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Department of Biomedical Engineering


Two Marks
1. What are the merits of FM over AM?
2. What is called VSB modulation?
3. Define Amplitude modulation.
4. What is heterodyning?
5. Define modulation. What is need for modulation?
6. Draw the spectrum of non-periodic modulated AM.
7. State modulation index of AM & FM wave.
8. State image frequency rejection ratio?
9. Write any 3 difference between FM & PM.
10. What is frequency down conversion? Draw the block diagram of AM low level transmitter.
11. What are the parameters of AM receiver?
12. What is percent modulation of AM wave?
13. In an AM wave, the frequency of carrier signal is 500 Hz and modulating signal is
50Hz. Find upper & lower side band frequency of the signal and plots the spectrum.
14. What are the types of angle modulation? Draw the PM waveform.
15. An AM wave is observed in an oscilloscope, its maximum and minimum amplitudes are 7.2V
and 1.8V.Calculate its percentage modulation.
16. What is demodulation?
17. Draw the spectrum of FM signal. Why FM is superior than AM.
18. As related to AM, what is over modulation, under modulation and 100% modulation?
19. A transmitter radiates 9 kW without modulation and 10.125 kW after modulation. Determine
depth of modulation.
20. Disadvantages of DSB-SC.
21. What are the advantages of superhetrodyne receiver?
22. Distinguish between low level and high level modulator.
23. Define sensitivity and selectivity.
24. Define fidelity.
25. Application of AM.
26. A carrier of frequency 100 MHz is frequency modulated by a signal x (t) =20sin
(200x103 t). What is the bandwidth of the FM signal if the frequency sensitivity of
the modulator is 25 KHz per volt?
27. What is the bandwidth required for an FM wave in which the modulating frequency
signal is 2 KHz and the maximum frequency deviation is 12 KHz?

28. When a signal m (t) = 3 cos (2p x 103t) modulates a carrier c (t) = 5 cos (p x 106t),
find the modulation index and transmission bandwidth if the modulation is AM.
29. State Carsons rule of FM bandwidth?
30. Write the difference between AM & FM.
31. Why is FM superior to AM in performance?
32. Define maximum frequency deviation?
16 Marks
1. Explain the principle of working of an AM modulator.
2. Compare AM, DSBSC, SSBSC & VSB modulation technique.
3. Explain FM generation using parameter variation method.
4. Explain with block diagram, various methods of generating an SSB signal.
5. Explain the principle and working of DSB-SC modulator and demodulator.
6. Draw the PM and FM waveform.
7. With a neat circuit diagram, explain the operation of a super heterodyne receiver.
8. Explain the operation of FM modulation & demodulation using PLL.
9. Derive an expression for the amplitude modulated wave and its power relation.
10. Discuss in detail the operation of any one AM modulator and demodulator.
11. Derive an expression for the Narrowband FM wave.
12. What is the drawback of Tuned Radio Frequency (TRF) receivers? Discuss how it is avoided in
super heterodyne receivers.
13. Draw the circuit diagram of balanced modulator using diode for generation of DSB-SC wave.
Describe the working of this circuit necessary mathematics.
14. What is single-side band suppressed carrier modulation? What are its advantage and disadvantage
with respect to ordinary AM?
15. Determine the frequency spectrum of an AM wave.
16. Derive the expression for AM wave with a neat waveform.
17. Define frequency modulation. Draw the FM waveform. Derive an expression for frequency
18. Derive power distribution of AM wave
19. Using superheterodyne principle, draw the block diagram of AM radio receiver.

Two Marks
1. For an 8 bit quantizer, what is the maximum number of quantization levels?
2. Define slope overload error in delta modulation.
3. State sampling theorem.
4. What is slope overload noise and granular noise?
5. What is flat top sampling and natural sampling?
6. What is need for predictor DCPM?
7. Compare TDM & FDM.
8. State sampling theorem.
9. What is aliasing?
10. How to avoid aliasing effect.
11. Define PAM.
12. Construct NRZ and RZ format for 011010.
13. Define adaptive equalization.
14. Define Nyquist Criteria.
15. What is the interpretation obtained from eye pattern?
16. Define Nyquist sampling theorem.
17. Distinguish between DM and ADM.
18. Determine the Nyquist sample rate for a maximum analog input frequency of(a) 4 KHz (b) 10
19. Define channel vocoder.
20. What are the advantages of digital transmission?
21. What is companding?

