required corresponding to the longest side of
operation of the chillers, the rectangular section shall be applicable for all the four sides of the
or ductwork.
boilers.
Longest side (mm) Minimum sheet thickness
8.9.2 Automatic Isolation Valves For GSS For Aluminium
Water cooled air-conditioning or heat pump units with a circulation pump motor greater 750 mm and below 0.63 0.80
than or equal to 3.7 kW (5 hp) shall have two-way automatic isolation valves on each
water cooled air-conditioning or heat pump unit that are interlocked with the 751 mm to 1500 mm 0.80 1.00
compressor to shut off condenser water flow when the compressor is not operating. 1501 mm to 2250 mm 1.00 1.50
2251 mm & above 1.25 1.80

(iii) Thickness of sheet for Round Ducts

Diameter of duct, mm Thickness of Sheet, mm

GI sheets Aluminium
Sheets

150 to 500 0.63 0.80

501 to 750 0.80 0.80

751 to 1000 0.80 1.00

1001 to 1250 1.00 1.50

1251 and above 1.25 1.80

iv) All sheet metal connections, partitions and plenums required for flow of
air through the filters, fans etc. shall be at least 1.25 mm thick

100 101
and shall be placed over a concrete plinth for distribution of the mass of
the assembly over the plant room floor. The pump motor sets shall be CHAPTER 9
properly aligned to the satisfaction of the Engineer-in-charge.
DUCTING
8.8 PAINTING
9.1 SCOPE
The pumps shall be supplied with the manufacturer's standard finish painting. This chapter covers the general requirements for sheet metal ductwork for air
distribution with associated items such as air outlets and inlets, fresh air intake
and fire dampers.
8.9 VARIABLE FLOW HYDRONIC SYSTEMS
9.2 MATERIAL
8.9.1 Variable Fluid Flow in Chilled or Hot Water System 9.2.1 Ducts
Secondary Chilled or hot-water systems shall be designed for variable fluid i) All ducts shall be fabricated either from Galvanised Sheet Steel (GSS)
flow and shall be capable of reducing pump flow rates to no more than the conforming to IS: 277 or aluminium sheets conforming to IS:737. The
larger of: steel sheets shall be hot dip galvanized with MAT finish with coating of
minimum 120 grams per square meter (GSM) of Zinc, GI sheets shall
a) 50% of the design flow rate, be lead free, eco friendly and RoHS compliant
or ii) The thickness of sheets for fabrication of rectangular ductwork shall be
the minimum flow required by the equipment manufacturer for proper as under. The thickness required corresponding to the longest side of
operation of the chillers, the rectangular section shall be applicable for all the four sides of the
or ductwork.
boilers.
Longest side (mm) Minimum sheet thickness
8.9.2 Automatic Isolation Valves For GSS For Aluminium
Water cooled air-conditioning or heat pump units with a circulation pump motor greater 750 mm and below 0.63 0.80
than or equal to 3.7 kW (5 hp) shall have two-way automatic isolation valves on each
water cooled air-conditioning or heat pump unit that are interlocked with the 751 mm to 1500 mm 0.80 1.00
compressor to shut off condenser water flow when the compressor is not operating. 1501 mm to 2250 mm 1.00 1.50
2251 mm & above 1.25 1.80

(iii) Thickness of sheet for Round Ducts

Diameter of duct, mm Thickness of Sheet, mm

GI sheets Aluminium
Sheets

150 to 500 0.63 0.80

501 to 750 0.80 0.80

751 to 1000 0.80 1.00

1001 to 1250 1.00 1.50

1251 and above 1.25 1.80

iv) All sheet metal connections, partitions and plenums required for flow of
air through the filters, fans etc. shall be at least 1.25 mm thick

