You are on page 1of 55

TEACHING AND COACHING BRAZILIAN JIUJITSU: AN INSTRUCTIONAL

MANUAL

A PROJECT REPORT

Presented to the Department of Kinesiology

California State University, Long Beach

In Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree

Master of Science in Kinesiology

Committee Members:

Will Wu, Ph.D. (Chair)
Michelle Alencar, Ph.D.
Mikiko Nakajima, Ed.D.

College Designee:

Jan Schroeder, Ph.D.

By Edwin Peng

B.A., 2010, University of California, Los Angeles

August 2017

   

ProQuest Number: 10605142    

All rights reserved 

INFORMATION TO ALL USERS
The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. 

In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript
and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed,
a note will indicate the deletion.     

ProQuest 10605142 

Published by ProQuest LLC (2017 ). Copyright of the Dissertation is held by the Author.  

All rights reserved.
This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code
Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC.  

ProQuest LLC.
789 East Eisenhower Parkway
P.O. Box 1346
Ann Arbor, MI 48106 - 1346

ABSTRACT

TEACHING AND COACHING BRAZILIAN JIUJITSU: AN INSTRUCTIONAL

MANUAL

By

Edwin Peng

August 2017

Brazilian Jiujitsu is a martial art practiced by millions of people. It is a grappling art in

which students are taught to win against opponents through the use of leverage, technique and

tactics. Like many martial arts, coaches are seldom well-suited to impart crucial knowledge to

their students. Many coaches are in the position due to high level competition success which

does not translate into good teaching ability. Coaches often teach in a way that they themselves

have been taught, instead of relying on scientific knowledge of correct biomechanics, motor

learning, and physiology. This manual will provide a scientific background in biomechanics,

motor learning, and physiology to instructors to improve their training protocols.

ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to thank my committee members for their encouragement and support.

Finding faculty members with a background in Brazilian Jiujitsu allowed me to expand my ideas

on the how-tos and whys of training.

Thank you to my mother for giving me a place to live, my dog for being my constant

companion, and my best friend and partner through this master’s experience, Asia Yates.

iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................... ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................................................................... iii

LIST OF TABLES ...........................................................................................................................v

LIST OF FIGURES ....................................................................................................................... vi

1. INTRODUCTION ...............................................................................................................1

2. METHODS ..........................................................................................................................3

3. CONCLUSION ....................................................................................................................5

APPENDIX: TEACHING AND COACHING BRAZILIAN JIUJITSU: AN
INSTRUCTIONAL MANUAL ....................................................................................6

REFERENCES ..............................................................................................................................46

iv

............... Sample Warm Up ................ LIST OF TABLES 1.................................................... Sample 90 Minute Class ............................44 4.........................41 2........................................................................................................................................45 5..............................................43 3............................. Sample 16 Week Program ........... Training Protocols for Different Energy System .............................................. Strength and Conditioning Program .............45 v ..........................................

..........................................20 6..... A closed guard ... Biomechanics is the study of mechanical function of the body. LIST OF FIGURES 1................................ The body’s center of gravity will change based on limb position and posture......................8 2..................... Tim Peterson demonstrating a stable mount .......................................... An open guard ..................................................................................................................... Army combatives demonstration of the scissor sweep .....26 vi ...............................16 5........................................................................................... A visual representation of bad and good form ..........9 3...........25 9................................................. A will be knocked off balance while B will remain balanced due to the direction of the base of support ....................22 7................................................................................ Length-tension relationship .......24 8........14 4.............................................................................

coaches are seldom well-suited to impart crucial knowledge to their students. Antonietti. It is a grappling art in which students are taught to submit their opponents through the use of leverage. technique and tactics. or even for social reasons. and lean body mass increase (Schwartz. 2016). Brazilian Jiujitsu is a valid modality for exercise for individuals who may want a more dynamic approach to moving their bodies. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Brazilian Jiujitsu (BJJ) is a martial art practiced by millions of people. muscle endurance.” When asked for further details of such terms ambiguous answers are often given. Del Vecchio. students are often told to “do more jiujitsu. self-confidence. The attached appendix gives a scientific background to biomechanics in order to help coaches explain these concepts with better precision and accuracy. Through the use of BJJ students can learn the proper ways to organize their movements and move around their environment. Although the coach’s main responsibility may be to teach techniques and strategies specifically for BJJ. By participating in a martial art. Takito. The role of a coach in BJJ is multifaceted. and healthy habits (Chinkov & Holt. Practitioners learn valuable life skills such as respect for others. people are able to elicit health-related changes such as improved cardiovascular fitness. competition.” This answer does not 1 . they will be asked by students about general health and movement such as strength and conditioning and stretching. Like many martial arts. When asked how to improve their BJJ game. 2015). & Franchini. Many coaches will teach techniques using nebulous terms such as “posture” and “base. Participants of the martial art choose to participate for numerous reasons such as self- defense. perseverance. Many coaches are in the position due to high level competition success which does not necessarily translate into good teaching ability.

the appendix will allow coaches to create better training environments in which students will rapidly improve their BJJ. 2 . The work in the appendix translates scientific principles of the main disciplines in exercise science in order to help instructors create lesson plans and teach BJJ in a way that provides a conceptual framework for students that will carry them throughout their BJJ career. By providing necessary background in exercise science.provide sufficient information for students to make concentrated efforts to improve their games.

failing to understand that procedural knowledge must be created and drilled. Through conversations with professors about training protocols and correct avenues of instruction a ground base for creating this manual was created. The author also attended BJJ classes in several academies in order to see the coaching strategies and lesson plans of different schools. The author consulted with committee members and faculty in order to discover what pertinent information is left out when coaching and decided on creating an instructional manual for coaches in order to teach effectively. While YouTube is filled with thousands of videos analyzing specific matches and teaching techniques. Many instructors expect the jump between declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge to be a natural one. Many biomechanics textbooks were referenced. were detrimental. After a decade of training. the supply of scholarly research on BJJ in general was lacking. Long Beach (CSULB) library. The author believed that coaching methods were lacking in most BJJ academies. however it took effort to translate the science 3 . CHAPTER 2 METHODS The author approached the work in order to fill a missing component in the BJJ world. and databases such as the California State University. The author attended sports conferences and special interest group meetings for combat science in order to expand his scope of knowledge on martial arts. The author compiled relevant data and information from every class taken throughout the master’s program in order to convert it into useful information for teaching BJJ. there is little information on how to teach techniques or how to train in order to learn a technique. and to see which components worked well. Articles were pulled from scholarly websites such as PubMed. or could be added. the author had seen thousands of hours of instruction both in class and on video. Ovid. However.

4 .into terms suitable to be taught to students in an applicable way. as well as using both the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and NSCA exercise books. The strength and conditioning portion of the appendix was created by consulting several National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialists (CSCS) faculty members. The author coached classes and instructed individuals privately in order to test different coaching strategies and tools.

This approach to martial arts is unscientific and does not lead to efficient improvement of students or the evolution of the art. 5 . the sport can be evolved and taught at a greater efficiency. Brazilian Jiujitsu is a modern martial art that is on the world stage. motor learning. This manual will provide a scientific background in biomechanics. and as such should not be constrained to the traditional coaching methods of other martial arts. CHAPTER 3 CONCLUSION Traditional martial arts are often taught with an air of mysticism. By presenting a scientific understanding to the martial art. with gurus passing on knowledge in the same way that they received the knowledge. and physiology to instructors to improve their training methods.

APPENDIX TEACHING AND COACHING BRAZILIAN JIUJITSU: AN INSTRUCTIONAL MANUAL 6 .

“Brazilian Jiu Jitsu is the art of controlling and submitting your opponent . grappling styles look completely foreign to each other. however large differences between grappling styles exist based on the written and unwritten rules of the sport.having your opponent yield by tapping out. The sport is how do I control and submit my opponent within the manmade rules of the game using the maximum amount of leverage. In all these grappling styles a practitioner can win by having more points after the allotted time has run out. strength. there is no win by takedown or by pin . BJJ matches are fought mainly with at least one fighter in a ground position with small periods of stand up grappling.” and a ruleset that does not allow the use of a kimono “no gi”.utilising the least amount of athletic attributes. Rules such as how to score points. when matches end. points are rewarded for taking down and/or pinning an opponent. or to win by points after the allotted time runs out. technique. cunningness and guile. 6th degree black belt under rigan machado Grappling Grappling is fighting without strikes and consists of using your body in order gain control of your opponent. While the other grappling styles mentioned have a significant amount of each match fought from a standing position with small periods of ground fighting. a kimono is worn and practitioners take advantage of the kimono to create grips and lever points. cunningness. In Judo. and what attire is worn have great effects on the evolution of a grappling art. Chapter 1: Intro It is the purpose of this book to help the performer and teacher understand the fundamental concepts of exercise science in order to maximize learning and performance in the realm of Brazilian Jiujitsu. All forms of grappling share this characteristic. technique. and the maximum amount of leverage. knowledge. Unlike many of the other grappling styles. knowledge.in that order . guile and the most amount of athletic attributes.” Chris Haueter. and one can win by executing a throw or pinning the opponent. 7 . size. Because of these differences in rulesets. The only way to win a match is either by submission .it has both a ruleset that uses a kimono “gi. The most popular wrestling styles (freestyle and Greco-Roman) do not allow gripping of clothing. and youth. Brazilian Jiujitsu (BJJ) is the broadest and most modern of the grappling arts . strength. Freestyle and Greco- Roman differ in that the former allows attacks to the lower body while the latter only allows for attacks to the upper body. explosiveness. explosiveness.the fight runs to its logical end with one player yielding defeat or being incapacitated by joint locks or chokes/strangles. size and youth.