16 Marks
1. State and explain low pass sampling theorem.
2. Compare PCM and DM.
3. Discuss in detail the concept of Frequency division multiplexing.
4. Explain quantization of signals and derive expression for quantization error of uniform quantizer.
5. Explain the working of channel vocoder.
6. Explain delta modulation and demodulation in detail.
7. Draw two types of noise in delta modulation.
8. Explain the principle of adaptive delta modulation.
9. With neat sketch explain the process of quantization.
10. Draw the RZ, NRZ and differential Manchester formats for the data 11001010.
11. With block diagrams explain the delta modulation and adaptive delta modulation.
12. Describe in detail the PCM technique with focus on its sampling rate, and signal to quantization
Noise ratio.
13. With a block diagram, explain the adaptive Delta Modulation technique.
14. What is DPCM? Explain its principle with neat block diagram
15. Explain the elements of PCM system with a neat block diagram.
16. Find the signal amplitude for minimum quantization error in a delta modulation system if step
size is 1 volt having repetition period 1 ms. The information signal operates at 100 Hz.
17. For a PCM system with the following parameters, determine
(i) Minimum sampling rate
(ii) Minimum number of bits used in the PCM code
(iii) Resolution and
(iv) Quantization error
Maximum analog input frequency = 4 KHz
Maximum decoded voltage at the receiver = 2.55 V
Minimum dynamic range = 46 dB.
18. Describe DPCM transmitter and receiver with suitable block diagram.
19. What are the types of sampling? Explain the operation of the sample and hold circuit
20. Draw the block diagram and describe the operation of a delta modulator. What are its advantages
and disadvantages compared to a PCM system?
21. How does delta modulation differ from PCM? Explain delta modulation transmitter with the help
of a block diagram.
22. Explain in detail the Delta modulation transmitter and Receiver. Discuss the draw backs of delta
modulation and explain the significance of adaptive delta modulator.
23. Mention merits and demerits of time and frequency division multiplexing.
24. Explain the concept of time division multiplexing with block diagram.

Two Marks
1. State the significance of eye pattern observed in digital communication.
2. What are the merits of M-ary system?
3. For a BPSK modulator with a carrier frequency of 70 MHz and an input bit
rate of 10 Mbps, determine the maximum and minimum upper and lower side
frequencies and Nyquist bandwidth.
4. What is an ISI? How can its effect be reduced?
5. Differentiate coherent and non coherent digital modulation methods
2. What is correlative coding?
3. Compare bandwidth of Mary PSK signal And Mary FSK signal
4. Sketch the waveform of PSK for binary sequence 1100101.
5. Differentiate QPSK and BPSK.
6. Differentiate ASK and FSK.
7. What are the types of digital data format?
8. Define minimum Shift keying.
9. Define Duobinary encoding
10. Define DPSK.
11. What are the advantages of QPSK?
12. Define Nyquist sampling theorem.
13. Define information capacity and bit rate.
14. Draw PWM and PPM waveforms.
15. What is the relation between bit rate and baud for a FSK system?
16. What are the advantages of digital transmission?
17. Define ASK, PSK and FSK.
18. What is meant by antipodal signal and give one example?
19.What is QPSK?
20. What are the differences between QASK and QPSK?
21. Define eye pattern and equalizers.
22. Define Cosine filters.
23. Define QAM
24. Write in brief the relation between symbol rate and bit rate in digital transmission.
25. Draw the eye pattern and write the information provided by the eye pattern about the
performance of the system
16 Marks
1. What is known as Inter symbol Interference (ISI)? What are the primary causes of it? How
can it be minimized by pulse shaping?
2. With a neat block diagram, explain the operation of Duobinary coding.
3. Describe the operation of QPSK transmitter and receiver.
4. Write a note on cosine filters.
5. Explain the relationship between bits per second and baud for a BPSK system.
6. What is an Eye pattern? Explain. Also explain the Eye diagram measurement setup.
7. Derive an expression for the probability of error and bit error rate of a QPSK system.
9. Describe with neat diagram, the operation of a QPSK modulator. Draw its phasor and
constellation diagram.
10. Explain the operation of QAM receiver and transmitter.
11. What is known as Binary phase shift keying? Discuss in detail the BPSK transmitter and
receiver and also obtain the minimum double sided Nyquist bandwidth.
12. Describe the operation of DPSK transmitter and receiver.
13. Write short notes of an equalizer and eye pattern.
14. Illustrate the concept of 8 QAM transmitters with the truth table.
15. Draw the phasor and constellation diagram of QPSK.
16. Explain the working of coherent binary PSK transmitter and receiver. Derive the expression
for probability of error.
17. Explain the working of transversal equalizer and preset equalizer with suitable diagram.
Two Marks
1. Define Entropy.
2. State Shannon Hartley Law.
3. Distinguish between a cyclic code and convolution code.
4. Define entropy of source.
5. Prove the generator polynomial of an (n,k) cyclic code is unique in that it is the only code world
polynomial of minimum degree (n-k)
6. What is meant by ASCII code?
7. Compare the merits and demerits of error detection and correction.
8. Which error detection technique is simple and which one is more reliable?
9. Define information capacity.
10. What is forward error correction?
11. Mention and explain any three error control codes.
12. Define measure of information.
13. Define source coding and channel coding.
14. Mention advantages of coding.
15. Define coding efficiency.
16. State Shannons theorem.
17. Define Huffman coding.
18. Define Shannon- Fano coding.
19. Define LZ coding.
20. List the Shannons limitations.
21. Define convolution coding and cyclic coding.
22. Define state diagram for convolutional codes.
23. What are the decoding methods of convolution codes?
24. Define viterbi decoding and sequential decoding.

