State equation of discrete data system with sample and hold – State transition equation – Methods
of computing the state transition matrix – Decomposition of discrete data transfer functions –
State diagrams of discrete data systems – System with zero-order hold –
Controllability and observability of linear time invariant discrete data system–Stability tests of
discrete-data system – State Observer - State Feedback Control.
Part A
1. Write the state equation for discrete data system.
𝑥(𝑘 + 1) = 𝐹 𝑥(𝑘) + 𝑔 𝑢(𝑘); State Equation
𝑦(𝑘) = 𝑐 𝑥(𝑘) + 𝑑 𝑢(𝑘) Output Equation
2. Draw the state diagram of discrete data system.
X(k+1 X(k) y(k)
B )) Z-1 C
U(k)
)
A
D
3. Write the State transition equation of a discrete system.
Ak Z 1{zI A) 1 z}
4. Write the solution of State transition matrix of a discrete system. (May 2017)
X (k ) Z 1{zI A) 1 z}X (0) Z 1{zI A) 1 BU ( z )}
5. List out the Methods of computing the state transition matrix.
1. Using X transform, 2. Canonical transformation, 3. Cayley- Hamilton theorem.
6. State the properties of State transition matrix of a discrete system
(0) 1
1 (k ) (k )
(k , k0 ) (k k 0 ) A( k k0 ) , where k k 0
7. A discrete time system is described by the difference equation, y(k+2)+
3y(k+1)+5y(k)=u(k). Determine the transfer function of the system.
Solution: taking Z transform, y(k 2) 3 y(k 1) 5 y(k ) u(k )
z 2Y ( z ) 3zY ( z ) 6Y ( z ) U ( z )`
( z 2 3 z 6)Y ( z ) U ( z )
Y ( z) 1
U ( z ) z 2 3z 6
8. Write down the equation for obtaining transfer function from discrete state model.
Y ( z)
c( zI A) 1 B D
U ( z)
9. Draw the block diagram zero order hold sampled data control system.
T y(k)
r(t) + ZOH G(s)
e(k) c(t)
10. What are the advantages of state space modeling using physical variable?
The state variable can be utilized for the purpose of feedback.
3
The implementation of design with state variable feedback becomes straight forward.
The solution of state equation gives time variation of variables which have direct relevance to
the physical system.
11. Define controllability.
For the linear system 𝑥(𝑘 + 1) = 𝐹 𝑥(𝑘) + 𝑔 𝑢(𝑘); 𝑦(𝑘) = 𝑐 𝑥(𝑘) + 𝑑 𝑢(𝑘), if there exists
an input 𝑢(𝑘); 𝑘 € [0, 𝑁 − 1] with 𝑁 a finite positive integer, which transfers the initial state
𝑥(0) = 𝑥 0 to the state 𝑥1 at 𝑘 = 𝑁, the state 𝑥 0 is said to be controllable. If all initial states
are controllable, the system is said to be completely controllable. Otherwise, the system is said
to be uncontrollable.
12. How the controllability of the discrete system is checked?
The necessary and sufficient condition for the system 𝑥(𝑘 + 1) = 𝐹 𝑥(𝑘) + 𝑔 𝑢(𝑘); 𝑦(𝑘) =
𝑐 𝑥(𝑘) to be completely controllable is that the 𝑛 × 𝑛 controllability matrix 𝑄𝑐 =
[𝑔 𝐹𝑔 𝐹 2 𝑔 𝐹 3 𝑔 . . … . 𝐹 𝑛−1 𝑔]has the rank equal to 𝑛.
13. Define observability of a system.
For the linear system x(𝑘 + 1) = 𝐹 𝑥(𝑘) + 𝑔 𝑢(𝑘); 𝑦(𝑘) = 𝑐 𝑥(𝑘) + 𝑑 𝑢(𝑘), if the
knowledge of input signal 𝑢(𝑘); 𝑘 € [0, 𝑁 − 1] and the output 𝑦(𝑘); 𝑘 € [0, 𝑁 − 1] with 𝑁 a
finite positive integer, suffices to determine the state 𝑥(0) ≡ 𝑥 0 to the state 𝑥 0 is said to be
observable. If all initial state are observable, the system is said to be completely observable.
Otherwise, the system is said to be unobservable.
14. How the observability of the discrete system is checked?
The necessary and sufficient condition for the system 𝑥(𝑘 + 1) = 𝐹 𝑥(𝑘) + 𝑔 𝑢(𝑘); 𝑦(𝑘) =
𝑐 𝑥(𝑘) to be completely observable is that the 𝑛 × 𝑛 observability matrix 𝑄0 =
[𝑐 𝑐𝐹 𝑐𝐹 2 𝑐𝐹 3 . . … . 𝑐 𝐹 𝑛−1 ] has the rank equal to 𝑛.
