1 solutions
2. (a) The old p has length √ 2 so the new p also has length √ 2. And the new p
points like q. So
2 6 2 6
new p = √ 2 qunit = √ 2 ( , ) = ( , ).
40 √40
√ 20
√ 20
√
p…q 4 2 6 8 24
(b) vector projection = q = ( ,  ) = ( 40 ,  40 )
q…q √40 40
√ √40
3. Draw a parallelogram with diagonal r and sides parallel to p and q.
In the diagram below, r is the sum of the two thick arrows. It looks like r is
2
about p + 3 q.
q
p v u.v
v u
« u «2
r u.v u
u
u2
Problem 3 Problem 4(a)
v…u
4. (a) The vector u is the vector projection of arrow v onto arrow u.
«u« 2
v…u
The diagram shows the vector v  u (use the triangle rule to subtract), and it's
«u« 2
perpendicular to u.
u…v
u… (v  u) = u…(v  ku)
«u« 2
= u…v  k(u…u) dot property
= u…v  k«u«2 norm property
= u…v  u…v look at k and see that k«u«2 cancels down to u…v
= 0
Since their dot product is 0, the vectors are orthogonal.
= √
«u«2 + 2 u…v + «v«2
= √
9 + 12 + 49 = √70
(d) (u+3v)…u = u…u + (3v)…u = «u«2 + 3(v…u) = «u«2 + 3(u…v) = 9 + 18 = 27
u 1
« « = «u« (careful use of property (3) of norms)
«u« «u«
7. On the left side, the multiplication between ku and v is the dot product (vector
times vector). Similarly on the right side the multiplication of u and v is the dot
product.
The multiplication of k and u on the left side is scalar mult (scalar times vector)
The multiplication of k and u…v on the right side is ordinary arithmetic
multiplication, the product of two numbers.
9. (a) The diagram shows u and v perpendicular (so that u…v = 0) and shows u+v and
uv.The statement amounts to saying that in a rectangle, the two diagonals have the
same lengths which we know is true.
(b)«u+v« = √
(u+v)…(u+v) by the norm property «u«2 = u…u
= √
u…u + 2 u…v + v…v by dot properties
= √
u…u + v…v since u…v = 0
Similarly,
«uv« = = √
(uv)…(uv)
= √
u…u  2 u…v + v…v
= √
u…u + v…v
so «u+v« = «uv«
page 3 of Section 2.1 solutions
uv v
u+
u
u
u
u+v
v
v v
Problem 9(a) Problem 10(a)
10. (a) The diagram shows u and v with the same lengths (so that «u« = «v«).
The statement amounts to saying that in a rhombus, the diagonal are perpendicular
which we know is true.
(b) (u+v)…(uv) = u…u  v…v = «u«2  «v«2 by norm property
= 0 since «u« = «v« by hypothesis
u+v
v v v
u
u u+v
u+v u
«u+v« = «u«+ «v« «u+v« < «u«+ «v« «u+v« < «u«+ «v«
Problem 12(b)
(c) Let v = ku where k > 0. I'll compute «u+v« and «u«+«v« and show that they are
the same.
«u+v« = «u + ku«
= « (1+k)u « property (5) of addition and scalar mult from ±2.1
= 1+k «u« norm rule
= (1+k)«u« don't need abs value signs since 1+k is positive
Û Û Û Û
So «u + v« = «u« + «v«.
page 4 of Section 2.1 solutions
page 1 of Section 2.2 solutions
Out[1]
{{a > 0, b > 0, c > 0, d > 0}}
I want to show that a=0, b=0, c=0 is the only solution. Rearrange the equ to get
Û
(a + c)u + (a + b)v + (b + c)w = 0
Û
5. (a) The system of equations au + bc + cw + dp = 0 is
a + b + c + d = 0
b + c + d = 0
c + d = 0
d = 0
Start solving by looking at the last equation and working your way back up. The
solution is d=0, c=0, b=0, a=0. So the vectors u,v,w,p are independent.
