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CRPSC 70 Cereal and Legumes

Corn Growth and Development

o Corn of maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the important crops in the Philippines.
About 20% of the population from Visayas and Mindanao consume corn as
staple food in the form of white corn grits. It is the major source of income and
employment of over a million farmers, majority of whom fall below the poverty
line. At least two-thirds of our corn supply is used for livestock and poultry feeds
and as raw materials in the manufacture of starch, syrup, oil and other starch
derivatives.
o Corn can be grown as monocrop and/or as an intercrop under coconut trees,
fruit trees and others.
o Zea is a genus of the family Graminae (Poaceae), commonly known as the grass
family (Hitchcock and Chase, 1971). It is cultivated globally being one of the
most important cereal crops worldwide. Maize is not only an important human
nutrient, but also a basic element of animal feed and raw material for
manufacture of many industrial products. The products include corn starch,
maltodextrins, corn oil, corn syrup and products of fermentation and distillation
industries. It is also being recently used as biofuel (Dept. of
Biotechnology,undated ).
o Corn can grow in soil temperatures that are warm.
o The most desirable soil for corn production is deep, medium texture, high
organic matter, well drained with a high water holding capacity and
capable of supplying adequate amount of essential nutrients. This ideal
soil would likely be a loam or silt loam on the surface with a silty clay loam
to moderately permeable subsoil extending with a slight change to a
depth of at least 120 cm. it should have a pH value ranging from 5.3 to 6.0
and percent base saturation of 75%. The Bray no. 2 soil P-test value ranges
from 16 to 20.5 ppm (PCARRD, 1981).
o Next to palay (rice), corn is considered as the second most important crop in the
Philippines. The country is engaged in the production of white and yellow corn,
which comprises one third of the total corn area (DA-ATI, 2008)

Growth Stage of Corn


Growth stages may overlap in a field
A growth stag for a field begins when at least 50 percent of the plants
have reached or are beyond a certain stage.
STRESS AND CROP YIELD LOSS
At each growth stage of corn, certain aspects of management must be
considered.
Each stage has its own problems which may interfere with growth at that
stage
Problems include adverse soil conditions, weeds, insects, diseases, and
other disorders.
Problems that occur early in the season may contribute to the yield loss
experienced at the end of the season during harvest.
CRPSC 70 Cereal and Legumes

Leaf collar method


o The collar is where the leaf blade
visually breaks away from the
sheath and the stalk
The number of visible collar = vegetative
growth stage (V stages

Leaf collar method


Leaves still in the whorl- DO Not
count these leaves
Leaves with a visible collar
COUNT these leaves

When the young shoot pushes


through the soil surface
Problems
o Early and late planting
o Flooding, soil crusting
o Root rots
o Seed decay and seedling
blight
o Seed corn maggots, white
grubs
o Cutworms
CRPSC 70 Cereal and Legumes

First leaf has a rounded tip


All other leaves have pointed tips
The growing point is below ground

First leaf has a rounded tip


All other leaves have pointed tips
The growing point is below ground
Problems
o Flooding
o Root rots, seedling blights
o Cutworms
o Herbicide injury
o Weed competition

Reproductive Stage

These are the six reproductive (R) stages of corn:


o R1 (silk): Any silk becomes visible outside the husk leaves
o R2 (blister): Small, white kernels, and kernel fluid is clear
o R3 (milk): Yellow kernels, milky white fluid in kernel
o R4 (dough): Pastelike, or dough, kernel contents
o R5 (dent): Kernels dent on the top due to starch accumulation
o R6 (physiological maturity): Physiological maturity with maximum dry
matter accumulation. Black layer occurs after physiological maturity.
CRPSC 70 Cereal and Legumes

Production Guide for OPEN-POLLINATED VARIETY (OPV)

PACKAGE OF TECHNOLOGY

STEP 1 Securing certified seeds to plant


o Secure certified seeds of any of the following improved varieties:
IPB Var 1 Improved Tiniguib Super Sweet Corn
IPB var 2 IES Sweet Corn
USMARC 2 Var 1 Glutinous Corn
Note: use good seeds only selected from disease and insect-free ears of the farmers
previous corn crop and have at least 95% germination.

STEP 2 Soil Testing

o To determine specific fertilizer requirements, it is best to submit soil samples for


analysis to the nearest DA soils laboratory. A quick analysis can be done right in
the farmers field by mans of soil test kit (STK).
o Soil Test also determines soil acidity. If pH is less that 5,3 liming should be done to
correct pH. Depending on the type of soil, apply calcium carbonate (CaCo3) at
the rate of 0.4 to 1.2 tons per 0.1 pH unit below 5.3. Apply lime 30 days before
planting. The required amount is broadcast and harrowed in.

STEP 3 Land Preparation (30 days before planting)


o If your soil is poor, apply 5-10 tons compost per hectare before plowing. Plow the
soil at least 16 centimeters (cm) deep to provide good soil condition and tilt for
root development. It also minimize weed problem. Plow once and harrow once.
CRPSC 70 Cereal and Legumes

STEP 4 Preparation Furrows (1 day before planting)


o Make furrows at 75 cm spacing and about 8 cm depth

STEP 5 Application of basal fertilizer (day of planting)

o Apply basal fertilizer in the furrows at the rate of 4 bags of complete fertilizer (14-
14-14) per hectare. This provides 28 Kgs each Nitrogen (N), Phosphorous (P205)
and Potassium (K2). Cover fertilizer with soil to avoid contact with seed. When
using organic fertilizer, provide equivalent amount of nutrient. (Note that actual
rate of fertilizer application should be initially based on soil analysis).