15. State the necessary condition for Jury’s stability test
Consider the characteristic polynomial 𝐹1 (𝑧) = 𝑎𝑛 𝑧 𝑛 + 𝑎𝑛−1 𝑧 𝑛−1 +, … . . +𝑎0 ; 𝑎𝑛 > 0
The necessary condition for stability is 𝐹1 (1) > 0; (−1)𝑛 𝐹1 (−1) > 0
16. How many rows are formed in Jury’s table and what are the sufficient conditions to be
checked from this table for stability?
2𝑛 − 3 rows, where 𝑛 is the order of the system.
17. For the characteristic polynomial 𝑭(𝒛) = 𝟑𝒛𝟒 + 𝟕𝒛𝟑 + 𝟏𝟎𝒛𝟐 + 𝟒𝒛 + 𝟏, find the stability
of the system.
Necessary condition for stability, 𝐹(𝑧)|𝑧=1 > 0
> 0 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑛 𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑛
and 𝐹(𝑧)|𝑧=−1 {
< 0 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑛 𝑜𝑑𝑑
According to the necessary conditions the system may be stable.
18. What is Bilinear transformation?
Bilinear transformation maps the interior of the unit circle in the z-plane into the left of
𝑟+1
𝑟 −plane. 𝑧 = 𝑟−1 maps the interior of the unit circle in the 𝑧 −plane into the left of 𝑟 − plane
19. Use the bilinear transformation to check the stability for the characteristics equation
() = 𝒛𝟐 + 𝒛 + 𝟏 = 𝟎
Such a transformation (or mapping) is provided by the bilinear transformation
1+𝑤
𝑧=
1−𝑤
𝑤2 + 3 = 0
Row 1: 1 3
The elements in the first column are positive. So, the system is stable.
20. What is the need for state observer?
In certain systems the state variables may not be available for measurement and feedback. In
such situations we need to estimate the un-measurable state variables from the knowledge of
input and output. Hence the state observer is employed which estimate the state variables from
the input and output of the system. The estimated state variable can be used for feedback to
design the system by pole placement.
4
21. How control system design is carried in state space?
In state space design of control system, any inner parameter or variable of a system are used
for feedback to achieve the desired performance of the system. The performance of the system
is related to the location of closed loop poles. Hence in state space design the closed loop
poles are placed at the desired locations by means of state feedback through an appropriate
state feedback gain matrix, K.
22. What is the necessary condition to be satisfied for design using state feedback?
The state feedback design requires arbitrary pole placement to achieve the desired
performance. The necessary and sufficient condition to be satisfied for arbitrary pole
placement is that the system be completely state controllable.
23. How is pole placement done by state feedback in a sampled data system?
Consider the system, 𝑥(𝑘 + 1) = 𝐴 𝑥(𝑘) + 𝐵 𝑢(𝑘)
Assume that there is only one input signal. If the system is reachable there exists a linear
feedback that gives a closed-loop system with the characteristic polynomial𝑃(𝑧). The
feedback is given by
𝑢(𝑘) = −𝐿 𝑥(𝑘).
24. State the duality between controllability and observability?
The concepts of controllability and observability are dual. The principle of duality states
that a system is completely state controllable if and only of its dual system is completely
observable or vice versa.
25. What is the advantage and disadvantage of Kalman’s test for observability?
Advantage: Calculation is very simple.
Disadvantage: non-observable state variables cannot be determined.
26. Write the need for sample and hold device. (May 2017)
Analog Signal is converted to digital using an A/D conversion system. The A/D converter
coverts a voltage amplitude at its input into a binary code representing a quantized amplitude
closest to the amplitude of the input. Input signal variation during the time of conversion can
lead to erroneous results. Therefore high performance A/D systems are preceded by a S/H
device which keeps the input to A/D converter constant.
Unit II Part B
1. Explain sample data control system with neat sketch.
2. Derive the solution for discrete state transition matrix.
3. (i) Check whether the system is completely controllable.
𝑥̇ 1 0 1 0 𝑥1 0
[𝑥̇ 2 ] = [ 0 0 𝑥
1 ] [ 2 ] + [0] 𝑢(𝑡)
𝑥̇ 3 −6 −11 −1 𝑥3 1
(ii) Determine the observability of the given system.