100 101
galvanised steel sheets, incase of G.I. sheet ducting or 1.8 mm thick shall be smooth finished for minimum frictional loss. The impeller shall
aluminium sheet, in case of aluminium sheet ducting and shall be be secured to the shaft by a key.
stiffened with 25 mm x 25 mm x 3 mm angle iron braces. iv) The shaft shall be of stainless steel and shall be accurately machined.
The shaft shall be balanced to avoid vibrations at any speed within the
v) Circular ducts, where provided shall be of thickness as specified in IS: operating range of the pump.
655 as amended upto date. v) The shaft sleeve shall be of bronze or gunmetal. This shall extend over
the full length of the stuffing box or seal housing. The sleeve shall be
vi) Aluminium ducting shall normally be used for clean room applications, machined all over and ground on the outside.
hospitals works and wherever high cleanliness standards are functional vii) The bearings shall be ball or roller type suitable for the duty involved.
requirements. These shall be grease lubricated and shall be provided with grease
nipples/cups. The bearings shall be effectively sealed against leakage
9.2.2 Associated Items of lubricant.
i) Supply/ return air outlets, F.A. grilles and accessories shall be
constructed from extruded aluminium sections. vii) The shaft seal shall be stuffing box type unless otherwise specified, so
as to allow minimum leakage compatible with the operation of the seal.
ii) Flanges for matching duct sections, stiffening angles (braces) and The stuffing box shall be of adequate length and shall be packed with
supporting angles shall be of rolled steel sections, and shall be of the graphite asbestos or any other suitable material for the operating
following sizes. temperature. A drip well shall be provided beneath the seal.
viii) In the case of HSC pumps, the same shall be directly coupled to the
Application Duct Width Angle size motor shaft through, a flexible coupling protected by a coupling guard.
In case of mono block pumps with solid casing, the motor and pumps
Flanges Upto 1000 mm 35 mm x 35 mm x 3 mm shall be on a common shaft.
-do- 1001 mm to 2250 mm 40 mm x 40 mm x 3 mm ix) The pump and motor shall be mounted on a common base plate either
-do- More than 2250 mm 50 mm x 50 mm x 3 mm of cast iron or fabricated from rolled steel section. The base plate shall
Bracings Upto 1000 mm 25 mm x 25 mm x 3 mm have rigid, flat and true surfaces to receive the pump and motor
-do- More than 1000 mm 40 mm x 40 mm x 3 mm mounting feet.
Support angles Upto 1000 mm 40 mm x 40 mm x 3 mm
-do- 1001 mm to 2250 mm 40 mm x 40 mm x 3 mm 8.5 ACCESSORIES
-do- More than 2250 mm Size and type of RS section
shall be decided in individual Each pump shall be provided with the following accessories: -
cases
a) Pressure gauges at suction and discharge sides,
iii) Hanger rods shall be of mild steel and of at least 10 mm dia for ducts b) Butterfly valves on suction and discharge, and
upto 2250 mm size, and 12 mm dia for larger sizes. c) Reducers, as may be required to match the sizes of the connected pipe
work.
iv) All nuts, bolts and washers shall be zinc plated steel. All rivets shall be d) Nonreturn valve at the discharge.
galvanised or shall be made of magnesium - aluminium alloy. Self
tapping screws shall not be used. 8.6 INSULATION

9.3 CONSTRUCTION The thermal insulation of the pump casing for hot/chilled water circulating
pumps shall be of the same type and thickness as provided for the connected
9.3.1 Ducts pipe work and is discussed in Chapter 11.

i) Ducts shall be fabricated at site or factory fabricated and shall be 8.7 INSTALLATION
generally as per IS: 655 "Specifications for metal air ducts", unless
otherwise deviated in these General Specifications. i) The pump and motor assembly shall be mounted and arranged for
ease of maintenance and to prevent transmission of vibration and noise
ii) The interior surfaces of the ducting shall be smooth. to the building structure or excess vibration to the pipe work.
ii) More than one pump and motor assembly shall not be installed on a
iii) All the ducts upto 600 mm longest side shall be cross broken between single base or cement concrete block. The mass of the inertia block
flanges by a single continuous breaking. Ducts of size 600 mm and shall not be less than the combined mass of the pump and motor
above shall be cross broken by single continuous breaking between assembly. The inertia block shall be vibration isolated from the plant
flanges and bracings. Alternatively, beading at 300 mm centres for room floor by 25 mm. neoprene or any other equivalent vibration
ducts upto 600 mm longest side, and 300 mm centres for ducts above isolation fittings. Where spring mountings are used for vibration
600 mm size shall be provided for stiffening. isolation, these shall be complete with leveling screws and lock nuts