In BJJ this is referred to as “rolling. most notably the renowned Gracie family. This rapid evolution came from the transition from a self- defense centered martial art into a combat sport. In the early 1990s BJJ was catapulted onto the world stage during the first Ultimate Fighting Championship. One of the most important aspects of judo that became integral to BJJ is the “randori” . but practices on a person with no agency one who assists with completing techniques. blue belts were a rare commodity. Over time.” The inclusion of rolling allows an individual to test their skill competency in a realistic combat situation. With the introduction of BJJ to the United States came a rapid evolution of the sport. A closed guard. Brief History of BJJ The Brazilian in BJJ is due to the sport originating from Brazil in the early 1900s. Instead of keeping a closed guard and strong underhooks to shield against 8 . an event that pitted different styles of martial arts against each other. Many of the first generation of Americans training BJJ attest to the fact that training was primarily confined to garages. and according to Chris Haueter (one of the first American black belts) there were literally only 16 techniques in BJJ. such as levers and wedges. The efficacy of BJJ was confined mainly to Brazil for much of its beginning. which was introduced to Brazil in by Mitsuyo Maeda. This differs from many traditional martial arts in which individuals are taught sequences of attack. With this transition came the opening of the guard and a change to sport specific techniques that develop without consideration on a self- defense aspect. Maeda taught judo to many Brazilian citizens. in order to allow a smaller individual to defeat a larger individual. FIGURE 1. The BJJ performed by Royce Gracie in UFC 1 is far less technically proficient and strategically diverse as the BJJ performed in today’s UFC. Royce went on to win the tournament and cemented BJJ as a fundamental aspect of mixed martial arts. BJJ evolved from Judo. This mechanical advantage neutralizes the physicality of a larger and stronger individual. the judo taught evolved into a martial system heavily favoring “the guard” which uses mechanical advantages.a non-cooperative free sparring practice in which both practitioners are trying to enforce their will. Royce Gracie was chosen to represent BJJ in this tournament due to his smaller frame and lack of athleticism.

Basic Objectives and Rules of BJJ There are many different federations and organizations that set up competitions. Rules and interpretations change from year to year. However. Due to this. sport players opened their guards and developed techniques that were to take advantage of the rules of competition. it is beyond the scope of this 9 . X and half-X. the basic objectives of BJJ has stayed the same since its inception. there is no standardized rule set for BJJ. FIGURE 2. Guards with many silly names came to existence such as butterfly. and possessing their own multitudes of techniques. deep half.strikes from an opponent as one might encounter during a brawl. spider. and the required attributes one would need to succeed. which awards points in case no submission is obtained before time expires. rubber. knee shield. A subtle change such as whether or not a kimono is worn “gi” or minimal clothing is worn and grips are not allowed to be made “no gi” radically changes how matches are played out. The largest organization. Each guard invented to take advantage of the user’s anthropometrics. There are also smaller tournaments which are “submission only” where a competitor can only win by obtained a submission. regardless of the guard or techniques employed. The opening up of the guard led to a cambrian explosion of positions and techniques. and worm. known as the International Brazilian Jiujitsu Federation (IBJJF) utilizes a ruleset with timed matches (time based on competitors’ age and skill level). An open guard.

The closeness of the closed guard allows for deflection of strikes for self defense. A submission can be obtained by putting your opponent in a choke or strangle (both referred to as a choke colloquially). A pain hold is any other position in which an opponent must yield due to overwhelming pain. As mentioned previously.commonly the shoulder. ankles. From a defensive position. bottom guard positions can greatly benefit the guard player by allowing for submissions or sweeps. now there are a multitude of guards. mount. closed or open) or try to retreat into a better defensive position. The guard is undeveloped in most grappling sports due to the ability to win by pin . 10 . as a victory can be obtained at any time. from bottom to top and top to bottom) and submissions. side-control. most people agree that the ultimate objective in BJJ is to obtain a submission. the guard was quickly adopted as it is a relatively safe position to be in while being on the ground. all submissions (and the danger associated with them) can be stopped immediately by tapping . The positional hierarchy for offensive positions are from smallest to greatest advantage. and finally back. However. or a painful hold. Other grappling sports end when a pin is obtained. Both chokes and strangles are constriction attacks on an opponent’s neck in order to deprive the brain of oxygen in order to put the opponent in an unconscious state. by obtaining a submission. and sometimes spinal. Each competitor attempts to put their opponent in increasingly disadvantageous positions while advancing into increasingly advantageous positions themselves in order to obtain a submission. and allows a great amount of control for the guard player . Since this rule does not exist in BJJ. The joint attacks attempt to force a joint outside of normal ranges of motion to damage that joint and prevent further use. making the guard a losing position.book to explain the specific rules of each organization. training sessions should take into account the ruleset of the competition that is being trained for. From an offensive position. However. Regardless of ruleset. elbow. this is rarely seen in a tournament setting. This aspect greatly adds to the appreciation of the sport by many practitioners and enthusiasts.if a competitor can force their opponent's shoulders on the mat for a specific period of time they can win.allowing for setups to sweeps (reversal of positions. back. half-guard. half-guard. however all guards retain the same objectives. A joint lock is any attack on one of the joints of the body . Of course. In general. side-control. The positional hierarchy for defensive positions from worst to best position to be in is as follows. Each match (or roll) begins from a neutral position where neither competitor possesses a positional advantage. submit or sweep your opponent. top positions are offensive and advantageous and bottom positions are defensive and disadvantageous.yielding defeat. full guard/open guard. wrist. guard. mount. the player will try to obtain a submission or try to advance to an even more favorable position. joint lock. the player will try to obtain a submission (which is only realistically possible in one of the guard positions. The guard is a unique component to BJJ and is a core component in BJJ competency. or sweep to an offensive position. regardless of point differential. knees. All guards take advantage of basic biomechanical concepts in order to achieve these outcomes. in a BJJ match gaining positional control over your opponent is only half the battle.

Commonly experienced while transitioning between positions. Tap: Tapping on an opponent in order to yield defeat. Commonly referred to as a randori in Judo. sometimes referred to as a ‘kimono’ Grappling: A style of hand to hand combat in which striking is not permitted. BJJ has a belt system in order to differentiate practitioners by experience level. commonly a choke or joint lock. purple. Belt System Like many martial arts. A hobbyist black belt may have great difficulty rolling with a competitive blue belt. 11 . and black. Drill: Practicing a technique or techniques in isolation in order to hone skills Choke: Referring to both chokes and strangles. Scramble: When neither competitor has a stable position and rush to be the first in a secure position. Posture: A body configuration which allows you to complete a movement or technique. Commonly awarded in competition. brown. any technique that attempts to gain a tap by constricting air/blood at the neck. Sweep: From the bottom position: Using your legs in order to reverse positions. Can also be verbally said or the floor could be tapped on. Roll: a non-cooperative free sparring practice in which both practitioners are trying to enforce their will. Joint lock: Any of the various attacks in which a joint is pushed outside of normal ranges of motion in order to obtain a tap or damage the joint. blue. Instructors award belts based on subjective evaluations of practitioners. this is not always the case. Gi: The BJJ uniform. Terminology Base: The contact area under a person that serves as a supporting structure to distribute their weight. ending on top. While the belt system is a good indicator of the wearer’s skill level. For adults the belts start and progress from white. Competitors use their bodies in order to gain a physical advantage over their opponent. Most gyms refer to posture as the most efficient and strongest body configuration. Submission: A technique used in order win a match.

Commonly not rewarded in competition. 12 .Reversal: From the bottom position: using your upper body in order to reverse positions. ending on top.

posture. This system that allows for movement is made of a skeleton that acts as a rigid structure. The human body is confined to the rules of physics. shapes. Each of these joints move independently.how and why the body moves. knees and elbows flex and extend in one plane of motion. All humans navigate the world using the musculoskeletal system . and movement. It should be noted that idiosyncrasies will always result due to differences between people. The benefits of such knowledge should be readily apparent. For the most part. Each of these body parts will allow for movement in the same general way. allowing for almost infinite configurations.a head connected to a torso. It is imperative for students to understand how to properly use their body and its parts in order to be strong and efficient. muscles that act as motors to provide internal force. and spines can bend in many directions. the body can move. BJJ can be seen as a complex game in which two bodies attempt to move the other into a position that yields a submission. and postures the body is capable of. proper understanding of the conceptual basis for movement will allow students to understand techniques instead of simply parroting the techniques. 13 . In order to be successful in BJJ a student must: 1) Use their body to maintain stability 2) Use their body to cause instability in their opponent 3) Take advantage of the opponent’s instability 4) Produce and control force in order to maximize the results as efficiently as possible This chapter will explain the basic principles that must be followed for efficient and effective movements to occur. Proper understanding of how the body works will allow a coach to communicate knowledge in a clear way and will be instrumental in the success of their students. By examining the body through the lens of physics we can understand how the body operates and what constraints it must operate in. In turn. and joints that act as levers. but the underlying principles behind techniques remain the same.an organ system that allows for shape. Chapter 2: Biomechanics Biomechanics of BJJ Biomechanics is the study of the mechanical structure and function of a human body which give rise to movement . If the muscle provides enough internal force to overcome the external forces. everybody has the same basic body structure . hips and shoulder move relatively freely. and four limbs extending from the torso. protection.

the variations of measurements such as mass. More flexible individuals may find success in Eddie Bravo’s 10th planet system which requires pretzel levels of flexibility.FIGURE 3. 14 . length. Gary Tonin). Short stocky individuals will find more success in closer positions such as butterfly and will be able to succeed with submissions such as armbars due to the ability to get closer to their opponents (Marcelo Garcia. and girth for each body segment of both competitors will dictate the most effective techniques that can be used. Anthropometry dictates specialization in BJJ Although most humans have the same basic shape. Keenan Cornelius). For example. Biomechanics is the study of mechanical function of the body. you should direct your students to a game that their body will be suited for. As an instructor. long and lanky individuals will be more likely to achieve submissions such as triangles and play open guards such as dela riva or spider guard (Ryan Hall.