𝑥̇ 1 0 1 0 𝑥1 0 𝑥1
𝑥̇
[ 2 ] = [0 0 𝑥 [
1 ] [ 2 ] + [0] 𝑢(𝑡); 𝑦 = 1 0 1 [ 2 ] ] 𝑥
𝑥̇ 3 0 −2 −3 𝑥3 1 𝑥3
4. Investigate the controllability and observability of the following system
−1 1 0
𝑥(𝑘 + 1) = [ ] 𝑥(𝑘) + [ ] 𝑢(𝑘)
1 −1 1
𝑦(𝑘) = [1 1]𝑥(𝑘)
5. Explain Jury’s stability test.
6. Consider the discrete time unity feedback control system(with sampling period T=1 sec)
𝐾(0.3679𝑧+0.2642)
whose open loop transfer function is given by 𝐺(𝑧) = (𝑧−0.3679)(𝑧−1) . Determine the range
of gain 𝐾 for the stability by using Jury’s stability test.
7. Determine the stability of the sampled data control system whose open loop pulse transfer
function using Schur-Cohn stability criterion.
5
z
A(z)
2.45z 12.45z 1
8. Consider the system shown in figyre. Find out the range of K for which the system is stable
usijng Jury’s stability method.
9. Using Jury’s stability test, check if all the roots of the following characteristic equation lie
within the unity circle. 𝑧 3 + 3.3𝑧 2 + 4𝑧 + 0.8 = 0
10. Consider a plant defined by the following state variable model
𝑥(𝑘 + 1) = 𝐹 𝑥(𝑘) + 𝑔 𝑢(𝑘); 𝑦(𝑘) = 𝑐 𝑥(𝑘) + 𝑑𝑢(𝑘)
1
1 0 1
2
Where 𝐹 = [−1 0 1] ; 𝑔 = [ 0 ] ; 𝑐 = [1 0 0]; 𝑑 = [1].
0 0 0 −3
Design a predictive observer for the estimation of the state vector 𝑥. The observer error poles
1 1
are required to lie at − 2 ± 𝑗 4 , 0.
11. A discrete time regulator has the plant
0 1 0 0
𝑥(𝑘 + 1) = [ 0 0 1 ] 𝑥(𝑘) + [0] 𝑢(𝑘)
−4 −2 −1 1
Design a state feedback controller which will place the closed loop poles at −0.5 ±
𝑗0.5, 0
12. Consider the discrete time system 𝑥(𝑘 + 1) = 𝐹 𝑥(𝑘) + 𝑔 𝑢(𝑘); 𝑦(𝑘) = 𝑐 𝑥(𝑘)
0 1 0
Where 𝐹 = [ ] ; 𝑔 = [ ] ; 𝑐 = [0 1]
−0.16 −1 1
(i) Show that the system is completely controllable and observable.
(ii) Determine a suitable state feedback controller such that the closed loop system has poles
−0.5 ± 𝑗0.5
13. A single input system is described by the following state equation
−1 0 0 1
𝑥̇ = [ 1 −2 0 ] 𝑥 + [1] 𝑢
0 1 −3 0
Design a state feedback controller which will give closed loop poles at −1 ± 𝑗2, −6. Draw a
block diagram of the resulting closed loop system.
14. Sketch the block diagram ofa typical sampled data controlled system and explain the functions
performed by each block.(May 2017)
15. Test the controllability of the following system. (May 2017)
x1 (k 1) 1 2 x1 (k )
x (k 1) 3 4 x (k )
2 2
x k
y k 1 2 1
x 2 k
16. Describe the principle and design procedure for state feedback control scheme with block
diagram. (May 2017)
17. Test the stability of the following system. (May 2017)
P( z ) z 41.2 z 3 0.07 z 2 0.3z 0.08 0
6
UNIT II SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION
Unit II Part A
Unit II Part B
1. Derive the Recursive least square algorithm for estimating the parameters of AR model
2. Derive the Recursive least square algorithm for estimating the parameters of ARX model
3. Derive the expression for Finite Impulse Response Model (FIR model)
4. Derive the Recursive least square algorithm for estimating the parameters of ARMA
model. (May 2017)
5. Derive the Recursive least square algorithm for estimating the parameters of ARMAX
model (May 2017)
6. Derive the Recursive least square algorithm for estimating the parameters of ARIMA
model
7. Explain in detail about fixed memory algorithm.
8. Explain in detail about the minimum variance method
9. Derive the algorithms equations to estimate the parameters using recursive least square
method.
10. Write notes on Extended Recursive least squares
11. Explain in detail about Maximum likelihood
19. Obtain the pulse transfer function G(z) of the system shown below, where G(s) is
given by G(s)=1/s(s+1)
11
20. Explain optimal control synthesis.
Find optimal control for any initial conditions –at any point in time apply control that is
optimal now, based on the current state. This is feedback control. example: LQG for
linear systems, Gaussian noise, quadratic performance index. Analytically solvable
problem. Simplified model, toy problems, and conceptual building block.
