Break InHuman Beings We all know about 3-phase 4-wire system which is commonly used in shore.
But lets know what kind of unique system we use on board ships. Know why we use such unique type of grounding system on board ships? The Earthing/Grounding system which provides double-safety on board ships. How Earthing Works on Shore
Before delving into ship grounding, let us study about shore grounding to have a basic understanding of the concept. In shore we use 3-phase 4-wire systems, in which 3 wires are representing each phase and 4th wire is neutral which carries the return current. The neutral is earthed at many places for the safety of human beings against shocks. If any conductor carrying current has its insulation failure, then if the conductor comes in contact with the metal enclosure part of the machinery, then it may cause voltage accumulation, leading to shock to human beings which is highly fatal. Thus to maintain the safety of human beings against the accidents due to circuit failures, the neutral is earthed at various places like transformers, distribution sub-stations etc. This makes the equipment to automatically get out of supply by tripping the protection devices. Insulated Neutral Sytem--The Reason for Using it Onboard for Ship grounding
The requirement ashore is the safety of human beings. So, inorder to prevent human-electrical accidents, the neutral is earthed. The priority is neither the safety of the machinery nor the continuous necessary operation of the machinery. But the scenario onboard ship is totally different. The priority is the continuous operation of the machineries which are classed "essential". The distribution system followed onboard is "insulated neutral" system. The main priority onboard is the safety of ship which includes navigation & fire safety..etc. If due to earth fault, the machinery classed as"essential" gets isolated, say for eg: steering gear, then the safety of ship is at question, which may lead to collison, grounding, fire & pollution etc..So the priority onboard ship is to maintain the continuity of the supply to the machinery in the event of "single earth fault occuring". Circuit Faults:
. The resulting large earth fault current will immediately "blow-up" the fuses in the line. Either break in the insulation or break in the conductor. by-passing the load. When such earth faults happen. Generally insulation failure occurs which leads to the conductor getting in contact with the body of the metal enclosure. allowing the conductor to touch the hull or earthed metal enclosure. The Conductor--which carried the current around the circuit. Only 2 types of circuit faults can occur.
The break in the conductor leads to non-flow of current in the circuit. thus a very high current passes through. it would be equivalent to a "short-circuit" fault across the load via ship's hull. it would cause a heavy shock. A break in the insulation leads to an earth fault. This may result in hazardous situation. the metal enclosure of the equipment if not earthed.A basic circuit consist essentially of Two parts: 1. A majority of earth faults occurs within the equipment. Thus the "earthed distribution system" requires only one earth fault on the line conductor to cause an earth fault current to flow. if the equipment is classed as "essential" for eg: steering gear. allowing both conductors to get connected. 2. SIGNIFICANCE OF EARTH FAULTS:
If an earth fault occurs in an "earthed distribution system". The Insulation---which keeps the current inside the conductor. A short-circuit fault is due to the double break in the insulation. and may result in fire accidents too.
. Thus the equipment is isolated from the supply and thus rendered safe.
on ships and offshore equipment. is . and not change it at all. A physical analogue of a ground would be taking a cup of water (charge) out of the ocean (ground). will not cause any equipment to go out of operation and thus maintains the continuity of operation of the equipment. Thus a single earth fault will not provide a complete circuit for the fault
current to flow. So.If the earth fault occurs in "insulated neutral distribution system". "Ground" is a large reservoir of chage that I can take however much I need from. This point is to be noted..brighthub. and why it's important.aspx#ixzz0wwivAsRM
Let's start with what a ground is. the ground is attached to the metal framework in the ocean. essential services creating a risk to the safety of the ship. Pretty much the same as a grounding pole in the earth. then the two earth faults together would be equivalent to a short circuit fault ( via ships hull) thus resulting large current would operate the protection devices. Hence it is adopted for mostmarine electrical systems. We use grounds to ensure that everything is at the same potential.therefore. and some other reasons as well. Thus an insulated neutral system. An insulated neutral distribution system requires two earth faults on two different lines to cause an earth fault current to flow. where we can get access to as much charge as we need.com/engineering/marine/articles/38231. perhaps.