otherwise their position will be broken down by the bottom player. hips. It is important to note that many practitioners will utilize bad form but still have success in spite of bad mechanics due to compensation by using more energy and more muscular effort. It is also true that certain high-level competitors will purposely choose to use dangerous biomechanical positions in order to achieve certain maneuvers. You must acknowledge that there is no one correct way to perform a movement. Form There is no platonic ideal for good form. and back extensors must be continually active to prevent the collapse of the postural structure. however. It is imperative for a long-lasting BJJ career that proper form is maintained during rolls. Stooped and hunched posture require greater muscular effort to sustain and place more load on the spinal discs (Nordin and Frankel. known to many as one of the greatest BJJ athletes has eight herniated discs. energy expenditure. however by using the optimal amount of effort. abdominals. While attempting standing guard passes the practitioner should keep their spine braced. the rounds should be kept short in order to prevent the collapse of posture during training in order to reduce injury risks. one of the top competitors of the current era. However. and will stress and strain the body. Bodily sacrifices must be made at the highest levels of competition. Rodolfo Vieira. it will pay off as training time increases. but many correct ways. but that there will always be an optimal amount to be endured. had to take a sabbatical from competition and training due to a herniated disc. That is not to say that energy expenditure and strain should be avoided. one can accomplish the task while minimizing energy expenditure and strain placed on the body. Exercises should also be introduced to training in order to 15 . Strong posture must be maintained during all positions. Good form is simply the performance of a movement in which the action goal is accomplished with minimal energy expenditure and strain placed on the body. the founder of American Top Team. It is also important to note that there is not a singular correct way to accomplish a task. Many high-level competitors end up with chronic pain due to abusing their bodies throughout their competitive careers. Rickson Gracie. this should not encourage you to teach the same positions as this would be dangerous for your student’s longevity. This compensation combined with bad form will lead to injuries over time. during training form should be focused on and pain should not be endured in order to “win”. Most students are training in order to improve their quality of life. good form requires a strong posture. While maintaining good form may be difficult and prevent a student from being dominant at first. has seven herniated discs. While in an offensive side-mount. Performing a hip-bump to escape a heavier opponent’s mount will involve great effort. 2001). and should train in a way to decrease their risk of injury. Ricardo Liborio. As a coach. Students should be instructed to keep an erect spine in order to prevent stooping or hunched posture. a strong posture will allow the practitioner to efficiently transfer the force from driving off the ground. In general. Muscles of the core from the glutes. It should be noted that posture can fatigue. you should help a student figure out the optimal way to adapt a movement that is suitable for their anthropometry while reducing risks of injury. keeping a strong rigid core and a braced spine. During drilling of certain positions such as spider guard.

These laws can be taken advantage of in BJJ by understanding a few key principles. Basic Mechanical Principles Motion The three laws of motion. The Law of Reaction: For every action. there is an equal and opposite reaction. The Law of Acceleration: The amount of force needed to accelerate an object is directly proportional to how much mass that object has. FIGURE 4. A heavier person will be harder to move than a lighter person.such exercises will be introduced in the strength and conditioning chapter. A visual representation of bad and good form. as taught by Newton. are as follows: The Law of Inertia: The property of matter that makes an object continue its current state of motion until acted upon by an outside force. and the faster you want to accelerate an object the more force you have to utilize.develop postural endurance . 1) The amount of force needed to change a body’s motion depends on both the mass and speed of the body. and a 16 .

The easiest production of force to teach students to utilize is the 17 . Inertia is the reason weight classes are required in competition. Students should be taught to drive off the ground to keep their base and to drive into an opponent.only the person on top can take advantage of gravity.these include gravity. Some techniques in BJJ require using an opponent’s momentum to your advantage. Force In the most basic sense. one can drive into their opponent 3) By using the force of gravity to apply weight on the opponent The first two methods are available to both the top and bottom position. Forces can be split into two categories: internal and external forces. This can easily be seen in the elbow push side-mount escape. ligament restraint. they will be able to successfully and efficiently control both their own body and their opponent’s bodies. This could be the pull on a sleeve or lapel. 3) It takes a lot of force to start a person’s movement. Attacks must be set up by destabilizing an opponent in the direction opposite of the sweep. External forces are the forces that act upon the body from outside of the body . friction. By teaching students to take advantage of all the forces available to them. 2009). but since the force of gravity is always pulling downwards . or the sacrifice throw in Judo. it takes far less force in order to continue their movement. Internal forces are forces that are generated within one’s own body. Keeping a strong posture while driving off the ground will allow for a stronger and more efficient transfer of force. Students should also be taught not to overextend themselves by forcefully moving with speed or they can be taken advantaged of. and skeletal structure. they will be difficult or impossible to sweep or submit from a static position. Students should be taught to take advantage of their opponent’s momentum by pushing their partner along a path that they have already started on. faster person will be harder to stop than a slower person. 2) A person who is moving will require a lot of force to stop their movement. The forceful movement the opponent uses to return to their original position can be taken advantage of by providing the momentum needed to complete the sweep. Many sweeps take advantage of an opponent’s momentum. a heavier person will always have a mechanical advantage over a lighter person. If an opponent is knowledgeable in BJJ techniques. both internal and external. This could also be the push or pull exerted on the ground. however. and an opponent’s body (Winter. This will overextend their opponent and allow for the student to take advantage of the overextension. forces are simply the push or pull exerted onto an object or person . and consists of muscular contractions. or pushing on an opponent. There are three ways to recruit force: 1) By using muscular force to push or pull directly on the opponent 2) By pushing off the floor.forces are any action or influence that moves an object.

However. If force is applied at an opponent’s center of mass then the movement created will be linear. If the technique’s purpose is to turn the opponent. if the direction of force is applied incorrectly. Sometimes a large powerful movement through a short amount of time will be desired.the longer the distance of the bridge (the height of the bridge) the more force will be generated. A larger opponent will always require more force to move than a smaller opponent. 4) Distance and time of application More force can be applied over a longer period of time and distance. they will be unable to accomplish their movement goal if the direction of the force is incorrect. 3) Point of application The point of contact when force is used will determine which movement will follow.use of their own muscular force since most people already have an understanding of pushing and pulling on their opponent. 2) Direction of application Regardless of how much force a student can recruit. When instructing students to use force during a technique. Students should not use any more force than necessary in order to reduce energy expenditure and strain placed on the body. the force should be applied further from the center of mass. the more force they can exert on their opponent in order to sap their opponent’s stamina. If a technique’s purpose is to move the opponent directly forward or backward then the point of application should be at the opponent’s center of mass. many beginning students will bridge strongly with much effort in order to escape mount. This concept is important during top positions such as mount. the bridge will serve no purpose except for expending energy. One consideration before attempting to use force is the understanding that to move a large amount of mass. they should be taught to take into consideration the following aspects: 1) Magnitude of force Students should be taught how much force will be needed for a particular technique. a large amount of force will be needed. For example. The longer amount of time a student is mounted on their opponent. 18 . The distance of application can be seen during the bridge defense against mount . such as straight up towards the ceiling instead of over the practitioners shoulder. However. the further away from the opponent’s center of mass the more torque will be created. but in some cases force over a long period of time will be more useful.

When the objective is to move an opponent’s arm one can muscle through the movement in order to achieve the objective. thus possessing a larger moment arm that can be used to generate torque. This is to prevent both the arm from extending out and also to prevent the arms from crossing the midline of the body. Underhooks allow for manipulation of the opponent’s body through the use of leverage. the longer the moment arm the more force will be applied at the joint. Leverage is what allows a smaller person to control a larger person. Again. While an in-depth discussion of levers are beyond the scope of this manual.thus saving energy and creating a mechanical advantage. A powerful example of leverage is the use of underhooks. knocking it out of position. When the arm is extended straight in front of the body its center of mass is far from the origin of the arm. Since the size of the muscle is the main-contributing 19 . This is accomplished through the use of torque in order to turn the opponent’s body and limbs. These positions are considered weak due to the mechanics of the arm. however if we push on the side closest to the hinges it will take significantly more force to open the door. expending more energy than required and producing more strain on the body. many times a practitioner will be required to move the opponent’s limbs out of the way. Another useful aspect of attacking the end of the lever is the use of torque. This can be demonstrated easily with a door . A cardinal rule of BJJ is to keep the arms close to the body. if one understands how leverage works they will be able to move the arm by pressing on the end of the arm . This very basic physiological change is the simplest fool-proof method of increasing strength. students are often told to keep their elbows glued to their ribs or to make T-Rex arms. joints act as fulcrums. However. This understanding can also be applied throughout all positions during training. By manipulating the shape of your body you can influence how much force you can produce and how much load you can withstand. the most important aspect of a lever is that the further away force is applied on the lever the stronger the force will be on the other side of the lever. The human body is composed of a system of levers: bones act as rigid bars.by pushing on the door on the opposite side of the hinges we can easily open the door. Leverage and Torque An understanding of leverage and moment arms will be crucial for students to understand how and why certain techniques work. The length between the fulcrum and where force is applied is called the moment arm. This extended position can easily be disrupted by applying torque at the end of the arm. and muscles provide the effort. While some techniques will require pushing or pulling linearly against the opponent. Muscular Force One of the easiest ways to improve students’ muscular force output is by increasing the cross-sectional area of their muscles . the most important aspect that can be relayed to students is that by pushing or pulling further away from the joint the more torque is produced. by attacking at the end of the lever students will be able to control their opponent much more efficiently.making them bigger. Thus. Since underhooks are established under the armpits they allow for torque to be created about the opponent’s center of gravity. This method is expanded upon in the strength and conditioning chapter.

20 . New students should be taught to relax and not waste energy . The amount of force produced is directly related to the magnitude of overlap between the actin and myosin filaments. One of the paradoxes of this increase of muscle firing is that movements produced will actually be weaker.factor to how much force can be generated. For instance. due to antagonistic muscles detracting from the total force output. shortening the muscle fiber and producing a contraction. myosin and actin. commonly referred to as “spazzing”. many new students will try to execute a cross- choke using their biceps instead of pulling with their large back muscles . muscles produce force by forming cross-bridges between two muscle filaments.this can be achieved by having students learn the right activation patterns of techniques and movements before trying to implement the techniques during live training sessions. Myosin pulls on actin.by teaching new students to activate the largest and strongest muscles available to them. they will be more successful accomplishing their actions. This will cause the new student to fatigue quickly during training and increase the likelihood for injury for both the new student and their training partner. producing jerky movements. FIGURE 5. students should first learn how to use the strongest muscles to perform a required task. The usefulness of this is that in general. Length-tension relationship. Students should be taught to take advantage of this weakness. Many students will be too tense and use much more muscular force than needed to complete movements. The activation of the antagonistic muscles will only serve to provide unnecessary stress and strain on the student’s body. On a cellular basis. a joint that is fully extended or fully flexed will be weaker than when the joint is at 90 degrees.