21. Obtain the modified Z-transform of 1/s. (May 2017)
Modified Z-transform of 1/s = 1(z-1)
22. When to go for feed forward control scheme? (May 2017)
We choose the feed forward control scheme if the disturbance occurs after the process, if
the knowledge of the process model is high and if the error has to be rectified before the
process operates.
Unit-III Part B
Determine the response of system shown in figure to a unit step change in set point.
Assume t=1sec,and D(z) is a control algorithm with the value of 2 and N=3.
Given R(S) Gho(s)=1-e-sT/s Gp(s)=e-3.5s/s+5 N=3 T=1sec D(z)=2.
3. Determine the response of the system to a unit step change in set point. Assume T=0.5,
and D(z) is a PI controlled algorithm and with Kc=0.43,Ti=1.57.The closed loop pulse
transfer function of the system is C(z)/R(z)=D(z).GhoGp(z);Gp(s)=e-0.76s/0.4s+1
4. Gp(s)=e-1.46s/3.34s+1; Design a Dahlins algorithm with sampling period of 1 sec
5. Gp(s)=10e-2s/0.2s+1; where T=1sec, Design a Dahlins Algorithm.
6. Obtain the deadbeat control law for the given below Gp(s)=1/0.4s+1, where sampling
period, T=1sec
7. Design a deadbeat algorithm where Gp(s)=e-0.8s/0.6s+1, with sampling period of
T=0.4sec
8. i)Write short notes on IMC(8) (May 2017)
ii)Write short notes on MPC(8)
9. Explain the PID design procedure using IMC substantiating with designing a IMC
based PID control for first order and second order process.
i) 10. What is transportation lag. Design a Smith Predictor for controlling the delay time.
(May 2017)
11. Design a dead beat controller where Gp(s)=e-2s/(s+1). (May 2017)
12
UNIT IV MULTI-LOOP REGULATORY CONTROL
Multi-loop Control - Introduction – Process Interaction – Pairing of Inputs and Outputs -The
Relative Gain Array (RGA) – Properties and Application of RGA – Multi – loop PID Controller–
Biggest Log Modulus Tuning Method – De coupler
Unit IV Part A
13
10. What is failure sensitivity?
When tuning a set of SISO controllers to form a multivariable SISO strategy, it is
important to consider the failure sensitivity of the system which involves putting one of
the loops in manual control.
11. Explain sum of rows and columns property of an RGA matrix. (May 2017)
12
RGA is given by 11 , this equation yields the flowing relationships,
21 22
11 12 1 11 21 1 12 22 1 21 22 1 , then for a 2x2 system, only one
11 1 11
relative gain must be calculated for the entire array,
1 11 11
12. What is open loop static gain?
Considering a system with inputs m1 and m2, and y1 be the previous steady state, then the
y
open loop static is given by 1 where
m1 m2
13. What is relative gain?
The ratio of the two open-loop gains defines the relative gain λ11 between output y1 and
y1 m1 m2
input m1, which provides a useful measure of interaction; 11
y1 m1 y2
14. What is partial decoupling?
Despite the fact when two decouplers are required, of only one is used, then the strategy
is called as partial decoupling. This partial decoupler allows the interaction to travel in
one direction.
15. What is static decoupling?
Steady state or static decoupling are designed using steady state models. For severely
interacting loops static decoupling are essential rather than no decoupling.
16. What is the result of dynamic interaction?
- Analyses additional interaction effects above the steady state
- Observes the degradation in control system performance
- Use a true multivariable control system design rather than separate SISO
controllers
- Under severe interaction, one of the loops can be closed.
17. 0.05 0.95
For the given RGA, give the variable pairing.
0.95 0.05
We pair y1 with u2 and y2 with u1.
18 Define BLT method.
This method called the biggest log modulus tuning method was proposed by Luyben. The method
achieves the conservative objectives of arriving at reasonable controller settings. The BLT
algorithm yields a value of F, which gives a reasonable compromise between stability and
performance in multivariable systems.
19 What are the degrees of freedom with respect to multiloop control?
The maximum number of independent controlled variables in a processing system is equal to the
number of degrees of freedom minus the number of externally specified variables. The degrees of
freedom are the independent variables that completely define a process.