Û
(b) u is not 0 and no vector after that is a combination of preceding vectors; for
instance w isn't a combination of u and v since all combinations of u and v have a 0
in the 3rd spot but w has a 1 in the 3rd spot. So the vectors are ind.
Û
(••) au + bv + cw = 0
We know that u,v,w are ind. So by (3), applied to (••), we know that a=0, b=0, c=0.
So the only solution to (•) turned out to be a=0, b=0, c=0. So, by (3) again, Au, Av,
Aw are ind.
method 2 Could one of Au, Av, Aw be a combination of the others? Suppose
Au = a Av + b Aw.
Then
Au = A(av + bw) matrix algebra
u = av + bw left multiply by A1 on both sides
But this contradicts the hypothesis that u,v,w are independent. So you can't have
Au = a Av + b Aw. Similarly no one of Au, Av, Aw can be a combination of the others.
So they are ind.
Û
7. method 1 Try to solve au + bv + cw = 0.
Û
If au + bv + cw = 0 then
Û
u…( au + bv + cw) = u…0 dot on both sides with u
a(u…u) + b(u…v) + c(u…w) = 0 dot rules
a(u…u) = 0 since u…v = 0, u…w = 0
a = 0 or u…u = 0
Û
But u…u ≠ 0 since u ≠ 0 (property (5) of dots). So a = 0.
Similarly by dotting with v and w you can get b = 0 and c = 0.
So the only solution is a = b = c = 0. So u,v,w are ind.
8. Not possible in R3, R4, R9. Nonzero orthog vectors are ind and you can't have 10
ind vectors in R3, R4, R9.
Possible in R10; for instance here are 10 nonzero orthog vectors in R10.
(1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0)
(0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0)
»
(0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0)
(0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1)
page 1 of Section 2.3 sols
1.(a) (i) It is supposed to be clear by inspection that u,v,w are independent. (For
instance v can't be a combination of u and w because v has a nonzero second coord
but v and w have zero second coords.) So u,v,w is a basis since any 3 ind vectors in
R3 are a basis.
3 3
(ii) By inspection, x = 2u  2 v  4w so x has coords 2,  2, 4 w.r.t. basis u,v,w.
(b) (i) I'll show that p,q,r are ind. Then since there are 3 of them, they are a
basis for R3.
method 1 for showing they are ind (Use (4) from the preceding section.)
Look at the vectors q,r,p in that order (because it's convenient).
Û
The vector q is not 0.
r is not a multiple of q.
And p can't be a combination of r and q because p has a nonzero first component
but r and q have zero first components.
So q,r,p are ind.
method 2 for showing they are ind (Use (3) from the preceding section.)
Û
Try to solve ap + bq + cr = 0. This is the system of equations
1a + 0b + 0c = 0
0a + 1b + 0c = 0
0a + 1b + 1c = 0
Solution is a = 2, b = 3, c = 1.
So x = 2p + 3q + r; x has coords 2,3,1 w.r.t. basis p,q,r.
2. (a) The vectors u and v are independent since neither is a multiple of the other.
And any 2 ind vectors in R2 are a basis for R2.
(b) See the diagram.
1
y
2 2 X
u 1
1
1 2 3 4 5 x
1
2
3
4 v
5
1
Y
Problem 2(b)
3. u = 12i, v = 12j
page 2 of Section 2.3 sols
4. The line y = 3x has slope 3. The vector (1,3) points along the line.
The first basis vector is u = (1,3)unit = (1/√10, 3/√10).
The second basis vector is v = (1,4).
y X
3
1
Y y
X
2
• 4
v
1
u 1 2 x


x Y

'
1 1 2 3 4
Problem 4 Problem 5
5. (a) The X—axis lies along the old y—axis (see the diagram).
The Y—axis lies along the old x—axis.
The scale on the X—axis is the yard.