Center of Gravity The center of gravity is an important concept that students should understand to make sense of many sweeps and positions that they will encounter during training. a lower COG will allow for greater stability. Gravity is one of the most important concepts in BJJ due to the nature of the sport. During a normal standing posture with arms hanging by the side. a person can change their COG in order to resist sweeps or prevent themselves from falling over. and it can be generally assumed that a person’s center of gravity will lie around the hips in most postures. BJJ legend Demian Maia succinctly explains the proper way to use gravity in the following quote . Students should be taught how to use gravity to their advantage. the body’s center of gravity is approximately around the navel. the force of gravity is the main component in making positions either favorable or unfavorable. By configuring their own body. and students should be taught to exploit that free energy. since your body is made of mass. Students should be taught to control their COG to prevent being swept. with its almost unlimited postures and positions allows for a shifting center of gravity . and to control their opponent’s COG in order to set them up to be swept. The force of gravity constantly pulls a body’s COG in a straight line towards the center of the earth. When I rest. Gravity is always acting upon objects which have mass. 21 .“Your opponent should be carrying your bodyweight while you are resting. The Earth’s force pulls you onto the planet and pulls galaxies together. where the average mass of the object lies . In general. In general. gravity is always acting upon you. I should put him to work so I don’t work and he works and he gets tired!” Another way of thinking of this is that gravity is free energy. This action of gravity is what gives you weight.the center of gravity (COG).even at times outside of the body itself. Gravity Gravity is one of the fundamental forces of the universe: gravity’s force pulls all objects with mass together. The human body. squatting will lower the COG and provide more stability. and that in most cases one person will benefit from the force of gravity while the other will be disadvantaged by gravity. The person in the top position can exert the force of their weight on the person on the bottom position without relying on muscular force. Gravity acts upon all objects in a way where the overall pull is concentrated on a singular point. The person on the bottom position will be forced to endure the weight of their opponent and will be forced to exert muscular force in order to move the weight of their opponent.

an outstretched arm or leg can shift the COG further than one can expect. Gymnasts and divers can change their position in the air by changing the position of their COG by extending or flexing their limbs. Students should be taught to use their COG dynamically. they will retain better control over them because they can treat their two masses as one. students will be able to intuitively understand how to use their base. Due to this. to become heavier and lighter in certain positions to prevent sweeps. students are often told to keep a strong base or to stand up in base. What many coaches mean is that a student should be “strong” in a stance and hard to move. This term is rarely expounded upon by instructors and the concept remains nebulous to many students when they first learn BJJ. Another aspect regarding COG that should be taught is that by having a student get their COG close to their opponent’s COG. This definition is clumsy and does not provide enough conceptual knowledge for students to implement into their game. Base Base is a term that is frequently heard on the mats. The position of the COG can change substantially based on where each individual body segment is.FIGURE 6. By explaining the concept in biomechanical terms. In biomechanical terms. and each individual body segment’s influence is proportional to its weight and distance from the COG. The body’s center of gravity will change based on limb position and posture. a base of support for any structure is the area beneath the structure that includes every point of contact that the structure makes with the supporting 22 .

when you widen your stance you increase your base of support. While laying on your side. the more stability one has the less mobility they will have and vice versa. the base of support would include all points in which your body makes contact with the ground. This allows the base to become a platform for receiving force from and exerting force on the opponent. For instance. while on top side-mount a student should be taught to push off their base of support at their toes in order to exert force (“drive”) on their opponent. Students should be taught that their base of support is dynamic and will constantly change as they move. in order to sweep an opponent. While standing. 1973). your base of support are all the points of contact that your feet or shoes make with the ground and the area between.as a person becomes more flexible they will be able to recruit a wider/larger BOS. A body is balanced when its center of gravity is above its base of support.surface. As mentioned previously the wider the BOS is. The wider your base is. Every sweep and technique requires the ability to manipulate both the student’s and the opponent’s balance. Students should also be taught to exert force off their posts. Balance must be carefully controlled by being both stable and mobile. Balance: Stability v. the more stability will be gained . It is important to note that the practitioner in the top position can use the bottom practitioner’s body as a base of support. Mobility BJJ matches are dynamic battles between stability and mobility for both the fighter on the bottom and top positions. the body will fall until a new base is created. the more stability you will have. Practitioners must become intimately connected with their balance in order to become better at BJJ. Stability and mobility are two sides of a spectrum. Practitioners must be able to take advantage of both stability and mobility in order to advance and secure positions. In the push-up position the base of support would be the area under the hands making contact with the ground and the balls of the feet and the area between. Students should always be aware of where their base of support is in order to prevent sweeps and become more stable. 23 . These points of contact are commonly referred to as “posts” within the BJJ community. their center of gravity must be moved outside their base of support (Broer. If the COG falls outside of the base of support. A mechanical understanding of balance will enable you to convey the principles behind sweeps to your students and will in turn allow them to better understand sweeps conceptually and increase their performance.

Most practitioners in the early phases of learning will find it easier to maximize stability instead of creating new posts due to a lack of knowledge of how their bodies will land from a sweep.FIGURE 7. when the opponent is kneeling tall they will be easily swept and when the opponent is low they will be much harder to sweep. and a higher center of gravity will be more likely to be perturbed by force due to greater torque. you must either maximize stability in order to be kept from knocking off balance. A lower center of gravity will be more stable. 24 . B will resist force with greater ease due to the direction of the base of support. There are two factors that influence a person’s stability . In the following figure. Army combatives demonstration of the scissor sweep. a wide base of support will only be helpful if it is towards the direction of the force. The bottom player is pushing the top player’s center of gravity outside his base of support in order to obtain the sweep. When being pushed by a large force. even if A had a much larger base of support than B. the practitioner will reduce the amount of torque the opponent can create. The larger somebody’s base of support the more stability they will possess due to greater possibility of movement of the center of gravity.the height of their center of gravity and the size of their base of support. or you must become mobile and create a new post in order to stop the sweep. A lower center of gravity will make it much more difficult to be swept or moved by an outside force. This can be demonstrated to students using a scissor sweep. 2) Increasing their base of support toward the opposing force A large base of support will have more stability but only in the the direction of the force. Students should be taught how to maximize stability by: 1) Lowering their center of gravity By lowering their center of gravity. In order to avoid being swept. they will be knocked off balance due to their base being perpendicular to the incoming force.

FIGURE 8. Stability is important when finishing submissions as well. increasing their base and leaning towards an opposing force a student will also be able to keep from being bridged off mount. By keeping a low center of gravity. making it harder for the center of gravity to be pushed out of the base of support and easier to resist the force. Students should take care to be mindful of how much they are leaning towards the opposing force or their momentum may be taken advantage of. 3) Leaning toward intended opposing force By leaning towards the opposing force the center of gravity will be shifted towards the force. most submissions require the attacking player to completely eliminate the defender’s mobility in order to prevent any escapes. A will be knocked off balance while B will remain balanced due to the direction of the base of support. 25 . These general guidelines will not only help to prevent being swept but will also help students learn how to secure dominant positions.

Positions The following positions are ordered from the best possible location to be in to the worst possible position to be in. Note that the neutral positions can be advantageous for either the top or bottom player based on the amount of mobility and stability each has. the student should focus on being mobile around their opponent. Bad positions are disadvantaged by gravity and one must expend energy in order to gain mobility. Many techniques require control of balance while maximizing mobility. students must also be taught how to use dynamic balance while being mobile. When an opponent is insistent on keeping their stability high. mobility is more important than stability. and will most likely have to resort to moving around a heavier opponent. mobility relies on a small base of support and higher center of gravity. One aspect of stability that should be acknowledged is that having more mass contributes to more stability during a static position. In this case. While maximizing stability is crucial for some aspects of BJJ. While stability requires a large base of support and a low center of gravity. Tim Peterson demonstrating a stable mount.FIGURE 9. a heavyweight will be much more stable than a featherweight due to inherent differences in mass and inertia. It should be recognized that the best positions are good because they allow one to take advantage of gravity and provide the option of being mobile or stable. A lighter practitioner will have great difficulty sweeping a larger opponent. Note the large base of support and low center of gravity. Best Top rear-mount Top mount Top side-mount 26 .

The positional hierarchy for offensive positions are from smallest to greatest advantage. top positions are offensive and bottom positions are defensive. taking away their mobility. The bottom player must endure the weight of their opponent and at the same time expend much energy in order to find a favorable position. while the player in the bottom position must either sweep or submit the other person. Other guards such as butterfly. From an offensive position. By putting more mass on the opponent’s body parts they become more stable and less mobile so they will be unable to escape or reverse the position. The 27 . Worst Bottom half-guard Bottom side-mounted Bottom mounted Bottom rear-mounted These positions require the practitioner to carry the weight of the top player. and finally rear-mount. and can limit their energy expenditure. The top player will be able to utilize their mass using gravity.Top half-guard These positions are advantageous because they allow the elimination of an opponent’s mobility. top side-mount. top mount. and deep-half maximize take advantage of creating an unstable opponent in order to gain sweeps. with the exception of bottom guard positions which can be used offensively. Strategy Due to all the reasons stated in this chapter it should be obvious that the person on top has a clear advantage in all mechanical aspects. most likely a guard position. the player will try to obtain a submission or try to advance to an even more favorable position. The bottom player will be forced to expend energy in order to prevent the top players advancement and submissions while at the same time trying to escape to a more favorable position. Some guards (closed guard. The top player can pass by eliminating the bottom player’s mobility or by using their own mobility in order to pass the guard. bottom guard. traditional half-guard) are used to lock down the opponent’s movements. Neutral Open guard Closed guard The objective for the player in the top position is to pass the guard. can choose to be mobile or stable depending on their objective. It is the prerogative of the competitor to put the opponent in a defensive position while obtaining an offensive position for him/herself. spider guard. Each match (or roll) begins from a neutral position where neither competitor possesses a mechanical advantage. In general. de la riva. x-guard.