102 99
iv) As far as possible, long radius elbows and gradual changes in shape
CHAPTER- 8 shall be used to maintain uniform velocity accompanied by decreased
turbulence, lower resistance and minimum noise. The ratio of the size
CIRCULATING WATER PUMPS of the duct to the radius of the elbow shall be normally not less than
1:1.5.
8.1 SCOPE
v) Flanged joints shall be used at intervals not exceeding 2500 mm.
This chapter covers the general requirements of water circulating pumps for Flanges shall be welded at corners first and then riveted to the duct.
central air-conditioning, central heating, ETAC and cold room applications.
This section does not cover either humidification pumps or spray pumps for vi) Stiffening angles shall be fixed to the sides of the ducts by riveting at
spray over coils. 1.25 meters from joints for ducts of size 600 mm to 1500 mm, and 0.6
mm from joints for ducts of size larger than 1500 mm. Bracings for
8.2 TYPE ducts larger than 1500 mm can alternatively be by diagonal angles.

The pumps shall be centrifugal type direct driven with a 3 phase, 415 + vii) Plenums for filters shall be complete with suitable access door of size
10%volts, 50 Hz., A.C. motor. The motor for Chilled Water Pumps shall be 450 mm x 450 mm.
suitable for use with Variable Frequency Drive. The motor starter for
Condenser Water Pump shall be in accordance para 13.9. The motor shall be viii) All factory fabricated duct shall be supplied in L sections, the length of
screen protected drip proof (SPDP) fan cooled or TEFC type. The efficiency any piece shall not be more than 1800 mm for duct with longest side of
class of motors shall be IE 3 class as per IS 12615. The pumps may be either cross section as 600 mm and above and 3000 mm for rest.
of horizontal split casing (HSC) type with operating speed not exceeding 1500
rpm, or solid casing, mono block type with operating speed not exceeding
3000 rpm as specified in the tender documents. Efficiency of the pumps at 9.3.2 Air Outlet and Inlets (Supply and Return)
selection should be preferably 70 % or above.
8.3 RATING i) All air outlets and intakes shall be made of extruded aluminium sections
& shall present a neat appearance and shall be rigid with mechanical
The pumps shall be suitable for continuous operation in the system. The head joints.
and discharge requirements shall be as specified in the tender documents.
The discharge rating shall not be less than the flow rate requirement of the ii) Square and rectangular wall outlets shall have a flanged frame with the
respective equipments through which the water is pumped. The head shall be outside edges returned or curved 5 to 7 mm and fitted with a suitable
suitable for the system and shall take into consideration the pressure drops flexible gasket between the concealed face of the flanges and the
across the various equipments and components in the water circuit as well as finished wall face. The core of supply air register shall have adjustable
the frictional losses. The pumps offered shall be of high efficiency. front louvers parallel to the longer side to give upto 22.5 degrees
vertical deflection and adjustable back louvers parallel to the shorter
Pump motors greater than or equal to 3.7 kW (5 hp) shall be controlled by side to achieve a horizontal spread air pattern to at least 45 degrees.
variable speed drives. Return air grilles shall have only front louvers. The outer framework of
the grilles shall be made of not less than 1.6 mm thick aluminium sheet.
8.4 MATERIAL AND CONSTRUCTION The louvers shall be of aerofoil design of extruded aluminium section
with minimum thickness of 0.8mm at front and shall be made of 0.8mm
i) The centrifugal pumps shall conform to IS 1620. The motor for chilled thick aluminium sheet. Louvers may be spaced 18 mm apart.
water pumps shall be suitable for use with variable frequency
drive. The motor starter for condenser water pump shall be in iii) Square and rectangular ceiling outlets/intakes shall have a flange flush
accordance with para 13.9. The motor shall be screen protected with the ceiling into which it is fitted or shall be of anti smudge type.
drip proof (SPDP) fan cooled type. The efficiency class of motor The outlets shall comprise an outer shell with duct collar and removable
shall be IE 3. diffusing assembly. These shall be suitable for discharge in one or
more directions as required. The outer shell shall not be less than 1.6
ii) The pump casing shall be of heavy section close grained cast iron. mm thick extruded section aluminium sheet. The diffuser assembly
The casing shall be provided with air release cock, drain plug and shaft shall not be less than 0.80 mm thick extruded aluminium section.
seal arrangement as well as flanges for suction and delivery pipe
connections as required. iv) Circular ceiling outlets/intakes shall have either flush or anti smudge
iii) The impeller shall be of bronze or gunmetal. This shall be shrouded outer cone as specified in the tender specifications. Flush outer cones
type with machined collars. Wear rings, where fitted to the impeller, shall have the lower edge of the cone not more than 5 mm below the
shall be of the same material as the impeller. The impeller surface underside of the finished ceiling into which it is fitted. Anti smudge
cones shall have the outer cone profile designed to reduce dirt deposit