The scale on the Y—axis is the half—foot.
1
(b) X = 3 y, Y = 2x.
(b) One way to do it is to pick any basis and then toss in some extra vector(s).
The new bunch still spans R3 but isn't independent (because the extra vectors are
combinations of the basis vectors). For instance, the vectors
i = (1,0,0)
j = (0,1,0)
k = (0,0,1)
p = (2,0,0)
span R3 because every vector can be written in terms of them (in many ways actually)
but they are not a basis (for one thing, they are not ind and for another, a basis
for R3 contains exactly 3 vectors, not 4).
Any bunch of more than 3 vectors which contains an independent threesome will span
3
R but not be a basis.
(c) No. A basis for R3 must span R3.
au + bv + cw + dp
(3,0,5,6) = (a,0,0,0) + (b,0,b,0) + (0,0,0,c) + (2d,0,d,0)
page 3 of Section 2.3 sols
a + b + 2d = 3
b + d = 5
c = 6
So x = 2u + 5v + 6w.
And x = 7u + 6w + 5p
And x = 3u + 4b + 6w + p etc. (There are millions of answers.)
(b) The second component of y is not zero. But u,v,w,p all have zero second coords.
That makes it impossible to write y as a combination of u,v,w,p.
(c) answer 1 The vector x from part (a) can be written in more than one way in
terms of u,v,w,p. So u,v,w,p can't be a basis.
answer 2 The vector y from part (b) can't be written at all in terms of u,v,w,p. So
u,v,w,p can't be a basis.
answer 3 I noticed that p = u + v. So u,v,w,p are dep. So they can't be a basis.
8. (a) The solution says that you can pick any value for c. This means there is more
than one way to write x as a combination of u,v,w,p. So u,v,w,p can't be a basis
(there are 4 of them ——— the right number ——— but they are dep).
(b) x can't be written in terms of u,v,w,p, i.e., u,v,w,p don't span R4. So u,v,w,p are
not a basis (they must be dep).
so «q« =
√
q…q = √34
so «q« =
√
631.
page 4 of Section 2.3 sols
u 1 1
10. (a) uunit = = 2 u, vunit = 3 v, wunit = 4w
«u«
So x = 4u + 5v + 9w
1
= 4(2uunit) + 5(3vunit ) + 9( 4 wunit )
9
= 8 uunit + 15 vunit + 4 wunit.
(b) The coords of x w.r.t. the orthonormal basis uunit, vunit, w unit
are 8, 15, 9/4.
SOLUTIONS 2.4
2 2
1. (a) Let P =
1 3 . Then P1 =
3/4
1/4
1/2
1/2 [
and P 1 4 = 1
8 3 ] .
So (4,8) = u + 3v. The new coords of the point (4,8) are 1,3.
(b) u + 3v = (2,1) + 3(2,3) = (4,8).
col 1
(c) P1 [ ] 1
0 = of . So i = 3 u  1 v. Similarly j =  1 u + 1 v.
1
P
4 4 2 2
3 1 3 3 1 3
Check: 4
u  4 v = 2
i + 4 j  2 i  4 j = i
[xy ] = [ XY ] so X = x  y and Y =  1 x +
(d) P1
3
4
1
2 4
1
2
y.
P[ Y ] = [ y ] so x = 2X + 2Y , y = X + 3Y
X x
2. (a) Solve ai + bj + cw = x to get the new coords a,b,c; i.e., solve the system
a + 2c = 4
b + 3c = 1
4c = 2
Start from the bottom up to see that the solution is c = 1/2, b = 5/2, a = 5. So
5 1
x = 5i + 2 j  2 w.
5 1 5 3
Check: 5i + 2 j  2 w = (5,0,0) + (0, 2 0)  (1, 2, 2) = (4,1,2) OK
1 0 2 1 0 1/2 4 5
(b) P = 0 1 3 , P1 = 0 1 3/4 , P1 1 = 5/2
0 0 4 0 0 1/4 2 1/2
Û
So the new coords of x are X = 5, Y = 5/2 , Z = 1/2.