The defensive position is disadvantageous due to the physical and psychological punishment of the position and carrying the weight of the opponent. Techniques for retreating to a less disadvantageous position must be learned. The player should keep the opponent off balance by destroying the opponent’s base in order to prevent the opponent from obtaining a post to apply force from. While in this position. balance. From a defensive position. foresight. the player will try to retreat to a better defensive position with the goal of obtaining a guard position. side-mount. Separate your opponent’s elbows from their ribs in order to gain advantage The positional hierarchy for defensive positions from worst to best position to be in is as follows. The defender must learn to use the weight and momentum of the top fighter for personal advantage in order to obtain a reversal or sweep.goal of the player should be constant harassment of the opponent. From the guard position the player will attempt to submit the opponent or sweep to a top position. Gaps should be created and sought in order to reposition and retreat. half-guard. In a defensive position it is important to establish and maintain underhooks in order to establish a control point and prevent the opponent to establish their underhooks. The advantage of gravity should be taken by being offensive in every possible way. The offensive position allows you to search for openings for submissions or position advancements without the pressure of your opponent’s body mass and allows for one to exert a lot of force with less energy. full guard/open-guard. Obtaining and maintaining the offensive position requires skill. mount. and strength. you must spend considerable energy to become free from the position. Rules for the offensive position: Don’t let your opponent control your hands Let your opponent carry your weight as much as possible Don’t let your opponent establish underhooks Constantly exert pressure to destroy/prevent your opponent from establishing a base Maintain control of either your opponent's shoulders or hips in order to stabilize a position Constantly be floating to shift your weight to block your opponent’s moves Constantly drive into your opponent Do not let your weight become established unevenly on your opponent. Rules for defensive position You must constantly retreat to a better defensive position When you are in the best defensive position (a guard) you must attempt to submit to end the match or sweep to get into a better position Establish and maintain underhooks as soon as possible Great effort must be expended in order to retreat Keep your elbows tight to prevent submissions 28 . rear-mount.

Chapter 3: Motor Control Motor control is the process in which humans learn to coordinate their muscles and bodies in order to create a movement. Motor learning is the process of learning the actual coordination of specific motor skills. Every position has many different available movements and maneuvers. During live rolling sessions. Every roll is unique due to the varying anthropometrics of each practitioner (mass. Learning these basic movements will enable a practitioner to quickly improve their BJJ. BJJ Complexity BJJ is one of the most difficult martial arts to learn due to the complexity of movements and strategies involved. height. while the postures for BJJ mostly consists of lying on the ground with their back against the floor or with their front against their opponent. and every counter-technique has a counter-counter-technique. Why? Is this a problem with drilling or a problem with learning? In this chapter I will present a class structure and learning techniques to optimize student performance. Moving from these positions and postures is extraordinarily difficult for most new practitioners. Each student must learn the every position of the sport. each player must learn the skillsets required for every position. Each practitioner must try to time their movements to take advantage of their opponent’s balance. and you’ll find that many times a beginner will not be able to complete the warm- up section of class . After hundreds of repetitions of a technique they still will not be able to execute a technique. two practitioners must try to move and reach their movement goals while their opponent is actively trying to stifle their advancement and achieve their own movement goals (in motion regulatory conditions). No sport consist of a singular skill. Each practitioner must try to control their opponent by gripping their gi or limbs (object manipulation). 29 .particularly shrimping and crawling sequences. but many different skills that are put together to create a game. It is often difficult for new practitioners to learn because most people do not have much experience moving around on the floor after they learned to walk. In team sports such as basketball or football each player is given a position in which they have to learn a set of skills to accomplish the goals of the position. The question is this: when do you consider a skill learned? As an instructor you will notice many students will be able to execute a technique during practice with varying degrees of resistance. limb length) and the near infinite strategies one may adopt for each roll (intertrial variability). and to find stability as their opponent tries to destabilize them (active body transport). and each maneuver will chain off into different maneuvers. Once a new practitioner is comfortable with basic movements. The other reason BJJ is one of the more difficult martial arts is due to the complexity of the strategy involved in each roll. but will notice that they won't be able to execute the same technique during live rolls. In BJJ however. they will quickly discover that those basic movements only provide a starting point for more complex movements and actions. All of these strategic choices must be made in real-time while under pressure of an opponent who is actively trying to achieve their own goals. Many martial arts are much easier to pick up since the basic posture is upright and standing. Motor control lays the coordination foundations for movement. Every technique has a counter-technique. The level of complexity in movements quickly increases from basic movements to such movements as inversions and basic gymnastics.

and break falls. and executing these moves during sparring will become second nature. you must take great care in order to take into consideration the behavior and thought process of a beginner student in order to tailor the instruction. a lower belt is a white or blue belt and a higher belt is purple and up. Any part of class that is not catered in a way to help a student progress should be critically evaluated. The skill level of different belt colors varies dramatically. However. with the most greatest increase in skill occurring at the earlier years. As an instructor. While some BJJ practitioners may try to show a multitude of techniques in a session thinking they are teaching their students. As an instructor. A higher belt has more persistent skills. and executing these moves during rolling may seem impossible. 30 .” with many believe in the myth of expertise being obtained after 10. A huge amount of learning occurs during the beginning few months of a person’s BJJ career. A higher belt will also have more adaptability. Stages of Learning In order to teach a beginner BJJ. you will find that there will be dedicated practitioners who will stay as a white belt for many years despite hundreds of hours of mat time accumulated. but it will be harder for some than others. However. and practice conditions to suit the student. as training time increases executing skills during drilling will become easier. If someone decides to do BJJ after a lifetime of sedentary behavior. The goal of an instructor should be to maximize the student’s learning of BJJ. A higher belt is more consistent in their performance. and able to improvise techniques. with internal and external perturbations affecting him or her less. A higher belt will also need to pay less attention to their motor commands and will be able to use more attention on strategizing. with vast improvements in skills and abilities during the early stages of training. A common belief among coaches is that the only way to improve is “mat time.000 hours of mat time. Learning BJJ is hard for everyone. This discrepancy between skill level and mat time exists due to the inherent abilities that are possessed by people. you must understand how a beginner learns. in general there are clear distinctions between lower and higher belts. such as sprawling. If someone has wrestled before they will have a lot of well-developed skills that overlap with BJJ. This is due to differences in starting abilities of practitioners and promotions based on mat time. the total amount of time poorly correlates with skill improvement. hip bumping. Learning submissions and sweeps may seem incredibly difficult. The rate of improvement is logarithmic. However. being able to adapt their maneuvers and movements against new opponents and new contexts. For the purposes of this manual. Skill Learning BJJ beginners will often find it difficult to learn the motor skills in BJJ. feedback. being able to be away from training for months or years and still being able to perform relatively well during training. According to crossman study. most of the improvements to a single motor skill occurs within the first two years of performance. While a lower belts’ performance can fluctuate dramatically day to day. approaching training and drilling sessions with a scientific approach will allow us to optimize skill learning. a higher belt will have learned enough to perform similarly well every training session. While it is true that students will become better at BJJ as time spent drilling and rolling increases. this only serves to overload a beginner. The transition from a lower belt to a higher belt is very slow. You will also find the rare individual who will start their BJJ career able to roll competitively with higher belts. Every warm-up and drill should be structured in order to maximize the learning process of a student. Many students are on a limited time schedule and must sacrifice time with their family or performing important job functions in order to attend BJJ classes. they will have to develop skills from the ground up. A higher belt will have more stability. It is imperative that classes are structured in a way to optimize skill learning and increasing performance of a student. with some blue belts being able to compete at a similar level as some black belts.

As the student improves through purple. with entries to the triangle. When a white belt is transitioning into a blue belt she will be able to associate specific cues with movements required to achieve their goal. feedback. During this stage the student will make a lot of mistakes.the student must consciously think about what to do and how to do it. The new student will not understand what they are supposed to do or why they are supposed to do something when instructed to do so. In many gyms students are placed within the already occurring curriculum and are expected to learn along with students who are already learning. This is not optimal for new students as they lack a basis for understanding why techniques or movements are used. brown. 31 . the student will be able to non-consciously understand when they can use a triangle and non-consciously attack since the skill has become automatic. As an instructor. which is perfectly natural and should be expected by both the instructor and the student. and practice conditions to suit the student. When a beginner is learning how to attack with a triangle choke they might only be able to complete the motion of setting up the choke during drills against a non-resisting partner. you must take great care in order to take into consideration the behavior and thought process of a beginner student in order to tailor the instruction. These drills must be changed in ways in order to not present themselves the same way twice. sweep. they will understand the basic objectives of BJJ. so the instructor will need to tell them what they’re doing wrong and how to do it right. After many years of practice. or submit. It will only be after years of training that a practitioner will be able to engage in autonomic execution of maneuvers. The beginner will not be able to use the triangle choke during rolling sessions because they have not begun to associate the movement of the opponent with valid entries for the triangle. a student requires many repetitions of movement to find best way of solving each positional motor problem given the infinite number of external conditions one might encounter due to the fact that movements are never reproduced exactly. These specific cues will be instilled through many repetitions and classes. The blue belt will be able to perform with fewer and smaller errors due to acquiring basic fundamentals and mechanics of a skill. although they will still have much to improve upon. The triangle set-up will be formulaic and robotic due to the student only able to consciously following instruction. instructors must give lots of attention and instruction in order to grow the student into a blue belt. In order to jump start a new student’s development. During this stage of development of a student. As the white belt transitions to a blue belt. As the beginner drills and rolls more they beginner will be able to associate cues of the opponent. and black they will be faster at associating cues with movements and able to perform automatically. as a large component of learning is “The student must also attempt to use the techniques and maneuvers drilled during live rolling sessions in order to experience as many modifications of the skills as possible. whether the goal is to pass guard. beginners should be informed of the following: ● What the objectives are ● What is allowed to meet the objective ● How to move their bodies in order to meet the objective The new student will have to engage in cognitive activity in order to process this information during each roll . such as one arm in and one arm out. and will know a handful of moves to attempt to complete their objectives. In order to progress through these stages of development. The instruction portion of class should also be structured in a way to maximize the student’s learning while minimizing the amount of time. The student will also not be able to fix their mistakes. The student must drill positions and techniques with as many different body types and levels of resistance as possible.