98 103
on the ceiling adjacent to the air outlet. The metal sheet used for ensuring uniform water loading and distribution of water over the fill. All
construction of these shall be minimum 1.6 mm thick extruded pipes and fittings shall be of PVC. The sprinklers shall operate from
aluminium sheet. the residual velocity head at the headers. Due care shall be taken with
regard to corrosive effects and maintainability in the design of the water
v) Linear diffusers shall have a flanged frame with the outside edges distribution system.
returned 3.5 mm and shall have one to four slots as required. The air
quantity through each slot shall be adjustable. The metal sheet used ix) Drift eliminators of PVC shall be provided for maximum removal of
for the construction of these shall be minimum 1.6 mm thick extruded entrained water droplets. The spacers and tie rods used shall be of
aluminium sheet. plastic material.

vi) Grilles and diffusers constructed of extruded aluminium sections shall x) The fan shall be multi-blade axial flow type, made of aluminium alloy or
have grille bars set straight, or deflected as required. These shall be FRP. The fan assembly shall be statically and dynamically balanced.
assembled by mechanical interlocking of components to prevent
distortion. These grilles and diffusers shall have a rear set of xi) The fan drive shall be from a three phase induction motor of efficiency
adjustable blades, perpendicular to the face blades for deflection class IE3 as per IS 12615, either direct or through a spiral gear work.
purposes. The entire drive arrangement shall be designed for a minimum noise
and it shall be rigidly supported to the tower structure.
vii) All supply air outlets shall be fitted with a volume control device, made
of extruded aluminium gate section. The blades of the device shall be xii) The motor starter shall be in accordance with para 13.9.
mill finish/ block shade pivoted on nylon brushes to avoid rusting &
rattling noise, which shall be located immediately behind the outlet and xiii) To ensure safety of personnel at the time of working on cooling tower a
shall be fully adjustable from within the occupied space without steel ladder shall be provided in such a manner and location as
removing any access panel. The volume control device for circular necessary to give safe and complete access to all the parts of the
outlets shall be opposed blade radial /shutter type dampers, or two or cooling tower requiring inspection or adjustments. The ladder shall be
more butterfly dampers in conjunction with equalizing grid. Opposed bolted to the tower at the top and grouted in masonry at the bottom
blade dampers shall be used for square and rectangular ceiling/wall end.
outlets and intakes.
7.5 INSTALLATION
viii) All the products supplied by contractor should supplement in
performance by selection curves of product ratings from the The cooling tower shall be installed on M.S. girders fixed in masonry
manufacturer. foundations with cement concrete footing. Second class brick work and cement
mortar having one part cement & six parts sand shall be used for the masonry
ix) Laminar supply air diffusers shall be made of 2mm thick powder coated work. 12mm sand cement plaster shall be provided over the brickwork.
aluminium sheet duly insulated with 5mm thick closed cell polyethylene
foam insulation having factory laminated aluminium foil and joints These may be located at a well-ventilated place either at ground level and
covered with self adhesive aluminium tape and having holes 2/3 mm contiguous to the plant room, or on the terrace of the building in consultation
dia including frame work. with the Architect. In case the cooling towers are located on the terrace of the
building, the structural loading of the terrace shall be considered. For this
9.3.3 Fresh Air Intakes respective columns are to be raised by two feet at the terrace. Cooling towers
shall be installed in such a way that their load is transferred directly to the
i) Fresh air intake grills shall be made of extruded aluminium sections. columns for which necessary Mild steel-I sections shall be provided by the air-
conditioning contractor. The cooling towers shall be rested on Mild Steel-I
ii) A flanged frame using RS sections shall be provided on front face to sections & not on terrace slab. Sufficient free space shall be left all around for
conceal the gap between the louvers and the adjoining wall face. efficient operation of the cooling tower.
Corners of frame shall be welded. The frame shall be made structurally
rigid. Cooling tower shall be not less than 75cm above the ground/ floor level unless
otherwise stated in the tender specifications. 6mm neoprene pads shall be
iii) Louvers made from extruded aluminium section shall be in modular placed between the tower and the girder for vibration isolation whereas
panel form for ease of handling. These shall be free from waves and directed by the Engineer-in-charge. Guy-wires of suitable sized shall be used
buckles. Vertical blades shall be truly vertical and horizontal blades to secure firmly to its base wherever necessary.
shall be truly horizontal. Butt joints in blades shall not be accepted.
7.6 PAINTING
iv) Additional intermediate equally spaced supports and stiffeners shall be
provided to prevent sagging/ vibrating of the louvers, at not more than The cooling towers shall be supplied with the manufacturers standard finish
750mm centres where the louver's length is longer than 750mm. painting.