4. The matrix B1 converts from u,v,w coords to i,j,k coords. So B1 is the standard
basis changing matrix (the one I usually call P) and the columns of B1 give the
i,j,k coords of the vectors u,v,w. (You can stop here if you don't have a calculator
that does inverses.)
I found that
4 5 3
B1 = 3 3 2
1 1 1
5. (a) [ xy ] = [ 21 1
1
X
Y so P =][ ] 2 1
1 1 [ ]
The new basis is u = 2i + j, v = i + j (the cols of P).
page 2 of Section 2.4 solutions
y X
y
Y 2
X 1
'

1
1
u
v 1
'
1
'
1
u

'
1 '
2
x x

1 1
1 v
 Y
Problem 5a Problem 5b
(b) [XY ] = [ 12 1
1 ][ ]
x
y so P1 =
1
2 1
1
[ ]
Invert to get P =
1/3
[
1/3
2/3 1/3 ] 1 2 1 1
. New basis is u = (3 , 3), v = (3,  3 ).
Question How come you had to invert a matrix in part (b) but not in part (a).
Answer In part (a), x and y were expressed in terms of X and Y. Turned out that
this let you find P immediately. In part (b), X and Y were expressed in terms of x
and y.
6.(a) The new coord system just involves a change of scale on the old axes.
1
The scale on the X—axis is 4 the scale on the x—axis.
The scale on the Y—axis is twice the scale on the y—axis.
1
The new basis vectors are u = 4 i, v = 2j.
(b) [ XY ] = [ 40 0
1/2 ][ xy ] So P1 = [ 40 0
1/2 ], P = [ 1/40 02 ]
1
The new basis vectors are the columns of P, namely u = 4 i, v = 2j.
Y
1
v
1• A 1/2 • A
i B u B
• x • X
1 1 4
Old New
Problem 6(a)
1 1
equation (4X)2 + (3 y)2 = 5, 16X2 + 9 Y2 = 5.
9. (a) Let A = [ 45 2
3 ]. Then A1 = [ 5/2
3/2 1
2 ] and A1 converts from
coords coords
coords w.r.t. i,j to coords w.r.t. u,v. In other words, A1 w.r.t. = w.r.t.
i and j u and v
(b) B = [ 6
7 1
8
]converts from coords w.r.t. p,q to coords w.r.t. i,j.
(c) Put (a) and (b) together. A1B converts from p,q coords to u,v coords, i.e.,
coords coords
A1 B w.r.t = w.r.t.
p and q u and v
(d) Answer here must be the inverse of the answer to part (c). So the answer is
(A1 B)1 = B1 A
13.(a) First write p in terms of u and v; i.e., find the coords of p w.r.t. new
basis u,v. You can do it with a system of equations but I'll use the basis changing
matrix.
Let P = [ ] 1 4
3 2 . Then P1 =
1
10
2 4
3 [ 1 = ] [
2/10 4/10
3/10 1/10 , ]
P1 [ ][ ]
10
15 =
4
3/2 so p = 4u +
3
2
v.
q r
3
So q = 4u = (4,12) and r = 2 v = (6,3).
(b) t is the vector projection of p onto the vector v. Use the formula in Fig 7,
Section 2.1:
p…v 70 7
t = v = v = 2 v = (14,7)
v…v 20
p…u 55 55 165
s = u = u = ( 10 , 10 )
u…u 10
14. New basis is u = (cos 29o, sin 29o), v = (sin 29o, cos 29o)
method 1 (using the formula for finding coords w.r.t. an orthonormal basis)
p = (u…p)u + (v…p)v = (6 cos 29o + 7 sin 29o)u + (6 sin 29o + 7 cos 29o)v
New coords are X = 6 cos 29o + 7 sin 29o, Y = 6 sin 29o + 7 cos 29o
method 2
cos 29o sin 29o cos 29o sin 29o
P = , P = 1, P1 = ,
sin 29o cos 29o sin 29o cos 29o
page 4 of Section 2.4 solutions
So the new coords are X = 6 cos 29o + 7 sin 29o, Y = 6 sin 29o + 7 cos 29o.