Techniques should then be demonstrated at slower speeds so students can see specific important aspects of said technique. Verbal instructions can also be used to emphasize the parameters of the action . so instructors should make it a point to reinforce the idea of controlling the shoulders verbally. Students should be encouraged to constantly walk around during instruction in order to view the technique at as many angles as possible. a student will not develop and reinforce the correct motor programs without physically performing the technique and movements. Verbal instructions should point out things that are hard to observe or cannot be observed visually at all . Because of this. or what base of support is being pushed off of. Most beginners rely on the instruction portion of BJJ class as their primary mode of learning. a viewing of any BJJ instructional video will show the instructor verbally describing their movements as they perform the movements.such as where weight is distributed. While it may be tempting to teach students ten moves in a day in order to prove you have a wealth of 32 . The amount of techniques and maneuvers presented to students during each training session should also be limited as to not overload students’ with information. Instruction: Demonstration and Instruction Many gyms structure their instructional portion in the following way: There will be a 30- 60 minute block of instruction in which the coach will explain a technique and then have the student practice the technique for a set amount of reps or time. and must have these aspects verbally and visually explained to them. such as gross movements and placement of limbs. during demonstration of a smash pass the instructor should reinforce the idea of controlling the hips through verbal instructions. and one can understand the details of a technique perfectly and still be unable to perform the technique during a live roll. A coach should demonstrate the technique numerous times before starting their verbal instructions. most BJJ instructors rely on demonstrations of technique and verbal instructions as the primary method of teaching a skill. the amount of talking is greater than the time of physical practice. For example. It is the coach’s duty to say the least amount while conveying the most information. Verbal instruction should also be used in order to reinforce the most important aspects of a technique - for example while using smash passes one must control the hips. making sure to show students several angles. In order to develop a strong side control one must have control over the opponent’s shoulders. This is due to their lack of knowledge of objectives and techniques. Many instructors will spend a significant amount of time explaining the movement related to a technique. Techniques should be demonstrated in real time so students can see how the technique will actually be performed. The main way a coach should impart knowledge to their students is through demonstration of a technique. Oftentimes. Verbal instructions on where to grip can be readily observed and do not need to be restated.how fast or how much force should be applied. followed by another technique and another length of practice. Students should spend the majority of time in class performing and reinforcing movements as opposed to lengthy sections of the instructor speaking. One area of instruction that is over emphasized is the verbal instructions. While this may seem like a good way to impart knowledge of a technique to a student due to the belief that more information is better. While students may pick up information during these instructional portions. Instructors should also present techniques from different angles in order for students to achieve a full visual inspection of techniques. Many instructors will spend the majority of valuable class time explaining a technique. where center of gravity lies. Coaches should not verbally instruct portions of a technique that can be readily observed by a student. as much time or more than is spent actually drilling or practicing the technique. one can perform expertly without being able to explain the details of a technique.

the most important aspect for their learning is their own volition and desire to learn. Drills should possess variability 33 . This includes practicing during instruction. Many students approach training as a workout. This process would involve the students executing the first part of the move. No matter what kind of practice. Physical Practice Practice will refer to the physical practice a student will engage in during class. the goal is to have a student be able to perform better in the future. but fail to implement the techniques into their games due to a lack of physical practice. It should be noted that no matter how you structure your students’ practice. Many BJJ maneuvers can be executed in different ways. Physical practice during instruction: When practicing a new technique. and focus of improving their skills and to understand that a harder workout will not necessarily improve their BJJ (Ericcson et al 2000). A common complaint among instructors is that students try to accumulate techniques by watching videos online. you should demonstrate the technique as a whole several times. For example. verbal instructions should focus on pushing the opponent’s arm across. however it should be instilled in them that training is a practice. or live rolling. a student will be able to learn the proper execution of basic principles and improve the chance for success in live situations. however every maneuver possesses certain basic principles that need to be met. it is best to implement a part-practice method due to the complexity of skills and the variability of a moving opponent. By practicing moves in this way. a beginner will rarely be able to implement techniques they have learned during the rolling portion of class. drilling. your most powerful tool to improving your students’ performance in the future is through the design and implementation of physical practice. followed by the second part of the move. purpose. Drilling is an easy way to to increase the amount of physical practice of techniques and maneuvers. Due to a beginner’s lack of experience and ability to control the pace and positions during a roll. and thus learning. rather than focusing on the extension of the learner’s arm . it is better to introduce three to five techniques and concepts during each session in order to present a manageable amount of information. Verbal instructions should refer to the movement effects as opposed to the movements themselves. when teaching the elbow push escape from side-control. The student will then engage in physical practice by practicing the component parts until the parts have been sufficiently learned. Drills should be practical and relevant to the real situation 2. and then break the technique down into several component parts. The instructor should be careful in structuring the techniques presented in order to have all techniques reinforce a concept or have all techniques relate to each other in sequence.“push your opponent’s arm across his body” as opposed to “extend your arm as far as possible”.knowledge. This also allows for the coach to check on each member of the class during all phases of a technique. The instruction portion should act as a supplement to practice. When showcasing a technique. The following are important factors to consider when introducing drills to a class: 1. The purpose of drills is to have an athlete create an automatic response to moves and setups commonly seen during live rolls or competitions. As the instructor. They should be instructed to treat practice with the intent. and so on until the entire move is completed. Drilling Drilling is an important aspect of learning for a new student.

Variability can also be introduced by changing the starting position for a single technique . or side control.. Practice the technique with a partner who is trying to accomplish their own goal: have the student attempt to escape while the partner is resisting and attacking. triangles. we can drill simpler component techniques and advance until the student can perform the real technique. A. Practice the basic movement by alone: practicing hip thrusts/bridges. All drills should be within the realms of practicality and relevance to the real situation. Practice the technique with partner who is not resisting: the opponent is only placing their body weight on the practitioner when they bridge. or the amount of resistance a training partner provides.V. it does not allow the student to develop a deep shot which will impair the student. We can break this technique down in the following way: 1. R. but these mistakes are important in that students will learn from the performance errors. 34 . Practicing a drill on a partner that provides no resistance will not allow the student to learn how to perform the technique on someone who is resisting. such as drilling armbars. The simplest way to add variability is by having students perform several different techniques during a drilling session. One thing to look out for is that students may make more mistakes during a drilling session with increased variability. Drills can be used for conditioning as well as learning techniques The first point of practicality and relevance may seem intuitive. By increasing the amount of variability encountered during drilling. While this is an easy drill. Many beginners will have great difficulty performing a technique during drills. Note that the resistance provided by the partner can change in intensity from a very low amount of resistance to a very high amount 4. 1985). the training partner’s body size. the student will increase their performance in the long term. some instructors may use a game such as shooting single leg takedowns where the goal is to just touch the training partner’s knees. Start with simpler techniques before advancing to the “real thing” 4. It is important to understand that there is a difference between performing well during drilling and having better performance during live rolls. 2. you can add variability by drilling armbars from three different positions: mount. Techniques in drills should be sequential in nature to help develop the concept of flowing 5. M. and omoplatas. For instance. Lee. To maximize the learning a student receives during during drilling. High variability may make students perform worse during drills. 3. but many instructors fail to implement this. This technique is simple. 3. yet very difficult for beginning students to perform properly.for example if you are drilling armbars. Practice the technique with a resisting partner: the partner is actively resisting the student’s technique by shifting their body weight a. All drills should try to replicate the technique or maneuver is a realistic scenario. but will have them perform better during live training. variability must be introduced to their training. Variability can also be added by changing the tempo of techniques. one of the first techniques a student will learn will be to escape from mount with a hip bump.. guard. Some instructors may use drills that seemingly help improve some aspect of BJJ but may actually be detrimental to the student’s learning. For example. Performance errors allow students to learn from their mistakes (Edwards. In order to rectify this.

The skill level of an individual can be easily assessed by their performance in these setting. Feedback can be detrimental if it is provided too often because students can become over reliant on it. feedback given to them must inform them of their error pattern and also must provide information about what to do on future attempts. and then to a mount. Tests occur every training session during live rolling. if we are teaching a guard pass we can teach three different techniques for passing guard and have the student shuffle between the three techniques while the training partner is actively preventing the guard pass. Feedback should be provided to increase a student’s intrinsic awareness of their own movements. This can be as simple as having our student perform the hip bump escape from mount. and then finally with execution of the technique during a competition setting. Love rolling serves as both a form of practice and also as a skill retention test. Feedback should be given to increase the student’s subjective analysis of their movement. Another important aspect of drilling is to connect different techniques in a sequential manner so that the student can move from one technique to another immediately. This type of drilling will emphasize the continuity of BJJ. The student’s knowledge of a technique can be tested by their execution of the technique on a passive partner. Many students will also take part in tournaments where they will test their abilities against opponents of similar skill level (belt color). you will have to provide feedback in order to correct their movements. The student will first try to implement the first pass and when it is prevented they can shift to their second pass and then to their third pass when that is prevented. Since a beginner lacks awareness. drills are also useful as a conditioning device. Assessing learning BJJ is a unique martial art due to the testing of abilities being an inherent part of the martial art. By drilling sequentially we will have the student advance positions and chain techniques. Feedback Feedback is another common and important tool to help students learn. Beginning students must be told “what to do” and “how to do it” in order to improve. Drills can be used for conditioning as well as learning techniques. once you find one person has advanced their skill level sufficiently you award them stripes. While the main purpose of drills should be to help students increase their learning of techniques. Feedback can be detrimental if the instructor gives incorrect feedback such as providing the wrong movement fix or telling the student they did a technique correctly when they did it incorrectly. you will only need to provide information about the movement error because they will be able to self- correct. Feedback is best when it is focused on movement effects instead of movements themselves (Push off the floor explosively vs explode through your hips). Many instructors use feedback during class portions on a daily basis. This concept will be elaborate in the strength and conditioning portion of this handbook. sometimes it will be useful for you to test a student on a specific technique. Instead of having a student drill one technique repeatedly. Belt stripes and colors are also given as a form of feedback as well. However. followed immediately by a guard pass. For example.quality and quantity. we can have the student drill a series of techniques. then during a live rolling situation. A new student will probably lack the kinesthetic awareness to move their bodies in the correct way and since they will not be able to visually inspect their movements. 35 . or if the feedback requires the student to focus on their body. Another way we can chain techniques in this manner is to have several techniques link together. Two qualities of feedback that matter . For more advanced students.