104 97
v) Flow rate: v) A bird wire screen made of 12 mm mesh in 1.6 mm steel wire held in
The water flow rate through the cooling tower shall match that through angle or channel frame shall be fixed to the rear face of the louver
the condenser. frame by screens.

vi) Multi cell design : 9.4 FIRE DAMPERS


The induced draft cooling tower shall be of one or more cells.
vii) Drive Motor : The fan motor shall be premium efficiency IE3 class , as i) Fire dampers shall be provided in all the supply air ducts and return air
per IS 12615. ducts (where provided), return air passage in the air-handling unit room
and at all floor crossings. Access door will be provided in the duct
before each set of fire dampers.
7.4 MATERIAL AND CONSTRUCTION
ii) Fire dampers shall be multi blade louvers type. The blade should
Fibreglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Cooling tower remain in the air stream in open position & shall allow maximum free
area to reduce pressure drop & noise in the air passage. The blades
i) The structural framework of the cooling tower including all members and frame shall be constructed with minimum 1.6mm thick galvanised
shall be designed for the load encountered during the normal operation sheet & shall be factory fitted in a sleeve made out of 1.6mm
of the cooling tower and its maintenance. The structure shall be galvanised sheet of minimum 400mm long. It shall be complete with
rugged and rigid to prevent distortion and shall include tie locking device, motorised actuator & control panel.
arrangements as may be necessary.
iii) Fire dampers shall be motorised smoke & fire dampers type. It shall be
ii) The cooling tower shall be induced draft type, with FRP casing in supplied with spring loaded UL stamped fusible link to close fire
square/ rectangular/ octagonal/ circular shape, and with an FRP basin damper in the event of rise in duct temperature. Fire damper shall also
to match the shape of the casing. close on receipt of fire alarm signal to cut off air supply instantaneously.
An electric limit switch shall also be operated by the closing of fire
iii) The air intake shall be from openings all along the circumference of the damper, which in turn shall switch off power supply to AHU blower
casing near its base in case of circular shape. Air Intake shall be along motor as well as strip heaters.
the sides in case of square or octagonal/ rectangular cooling tower.
These openings shall be covered with hot dip galvanised expanded iv) Fire dampers shall be CBRI tested & certified for 90 minutes rating
metal mesh screens. against collapse & flame penetration as per UL 555-1995.(Under
writers laboratories)
iv) The basin shall have a holding capacity adequate for operation for
atleast 30 minutes without addition of make-up water to the basin. The v) Fire dampers shall be compatible with the fire detection system of
construction should be such as to eliminate the danger of drawing air building & shall be capable of operating automatically through an
into the pump when operating with minimum water in the basin. electric motor on receiving signal from fire alarm panel.