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Read more: http://www. or add as much as I need to. The fact that I took some water out didn't change how much was available from the ocean. more effective than an earthed system in maintaining continuity of supply to equipments. cause disconnection of. If a second earth fault occurs." the machinery still continues to operate".
they are normally connected to electrical power from
. Normally there is no current through the ground circuit. There we use a "floating ground" and use the body of the plane itself as the reservoir. Airplanes use their jet engines to generate electrical power while they are in flight (at the gate. however. Current only flows through the ground circuit when there is a problem (fault). and a swimming pool . Electrical grounding is a protective mechanism that helps prevent electrical shock. For example. While the shell is a pretty big reservoir. Group Operations Manager at Animalcare plc see all my answers Boats to have a great big lump of metal attached to the outside which acts as a sacrificial electrode so as current passes to ground it eats away the electrode rather than the boat hull of more likely on plastic boats the screw Aircraft are basically insulated in the air when flying and can discharge relative to ground when they touch down. Using our water analogue case. The circuit's fuse or circuit breaker only protects from a high current. then someone who touched the outside (shell) of the faulty toaster could be exposed to a high voltage. but I can see a point where I could conceivably empty the pool with enough need.There's still a _lot_ of water available. By providing an electrical ground. a battery operated flashlight is not connected to the ground. Problem changes again when you think about seaplanes and planes landing on say snow/ice/ metal/concrete etc posted 9 months ago Shreeram R. and my adding or removing a cup won't really change things that much. it can be overwhelmed. I guess the question then is when do they ground. For example. when their insulating rubber wheels touch down or when the engineer fits the grounding strip. posted 9 months ago Bill A. so a fuse/circuit breaker would not protect the person in this situation. This protects someone from receiving an electric shock if they touch the toaster's shell. current would be allowed to flow from the toaster's shell through the ground circuit which would have less resistance that somebody's skin touching the faulty toaster's shell. If a fault occurred that allowed a connection between those heating elements and a metal (electrically conductive) shell that is part of the toaster.On planes. it's a bit different. it's the difference between using the ocean as my reservoir. a toaster has electrical connections to the heating elements inside the toaster. Anything connected to that shell will have the same potential. nor is the electrical system in your car. Student at Mid Sweden University see all my answers Electrical "grounding" does not mean that all electrical systems have to be connected to the ground.
Todd Clark. Connections to ground may be used to limit the build-up of static electricity when handling flammable products or when repairing electronic devices. For measurement purposes. The plane's electrical circuits can still have "grounds" that would prevent an electric shock hazard from faulty electrical equipment on the plane. Parts of the aircraft that are made of plastics or composites are protected with a metal mesh or fibers. Fig. aircraft. An electrical ground system should have an appropriate current-carrying capability in order to serve as an adequate zero-voltage reference level. the Earth serves as a (reasonably) constant potential reference against which other potentials can be measured. Humans and buildings are usually at the electric potential of the earth. protecting circuit insulation from damage due to excessive voltage. which can absorb an unlimited amount of current without changing its potential. In power circuits. the term ground or earth has several meanings depending on the specific application areas. Rather. dust and rain. or a direct physical connection to the Earth. to avoid appliances or other electric devices giving a shock. there is little noticeable effect other than communications. saving the cost of installing a separate run of wire as a return conductor. Thus. In some types of telegraph and power transmission circuits. Ground is the reference point in an electrical circuit from which other voltages are measured. a person will not get a shock. A connection to ground helps limit the voltage built up between power circuits and the earth. can cause the airplane to develop a static charge up to several million volts.Electrical circuits may be connected to ground (earth) for several reasons. if something goes wrong inside. 1: A typical earthing electrode (left of gray conduit) at a home in Australia. a connection to ground is done for safety purposes to protect people from the effects of faulty insulation on electrically powered equipment. Note the green and yellow marked earth wire. Snow. the purpose of grounding on earth is to make sure that harmful or undesired electric voltages are not present in the event of a malfunction. Department of Energy ===================================================== Electric systems do not need to be "grounded" in order to work. Airplanes are usually made of metal. A metal frame also protects the occupants from lightning strikes. Office of Science U. so the metal frame is used as a conducting "ground" for all the electrical components inside the aircraft. the earth itself can be used as one conductor of the circuit. the outer part of the appliance is connected to ground with a wire.S. The use of the term ground (or earth) is so common in electrical and electronics applications that circuits vehicles such as ships. That way. a 'ground' is usually idealized as an infinite source or sink for charge.the airport).
. as well as ionization of the air by the engines. and spacecraft may be spoken of as having a "ground" connection without any actual connection to the Earth. The aircraft itself becomes charged as it is flying. In electronic circuit theory. Because the passengers and the equipment is inside the metal shell. In electrical engineering. So "ground" on an airplane is usually the frame. a common return path for electric current (earth return or ground return). Communications are disrupted by the radio frequency static that occurs when corona discharge or electrical leakage occurs.