The ultimate transfer test for our advanced practitioner is to have them try to perform a technique during live training. BJJ is a dynamic sport in which both practitioners possess agency. While this is useful for lower belts. For instance. We can test a skill during different levels of aggression of the opponent. The sport is controlled chaos. 36 . it will be harder for the student to perform the same sweep after a period of no instruction. Then after a week or several weeks. and a practitioner will never be in the perfect position to execute a technique unless they force the position. One way to do this is to teach a new technique every day and have students drill the technique during the day. while trying to perform a scissor sweep. or resist the sweep and try to pass. test the student by having them perform said technique without prior instruction. This leads us to the use of a transfer test: Transfer test is a test used to assess how well a learned technique can be applied in different situations. A instructor can test how well a student has retained a technique by asking them to perform the same technique after a period without instruction. A student who can perform the technique after a long period of not using the technique will have “learned” the technique. The most basic transfer test we can use is having the practitioner perform the technique against different opponents. A retention test can be used to assess the learning of a single maneuver. The reason should be obvious . the utility of this type of test is limited and fails to provide valuable insight for more experienced practitioners. While a student may be able to perform a scissor sweep during practice after being shown the technique. A retention test is a test used to assess how much learning a student has for a very specific situation.a retention test is limited to a single maneuver done at a single time. we can have the opponent resist the sweep only.

ranging from a low of 1. 2014) to 24. The most common musculoskeletal injuries were elbow injuries due to attacks on the arm such as armbars and kimuras which cause powerful hyperextension force to the elbow and kimuras which create excess internal rotation of the shoulder. it also has a lower injury rate than other grappling sports due to the decreased rate of being thrown. reducing the risk of lacerations and head trauma. and will spend hundreds of hours in training practice per tournament. 2014). and cervical strain. Chapter 4: Injury Prevention Injury analysis By participating in sports one must acknowledge that injuries are always a risk. and anterior sprains. The risk for injury is also lower due to the ability of a competitor to “tap out” surrendering the match and stopping However. lateral collateral ligament (LCL) . athletes spend a small fraction of their athletic life performing in competition. This is mainly due to the ruleset of BJJ disallowing strikes. such as by rib injuries. tenderness. injuries do occur in BJJ tournaments.000 AEs (football) (Hootman et al.9 per 1000 AEs (Kreiswirth et al.). tae kwon do. overexertion during guard passing and sweeping. BJJ in contrast has an injury rate ranging from 9. 79% of injuries occur during training (Del Vicchio et al 2016). The accumulated hours of training can result in chronic injuries such as low back pain and tendinitis.5 per 1.000 AEs (men’s baseball) to a high of 35. The most common injuries that occur during competition are musculoskeletal. These injuries consist of medial collateral ligament (MCL).000 athletic exposures (AEs) across 15 sports. These injuries are considered non preventable injuries due to the inability to protect against them.9 injuries per 1.9 injuries per 1. whether the athlete adopts a guard passing or guard playing style. National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) sports average an injury rate of 14. BJJ has a lower rate of injury per AE than judo. an athlete may develop muscular imbalances and joint injuries due to stress. Some injuries that occur in BJJ develop over time due to the style adopted by the athlete. Although the incidences of injury during tournament competition is low. placing much stress and strain on their lower body joints. Due to this. lacerations. elbow dislocation. anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) sprains.2 per 1000 AEs (Scroggin et al. By adopting a certain style and repeatedly performing the same movements with less variation. These data would indicate that BJJ is no more prone of injury than other sports routinely played at the college level. Knee injuries also occurred due to direct pressure. Guard passing players experience greater stress on their shoulders and elbows due to the greater chances of being caught in armbars and other submissions (DelVicchio et al 2016). Some injuries are “freak accidents” caused by unforeseen circumstances. Some of these injuries are due to the inherent techniques that are purposely used to attack joints and create overexertion and strain of joints during movements (Scoggin et al 2014). wrestling. and MMA. Among the various competitive martial arts. Since BJJ is primarily focused on ground combat. and meniscus tears. and impacts during takedowns. These attacks cause radial collateral ligament (RCL) and ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) sprains. 37 . Guard players often load their knees and hips in order to withstand an opponent’s movements during guard passing.

Students should be taught not to try to endure submissions and just allow their opponents to “win” during training sessions.” While some coaches will tell students to endure a guillotine or triangle until the opponent fatigues. some gyms have a main emphasis only on performance. Mitigating risks There are many ways a coach can mitigate injury risk during training sessions. Students should be taught not to outmuscle or endure submissions to prevent an opponent from “winning. joint flexibility. injury risks can be minimized. strength. stability. Students have a higher likelihood of getting injured when rolling with a heavier opponent. risk of injury can be mitigated during training and competition. However. By increasing the athlete’s flexibility. The BJJ athlete him/herself serves as the first level of injury prevention. By increasing their full range of motion and joint flexibility students will decrease their susceptibility to injury. students will be able to withstand the strain caused by explosive movements. students will make the muscles around their joints stronger to provide stabilization for joint. and endurance. the damage to the vertebrae and discs are long lasting and heals slowly (ref?). By emphasizing the proper use of techniques and skills. By incorporating a strength and conditioning program. Endurance training will reduce injury risk by preventing fatigue related injuries. Another way a coach can help mitigate injuries is by enforcing the use of weight classes during training classes. and endurance we can increase the body’s resilience to injury. When students must be paired with heavier opponents. strength. Strength training will also increase the strength of the tendons and ligaments. 38 . power. and due to supporting an opponent’s weight. Strength training will also increase bone strength and reduce incidence of bone stress fractures. eliminating unwanted movement. The athlete should be able to recognize when he or she is at risk of injury and be willing to tap out before injury occurs. the athlete should develop a high level of physical fitness and understanding or strategy and techniques before participating in hard rolls. All these attributes can be trained with a proper strength and conditioning routine. Practitioners must often perform maneuvers that require motor coordination. the lighter practitioner should keep in a top position in order to reduce stress and strain. Strength and conditioning Students must train their strength. By training power. This is due to overexertion of muscles and joints. with strenuous training that eventually lead to accumulated stress and injuries (Wojtys 2010). Stability training can be incorporated into a warm up routine in order to reduce the injury risk. During training students should be taught to tap early and tap often in order to save their joints. Lastly. Injury prevention should be a part of every practitioner’s training program. and flexibility simultaneously while under load and in an unstable position. By enhancing their muscular strength.

as their requirements are drastically lower. While most coaches have a general understanding of energy systems. and joint flexibility. the strength and conditioning of a practitioner must be fast and efficient. Because BJJ is a skill based sport. competitors must improve their energy systems. A coach must consider how long has the athlete been training for. However. endurance. The major parts of the practitioners physicality that should be addressed is strength. All top level competitors must incorporate a strength and conditioning program to their daily training. the ATP-Pcr. and oxidative phosphorylation system. Another consideration is that the training paradigm a BJJ athlete will differ from the traditional annual planning template due to the lack of a competition season in BJJ. athletes must have good anaerobic and aerobic endurance in order to perform well throughout a single match and on subsequent matches. To be the most time efficient. The strength and conditioning training athletes should be subjected to should directly improve their BJJ. Since many practitioners will be working full-time jobs time must be used as efficiently as possible. There should be a focus on function and movement over specific muscle groups Another consideration is that BJJ is a weight class sport. Since a BJJ match can range from 5-10 minutes.becoming better at BJJ. it is important to train all three energy systems. Load intensity should be prioritized over total volume in order to decrease hypertrophy and increase strength. There are only a few large BJJ tournaments that occur throughout the year. A hobbyist will not need an intensive strength and conditioning program as a competitor will. Along with strength training. and does the athlete want to compete? A competitor’s strength and conditioning program will greatly vary from a hobbyist. Due to this. often suggesting to students to run long distances in order to increase their “cardio”. and power. students should make compound multi-joint exercises as their fundamental base exercise. The paradigm of training for a 39 . Isolative movements should be disregarded as they will lead to muscle imbalances and do not reflect the way muscles are used in a realistic way. what’s the athlete’s history of training. Chapter 5: Strength and Conditioning Goals of S&C The right strength and conditioning program must be tailored specifically around the individual practitioner. It is important to note that our students are not looking to compete as weightlifters or bodybuilders. power. with many smaller local tournaments occurring consistently throughout the year. athletes must spend the majority of their time in order to accumulate hours in technical tactical training. even hobbyists need a strength and conditioning program in order to decrease injury and increase their BJJ longevity. colloquially referred to as their “cardio”. New practitioners should follow a periodization protocol with hypertrophy. the strength and conditioning training is a means to an end . There is no longer debate over whether technique is more important than strength. so hypertrophy can be detrimental to practitioners. A good BJJ competitor will possess both technique and strength. The level of competition in today's BJJ scene is drastically different than in the nascent days of the sport. strength. balance. Many variables will influence the design of an athlete’s strength and conditioning program. glycolytic.