v) The basin fittings shall include the following: - vi) Necessary wiring from fire alarm panel up to AHU electric panel shall
a) Bottom /side outlet, be provided by the department & further from AHU electric panel to fire
b) Drain connection with valve, damper shall be provided by air conditioning contractor.
c) Ball type automatic make-up connection with valve,
d) Overflow connection, 9.5 VARIABLE AIR VOLUME (VAV) BOXES
e) Bleed off with valve, from inlet header to overflow pipe. i) These shall of the low velocity variable air volume boxes without re-heat
coils, and shall be of open protocol as marketed by a firm specializing in
vi) The supporting framework for the tower casing and the water basin this field. The contractor shall supply and install units to the quantity and
shall be made of hot dip galvanised steel and it shall be further locations as specified.
protected with epoxy painting.
ii) The unit shall be complete with damper, airflow ring, and solid-state
vii) The filling shall be of PVC. Thickness of PVC fills shall not be less than electronic controls to provide accurate room temperature control. The
0.2mm. These shall be of such construction as to provide low air damper shall be aero foil type construction with bearings.
resistance, large wetted surface for a high heat transfer efficiency, and
easy replace ability.
iii) Boxes shall be supplied with all internal attenuation treatment and
viii) The water distribution may be either through self-rotating or fixed type acoustical damped casing necessary to achieve the required noise criteria.
sprinklers or through balancing, sub balancing and spreader troughs Casing shall be of 22G GSS minimum fitted with a completely sealed,
(unpressurised system) open gravity type with polypropylene nozzle,

96 105
easily removable means of access to all internal parts. Access to all boxes
must be from the underside only. CHAPTER- 7
COOLING TOWERS
iv) The actuator shall be of 24V AC Bi-directional, direct coupled to the
damper shaft. The required transformer to step down of the voltage range
from 230V to 24V shall be part of the unit. The power point with an isolator 7.1 SCOPE
near the VAV will be provided by other agencies.
v) The unit shall be complete with transformer, access panel and other This chapter covers the general requirements of cooling towers for packaged
accessories as per the standard. units, central air-conditioning plants and cold rooms.
vi) The noise level shall be less than 35dbA.
vii) Maximum allowable static pressure to the boxes for its satisfactory 7.2 TYPE
operation shall not exceed 0.10WG, otherwise fan and motor selections
may be affected. The cooling tower shall be of Mechanical draft type. Fan on Mechanical draft
viii) Boxes shall be able to reset any air flow between 10% and the maximum towers may be on the inlet air side or exit air side. In case of former it is called
air quantity that the boxes can handle without changing orifices or other forced draft type and in case of later it is called Induced draft type. On the
parts. Air quantity limiters will not be accepted. basis of direction of air flow and water flow, Mechanical draft cooling tower can
ix) A suitable device shall be provided for the field adjustment of minimum be counter flow or cross flow type as per the manufacturer design.
airflow. All boxes shall be initially factory set at minimum air quantity of
10% and maximum quantity of 110%of the design requirements. This may be of any of the following construction as may be specified in the
x) Under shut-off conditions, all boxes shall not have air leakage more than tender specifications:-
2% of the maximum air quantity at 75mm static pressure.
xi) The VAVs shall be used in standalone mode complete with its own a) In wooden construction with wood or PVC fill and RCC basin,
temperature sensor and controller and shall perform the function of b) In fibre glass reinforced plastic (FRP) construction with PVC fill and
maintaining the temperature and airflow. FRP basin,
xii) Where ever specified, the VAVs shall be BMS compatible to enable to c) In masonry construction.
network the VAVs to a Network Control Unit and onto BMS. In this mode all
VAV data shall be available at the BMS workstation and it shall be possible The mechanical draft cooling towers of wooden construction and masonry
to change set points and flow settings from the BMS workstation. All such construction, being un-common now, have been excluded from the scope of
controllers used for the control of VAV boxes shall be compliant with these specification.
BACnet/ MODBUS protocol and be freely communicable to third party
BACnet/ MODBUS IP controllers. 7.3 DESIGN
xiii) All boxes shall be electrically controlled. The boxes shall be pressure
independent. i) Rating :
xiv) VAV Box shall have provision to support from floor/ wall/ ceiling and in
vertical/ horizontal condition. The cooling tower shall be rated for the heat rejection capacity
specified in the tender specifications. All cooling towers shall be
certified by CTI (Cooling Tower Institute).
9.6 ACOUSTIC LINING AND INSULATION
ii) Range:
This shall be done as per details given in para 11.8 and 11.9 (Chapter 11).
The Cooling tower shall be designed to cool the requisite quantity of
9.7 FLEXIBLE DUCTING water through 4.2 degree C or as specified in the tender specifications,
against the prevailing wet bulb temperature.
9.7.1 Application
iii) Wet Bulb approach:
Flexible Duct is a round, flexible light weight duct and is preliminary used for
The cooling tower shall be selected for a wet bulb approach of not more
i) Speedy completion of project than 2.77 degree C.
ii) Offers a high degree of flexibility, which allows it to be easily connected
to any desired position. iv) Outlet temperature:
iii) A quick and economical means of correcting misalignment between
system components. The cold water temperature from the cooling tower shall match the
iv) Allows ducting around obstacles where fabricated and fitted ducts entering temperature for which the condenser selection is made.
would be difficult and costly to install.