15. The vectors u,v,w,r are nonzero (because they don't have 0 norm, they have norm 1)
and from ±2.3, a set of 4 nonzero orthogonal vectors in R4 must be a basis for R4.
By (8), the numbers u…p, v…p, w…p, r…p are the coords of p w.r.t. the orthonormal
basis u,v,w,r.
So by (5) in Section 2.3, √
(u…p)2 + (v…p)2 + (w…p)2 + (r…p)2 is «p«.
16. step 1 Let u = i + 3j (points along line L because the line and the vector both
have slope 3; see the diagram) and let v = 3i + j (perp to u).
It would also be OK to use u = i + 3j, v = 3i  j or u = i  3j and v = 3i + j
or u = i  3j, v = 3i  j.
It is also OK to normalize u and v and use uunit and vunit as your basis. In this
problem it isn't necessary but it often is a good precaution to take.
y
X
B•
line L
Y
v • A
u
x
Problem 16
1 3 3 1
So the new coords of A are X = 10 a + 10 b, Y =  10 a + 10 b.
step 3 When you reflect a point in the Xaxis in an orthogonal coord system all
you do is change the sign of its Y—coord. That was the whole point of switching to a
new coord system where the line L was an axis.
So the coords of point B, in the new system, are
1 3 3 1
X = 10 a + 10 b, Y = 10 a  10 b
1 a + 3 b 8 6
 10 a + 10 b
P 3
10 10
step 4 1 = 6 8
10 a  10 b 10 a + 10 b
The coords of B in the standard coord system are
8 6 6 8
x =  10 a + 10 b, y = 10 a + 10 b
And now you have a formula for reflecting an arbitrary point (a,b) in the line
8 6 6 8
y = 3x. The reflection is the point ( 10 a + 10 b, 10 a + 10 b).
page 5 of Section 2.4 solutions
2 1 0 π 0 5
17. Let P = 1 1 0 . Let Q = 2 1 5 .
3 1 1 √
3 2 5
1. (a)(i) The subspace consists of all multiples of u. It is 1—dim and u alone can
be the basis.
(ii) p and q are not in the space since they are not multiples of u.
(iii) Any vector in the space can be the basis so a second basis consists of the
vector 2u = (2,4,6,8,10), a third basis contains just πu = (π,2π,4π,6π,8π,10π) etc.
(b) (i) u and v are ind (because neither is a multiple of the other) so the subspace
is 2—dim. A basis is u,v.
(ii) p = 2u + 2v so p is in the subspace.
Its coords w.r.t. the basis u,v are 2,2.
The vector equation au + bv = q boils down to the system of equations
a+b=4, 2a+b=5, 3a=6, 4a=7, 5a=8. Thre are no solutions so q can't be written in the
form au + bv. So q is not in the subspace.
(iii) Any two ind vectors in the subspace constitute a basis. So here are a few
more bases.
basis 1 2u,v
basis 2 u, u + 2v = (3,4,3,4,5)
basis 3 uv = (0,1,3,4,5), u+v = (2,3,3,4,5) etc.
(c) u,v,w are dep but u,v are ind (so are u,v and so are v,w). So u,v,w span the same
space as u,v. Answers here are the same as in (b).
2. (a) The line through the origin in the direction of u, i.e., the line y = 3x.
(b) The x—axis.
(c) Every vector can be written in terms of u and i so the subspace is all of R2
itself.