Athletes must maintain a base level of athleticism throughout the year. Lower body strength will be tested using a wall sit and maximum number of body weight squats in a row. Strength can be increased through strength training. Protocols should be implemented to test a student’s starting level and to track improvement throughout their training. the athlete will be at the mercy of their opponent’s attacks. The strength and conditioning session can be structured through the amount of sets and reps in order to achieve increases in strength. a) Upper body: Pull-ups. A good BJJ strength program will incorporate both concentric and isometric strength. bench press. stabilize positions. back rows b) Lower body: Deadlifts 3) Core: Practitioners must have a strong core in order to withstand the push and pull of the opponent. lunges 2) Pull (lower and upper body): Practitioners must pull their opponents towards them with both their upper and lower limbs. This will help the student utilize takedowns and escapes from positions. The ability to retain a rigid posture is important in many situations in BJJ. Hip flexibility can be tested through a standard Thomas test. Plyometric exercises will also help with balance and power. power. Shoulder flexibility can be tested by using a standard shoulder reach test. 40 . The basic exercises that should be incorporated into an athlete’s exercise program are: 1) Push (lower and upper body): Practitioners must push their opponents away with both their upper body and lower limbs. a) Upper body: Pushups. and execute maneuvers. or endurance. bridges. Strength Strength is an essential part of BJJ. we can progressively and gradually increase the stress placed on muscles to increase strength gains. Isometric core strength tested by maximum time in a plank. If posture is broken. a) Planks.competition season does not work within the sport of BJJ. By utilizing the SAID (specific adaptation to imposed demands) principle. An athlete may know the correct mechanics of a movement. but if they lack strength. Strength is required to advance positions. Upper body strength can be tested by maximum number of pushups in a row. side plank 4) Plyometrics: Plyometrics must be incorporated in order to give students explosive strength. overhead press b) Lower body: Squats. Many difficulties found in performance may be due to lack of strength. Practitioners require both concentric and isometric strength. BJJ requires concentric force in order to push and pull opponents and isometric strength is required in order to hold positions and resist opponent’s force. no amount of discussion will allow them to complete the movement.

split jumps. TABLE 1. The following tables are example templates of three programs that can be used to target the athlete’s endurance. the strength and conditioning template only consists of two days per week. Strength and Conditioning Program Strength and conditioning program Endurance (60 seconds rest between sets) Day 1 Day 2 Exercise Sets x Reps Intensity Exercise Sets x Reps Intensity Lower body push 5 x 12 65% Lower body pull 5 x 12 65% Upper body pull 5 x 12 65% Upper body push 5 x 12 65% Core 60 second holds Core 60 second holds Plyometrics 5 x 20 Plyometrics 5 x 20 Strength and conditioning program Strength (<90 seconds rest between sets) Day 1 Day 2 Exercise Sets x Reps Intensity Exercise Sets x Reps Intensity Lower body push 5x5 85% Lower body pull 5x5 85% Upper body pull 5x5 85% Upper body push 5x5 85% Core 60 second holds Core 60 second holds Plyometrics 3 x 20 Plyometrics 3 x 20 Strength and conditioning program Power (120 seconds rest between sets) Day 1 Day 2 Exercise Sets x Reps Intensity Exercise Sets x Reps Intensity Lower body push 3x2 >90% Lower body pull 3x2 >90% Upper body pull 3x2 >90% Upper body push 3x2 >90% Core 60 second holds Core 60 second holds Plyometrics 3 x 10 Plyometrics 3 x 10 41 . medicine ball slams. strength. Since the athlete should spend their time doing technical tactical training in class. medicine ball throws We can combine all the previous movements in order to create a strength and conditioning program that can target all the needs of the athlete. box jumps. a) Squat jump. and power.

hence the short time periods. This fuel is stored in your muscles and constantly refueled.stored sugars.such as an explosive double leg or an all out scramble. 2) The glycolytic energy system is a medium length energy system that runs on muscle glycogen . matches also possess “down-time” where an athlete may stall while in an advantageous position to strategize . Many maneuvers performed during matches last approximately 10-15 seconds. submissions. glycolytic.thus matches are discontinuous in nature. This system has a work rest period of 1:10. All three systems provide their own unique benefits and can be trained. However. This section is structured to provide a general overview of the subject matter to help gain a better grasp on the subject and help improve the efficiency of workouts. Matches have been shown to possess a 6-10:1 work to rest ratio. and oxidative. Brazilian Jiujitsu matches rely on a blend of all three energy systems. 3) The oxidative energy system is a long term energy system that provides energy for aerobic activities. Each energy supply can be trained to allow for bigger supplies and faster processing. Energy Systems Many instructors have difficulty understanding or have no regard for energy systems. takedowns. Analysis of BJJ competition matches show that matches contain short periods of standing grappling with the majority of the round doing groundwork. The three energy systems are phosphagen. ranging from 5-minutes for white belts to 10-minutes for black belts. and much time is spent in isometric contractions. All three energy systems will be used at any one time. Most movements are slow. escapes. however the dominant energy system used is based on the duration and intensity of the activity. While the athlete will have to work almost continuously for most of the match. 1) The phosphagen system runs on creatine phosphate (PCr) and is the NOW energy system. a power lifter will rely almost solely on phosphagen and a marathoner will rely almost solely on oxidation. Ranking dictates the length of match. 42 . All sports will have their own unique needs of the different energy systems. These energy systems should be carefully managed and trained in order to train for longer durations and to ensure energy supply is not a limiting factor during training and competition. the amount of stored PCr is small and takes a period of inactivity to refuel. but such movements occur at critical junctions during a match and such movements will often dictate the winner of the match. for every one second of use ten seconds are required for recovery. It provides fuel for short (~10 seconds) high intensity movements . This system is used during rest and low-intensity exercises and can be used almost indefinitely. sweeps. Matches have few high-intensity explosive movements. and reversals are achieved within that timespan. methodical. This system provides energy for anaerobic activity and can supply around 60 seconds of energy before the next energy system is required to provide the bulk of the energy.

The following table presents training protocols for training the different energy systems.meaning that while training in the gym. Each system should be trained on separate days. Or choose a series of techniques and Oxidative >3 minutes 1:1-1:3 repeat for 5 minutes 43 . but nearly all possess brief moments of rest before a second effort is taken. Training Protocols for Different Energy Systems Work/rest Energy System Exercise Time ratio Training Protocol Choose one technique and complete the technique at maximum power for Phosphagen 5-10 seconds 1:10 a 10 second sprint Choose one technique and complete repetitions of the technique for Glycolytic 1-3 minutes 1:3-1:5 two minutes Standard roll. However. it should be trained more often. During competition.Some may take less or more time. the anaerobic energy system is the most used. Since BJJ matches rely heavily on the glycolytic system. providing a 1:1 rest work ratio. TABLE 2. every system should be trained. During training sessions. most rolls are 5-6 minutes in duration . rest periods between matches are equal or shorter to match length.

Chapter 6: Sample Curriculum TABLE 3. Sample 16 Week Program 44 .

TABLE 4. Sample 90 Minute Class TABLE 5. Sample Warm Up 45 .

REFERENCES 46 .

(2014). & Holt. D. (2005). (Eds. Dick.. Schwartz. & Arruda. Zandee van Rilland... Journal of Athletic Training. 11(2). Gondim. B. E.. M. Chen. J. N. 21(3). R. J. REFERENCES Arakchiyski. Z. S. (2015).. Broer. M. (1973). Fu. M. 2325967114522184. J. H.. A. (2007). M. K. Technical efficiency of wrestlers in relation to some anthropometric and motor variables. F. 2(2).. Yata. 6(1).. Jang. H. Journal of Athletic Training. (2014). & Lu. L. Implicit transfer of life skills through participation in Brazilian jiu-jitsu. 89–94. & Marelic.1.org/10. Y. Philadelphia. R. 74-83.11. M. Ikebukuro. 28(2).. Basis and Communications. L. 37(1). 311–319. J. 139-153. E. F. C. F. S. Philadelphia. Del Vecchio. Geling. 30(8). (2010). Nordin. Takito. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. Biomechanics and potential injury mechanisms of wrestling. 322-331. Chang. Kreiswirth.4085/1062-6050-49. (2016).. & Frankel. Efficiency of human movement. (2009). & Kanehisa. Functional movement screening performance of Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes from Brazil: Differences considering practice time and combat style. Kubo. Epidemiology of collegiate injuries for 15 sports: Summary and recommendations for injury prevention initiatives.. Scoggin. & Franchini. Izuka. T. J. 215-222. H. & Agel. Tsunoda. J.. O. http://doi.. Antonietti. Brusovanik. F... B. Sport Sciences for Health. R. 42(2). Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. M. Del Vecchio. N. Hootman. N. T. Health-related physical fitness in martial arts and combat sports practitioners. 86-89.. Kinesiology. C. G. B. (2016). & Stanchev. N. E. Chinkov. Basic biomechanics of the musculoskeletal system.. & Tokumura. Activities in Physical Education & Sport. Biomedical Engineering: Applications. V. 47 .. Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine. C. PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Y.. C.. Myer.. Assessment of injuries during Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu competition.). S. (2016). D... 171-180. (2001). Incidence of injury among male Brazilian jiujitsu fighters at the World Jiu-Jitsu No-Gi Championship 2009. G.. P. & Rauh.. Maric. A. Time course of changes in muscle and tendon properties during strength training and detraining. 2341- 2347.. 49(1). C.. T. PA: Saunders Limited. Cvetkovic. W. H. 24(2).. E. F. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. Biomechanical model of wrestling bridge.

21(3). The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. Hoboken. Willardson. E. NJ: John Wiley & Sons. (2005). Floyd. M. Journal of Athletic Training. 40(3). (2009). 979-985.Swartz. & Cendoma. E. J.. 48 . R. D. M. A.. Cervical spine functional anatomy and the biomechanics of injury due to compressive loading. T. Biomechanics and motor control of human movement. Winter. (2007) Core stability training: Applications to sports conditioning programs. 155-161.