106 95
6.9.4 Support and process 9.7.2 Material
Air duct tunnel system design is highly specific to the site conditions and output
requirements however following steps are followed for installation of the same. i) An uninsulated flexible duct shall be made of double lamination of
i. Pipe transportation and storage metalized polyester film permanently bonded to a coated spring steel
ii. Digging the trench and installation of the pipes wire helix. Duct shall be in tear & puncture resistant construction.
iii. Lowering pipes into trenches and its connection.
iv. Cutting of pipe length ii) For insulated flexible duct where specified, inner core for the same
v. Visual inspection and leak tightness should be made of double lamination of metalized polyester film
vi. Embedment and main backfill permanently bonded to a coated spring steel wire helix. Fiberglass
vii. Compaction insulation of minimum 14 kg/cu.m density, 25 mm thickness shall be
wrapped over the inner core & covered with strong outer jacket cum
6.9.5 Design vapour barrier made of fibre glass reinforced metalized polyester film
Since every geological location has unique soil conditions, air tunnel system laminate.
needs to be designed and supplied as per the output requirements of the
building based on the soil test report or soil conditions. iii) Care must be taken to install all the flexible duct in fully extended
position & bends made with adequate radius as per manufacturer
recommended practices.

9.8 INSTALLATION OF METALLIC DUCT

9.8.1 Ducting
i) The fabrication and installation shall be in a workmanlike manner. Duct
work shall be rigid and straight without kinks.

ii) All exposed ducts within the conditioned space shall have slip joints.
Flanged joints shall not be used.

iii) All joints shall be airtight.

iv) Ducts shall be supported independently from the building structure and
adequately, to keep the ducts true to shape. The support spacing shall
be not more than 2 m. where ducts cannot be suspended from ceiling,
wall brackets or other suitable arrangements, as approved by the
Engineer-in-charge shall be adopted. Neoprene or other vibration
isolation packing of minimum 6 mm thickness shall be provided
between the ducts and the angle iron supports/brackets. Vertical duct
work shall be suitably supported at each floor by steel structural
members.

v) Where metal ducts or sleeves terminate in woodwork, tight joints shall


be made by means of closely fitting heavy flanged collars. Where
ducts pass through b