(d) All of R2
4. False. The best you can say is that the dimension is ≤ 5. It is 5 only if the
vectors are independent.
reason 1 It isn't closed under addition. The vectors (0,0,0,0,2) and (1,2,3,4,2) are
in the set but their sum is (1,2,3,4,4) which is not in the set.
reason 2 It isn't closed under scalar mult. The vector u = (0,0,0,0,1) is in the
set but 3u = (0,0,0,0,3) is not in the set
Û
reason 3 It doesn't contain 0 so it can't be a subspace
(b) No
reason 1 Not closed under addition. The vectors (1,1,1,1,1) and (2,4,8,16,32) are
in the set but their sum is (3,5,9,17,33)) which is not in the set.
reason 2 Not closed under scalar mult. The vector u = (1,1,1,1,1) is in the set but
2u = (2,2,2,2,2) is not in the set
(c) Yes
reason 1 Closed under addition and scalar mult
Two typical points in the set are u = (a,b,2a,c,3b) and v = (d,e,2d,f,3e).
Then
u+v = (a+d,e+b,2a+2d,c+f,3b+3e)
and
ku = (ka,kb,2ka,kc,3kb)
Both u+v and ku have the pattern x3 = 2x1 and x5 = 3x2 so they are in the set.
u v w
To find a basis, continue with the work in reason 2. The spanning vectors
u = ( 1 , 0 ,2, 0 ,0), v = ( 0 , 1 ,0, 0 ,3), w = ( 0 , 0 ,0, 1 ,0) are independent. No one
vector can be a combination of the others because of their 1st, 2nd and 4th
components. So u,v,w are a basis.
(d) No
reason 1 Not closed under addition. If u = (2,4,0,0,0) and v = (1,3,π,π,π) then u
and v are in the set but u+v = (3,7, who cares) and it isn't in the set.
reason 2 Not closed under scalar mult. If u = (2,4,0,0,0) then u is in the set but
2u = (4,8,0,0,0) is not in the set.
Û
reason 3 The set doesn't contain 0.
If r=1,s=0,t=1 then the corresponding point is (3, 6, 1, 1, 0). And so on.
xx1 2 4
2 8 9 12
xx3 = r 01 + s 18 + t 1
x4 1 1 01
5
u v w
10. The space is spanned by u = (1,1,1,1,1) (i.e., the set consists of all multiples
of u) so it's a subspace.
(You can also show it's a subspace by showing that it's closed under addition and
scalar mult.)
It's a 1—dim subspace with basis u. (Any vector in the subspace can serve as a
basis.)
The coordinate of v w.r.t. my basis is 3 since v = 3u.
12. (a) It would mean that if u and v are in the set then so are uv and vu.
(b) True. Suppose u and v are in the subspace. Remember that uv = u + (1)v.
We know that (1)v is in the subspace since the subspace is closed under scalar
mult.
And then u + (1)v is in the subspace because the subspace is closed under addition.
page 4 of Section 2.5 solutions
So u  v is in the subspace.
Similarly, vu is in the subspace. QED
(c) It would mean that if u is in the set then uunit is also in the set.
u 1
(d) True. uunit = = u; So uunit is a scalar multiple of u (the scalar is
«u« «u«
1/«u«). If u is in the subspace then so is uunit because the subspace is closed under
scalar mult.
(e) If u and v are vectors then u…v is a scalar which can't possibly be in the
subspace (not unless this is all taking place in R1). You can answer False or better
still say that the question doesn't make much sense.
2u
v
(c) One possibility is the set of points with all positive coords .
(d) One possibility is the set of points whose coords are either all positive or
all negative.