16 Marks
1. Explain the advantages of convolutional codes.
2. Generate the 16 code words for nonsystematic (7, 4) cyclic code with generator polynomial
g (x) =1 + x + x3.
3. Explain Shannon-Fano coding with an example.
4. What are the special features of cyclic codes? How is it generated?
5. Explain convolutional coding and decoding with a suitable example.
6. Explain about Shannons limitations.
7. Explain the procedure of Huffman coding with example.
8. Explain the properties, structure and generation of cyclic codes.
9. Explain the syndrome decoding and syndrome calculator with neat block diagram.
10. Explain about sequential and viterbi decoding.
11. Explain LZ coding with example.
12. State and prove Shannon Hartley law. Also write the tradeoff between the channel bandwidth
and signal to noise ratio.
13. Explain how virterbi algorithm is used to decode convolution codes with example.
Two Marks
1. What is a m-sequence or gold code?
2. Define processing gain.
3. Compare CDMA and TDMA
4. Two properties of maximal length sequence.
5. What are the types of jammers encountered in practice in spread spectrum communication?
6. List the applications of spread spectrum modulation.
7. What is the principle of CDMA technique?
8. Define pseudo noise sequence.
9. Define spread spectrum technique
10. Differentiate Slow and fast FH SS technique.
11. Differentiate TDMA and FDMA.
12. Define processing gain for DS SS technique
13. What are the advantages of Spread Spectrum techniques?
14. Differentiate DS SS and FH-SS.
15. Define processing gain for FH SS technique
16. What are the disadvantages of DS SS techniques?
17. What are the advantages of FH SS techniques?
18. What are the applications of spread spectrum modulation?
19. Design processing gain in spread spectrum modulation.
20. Define effective jamming power and processing.
21. What is the principle of frequency hopping spread spectrum?
22. A spread spectrum communication system has the following parameters; information bit duration
Tb = 4.095 ms, PN chip duration Tc = 1 ms. Determine Processing Gain.
23. What is meant by slow frequency hopping and fast-frequency hopping?
24. What is frequency hopping?
25. What is meant by an orthogonal code?
26. Define Pseudo noise sequence?
27. What are the different types of multiple access techniques?
28. What is the significance of PN sequence?
29. What are the types of FH spread spectrum technique?

16 Marks
1. Explain the properties of PN sequences and how it is generated?
2. Describe the tracking of a direct sequence spread spectrum.
3. Describe in detail the frequency hopping spread spectrum.
4. Explain the different multiple access schemes
5. Explain CDMA technique and advantages of CDMA and TDMA.
6. Explain Slow Frequency Hoping and Fast frequency hoping with example.
7. Explain in detail the transmitter and receiver of DS SS technique.
8. Derive the expression for its processing gain.
9. Explain in detail the transmitter and receiver of FH SS technique.
10. Explain the two common multiple access technique for wireless communication.
11. Differentiate direct sequence and frequency hop spread spectrum technique
12. Compare and contrast TDMA and CDMA techniques.
13. Draw the circuit of a P-N sequence generator and explain.
14. Describe the concept of FHSS in detail.
15. Explain the principle of DSSS with coherent binary PSK.
16. Compare between the TDMA and CDMA wireless communication systems.
17. Write a short note on frequency hop spread spectrum.
18. Explain the applications of spread spectrum techniques.
19. Give a detail account of the different types of multiple access techniques.
20. Compare TDMA and CDMA.
21. Discuss the frequency HOP spread spectrum with suitable block diagram.
22. Explain the source coding of speech for wireless communications.
23. What is a PN sequence? Explain its important properties.
24. Describe with block diagram, DS SS binary PSK spread spectrum system.
25. Describe the operation of a CDMA multiplexing system.
26. List the advantages of CDMA over TDMA multiple access scheme.
27. With the help of block diagram explain how DSSS can be implemented. Draw the input and
output waveforms.
28. Explain the frequency hopped spread spectrum with a block diagram.
29. How PN sequences are generated?
30. What is a Pseudo noise sequence? What are the properties of Pseudo noise sequence?
31. Describe the application of CDMA in Wireless communication system.
32. With a block diagram explain, DS spread spectrum with coherent binary PSK.
33. Explain the near-far problem in spread spectrum modulation?