Step 6 planting (day of planting)

o Plant 3 seeds per hill, spaced 5 cm apart


o STEP 7 Cultivation, weed Control and Thinning of Seedlings
o (12 days after planting)
o Undertake shallow cultivation and spot weeding to control weeds. Thin seedlings
to 2 per hill. To further control weeds, another shallow cultivation can be done.

STEP 8 Sidedressing of Nitrogen Fertilizer (25 days after planting)

o Side-dress with 2 bags urea (45-0-0) per hectare

STEP 9 Pest Management (Whorl Stage)

o If available, first use Trichogramma biocontrol of corn borer. The first release is
done at 40-50 cards per hectare, 20-30 days after planting. The second release
at 40-50 cards per hectare is done 2 to 3 days after the first release if parasitism
of corn borer egg masses is below 20%. Simply hang a Tricho card near the base
of one of the fully expanded leaves of a plant. Hang cards on plants in strategic
spots of cornfield. If Trichogramma are not available, control corn borer by
means of chemical pesticides. At mid-whorl stage (25-35 days after planting),
when 40-50% show infestation, apply carbofuran granules onto the whorl of
affected plants; or spray any of the following insecticides: endosulfan, methomyl,
monocrotophos or carbaryl. This can also control earworms and cutworms.

STEP 10 Pest Management (Tasseling Stage)

o When the corn borer infestation persists, employ a combination of detasseling


and chemical control. Simply pull out the tassel (not break off) from the
peduncle of plants of 3 rows for every 4 rows. Corn plant is ready for detasseling
when one-half to three-fourth of the tassel (before pollen shedding) has
emerged.

Note: Do not detassel all the plants; leave one row for every 4 rows with intact tassels.
Bring detached tassels out of the corn field, these may be used as cattle/Carabao
feed if not sprayed with insecticides. If plants with tassels are heavily infested, spray with
any of the recommended insecticides in Step 9.
CRPSC 70 Cereal and Legumes

STEP 11 Harvesting (100-105 days after planting)

o Corn crop is ready for harvest 100 days after planting during dry season and 105
days after planting during wet season. As a guide, corn can be harvested when
corn kernels are glazed and black layer is formed. This can be determined by
detaching a few corn kernels from the cob.

Source: http://cagayandeoro.da.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Production-
Guide-OPV.pdf

PRODUCTION GUIDE ON SUPER SWEET CORN


o Recommended Varieties
o SUGAR 73, 75 68-70 DAP (Maturity)

CROPPING SEASON
o This variety of sweet corn is not the usual sweet corn. It is a hybrid variety. It
produces almost the same sizes of ears, resistant to pests and the sweetness
remains for 3 days. It tolerates heav rain, unless flooded and during dry season
thus it is called all season variety.

SOIL REQUIREMENT
o Sweet corn grows in different kinds of soil but good drainage should be assured
to avoid water logging that may damage any plant roots. However, loam soil is
preferred for better results

LAND PREPARATION
o The land should be thoroughly prepared by plowing ang harrowing to be
pulverized and in order to obtain good soil tilth. The soil should be fallowed for
at least 2 weeks for the weeds to decompose. Plowing should be done with 15-
30 cm depthness:
o Heavy Soil (clay soil)- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2x plowing, 2x harrowing
o Medium to light (sandy to silty clay) - - - - 1 plowing, 2x harrowing

PLANTING
o Planting is done with the distance 75 cm between rows and 20 cm between hills,
sowing one seed per hills, sowing one seed per hill with the depth of 2 cm. Seed
will be covered thinly with soil. The area of 1,000 sq. m. contents 5,000 corn plants
or 50,000 corn plants per hectare.

FERTILIZATION
o The soil must be analyzed by the Bureau of Soil for appropriate fertilizer
recommendation. However, without analysis, the recommended rate is used:
basal application of 4 bags of 14-14-14 per hectare will be applied in the furrow
CRPSC 70 Cereal and Legumes

before sowing the seed and be covered thinly with soil to avoid seed to contact
with the fertilizer.
o Second application or sidedressing should be done 25 DAP using 2 bags of urea
per hectare. Third application: 2 bags of urea (45-0-0) per hectare at 45 DAP.

IRRIGATION
o If the soil is not enough, irrigation should be done to obtain soil moisture up to 5
cm depth. This will be done 7-10 days interval and at 2-5 days before fertilization.

PEST CONTROL
o In order to control pests, mix 1 bag of Furadan 3G fertilizer during basal
application. As precautionary measures, water hand gloves or use any
protective covering to avoid having direct contact with the chemicals. Inspect
the field every day and spray Vertex of Basudrin 400 EC if pest occurs. Repeat
every 10 days. Seeds are coated with insecticide and fungicide to prevent
Downy Mildew. These varieties are also resistant to blight and leaf rust.

WEED CONTROL
o Spray 1-2 liters of Herbadox to control Aguingay and 1-2 kg gesaprim 80WP for
broadleaves, sedges and other grasses that cannot be eradicated by herbadox.
These herbicides should be sprayed 1-2 DAP. However, weed control should
have started during thorough land preparation in order to attain a clean field up
to 30-40 DAP.
HARVESTING
o Harvesting should be done 68-70 DAP or 20 days after silking. It should be done
early in the morning until 9:00 in the morning and at 4:00 in the afternoon to
avoid losing its sweetness. This is also true and applicable to type of sweet corn.

Source: http://cagayandeoro.da.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/PRODUCTION-
GUIDE-ON-SUPER-SWEET-CORN.pdf

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