16. The subspace is 3—dim. A cheap way to get a new basis is to essentially keep
the 3 axes we have but change the scale, i.e., take various scalar multiples of the
basis we have.
basis 1 (2,0,0,1), (0,1,0,0), (0,0,1,0)
1
basis 2 (π,0,0,π), (0,3,0,0), (0,0,2 ,0)
More generally, any 3 ind vectors in the space are a subspace
1
basis 3 (2,3,4,2), (√ 3, 3, 6,√ 3), (0,2,0,0)
Here's a check that these vectors are ind since it isn't obvious
u = {2,3,4,2}; v= {Sqrt[3],1/3,6,Sqrt[3]};
w= {0,2,0,0};
Solve[a u + b v + c w == {0,0,0,0}]
{{c > 0, b > 0, a > 0}}
etc.
page 5 of Section 2.5 solutions
Problem 19
20. I'll show that the set is closed under addition and scalar multiplication.
Suppose x and y are in the set. That means that
(•) Ax = Bx and Ay = By
I want to show that x + y is in the set and kx is in the set. That means I want to
show that
A(x+y) = B(x+y) and A(kx) = B(kx)
3a  6b + 2c = 4
4a + 2b + 6c = 2
23. The set of vectors of the form (x1,x2,x3,x4,0,0,0) is a subspace of R7 (for one
thing, it is closed under addition and scalar mult). In particular it is the 4—dim
subspace spanned by e1 = (1,0,0,0,0,0,0), e2 = (0,1,0,0,0,0,0), e3 = (0,0,1,0,0,0,0),
e4 = (0,0,0,1,0,0,0).
The vectors u1,..., u5 are in the subspace. But 5 vectors in a 4—dim subspace must
be dependent. So u1,..., u5 are dependent.
page 1 of solutions to review problems for Chapter 2
They are ind but (1,0,0), (0,1,0), (2,3,0) are not ind.
(b) True.
4. Look at the subspace of R29 spanned by u,v,w. The dim of the subspace is 3 or
less (exactly 3 if u,v,w are ind, less than 3 if they are dep).
2
The four vectors 2u + 6v, πv + √ 5 w, 7v + 3 w, 8u  πv are in the subspace because
they are all combinations of the generators u,v,w.
But 4 vectors in a 3—or—less—dimensional space must be dep (Section 2.5).
Û
5.(a) Solve au + bv + cw + dp = 0 (this is a system of 29 equations in the 4
unknowns a,b,c,d).
If the only solution is a = b = c = d = 0 then the vectors are ind.
If there are other solutions in addition to the trivial one, then the vectors are
dependent.
(b) Solve au + bv + cw + dp = x (4 equations in the 4 unknowns a,b,c,d).
There has to be exactly one solution because a point has exactly one set of
coordinates w.r.t. a basis. The values you get for a,b,c,d are the new coords of x.
(c) Solve au + bv + cw = y (this is a system of 4 equations in 3 unknowns a,b,c).
If there are no solutions then y is not in the subspace. If there is at least one
solution then y is in the subspace.
(d) Solve each of these six vector equations (each one is a system of 4 equations
in 3 unknowns a,b,c):
q = au + bv + cw
r = au + bv + cw
s = au + bv + cw
u = aq + br + cs
v = aq + br + cs
w = aq + br + cs
If any one of the six systems has no sol then the two subspaces must be different.
Here's why. Suppose the system r = au + bv + cw has no solution. Then r is not
in the u,v,w subspace. But of course r is in the p,q,r subspace. So the two
subspaces can't be the same
If all of the six systems have solutions then the two subspaces are the same.
Here's why. Since the first three systems have solutions, you know that q,r,s are
combinations of u,v,w so they are in the u,v,w subspace. The subspace is closed
under addition and scalar mult so every comb of q,r,s is also in the u,v,w
subspace. So everything in the q,r,s subspace is also in the u,v,w subspace.
Similarly, everything in the u,v,w subspace is also in the p,q,r subspace. So the
two subspaces are the same.
page 2 of solutions to review problems for Chapter 2
P1 [ y ]= [ Y ] so X =
x X 3 1 1 2
x  y, Y = 
5 5 5
x + 5 y.
page 3 of solutions to review problems for Chapter 2
12. The set consists of all points with norm ≤ 1. It isn't a subspace.