20 What are the criteria to select the best loop configuration?
1. Choose the manipulation that has a direct and fast effect on a controlled variable.
2. Choose the couplings so that there is little dead time between every manipulation and the
corresponding controlled variable
3. Select the couplings so that the interaction of the control loops is minimal.
14
Unit IV Part B
Unit V Part A
15
6. Write the expression for Maciejowski method of tuning for PI controller.
The controller parameter for PI controller is
1
K c [G( s jb )]1 , K I [G( s 0)]1 where G ( s 0)] is called rough matrix and
and are the fine tuning parameters. b is the desired bandwidth of the system.
7. What is Internal Model Control?
IMC is one kind of controller with a single tuning parameter (the IMC filter λ). For a
system that is minimum phase λ is equivalent to a closed loop time constant (speed of
response)
8. Compare IMC and PID controller.
The IMC is based on explicitly process model for control system design whereas the
standard feedback control design is based on implicit process model. The tuning
parameters of PID controllers are often tweaked based on process model. But the IMC
parameter formulation the parameter is part of process transfer function.
9. Briefly explain about multivariable IMC.
A multivariable internal model control is a control system introduced an internal
model in which an internal model and actual object controlled is parallel formation, and the
output feedback of the system is a feedback of disturbance estimated. Foreword feedback
compensation proposed for removing out minimum phase of the model which takes
equivalent inverse of minimum phase part to make the system outputs track inputs change.
10. Draw the block diagram of multivariable IMC.
R denotes reference input, GIMC denotes internal model controller, GD denotes foreword
feedback compensation device, GP denotes transfer function of actual process, GM denotes
equivalent system model of the actual process decoupled, G(s) denotes interference
channel transfer function matrix, GC denotes system transfer function matrix , f(s) denotes
diagonal matrices interference input, Y(s) denotes system output.
11. Briefly explain about Dynamic Matric control
The DMC algorithm technique to predict the future output of the system as a function of
the inputs and disturbances. This prediction capability is necessary to determine the
optimal future control inputs .
12. Write the objective function for multivariable DMC.
For a system with S controller outputs and R measured process variables, the multivariable
DMC quadratic performance objective function has the form
T T
~ ~
~ ~
~
Min J~ e A u T e A u T u
u
Subject to y r ,min y r y r ,max, u s ,min u s u s ,max, u s ,max u s u s ,min,
13. What are the steps involved in implementing DMC on a process?
a) Develop a discrete step response model with length N based on sample time.
b) Specify the prediction and control horizon
c) Specify the weighting on the control action.
d) All calculation assumes deviation variable form to convert physical units.
14. Draw the schematic of Model Predictive Control.
16
15. List the advantages of Model Predictive Control.
Model predictive control offers several important advantages:
the process model captures the dynamic and static interactions between input, output,
and disturbance variables,
constraints on inputs and outputs are considered in a systematic manner,
the control calculations can be coordinated with the calculation of optimum set points,
and
Accurate model predictions can provide early warnings of potential problems.
16. List various models used for designing MPC algorithm.
Finite step response, finite impulse response and state space model
17. What are the objectives of an MPC controller?
The overall objectives of an MPC controller have been summarized as
Prevent violations of input and output constraints.
Drive some output variables to their optimal set points, while maintaining other
outputs within specified ranges
Prevent excessive movement of the input variables.
Control as many process variables as possible when a sensor or actuator is not
available.
18. What is Generalized Predictive Control?
The generalized predictive control (GPC) is a general purpose multi-step predictive control
algorithm for stable control of processes with variable parameters, variable dead time and a
model order which changes instantaneously. GPC adopts an integrator as a natural
consequence of its assumption about the basic plant model.
19. Draw the basic structure of GPC.
Unit V Part – B
1. Explain with suitable example the importance and challenges in multivariable control. (May
2017)
2. Discuss the various conventional centralized controller procedures for multivariable process.
3. Given (KpGp)11 = 1/[(6s+1) (3s+1)]; (KpGp)12 = 1/(4s+1) ; (KpGp)21 = 2/(3s+1);
(KpGp)22 = 1/[(4s+1) (2s+1)]; design a multivariable controller by using Davison method.
Evaluate the time response of the closed loop system for step input changes in the set point.
4. Explain the design process of IMC controller design with (i) an all pass filter is used, (ii) the
controller is strictly proper.
5. Design DMC for the van de vusse reactor problem. The state space model of reactor is given
as A = [-2.4048 0; 0.8333 -2.2381], B = [7; -1.117], C = [0 1], D = [0].
6. Summarize various steps involved in DMC controller design. Derive the expression for an
objective function for controller design. (May 2017)
7. Discuss the tuning methods of multivariable model predictive control and explain any one
method. (May 2017)
8. Derive the expression for step response model based predictive control.
9. Briefly explain about Generalized Predictive control with an example.
10. Enumerate various implementation issues in multivariable control and explain in detail
18